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Russia 
 
[Russia
                                    flag]
    20 Jan 1705 - 11 Jun 1858 Merchant Flag;
    7 May 1883 - 12 Aug 1914 State Flag;
    14 Sep 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de jure)
 
[Russian Imperial flag
                                    1858-1914]
   11 Jun 1858 - 19 Nov 1914 Civil Ensign
   
 
 
[Russian flag in 1914-1917]
           12 Aug 1914 - 14 Sep 1917
   
 
 
[Russian
                                  Revolution flag 1917-1918 de facto]
             8 Nov 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de facto)
 
[Flag of
                                  Russian SFSR in 1918]
              13 Apr 1918 - 19 Jul 1918
[Flag of
                                  Russian SFSR, 1918-1920]
              19 Jul 1918 - 20 Sep 1920
[Flag
                                    of Russian SFSR, 1920-1923]
                   29 Sep 1920 - 6 Jul 1923
 
[Flag
                                    of USSR in 1923]
             6 Jul 1923 - 12 Nov 1923
 
[Flag of
                                  USSR, 1923-1955]
                    12 Nov 1923 - 19 Aug 1955
 
[Variant Flag of
                                  USSR, 1923-1924]
                   19 Aug 1955 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Russia
                                    flag]
              Re-adopted 25 Dec 1991
 
 
Map of Russia
--------------------------------
Map of Administrative
Divisions
Hear National Anthem
"Gosudarstvenny Gimn
 Rossiyskoy Federatsii"
(National Anthem of the
 Russian Federation)
Adopted 25 Dec 2000
Hear Former Anthem
"Patrioticheskaya Pesnya"
(The Patriotic Song)
(23 Nov 1990-25 Dec 2000)
Constitution
 (12 Dec 1993)
Capital: Moscow
Currency: Russian Ruble
(RUR)
National Holiday: 12 June (1990)
Russia Day
Population: 142,500,482 (2013)
GDP: $2.55 trillion (2013)
Exports: $515 billion (2013)
Imports: $341 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Russian 80.9%, Tatar 3.87%, Ukrainian 1.40%,
Bashkir 1.15%, Chuvash 1.05%, Chechen 1.04%, Armenian 0.86%,
 
Avar 0.66%, Mordvin 0.54%, Kazakh 0.45%, Azerbaijani 0.44%,
Dargin 0.43%, Udmurt 0.40%, Mari 0.40%, Ossetian 0.39%,
 
Belarusian 0.38%,
Kabardian 0.38%, Buryat 0.37%, Kumyk 0.37,
Lezgin 0.35%, Ingush 0.32%,
German 0.29%, Uzbek 0.21%,
 Komi 0.17%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.15%, Tajik 0.15%, others 2.88% (2010) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,040,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1949): est. 8,000 weapons (2014)
Merchant marine: 1,143 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 58.4% (of which Russian Orthodox 53.1%,
 Roman Catholic 1%, Ukrainian Orthodox 0.9%, Protestant 0.9%),
 Muslim 8.2%, traditional beliefs 0.8%, Jewish 0.6%,
non-religious 25.8%, atheist 5%, other 1.2% (2005)
note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large
populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ACS (observer), AIIB (signatory), ANT (consultative), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CERN (observer), CES, CFE (withdrew), CICA, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EAS, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, G-8 (suspended), G-20, GCTU, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID (signatory), IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO (observer), ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (guest), NDB, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD (applicant), OIC (observer), OPCW, OPEC (observer), OSCE, PAM (observer), PCA, PFP (suspended), SCO, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Russia Index
Chronology
862 - 1240                 Grand Principality of Kiev Rus'.
28 May 1136 - 15 Jan 1480  Republic of Novgorod (under suzerainty of Moscow
                             from Aug 1478, annexed 15 Jan 1480).
28 Mar 1147                Moscow first mentioned.
1157 - 1327                Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal'
                             (from 1327 Moscow).
1271 - 1318                First use of style of "Grand Prince of all Rus'"
                             by Mikhail Yaroslav.
1362                       Kiev annexed to Lithuania.
1240 - 1480                Russian principalities under Mongol suzerainty 
                             (Ryazan and Vladimir from 1238). 
1327                       Grand Principality of Vladimir and Moscow.
1348 - 24 Jan 1510         Pskov Republic independent (annexed by Moscow
                             24 Jan 1510).
1493                       Style "Grand Prince, by the grce of God, Lord 
                             of All Rus'" adopted by Ivan III.
16 Jan 1547                Russian Tsardom
 2 Oct 1552                Kazan Khanate annexed by Russia.
 2 Jun 1554                Astrakhan Khanate occupied, annexed 1557.
26 Oct 1582                Sibir Khanate (near Tobolsk) occupied.
27 Sep 1610 -  4 Nov 1612  Polish-Lithuanian occupation of Moscow.
 2 Nov 1721                Russian Empire
29 Mar 1809 -  6 Dec 1917  Personal union with Finland (formally from
                             17 Sep 1809).
14 Sep 1812 - 23 Oct 1812  French under occupy Moscow.
 9 Jun 1815 -  5 Nov 1916  Personal union with Poland.
  3 Mar 1861                Serfdom abolished in Russia (by the Emancipation
                             Manifesto of 1861).
18 Oct 1867                Russian America (Alaska) sold to the U.S.
 7 May 1875                Sakhalin Island, northern Kurile Islands annexed.
22 Jan 1905 - 16 Jun 1907  Russian Revolution of 1905 throughout the empire.
 5 Sep 1905 - 25 Aug 1945  Southern Sakhalin Island and northern Kurile 
                             Islands annexed by Japan.
15 Mar 1917                Russia (abdication of Nikolay II; imperial style
                             dropped) no official style adopted; various 
                             styles were in use: Russia (after 15 Mar 1917),
                             Russian Republic (after 14 Sep 1917), Russian 
                             Soviet Republic (after 8 Nov 1917), etc.
 7 Noc 1917                "October" Bolshevik Revolution (O.S. 25 Oct 1917).
10 Jul 1918                Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet 
                             Union) including Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia,
                             and Transcaucasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 
                             Georgia).
13 May 1925                Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
 5 Dec 1929                Accession of Tadzhikistan.
 5 Dec 1936                Accession of Kazakhstan and Kirgiziya.
31 Mar 1940 - 16 Jul 1956  Accession of Finno-Karelia.
 2 Aug 1940                Accession of Moldavia.
 3 Aug 1940                Accession of Lithuania.
 5 Aug 1940                Accession of Latvia.
 6 Aug 1940                Accession of Estonia.
11 Oct 1944                Incorporation of Tannu Tuva.
 6 Sep 1991                Recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian
                             independence.
 1 Nov 1991 -              Independence declared by Republic of Chechnya
                             (not recognized).
12 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. Supreme Council passes a
                             resolution denouncing the Union Treaty of 1922.
25 Dec 1991                Final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.; Russian S.F.S.R.
                             becomes Russian Federation.
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes the Crimea.
Russia
(since 1991)
Administrative
Divisions
(from 1991)
Civil War
Polities
(1917-1921)
Russian Empire
(1462-1917)
Occupations
of Moscow

(1610-1612, 1812)
Alternative "White"
Government

(1918-1920)
 Soviet Union
(1922-1991)
Russian SFSR
(1917-1991)
Russian SFSR
Admin. Divisions
Far Eastern
Republic
(1920-1922)
Ingria
(Ingermanland)
(1601-1703, 1919-20)
Inner Horde
(1801-1876)
Kalmyk Khanate
(1670-1771)
Karafuto
(1905-1945)
Tannu Tuva
(1911-1944)
Chechnya
(1822-1861, 1991-)
Russian Orthodox
Church
 
Map of Soviet
Nationalities
(1982)
 

Russian Empire
 
[Russia flag]
   20 Jan 1705 - 11 Jun 1858 Merchant Flag;
    7 May 1883 - 12 Aug 1914 State Flag;
   14 Sep 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de jure)
 
[Russian
                            Imperial flag 1858-1914]
  11 Jun 1858 - 12 Aug 1914 Civil Ensign
 
 
[Russian flag in 1914-1917]
           12 Aug 1914 - 14 Sep 1917
 
Map of Russian Empire Hear National Anthem
"Bozhe, Tsarya Khrani"
(God Save the Czar)
(31 Dec 1833 -15 Mar 1917)
--------------------------------------
Unofficial Provisional Anthem
"Kol slaven nash Gospod v Sione" (How Glorious Our
 Lord Is In Zion)
(Mar 1917 - 9 Nov 1917)
Hear Provisional Anthems
"Internatsional"
 (The Internationale)
(1918-30 Dec 1922)(de facto)
---------------------------------
Former National  Anthem
"Molitva Russkikh"
(The Prayer of the Russians)
(1816-31 Dec 1831)
Fundamental Law
 (23 Apr 1906-23 Mar 1917)
Capital: Saint Petersburg
(Petrograd 1914-12 Mar 1918;
 Moscow 1462-1710
and from 12 Mar 1918)

Currency: 1918-1922 Russian
 Ruble Sovnazki (RUFS);
 
1839-1918 Russian Silver
 Ruble
(RUES); 1755-1839 Russian Imperial Ruble (RUEI)
National Holiday:
1918-1922:  7 Oct/Nov (1917)
October Revolution Day
-----------------------------------
1894-1917:  6 May (1868)

Birthday of Czar Nicholas II
Population: 156,500,000 (c.1914)
125,640,021 (1897)

(excluding Finland)

GNP: $N/A
Exports: $348.9 million (1914)
Imports: $365.7 million (1914)
Ethno-Linguistic groups: Russian 44.3%, Little Russian (Ukrainian) 17.81%, Turkic,Tatar 10.64%, Polish 6.31%,
White Russia (Belorussian) 4.68%, Jewish (Yiddish) 4.02%,
Finnish, Estonian, Karelian and Livonian 2.78%,
 German 1.42%, Latvian 1.14%, Georgian, Mingrelian and
 Svan 1.07%, Lithuanian 0.96%,
Armenian 0.93%,
Moldavian and Romanian 0.89%,
Dagestani, Chechen,
Ingush and Avar 0.86%, Samogitian (
Zhmud) 0.35%,
Tajik 0.27%,
Greek 0.14%,
Bulgarian 0.13%, and
Ossetian 0.13% (1897) (excluding Finland)

Total Armed Forces: 1,300,000 (1914)
Merchant marine: 906 (1908)

Religions: Pravoslavs (Eastern Orthodox, incl. Russian
Orthodox, Greek Orthodox and Georgian Orthodox) 69.34%, Muslim 11.07%, Roman Catholic 9.13%, Jews 4.15%,
Lutheran 2.84%, Old Believers and others split from
Pravoslavs 1.75%, Armenian Gregorians & Armenian
Catholics 0.97%, Buddhists, Lamaists 0.34%, other
Protestants 0.15%, and Karaites 0.01% (1897)
(excluding Finland)

International Organizations/Treaties to 1922:  ICRM, IOC, IMO, IPU, ITU, PCA, UIBPIP, UPU

Grand Princes
 5 Apr 1462 -  6 Nov 1505  Ivan III                           (b. 1440 - d. 1505)
 6 Nov 1505 - 13 Dec 1533  Vasiliy IV                         (b. 1479 - d. 1533)
13 Dec 1533 - 26 Jan 1547  Ivan IV "Grozny" (the Terrible)    (b. 1530 - d. 1584)
13 Dec 1533 - Aug 1534     Knyaz Mikhail L'vovich             (b. c.1460  - d. 1534)
                            
Glinskiy -Regent
13 Dec 1533 - 13 Apr 1538  Velikaya Knyaginya Yelena          (b. c.1510 - d. 1538)
                            
Vasilyevna Glinskaya (f) -Regent
1534 - 13 Apr 1538         Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich Ovchina-    (d. 1539)
                             Telepnyov-Obolenskiy -Regent
13 Apr 1538 - 26 Jan 1547  Regency disputed:
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vasilyevich        (d. 1538)
                              Shuiskiy 
                              (13 Apr 1538 - Nov 1538)
                          - Knyaz Ivan Vasilyevich Shuiskiy   (d. 1542)
                              (Oct 1538 - 1540 and 1542 - 24 May 1542)
                          - Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich Belskiy    (d. 1542)
                              (Jul 1540 - Jan 1542)
                          - Ioasaf, Patriarkh Moskovskiy      (d. 1555)
                              (1540 - 13 Jan 1542)
                          - Andrey Mikhaylovich Shuiskiy      (d. 1543)
                              (1542 - 8 Jan 1544)
                          - Ivan Ivanovich Kubenskiy          (d. 1546)
                              (1544 and 1545 - 1546)
                          - Fyodor Semyonovich Vorontsov      (d. 1546)
                              (1543 - 31 Jul 1546)
                          - Mikhail Vasilyevich Glinskiy      (d. 1559)
                              (1546 - 26 Jan 1547)
                          - Yuriy Vasilyevich Glinskiy        (d. 1547)
                              (1543 - 26 Jan 1547)
Tsars¹
26 Jan 1547 - 28 Mar 1584  Ivan IV "Grozny"                   (s.a.)
28 Mar 1584 - 17 Jan 1598  Fyodor I (Theodor I)               (b. 1557 - d. 1598)
28 Mar 1584 - 16 Jan 1598  Regents
                           - Knyaz Ivan Petrovich Shuiskiy    (d. 1588)
                               (to 1587)
                           - Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich           (b. c.1529 - d. 1586)
                               Mstislavskiy (to 1585)
                           - Nikita Romanovich Yuryev         (b. 153. - d. 1585) 
                               (to Aug 1584)
                           - Boris Fyodorovich Godunov        (b. 1552 - d. 1605)
                           - Bogdan Yakovlevich Belskiy       (b. 15.. - d. 1611) 
                               (to Apr 1584)
17 Jan 1598 -  3 Mar 1598  Irina Fyodorovna                   (b. 1557 - d. 1603) 
                             Godunova (f) -Regent
 3 Mar 1598 - 23 Apr 1605  Boris Godunov                      (s.a.)
23 Apr 1605 - 11 Jun 1605  Fyodor II                          (b. 1589 - d. 1605)
25 Apr 1605 - 11 Jun 1605  Mariya Grigoryevna                 (b. 156. - d. 1605)
                             Skuratova (f) -Regent
30 Jun 1605 - 27 May 1606  Dmitriy I                          (b. 1581 - d. 1606)
                            (first "false" Dmitriy; claimed to
                             be Dmitriy [d. 1591], son of Ivan IV)
27 May 1606 - 27 Jul 1610  Vasiliy V Shuiskiy                 (b. 1522 - d. 1612)
                             (coronation 1 Jun 1606)
Aug 1607 - 21 Dec 1610     Dmitriy (in rebellion)             (d. 1610)
                             (second "false" Dmitriy real name 
                             unknown; claimed to be first false Dmitriy)
27 Jul 1610 -  4 Nov 1612  Council of Seven Boyars 
                            (from 6 Sep 1610 for absent Vladislav)
                           - Knyaz Fyodor Ivanovich           (d. 1622)
                               Mstislavskiy 
                           - Knyaz Ivan Mikhaylovich          (d. 1627)
                               Vorotynskiy (to Mar 1611)
                           - Mikhail Fyodorovich Nagoy        (d. 1612)
                               (from Mar 1611)
                           - Knyaz Andrey Vasilyevich         (b. 156. - d. 1612)
                               Trubetskoy 
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vasilyevich        (b. 155. - d. 1611)
                               Golitsyn (to 8 Apr 1611) 
                           - Knyaz Ivan Semyonovich Kurakin   (d. 1632) 
                               (from 8 Apr 1611)
                           - Knyaz Boris Mikhaylovich Lykov-  (b. 1576 - d. 1646)
                               Obolenskiy
                           - Ivan Nikitich Romanov            (b. c.1570 - d. 1640)
                           - Fyodor Ivanovich Sheremetev      (d. 1649/50)
 6 Sep 1610 -  4 Nov 1612  Vladislav (=Władysław IV of Poland)(b. 1595 - d. 1648)
                             (remained in Poland)
17 Apr 1611 - 26 Jul 1613  Council of All the Land
                           (in opposition to Vladislav and Polish rule)
                           - Prokopy Petrovich Lyapunov       (d. 1611)
                              (to 1 Aug 1611)
                           - Knyaz Dmitriy Timofeyevich       (b. 157. - d. 1625)
                               Trubetskoy 
                           - Ivan Martynovich Zarutskiy       (d. 1614)
                              (to 7 Aug 1612)
21 Jul 1613 - 23 Jul 1645  Mikhail III (Michael III)          (b. 1591 - d. 1645)
21 Jul 1613 -  4 Jul 1619  Knyaginya Kseniya (Xenia) Ivanovna (d. 1631)
                             Shestova (f) -Regent
 4 Jul 1619 - 11 Oct 1633  Filaret, Patriarkh                 (b. 1554 - d. 1633)
                             Moskovskiy -Regent
23 Jul 1645 -  7 Feb 1676  Aleksey (Alexis)                   (b. 1629 - d. 1676)
23 Jul 1645 - 28 Jul 1645  Yevdokiya Lukyanovna               (b. 1608 - d. 1645)
                             Streshneva (f) -Regent
 7 Feb 1676 -  7 May 1682  Fyodor III                         (b. 1661 - d. 1682)
 7 May 1682 -  2 Nov 1721  Pyotr I (Peter I)                  (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
                           - jointly with -
 2 Jun 1682 -  8 Feb 1696  Ivan V                             (b. 1666 - d. 1696)
                             (specified to be First Tsar 4 Jun 1682)
 7 May 1682 -  8 Jun 1682  Natalya Kirillovna                 (b. 1651 - d. 1694)
                             Naryshkina (f) -Regent (1st time)
 5 Jun 1682 -  9 Jul 1682  Mariya Ilyinichna                  (b. 1625 - d. 1699)
                             Miloslavskaya (f) -Regent
 8 Jun 1682 - 22 Sep 1689  Sofiya Alekseyevna                 (b. 1657 - d. 1704)
                             Romanova (f) -Regent
                           (from 1686, styled Grand Princess and Autocrat)
22 Sep 1689 -  4 Feb 1694  Natalya Kirillovna                 (s.a.)
                             Naryshkina (f) -Regent (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1696 - 1697         Knyaz Boris Alekseyevich           (b. 1641 - d. 1714)
                             Golitsyn -Regent
20 Mar 1697 -  4 Sep 1698  Regency
                           - Knyaz Fyodor Yuryevich           (b. 1640 - d. 1717)
                               Romodanovskiy 
                           - Lev Kirillovich Naryshkin        (b. 1668 - d. 1705) 
                           - Knyaz Pyotr Ivanovich            (d. c.1717) 
                               Prozorovskiy
                           - Tikhon Nikitich Streshnev        (b. 1644 - d. 1719)
Emperors¹ (also 1809-1917 Grand Dukes of Finland; and 1815-1915 Kings of Poland)²
 2 Nov 1721 -  8 Feb 1725  Pyotr I "Velikiy"                  (s.a.)
                             (Peter I "the Great")
 8 Feb 1725 - 17 May 1727  Yekaterina I (Catherine I)-Empress (b. 1684 - d. 1727)
18 May 1727 - 30 Jan 1730  Pyotr II (Peter II)                (b. 1715 - d. 1730)
30 Jan 1730 - 13 Feb 1730  Supreme Privy Council
                           - Knyaz Dmitriy Mikhaylovich       (b. 1665 - d. 1737)
                               Golitsyn 
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Lukich Dolgorukiy  (b. 1672 - d. 1739)
                           - Knyaz Aleksey Grigoryevich       (b. c.1670 - d. 1734)
                               Dolgorukiy 
                           - Knyaz Mikhail Vladimirovich      (b. 1667 - d. 1750)
                               Dolgorukiy 
                           - Gavriil Ivanovich Graf Golovkin  (b. 1660 - d. 1734)
                           - Baron Andrey Ivanovich Osterman  (b. 1686 - d. 1747)
                              (Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann)
                           - Knyaz Mikhail Mikhaylovich       (b. 1675 - d. 1730) 
                               Golitsyn 
                           - Knyaz Vasiliy Vladimirovich      (b. 1667 - d. 1746)
                               Dolgorukiy 
13 Feb 1730 - 28 Oct 1740  Anna -Empress                      (b. 1693 - d. 1740)
28 Oct 1740 -  6 Dec 1741  Ivan VI (official style Ivan III)  (b. 1740 - d. 1764)
28 Oct 1740 - 20 Nov 1740  Ernest Johann Biron -Regent        (b. 1690 - d. 1772)
20 Nov 1740 -  6 Dec 1741  Anna Leopoldovna (f) -Regent       (b. 1718 - d. 1746)
 6 Dec 1741 -  5 Jan 1762  Yelizaveta (Elizabeth) -Empress    (b. 1709 - d. 1762)
 5 Jan 1762 -  9 Jul 1762  Pyotr III (Peter III)              (b. 1728 - d. 1762)
 9 Jul 1762 - 17 Nov 1796  Yekaterina II "Velikaya" -Empress  (b. 1729 - d. 1796)
                             (Catherine II "the Great")
 5 Oct 1773 - 15 Sep 1774  Yemelyan Ivanovich Pugachev        (b. c.1742 - d. 1775)
                             (in rebellion; from 1774 claiming to be Pyotr III) 
17 Nov 1796-23/24 Mar 1801 Pavel I (Paul I)                   (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
24 Mar 1801 -  1 Dec 1825  Aleksandr I "Blagoslovennyy"       (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
                             (Alexander I "the Blessed")
 1 Dec 1825 - 26 Dec 1825  Konstantin (Constantine)           (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                             (proclaimed, but did not accept)
26 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolay I (Nicholas I)             (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Aleksandr II "Osvoboditel'"        (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
                             (Alexander II "the Liberator")
13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Aleksandr III "Mirotvorets"        (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
                             (Alexander III "the Peacemaker")
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolay II (Nicholas II)³             (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
Acting Heads of state
15 Mar 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  the heads of government
Chairmen of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-B
21 Nov 1917 - 16 Mar 1919  Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov        (b. 1885 - d. 1919)  RSDRP-B/RCP
16 Mar 1919 - 30 Mar 1919  Mikhail Fyodorovich Vladimirskiy   (b. 1874 - d. 1951)  RCP
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1919 - 15 Jul 1938  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (b. 1875 - d. 1946)  RCP


Chief Advisers

1699 - 1706                Fyodor Aleksyevich Graf Golovkin   (b. 1650 - d. 1706)
1706 - 1709                Gavriil Ivanovich Graf Golovkin    (s.a.)
State Chancellors
1709 - 31 Jan 1734         Gavriil Ivanovich Graf Golovkin    (b. 1660 - d. 1734)
                             (from 21 Nov 1731, also First Cabinet Minister)
31 Jan 1734 - 21 Nov 1740  Baron Heinrich Johann Friedrich    (s.a.) 
                             von Ostermann -First cabinet minister
21 Nov 1740 - 15 Nov 1742  Knyaz Aleksey Mikhaylovich         (b. 1680 - d. 1742)
                             Cherkasskiy
15 Nov 1742 - 26 Feb 1758  Aleksey Petrovich Graf Bestuzhev-  (b. 1693 - d. 1766)
                             Ryumin (acting to 15 Jul 1744)
26 Feb 1758 - Mar 1765     Mikhail Illarionovich Graf         (b. 1714 - d. 1767)
                             Vorontsov (acting to 23 Nov 1758)
Mar 1765 -  9 Mar 1775     Knyaz Aleksandr Mikhaylovich       (b. 1723 - d. 1807)
                             Golitsyn (acting)
 9 Mar 1775 - 13 Apr 1775  Graf Nikita Ivanovich Panin        (b. 1718 - d. 1783)
                             (acting)
13 Apr 1775 -  2 May 1797  Ivan Andreyevich Graf Ostermann    (b. 1725 - d. 1811)
                             (acting to 20 Nov 1796)
 2 May 1797 - 17 Apr 1799  Aleksandr Andreyevich Graf         (b. 1747 - d. 1799)
                             Bezborodko
17 Apr 1799 -  6 Oct 1799  Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey (acting) (b. 1768 - d. 1834)
 6 Oct 1799 - 18 Nov 1800  Nikita Petrovich Graf Panin        (b. 1770 - d. 1837)
                             (acting)
18 Nov 1800 -  4 Mar 1801  Stepan Alekseyevich Kolychev       (b. 1746 - d. 1805) 
                             (acting)
 4 Mar 1801 - 20 Sep 1802  Knyaz Aleksandr Borisovich         (b. 1752 - d. 1818)
                             Kurakin (acting)
20 Sep 1802 - 28 Jan 1804  Aleksandr Romanovich Graf          (b. 1741 - d. 1805)
                             Vorontsov
Foreign ministers
28 Jan 1804 - 29 Jun 1806  Knyaz Adam Jerzy Czartoryski       (b. 1770 - d. 1861)
29 Jun 1806 - 11 Sep 1807  Baron Andreas Eberhard Budberg,    (b. 1750 - d. 1812)
                             gen. von Bönninghausen
11 Sep 1807 - 13 Jan 1810  Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev       (b. 1751 - d. 1826)
Chairpersons at the Joint Meetings of the State Council, 
Chairpersons in the Committee of Ministers
(the Emperors were the Chairmen, but never used the style)
13 Jan 1810 -  1 Apr 1812  Nikolay Petrovich Graf Rumyantsev  (s.a.)
10 Apr 1812 - 28 May 1816  Nikolay Ivanovich Graf Saltykov    (b. 1736 - d. 1816)
                            (from 1814, Knyaz Nikolay 
                             Ivanovich Saltykov) 
 6 Jun 1816 - 18 Apr 1827  Knyaz Pyotr Vasilyevich Lopukhin   (b. 1753 - d. 1827)
11 May 1827 - 15 Jun 1834  Viktor Pavlovich Graf Kochubey     (s.a.)
20 Jul 1834 - 20 Apr 1838  Nikolay Nikolayevich Graf          (b. 1761 - d. 1838)
                             Novosiltsov
21 Apr 1838 -  5 Mar 1847  Ilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov    (b. 1777 - d. 1847) 
                             (from 1839, Knyaz Ilarion 
                             Vasilyevich Vasilchikov)
21 Jan 1848 -  5 Oct 1848  Vasiliy Vasilyevich, Graf Levashov (b. 1783 - d. 1848)
13 Nov 1848 - 17 Apr 1856  Aleksandr Ivanovich Chernyshov     (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                             (from 1849, Knyaz Aleksandr
                             Ivanovich Chernyshov)
17 Apr 1856 - 20 Jan 1861  Aleksey Fyodorovich Orlov          (b. 1786 - d. 1861)
                             (from 1856, Knyaz Aleksey 
                             Fyodorovich Orlov)
20 Jan 1861 -  2 Mar 1864  Dmitriy Nikolayevich Graf Bludov   (b. 1785 - d. 1864)
Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers
 7 Mar 1864 -  4 Mar 1872  Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin            (b. 1789 - d. 1872)
 9 Mar 1872 -  1 Jan 1880  Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev        (b. 1797 - d. 1880)
                             (from 24 Dec 1877, Pavel 
                             Nikolayevich Graf Ignatyev) 
 6 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881  Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev       (b. 1815 - d. 1890)
                             (from 2 Mar 1880, Pyotr 
                             Aleksandrovich Graf Valuyev) 
16 Oct 1881 - 11 Jan 1887  Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern    (b. 1820 - d. 1890)
                             (Mikhail von Reutern)
13 Jan 1887 - 15 Jun 1895  Nikolay Khristianovich Bunge       (b. 1823 - d. 1895)
27 Oct 1895 - 11 Jun 1903  Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo          (b. 1834 - d. 1903)  Non-party
29 Aug 1903 -  6 Nov 1905  Sergey Yulyevich Witte (Vitte)     (b. 1849 - d. 1915)  Non-party
                             (from 1 Oct 1905, Sergey Yulyevich Graf Witte)
Prime ministers (Chairmen of the Council of Ministers)
 6 Nov 1905 -  5 May 1906  Sergey Yulyevich Graf Witte        (s.a.)               Non-party
 5 May 1906 - 21 Jul 1906  Ivan Logginovich Goremykin         (b. 1839 - d. 1917)  Non-party
                             (1st time) 
21 Jul 1906 - 18 Sep 1911  Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin         (b. 1862 - d. 1911)  Non-party
15 Sep 1911 - 12 Feb 1914  Vladimir Nikolayevich Kokovtsov    (b. 1853 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                             (acting to 22 Sep 1911 [for Stolypin to 18 Sep 1911])
12 Feb 1914 -  2 Feb 1916  Ivan Logginovich Goremykin         (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 
2 Feb 1916 - 23 Nov 1916  Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer      (b. 1848 - d. 1917)  Non-party
23 Nov 1916 -  9 Jan 1917  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Trepov       (b. 1862 - d. 1928)  Non-party
 9 Jan 1917 - 12 Mar 1917  Knyaz Nikolay Dmitriyevich         (b. 1850 - d. 1925)  Non-party
                             Golitsyn
Minister-presidents (prime ministers) of the Provisional Government
15 Mar 1917 - 20 Jul 1917  Knyaz Georgiy Yevgenyevich L'vov   (b. 1861 - d. 1925)  KDP
20 Jul 1917 -  8 Nov 1917  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerenskiy    (b. 1881 - d. 1970)  SRP
                             (continues opposition to May 1918)
18 Nov 1917 -  2 Dec 1917  Sergey Nikolayevich Prokopovich    (b. 1871 - d. 1955)  SRP
                             (acting [for Kerenskiy]; in opposition)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Jan 1924  Vladimir Ilyich Lenin              (b. 1870 - d. 1924)  RSDRP-B;
                             (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov)                             1918: RCP

Alternative "White" Governments

[Russian flag]

Chairmen of the Provisional All-Russian Government (PARG)("Ufa Directory")
23 Sep 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  SRP
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasiliy Georgiyevich Boldyrev      (b. 1875-d. af.1932) Mil
                             (in Omsk)
Supreme Rulers
18 Nov 1919                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  SRP
                             (acting; chairman of council of ministers)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in Omsk to 12 Nov 1919, then Nizhneudinsk)
Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the South Russia
15 Jan 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (in Novorossiysk to Mar 1920, then Sevastopol)
 4 Apr 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (from 11 Apr 1920 styled Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Armed Forces in the South of Russia; from 19 Aug 1920
                             Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Russian Army)(in Sevastopol)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (s.a.)         KDP;Dec 1918 SRP
                             (appointed by the PARG; discharged by Kolchak) 
23 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             (appointed by Kolchak; arrested 15 Jan 1920)
Chairman of the Government of the South of Russia
11 Apr 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol)

Polish and French Occupations of Moscow

Polish-Lithuanian Commanders (in Moscow)
27 Sep 1610 - Oct 1610     Stanisław Żółkiewski               (b. 1547 - d. 1620)
Oct 1610 - 1612            Aleksander Korwin Gosiewski        (b. c.1569 - d. 1639)
1612 -  4 Sep 1612         Jan Karol Chodkiewicz              (b. c.1560 - d. 1621)
 4 Sep 1612 -  4 Nov 1612  Mikołaj Struś (acting)             (b. 1577 - d. 1627)

French Governor of Moscow

14 Sep 1812 - 23 Oct 1812  Adolphe Édouard Casimir Joseph     (b. 1768 - d. 1835)  Mil
                             Mortier, duc de Trévise  

 ¹The full style of the ruler was:
(a) 16 Jan 1547 - 22 Nov 1721: Bozhiyeyu Milostiyu Velikiy/Velikaya Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Tsar'/Tsaritsa i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya N.N. vseya Rossiy Samodyerzhets ("By the Grace of God Great Sovereign Tsar/Tsarina and Grand Prince/Princess, N.N., of All Russia, Autocrat");
(b) from 22 Nov 1721: Bozhiyeyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator/Imperatritsa i Samodyerzhets/Samodyerzhitsa Vserossiysky/Vserossiyskaya, Moskovskiy, Kiyevskiy, Vladimirskiy, Novgorodskiy; Tsar'Tsar'/Tsaritsa Kazanskiy, Tsar'/Tsaritsa Astrakhanskiy, Tsar'/Tsaritsa Sibirskiy, Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Pskovskiy i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya Smolenskiy; Knyaz'/Knyaginya Estlyandskiy, Liflyandskiy, Koryel'skiy, Tverskiy, Yugorskiy, Permskiy, Vyatskiy, Bolgarskiy i inykh; Gosudar'/Gosudarynya i Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya Novagoroda nizovskiya zemli, Chernigorskiy, Ryazanskiy, Rostovskiy, Yaroslavskiy, Byelozerskiy, Udorskiy, Obdorskiy, Kondiyskiy i vseya severnyya strany Povelitel'; i Gosudar'/Gosudarynya Iverskiya zemli i Kartalinskikh i Gruzinskikh Tsarey/Tsarina; i Kabardinskiya zemli, Cherkasskikh i Gorskikh Knyazey/Knyaginya i inykh Naslednyy Gosudar'/Gosudarynya i Obladatel'. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress and Autocrat of Moscow, of Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; King/Queen of Kazan, King/Queen of Astrakhan, King/Queen of Siberia; Lord/Lady of Pskov; Grand Prince/Princess of Smolensk; Prince/Princess of Estonia, Livonia, Courland, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatsk, [Volga] Bulgaria, and of other lands; Lord/Lady and Grand Prince/Princess of Lower Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Rostov, Yaroslav, Byelozersk, Oudoria, Obdoria, Kondia, and all the Northern Region; Lord/Lady and Sovereign of the lands of Imeretia, Kartlia, Kabardinia; Lord/Lady of the Circassian and Mountain princes and of other lands");
(c) Style from 6 May 1906: Bozhiyeyu pospeshestvuyushcheyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator i Samodyerzhets Vserossiysky, Moskovskiy, Kiyevskiy, Vladimirskiy, Novgorodskiy; Tsar'  Kazanskiy, Tsar' Astrakhanskiy, Tsar' Pol'skiy, Tsar' Sibirskiy, Tsar' Khersonisa Tavricheskogo, Tsar' Gruzinskiy; Gosudar' Pskovskiy i Velikiy Knyaz' Smolenskiy, Litovskiy, Volynskiy, Podol'skiy i Finlyandskiy; Knyaz' Estlyandskiy, Liflyandskiy, Kurlyandskiy i Semigal'skiy, Samogitskiy, Byelostokskiy, Koryel'skiy, Tverskiy, Yugorskiy, Permskiy, Vyatskiy, Bolgarskiy i inykh; Gosudar' i Velikiy Knyaz' Novagoroda nizovskiya zemli, Chernigorskiy, Ryazanskiy, Polotskiy, Rostovskiy, Yaroslavskiy, Byelozerskiy, Udorskiy, Obdorskiy, Kondiyskiy, Vitebskiy, Mstislavskiy i vseya severnyya strany Povelitel'; i Gosudar' Iverskiya, Kartalinskiya i Kabardinskiya zemli i oblasti Armenskiya; Cherkasskikh i Gorskikh Knyazey i inykh Naslednyy Gosudar' i Obladatel'; Gosudar' Turkestanskiy; Naslednik Norvezhskiy, Gertsog Shlesvig-Golstinskiy, Stormarnskiy, Ditmarsenskiy i Oldenburgskiy i prochaya, i prochaya, i prochaya. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor and Autocrat of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; King of Kazan, King/Queen of Astrakhan, King of Poland, King of Siberia, King of the Chersonnese Taurics, and King of Georgia; Lord of Pskov; Grand Prince of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland; Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigallia, Samogitia, Bialystok, Karelia, Tver, Yongoria, Perm, Vlatks, [Volga] Bulgaria, and of other lands; Lord and Grand Duke of Lower Novgorod, Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslav, Byelozersk, Oudoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all the Northern Region; Lord and Sovereign of the lands of Imeretia, Kartlia, Kabardinia and the provinces of Armenia; Lord of the Circassian and Mountain princes; Lord of Turkestan; Heir of Norway; Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen and Oldenburg, and of other lands");
- The shortened style was: Bozhiyeyu pospeshestvuyushcheyu milostiyu, N.N.,
Imperator i Samodyerzhets Vserossiysky, Tsar' Pol'skiy, Velikiy Knyaz' Finlyandskiy, i prochaya, i prochaya, i prochaya. ("by the grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress 
and Autocrat, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, and of other lands").

  ²The colloquial use of the term "tsar" for the emperor is strictly incorrect. Since 2 Nov 1721 the correct style was Bozhiyeyu milostiyu, N.N., Imperator/Imperatritsa i Samodyerzhets/Samodyerzhitsa Vserossiysky/Vserossiyskaya ("By the Grace of God, N.N., All-Russian Emperor/Empress and Autocrat"); the term tsar was used in the full style for subsidiary (and partially imaginary) polities; in particular, it was used to mean "king" with regard to Poland.

 ³on 15 Mar 1917 Emperor Nikolay II (s.a.) abdicated 15 Mar 1917 for himself and the Tsarevich, Alexis, in favor of his brother Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich Romanov (b. 1878 - d. 1918), who in manifesto on 17 Mar 1917 neither accepted nor rejected the crown as Emperor Mikhail II. 

Noble Titles: Velikiy/Velikaya Knyaz'/Knyaginya = Grand Prince/Princess; Knyaz/Knyaginya = Prince/Princess; Graf = Count; and Baron = Baron.

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); Oct = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya/Spilka 17 Zhovtnya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); RCP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist communist, state party, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], renamed All-Union Communist Party [AUCP]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, from 8 Nov 1917 state party, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RCP); RSDRP-MRossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Menshevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP-B, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); SRP = Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Socialist Revolutionary Party, "SRs", agrarian socialist, left-wing, split Aug 1917 into Left and Right wings, 1902-1921); Mil = Military


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 
[Flag of USSR, 1923]
           6 Jul 1923 - 12 Nov 1923
 
[Flag of USSR,
                        1923-1955]
                   12 Nov 1923 - 19 Aug 1955
 
[Variant Flag
                          of USSR 1923-1924]
               12 Nov 1923 - 18 Apr 1924 (Variant)
 
[Flag of USSR]
                   19 Aug 1955 - 25 Dec 1991


Map of the U.S.S.R
Hear National Anthem
"Gimn Sovyetskogo Soyuza"
(National Anthem of
 the Soviet Union)

(1953-27 May 1977 no lyrics)
Adopted 15 Mar 1944
Hear Former Anthem
 "Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
(30 Dec 1922-15 Mar 1944)
(de facto)
Constitution
 (7 Oct 1977)
Capital: Moscow
Currency: 1961-1991 Soviet
 Hard Ruble
(SUR); 1947-61
Soviet New Ruble (SUN);
1924-47 Soviet Gold Ruble
(SUG); 1922-24 Soviet Ruble
(SUB)

National Holiday: 7 Nov (1917)
October Revolution Day
Population: 293,047,571 (1991)
GNP: $2,660 billion (1990)
Exports: $109.3 billion (1989)
Imports: $114.7 billion (1989)
Ethnic groups: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%,
Uzbek 5.84%, Belorussian (Byelorussian) 3.51%,
Kazakh 2.85%, Azeri 2.38%, Armenian 1.62%,
Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldovan 1.17%,
Lithuanian 1.07%, Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%,
Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, other 9.75%
Total Armed Forces: 3,750,000 (1989)
Declared Nuclear Power (1949): 28,595 weapons (1991)
Merchant marine: 1,565 ships (1990)
Religions: atheist 60%, Russian Orthodox 20%,
Muslim 10%, Protestant, Georgian Orthodox,
Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic 7%,
Jewish less than 1%  Note: State was officially atheist 
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT (consultative), BTWC, CCC, CFE (signatory), Comecon, CSCE, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ICFTU, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NPT, NTBT, OPNAL, PCA, UIBPIP, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WP, WToO
Soviet Republics

30 Dec 1922                Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) including 
                             Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, and Transcaucasia (TSFSR).
13 May 1925                Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
 5 Dec 1929                Accession of Tadzhikistan.
 5 Dec 1936                Accession of Kazakhstan and Kirgiziya; TSFSR dissolved, 
                             Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan become full union republics.
 2 Aug 1940                Accession of Moldavia
 3 Aug 1940                Accession of Lithuania.
 5 Aug 1940                Accession of Latvia.
 6 Aug 1940                Accession of Estonia.
 6 Sep 1991                Recognition of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian independence.
25 Dec 1991                Final dissolution of the U.S.S.R.; R.S.F.S.R. independent
                             as Russia.

De facto Leader¹
30 Dec 1922 - 10 Mar 1923  Vladimir Ilyich Lenin              (b. 1870 - d. 1924)  RCP

General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
 3 Apr 1922 -  5 Mar 1953  Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
                            (Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili)
                            (from 21 Dec 1929, styled Vozhd [Leader])
 5 Mar 1953 - 14 Mar 1953 
Vacant
14 Mar 1953 - 14 Oct 1964  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                            (Khrushchyov)(secretariat chairperson to
                             7 Sep 1953, then first secretary)
14 Oct 1964 - 10 Nov 1982  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
                            (first secretary to 29 Mar 1966, then
                             from 8 Apr 1966 general secretary)
12 Nov 1982 -  9 Feb 1984  Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov       (b. 1914 - d. 1984)
 9 Feb 1984 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko    (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
11 Mar 1985 - 24 Aug 1991  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (b. 1931)
                            
(Gorbachyov)
24 Aug 1991 - 29 Aug 1991  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko
       (b. 1932 - d. 1994)
                             (acting)
                          ("leading role" of party abolished 13 Mar 1990)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (jointly)²
30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (b. 1875 - d. 1946)RCP;1925 AUCP
                             (Russian RSFSR)
30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  AUCP
                             (Ukrainian SSR) 
30 Dec 1922 - 16 Jun 1937  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  AUCP
                             (Byelorussian SSR) 
30 Dec 1922 - 19 Mar 1925  Nariman Kerbalay Nadzhaf-ogly      (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  AUCP
                             Narimanov (Transcaucasian SFSR)
21 May 1925 - Jun 1937     Gazanfar Makhmud-ogly Musabekov    (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  AUCP
                             (Transcaucasian SFSR) 
21 May 1925 - 21 Jul 1937  Nedirbay Aytakov (Turkmen SSR)     (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  AUCP
21 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1937  Fayzulla Gubaydullayevich          (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  AUCP
                             Khodzhayev (Uzbek SSR)
18 Mar 1931 -  4 Jan 1934  Nusratullo Maksum (Lutfulayev)     (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  AUCP
                             (Tadzhik SSR)
 4 Jan 1934 - Sep 1937     Abdullo Rakhimbayevich Rakhimbayev (b. 1896 - d. 1938)  AUCP
                             (Tadzhik SSR)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
12 Jan 1938 - 17 Jan 1938  Andrey Andreyevich Andreyev        (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  AUCP
                           + Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik    (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  AUCP
                           (acting)
17 Jan 1938 - 19 Mar 1946  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (s.a.)               AUCP
19 Mar 1946 - 15 Mar 1953  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik      (s.a.)            AUCP;1952 CPSU
15 Mar 1953 -  7 May 1960  Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov     (b. 1881 - d. 1969)  CPSU
 7 May 1960 - 15 Jul 1964  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1st time)  (s.a.)               CPSU
15 Jul 1964 -  9 Dec 1965  Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan          (b. 1895 - d. 1978)  CPSU
 9 Dec 1965 - 16 Jun 1977  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgornyy      (b. 1903 - d. 1983)  CPSU
16 Jun 1977 - 10 Nov 1982  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (2nd time)  (s.a.)               CPSU
10 Nov 1982 - 16 Jun 1983  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (b. 1901 - d. 1990)  CPSU
                             (1st time) (acting)
16 Jun 1983 -  9 Feb 1984  Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov       (s.a.)               CPSU
 9 Feb 1984 - 11 Apr 1984  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (s.a.)               CPSU
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Apr 1984 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko    (s.a.)               CPSU
10 Mar 1985 -  2 Jul 1985  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Kuznetsov      (s.a.)               CPSU
                             (3rd time) (acting)
 2 Jul 1985 -  1 Oct 1988  Andrey Andreyevich Gromyko         (b. 1909 - d. 1989)  CPSU
 1 Oct 1988 - 25 May 1989  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               CPSU
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
25 May 1989 - 15 Mar 1990  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               CPSU
President
15 Mar 1990 - 25 Dec 1991  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (s.a.)               CPSU;
                             (suspended 19-21 Aug 1991)                  24 Aug 1991 Non-party
19 Aug 1991 - 21 Aug 1991³ Gennadiy Ivanovich Yanayev         (b. 1937 - d. 2010)  CPSU
                             (acting; in dissidence)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
 6 Jul 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Vladimir Ilyich Lenin              (s.a.)               RCP
21 Jan 1924 -  2 Feb 1924  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RCP
                           + Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov          (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  RCP
                           + Alexander Dmitriyevich Tsyurupa  (b. 1870 - d. 1928)  RCP
                           + Vlas Yakovlevich Chubar'         (b. 1891 - d. 1939)  RCP
                           + Ivan Dmitriyevich Orakhelashvili (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  RCP
                           (acting)
 
2 Feb 1924 - 19 Dec 1930  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (s.a.)             RCP;1925 AUCP
19 Dec 1930 -  6 May 1941  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov    (b. 1890 - d. 1986)  AUCP
 6 May 1941 - 15 Mar 1946  Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (s.a.)               AUCP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
15 Mar 1946 -  5 Mar 1953  Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin        (s.a.)               AUCP
 6 Mar 1953 -  8 Feb 1955  Georgiy Maksimilianovich Malenkov  (b. 1902 - d. 1988)  CPSU
 8 Feb 1955 - 27 Mar 1958  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin    (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  CPSU
27 Mar 1958 - 15 Oct 1964  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               CPSU
15 Oct 1964 - 23 Oct 1980  Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (b. 1904 - d. 1980)  CPSU
23 Oct 1980 - 27 Sep 1985  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tikhonov    (b. 1905 - d. 1997)  CPSU
27 Sep 1985 - 14 Jan 1991  Nikolay Ivanovich Ryzhkov          (b. 1929)            CPSU
Prime minister
14 Jan 1991 - 22 Aug 1991  Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov        (b. 1937 - d. 2003)  CPSU
22 Aug 1991 -  6 Sep 1991  Vacant
Chairman of the Committee on Operational Management of the National Economy (from 20 Sep

1991 also Chairman of the Inter-republican Economic Committee; from 14 Nov 1991 Chairman
of the Interstate Economic Committee - Prime Minister of the Economic Community)
 6 Sep 1991 - 25 Dec 1991  Ivan Stepanovich Silayev           (b. 1930)            Non-party

 ¹In Mar 1919, the 8th communist party congress reinstated the Politburo (Political Bureau) that briefly existed on the eve of the 1917 Bolshevik coup, to provide effective leadership during the revolution. The immense authority of Vladimir Lenin (s.a.), who himself maintained the vague idea of party equality, gave enough basis for effective decision making without electing a formal chairman. Lenin retained only the post of a member of the Central Committee and that of the Politburo. On 3 Apr 1922, the Central Committee elected Josef Stalin (s.a.)
to the new post of General Secretary (with Valeriy Kuybyshev and Vyacheslav Molotov as secretaries), this post was not considered to be party chairman at that time. The party charter adopted by the 12th party conference in Aug 1922 prescribed to elect the Secretariat of three members, but it did not include a clause on post of General Secretary. The complex structure of higher party bodies by the time of Stalin's death was complicated with creation of a new body, the Presidium, in place of the Politburo, at the 19th party congress (Oct 1952). The new party charter adopted by this congress was immediately violated by creating the Bureau (buro) of the Presidium that was never meant to be set up according to the charter. The complexity of this structure probably influenced the decisions of the joint session of the Central Committee, the Council of Ministers and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which two hours prior to Stalin's death appointed Georgiy Malenkov (s.a.) as his successor in the office of the chairman of the Council of Ministers, but never debated the election of the General Secretary. The plenum put Nikita Khrushchev (s.a.) in charge of the secretariat assigning him to preside at the secretariat meetings, his title was not officially changed until 7 Sep 1953, when the Central Committee elected him First Secretary. Khrushchev used this title to consolidate his power and by 1957 it was clear that the post became crucial in the party top leadership. After an attempted party coup, (by Malenkov, Kaganovich and Molotov) 18-29 Jun 1957, Khrushchev retained the office and turned it into a post equal to party president.  At that time the appointment of Leonid Brezhnev to the post of First Secretary, that post had already been seen as the highest office of the party. The 23rd party congress (1966) changed the party charter, reinstating the Politburo and the post of General Secretary which became the official post of the party head.
  From resignation of General Secretary Gorbachev on 24 Aug 1991 to the suspension of the CPSU on 29 Aug 1991, Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (b. 1932 - d. 1994) who was the Deputy General Secretary did not accept the office of or act as General Secretary.

 ²chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. was a collective body comprised by several chairmen, in principle one of each constituent S.S.R., although Kalinin (from Russian S.F.S.R.) was often viewed as the single chairman.

 ³The State Council for the State of Emergency took the power on 19 August 1991, the failed coup and was disbanded two days after. The paramount Soviet leaders comprised it: Vice President Gennadiy Ivanovich Yanayev (s.a.); Prime minister Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (s.a.); KGB chairman Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov (b. 1924 - d. 2007); Defense minister Dmitriy Timofeyevich Yazov (b. 1924); Home Minister Boris Karlovich Pugo (b. 1937 - d. 1991); Deputy chairman of the Defense Council Oleg Dmitriyevich Baklanov (b. 1932); chairman of the Peasants' Union Vasiliy Alexandrovich Starodubtsev (b. 1931 - d. 2011); and chairman of the Association of State Enterprises Aleksandr Ivanovich Tizyakov (b. 1926).

Territorial Disputes (1945-1991): Bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve disputed sections of the boundary with China; U.S. Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union; Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the U.S.S.R.

Party abbreviation: CPSU = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, communist, Marxist-Lennist, state party, authoritarian; the CPSU known as 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918 Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Bolsheviks)][RSDRP-B]; 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925 as Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)] [RCP]; from 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952 as Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)] [AUCP], state party 8 Nov 1917 - 13 Mar 1990, suspended 29 Aug 1991)


Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
 
[Russian
                          Revolution flag 1917-1918 de facto]
             8 Nov 1917 - 13 Apr 1918 (de facto)
 
[Flag of
                          Russian SFSR in 1918]
            13 Apr 1918 - 19 Jul 1918
 
[Flag of
                          Russian SFSR, 1918-1920]
            19 Jul 1918 - 29 Sep 1920
 
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR in 1920-1937]
                    29 Sep 1920 - 21 Jan 1937
 
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR in 1937-1954]
                    21 Jan 1937 - 2 Jun 1954
 
[Flag of Russian
                          SFSR, 1954-1991]
                    2 Jun 1954 - 21 Aug 1991
 
Flag of Russian SFSR
                          in 1991
           22 Aug 1991 - 25 Dec 1991
 

Capital: Moscow
Hear Local Anthem
(same as Soviet Union)
Constitution
(10 Jul 1918)
Population: 137,551,000 (1980)
R.S.F.S.R.
Admin. Divisions

18 Nov 1917                No official style adopted; various styles used: Russian Soviet
                             Republic, Russian Republic, etc.
10 Jul 1918                Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Part of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union).
 
5 Dec 1936                Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
12 Jun 1991                Declaration of state sovereignty adopted.
25 Dec 1991                U.S.S.R. dissolved; Russian S.F.S.R. independent as Russia.


Chairmen of the Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU for Russian S.F.S.R. 
27 Feb 1956 - 16 Nov 1964  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
16 Nov 1964 -  8 Apr 1966  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
 8 Apr 1966 -  9 Dec 1989  disbanded
Chairman of the Russian Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU

 9 Dec 1989 - 19 Jun 1990  Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev      (b. 1931)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Russian S.F.S.R. 

23 Jun 1990 -  6 Aug 1991  Ivan Kuzmich Polozkov              (b. 1935)
 6 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991  Valentin Aleksandrovich Kuptsov    (b. 1937)
                            (activities of the party suspended 23 Aug 1991)

Chairmen of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Lev Borisovich Kamenev             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-B/RCP
21 Nov 1917 - 16 Mar 1919  Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov        (b. 1885 - d. 1919)  RCP
16 Mar 1919 - 30 Mar 1919  Mikhail Fyodorovich Vladimirskiy   (b. 1874 - d. 1951)  RCP
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1919 - 15 Jul 1938  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin          (b. 1875 - d. 1946)RCP;1925 AUCP
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
15 Jul 1938 - 19 Jul 1938  Andrey Aleksandrovich Zhdanov      (b. 1896 - d. 1948)  AUCP
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
19 Jul 1938 -  4 Mar 1944  Aleksey Yegorovich Badayev         (b. 1883 - d. 1951)  AUCP
 9 Apr 1943 -  4 Mar 1944  Ivan Alekseyevich Vlasov           (b. 1903 - d. 1969)  AUCP
                             (acting for Badayev)
 4 Mar 1944 - 25 Jun 1946  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Shvernik      (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  AUCP
25 Jun 1946 -  7 Jul 1950  Ivan Alekseyevich Vlasov           (s.a.)               AUCP
 7 Jul 1950 - 16 Apr 1959  Mikhail Petrovich Tarasov          (b. 1899 - d. 1970)AUCP;1952CPSU
16 Apr 1959 - 26 Nov 1959  Nikolay Grigoryevich Ignatov       (b. 1901 - d. 1966)  CPSU
                             (1st time) 
26 Nov 1959 - 20 Dec 1962  Nikolay Nikolayevich Organov       (b. 1901 - d. 1982)  CPSU
20 Dec 1962 - 14 Nov 1966  Nikolay Grigoryevich Ignatov       (s.a.)               CPSU
                             (2nd time)
14 Nov 1966 - 23 Dec 1966  Timofey Arkadyevich Akhazov        (b. 1907 - d. 1979)  CPSU
                           + Pyotr Petrovich Sysoyev          (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  CPSU
                           (acting)
23 Dec 1966 - 26 Mar 1985  Mikhail Alekseyevich Yasnov        (b. 1906 - d. 1991)  CPSU
26 Mar 1985 -  3 Oct 1988  Vladimir Pavlovich Orlov           (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  CPSU
 3 Oct 1988 - 29 May 1990  Vitaliy Ivanovich Vorotnikov       (b. 1926 - d. 2012)  CPSU
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

29 May 1990 - 10 Jul 1991  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (b. 1931 - d. 2007)  CPSU:12 Jul
                                                                                1990 Non-party

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars ("Sovnarkom")
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Jan 1924  Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Ulyanov)    (b. 1870 - d. 1924)  RSDRP-B/RCP
21 Jan 1924 -  2 Feb 1924  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  RCP
                           + Lev Borisovich Kamenev           (s.a.)               RCP
                           + Alexander Dmitriyevich Tsyurupa  (b. 1870 - d. 1928)  RCP
                           (acting)
 2 Feb 1924 - 18 May 1929  Aleksey Ivanovich Rykov            (s.a.)             RCP;1925 AUCP
18 May 1929 -  3 Nov 1930  Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov           (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  AUCP
 3 Nov 1930 - 22 Jul 1937  Daniil Yegorovich Sulimov          (b. 1890 - d. 1937)  AUCP
22 Jul 1937 - 17 Sep 1938  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bulganin    (b. 1895 - d. 1975)  AUCP
17 Sep 1938 -  2 Jun 1940  Vasiliy Vasilyevich Vakhrushev     (b. 1902 - d. 1947)  AUCP
                             (acting to 29 Jul 1939)
 2 Jun 1940 - 23 Jun 1943  Ivan Sergeyevich Khokhlov          (b. 1895 - d. 1973)  AUCP
 5 May 1942 -  2 May 1943  Konstantin Dmitriyevich Pamfilov   (b. 1901 - d. 1943)  AUCP
                             (acting for Khokhlov) 
23 Jun 1943 - 23 Mar 1946  Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (b. 1904 - d. 1980)  AUCP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
23 Mar 1946                Aleksey Nikolayevich Kosygin       (s.a.)               AUCP
23 Mar 1946 -  9 Mar 1949  Mikhail Nikolayevich Rodionov      (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  AUCP
 9 Mar 1949 - 20 Oct 1952  Boris Nikolayevich Chernousov      (b. 1908 - d. 1978)  AUCP
20 Oct 1952 - 24 Jan 1956  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Puzanov     (b. 1906 - d. 1998)  CPSU
24 Jan 1956 - 19 Dec 1957  Mikhail Alekseyevich Yasnov        (s.a.)               CPSU
19 Dec 1957 - 31 Mar 1958  Frol Romanovich Kozlov             (b. 1908 - d. 1965)  CPSU
31 Mar 1958 - 23 Nov 1962  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (b. 1917 - d. 2001)  CPSU
23 Nov 1962 - 23 Jul 1971  Gennadiy Ivanovich Voronov         (b. 1910 - d. 1994)  CPSU
23 Jul 1971 - 28 Jul 1971  Aleksey Mikhaylovich Shkolnikov    (b. 1914 - d. 2003)  CPSU
                           + Nikolay Fyodorovich Vasilyev     (b. 1916 - d. 2011)  CPSU
                           (acting)
28 Jul 1971 - 24 Jun 1983  Mikhail Sergeyevich Solomentsev    (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  CPSU
24 Jun 1983 -  3 Oct 1988  Vitaliy Ivanovich Vorotnikov       (s.a.)               CPSU
 3 Oct 1988 - 15 Jun 1990  Aleksandr Vladimirovich Vlasov     (b. 1932 - d. 2002)  CPSU
15 Jun 1990 - 26 Sep 1991  Ivan Stepanovich Silayev           (b. 1930)            Non-party

Party abbreviation: CPSU = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, communist, Marxist-Lennist, state party, authoritarian; the CPSU known as 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918 Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Bolsheviks)][RSDRP-B]; 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925 as Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)] [RCP]; from 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952 as Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)] [AUCP], state party 8 Nov 1917 - 13 Mar 1990, suspended 29 Aug 1991); [Communist Party of Russian S.F.S.R est.23 Jun 1990, suspended 23 Aug 1991, banned 6 Nov 1991])


Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Note: Although the U.S.S.R. was "Soviet Socialist" from its founding, all the republics began as "Socialist Soviet" and did not change to the other order until various dates in 1937. In addition, in the national languages of several republics the word "Council/Conciliar" in the respective language was only quite late changed to an adaptation of the Russian "Soviet" - and never in others, e.g., Ukraine.

For the individual Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union see individual listings:
 

Armenian S.S.R.
Azerbaidzhan S.S.R.
Byelorussian S.S.R.
Estonian S.S.R.
Georgian S.S.R.
Karelo-Finnish S.S.R.
(1940-1956)
Kazakh S.S.R.
Kirghiz S.S.R.
Latvian S.S.R.
Lithuanian S.S.R.
Moldavian S.S.R.
Russian S.F.S.R.
Tadzikh S.S.R.
Transcaucasian S.F.S.R.
(1922-1936)
Turkestan S.S.R.
(1922-1924)
Turkmen S.S.R.
Ukrainian S.S.R.
Uzbek S.S.R.



Russian Federation
 
[Russian flag]
               Re-adopted 21 Aug 1991
   
12 Jun 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. adopts a declaration of state sovereignty.
12 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. Supreme Council passes a resolution denouncing
                             the Union Treaty of 1922.

25 Dec 1991                Russian S.F.S.R. independent as Russia Federation (Russia)
                             (style not endorsed constitutionally until 21 Apr 1992).

Presidents
10 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1999  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (b. 1931 - d. 2007)  Ind
21 Sep 1993 -  4 Oct 1993  Aleksandr Vladimirovich Rutskoy    (b. 1947)
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 5 Nov 1996 -  6 Nov 1996  Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin    (b. 1938 - d. 2010)  NDR
                             (acting for Yeltsin) 
31 Dec 1999 -  7 May 2008  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (b. 1952)            Ind;2008
                             (1st time)(acting to 7 May 2000)                      URP
 7 May 2008 -  7 May 2012  Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev      (b. 1965)            Ind
 7 May 2012 -              Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               URP
                             (2nd time)  

Prime ministers (chairmen of the council of ministers to 23 Dec 1993)
26 Sep 1991 -  6 Nov 1991  Oleg Ivanovich Lobov (acting)      (b. 1937)            Ind
 6 Nov 1991 - 15 Jun 1992  Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin         (s.a.)               Ind
                            
(1st time)
15 Jun 1992 - 14 Dec 1992  Yegor Timurovich Gaydar (Gaidar)   (b. 1956 - d. 2009)  YA

                            
(acting)
14 Dec 1992 - 23 Mar 1998  Viktor Stepanovich C
hernomyrdin    (s.a.)               NDR
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1998  (hours)       Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (acting)(s.a.)               Ind
                            
(2nd time)
23 Mar 1998 - 23 Aug 1998  Sergey Vladilenovich K
iriyenko     (b. 1962)            Ind
                             (acting to 24 Apr 1998) 
23 Aug 1998 - 11 Sep 1998  Viktor Stepanovich Chernomyrdin    (s.a.)               NDR
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Sep 1998 - 12 May 1999  Yevgeniy Maksimovich Primakov      (b. 1929 - d. 2015)  Ind
12 May 1999 -  9 Aug 1999  Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin        (b. 1952)            Ind
                             (acting to 19 May 1999)
 9 Aug 1999 -  7 May 2000  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               Ind
                             (1st time)(acting to 16 Aug 1999)
 7 May 2000 - 24 Feb 2004  Mikhail Mikhaylovich Kasyanov      (b. 1957)            Ind
                             (acting to 17 May 2000)
24 Feb 2004 -  5 Mar 2004  Viktor Borisovich Khristenko       (b. 1957)            Ind
                             (acting)
 5 Mar 2004 - 14 Sep 2007  Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov         (b. 1950)            Ind
                             (acting 7-12 May 2004, from 12 Sep 2007)
14 Sep 2007 -  8 May 2008  Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov         (b. 1941)            Ind
                             (1st time)(acting from 7 May 2008)
 8 May 2008 -  7 May 2012  Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin       (s.a.)               URP
                             (2nd time)
 7 May 2012 -  8 May 2012  Viktor Alekseyevich Zubkov         (s.a.)               Ind
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 8 May 2012 -              Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev      (s.a.)               URP

Territorial Disputes: Russia remains concerned about the smuggling of poppy derivatives from Afghanistan through Central Asian countries; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010; various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) and other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following World War II but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands; Russia and Estonia signed a technical border agreement in May 2005, but Russia recalled its signature in Jun 2005 after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia and Latvia; Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Ukraine have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions; Kazakhstan and Russia boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 and field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Party abbreviations: Ind = Independent; URP = Yedinaya Rossiya (United Russia, conservative, center-right, V. Putin personalist, government party, est.1 Dec 2001); YA = Rossiyskaya Obyedinyonnaya Demokraticheskaya Partiya "Yabloko" (Russian United Democratic Party "Apple", social liberal, center-left, est.1993);
- Former parties: NDR = Nash Dom - Rossiya (Our Home - Russia, centrist, government party, 1995-1 Dec 2001, merged into URP)



Far Eastern Republic
[Far Eastern Repulic
                  1920-1922]
           12 Nov 1920 - 15 Nov 1922
Map of Far Eastern Republic
Hear National Anthem
 "Internatsional"
(The Internationale)
Text of National Anthem
(1920-1922)(de facto)
Basic Law (Constitution)
 (summary only)
(27 Apr 1921; text in Russian)
Capital: Chita
(Verkhneudinsk
7 Mar 1920 - 22 Oct 1920)
Currency: 1920-1922
Far Eastern
Republic Ruble
(DBRR)

National Holiday: 6 Apr (1920)
Independence Day
Population: 1,853,000
(1920 est.)
GDP: N/A
Exports: N/A
Imports: N/A
Ethnic groups: Russian 65%, Ukrainian 19%, Buryat 6%,
Korean 4%, Chinese 3%, other 3% (1920 est.) 

Total Armed Forces: 40,800 (Nov 1920)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Russian Orthodox,  Buddhist, Orthodox
Old Believers, traditional beliefs (Shamanist)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

 7 Mar 1920                Provisional Local Government of Pribaikal proclaimed at
                             Verkhneudinsk by "Red" partisans in opposition to "White"
                             Transbaikal government (see Russian civil war polities).
 6 Apr 1920                Independence declared (Far Eastern Republic)(claiming Amur,
                             Kamchatka, Maritime [Primorye], Sakhalin and Transbaikal oblasts)
14 May 1920                Recognized by Russian S.F.S.R.
15 Jul 1920                Recognized informally by Japan (also by China Feb 1921).
 5 Aug 1920                Amur oblast joins the Far Eastern Republic.
Nov 1920                   Remainder of the Transbaikal oblast annexed.
12 Dec 1920                Maritime (including Khabarovsk) and Kamchatka (including Chukotka)
                             oblasts join the Far Eastern Republic.
Apr 1921                   Kamchatka (including Chukotka) ceded back to Russian S.F.S.R.
                             (as agreed on 15 Dec 1920).
26 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1922  Maritime (Primorye) oblast in de facto secession
                             (see Russian civil war polities).
15 Nov 1922                Incorporated into the Russian S.F.S.R. (see Russian SFSR admin.)

Chairmen of the (Provisional to 30 Oct 1920) Government (Heads of State)
 7 Mar 1920 - 15 Sep 1921  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Krasnoshchekov (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RKP
15 Sep 1921 - 15 Nov 1922  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Matveyev         (b. 1877 - d. 1951)  RKP

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
Jul 1920 – 30 Oct 1920     Boris Zakharovich Shumyatskiy         (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RKP
30 Oct 1920 – 13 Feb 1921  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Krasnoshchekov (s.a.)               RKP
14 Feb 1921 –  8 Oct 1922  Pyotr Mikhaylovich Nikiforov          (b. 1882 - d. 1974)  RKP
 8 Oct 1922 - 15 Nov 1922  Pyotr Alekseyevich Kobozev            (b. 1878 - d. 1941)  RKP

Party abbreviation: RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian Marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])



Ingria (Ingermanland)
 
[Flag of Sweden]
          1583 - 1595; 1611 - 1703
[Ingrian flag]
     Jan - Dec 1920 North Ingermanland

1069                       Part of Novgorod.
1478                       Part of Russia.
Aug 1583 - 28 May 1595     Provisionally ceded to Sweden.
1611                       Occupied by Sweden.
 9 Mar 1617                Ceded by Russia to Sweden in Treaty of Stolbovo; includes the
                             provinces of Ingria and Karelia (Kexholm). The kings of
                             Sweden styled "Dukes of Karelians and Lords over Ingria."
12 May 1703                Occupied by Russia; city of St. Petersburg founded on 27 May.
10 Sep 1721                Formally ceded to Russia by Sweden in Treaty of Nystad.
23 Jan 1920 -  5 Dec 1920  North Ingermanland declares independence.

Governors of Ingermanland
1581 - 1582                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (b. 1550 - d. 1601)
                             (1st time)
1582 - 1583                Hermann Pederson Fleming zu           (b. c.1520 - d. 1583)
                             Lechtis
1583 - 1484                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1584 - 1585                Krister Gabrielsson Oxenstierna       (b. 1542 - d. 1591)
1588 - 1590                Carl Henriksson Horn af Kanckas       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1590 - 1592                Claes Hermansson Fleming              (b. c.1550 - d. 1616)
1593                       Arvid Eriksson Stålarm Lindöst ja     (b. c.1549 - d. 1620)
                             Grabbackast
1593 - 1596                Axel Jönsson Kurck                    (b. 1555 - d. 1630)
1597 - 1600                Otto von Uexküll                      (b. 15.. - d. 1601)
1601 - 1607                Samuel Nilsson till Hässle            (b. 15.. - d. 1607) 
1607 - 1613                Philip von Scheiding                  (b. 1578 - d. 1646) 
1613 - 1615                Evert Karlsson Horn af Kanckas        (b. 1585 - d. 1615) 
1615 - 1617                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (1st time)(b. 1577 - d. 1657) 
1617 - 1620                Carl Carlsson friherre Gyllenhielm    (b. 1574 - d. 1650) 
1620 - 1622                Henrik Klasson Fleming                (b. 1584 - d. 1650) 
1622 - 1626                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (2nd time)(s.a.)
1626 - 1629                Nils Assersson Mannersköld            (b. 1586 - d. 1655)
1629                       Henrik Mattias greve von Thurn        (b. 1580 - d. 1640)
Governors-general of Ingermanland and Livland
29 Nov 1629 - 1634         Johann Bengtson Schroderus friherre   (b. 1577 - d. 1645)
                             Skytte af Duderhof 
16 Oct 1634 - 1642         Bengt Bengtsson friherre              (b. 1591 - d. 1643)
                             Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö
Governors-general of Ingermanland and County of Kexholm
1642 - 1645                Erik Carlsson friherre                (b. 1602 - d. 1657)
                             Gyllenstierna af Lundholm
1645 - 1651                Carl friherre Mörner                  (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
1651 - 1654                Erik Gustavsson, greve Stenbock       (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
                            
till Bogesund
1654 - 1657                Gustaf Evertsson friherre Horn        (b. 1614 - d. 1666)

                             af Marienborg
1657 - 1659                Christer Claesson friherre Horn       (b. 1622 - d. 1692)
                             af Amyne
1659 - 1664                Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (1st time)     (b. 1617 - d. 1677)
1664 - 1668                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (b. 1624 - d. 1695)
                             Taube af Kudding (1st time)
1668 - 1673                Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1673 - 1678                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (s.a.)
                             Taube af Kudding (2nd time)
1678                       Gustaf Adam greve Banér               (b. 1624 - d. 1681)
1678 - 1681                Jacob Johan Justusson friherre        (s.a.)
                             Taube af Kudding (3rd time)
Governors
1681 - 1682                Martin Schultz von Ascheraden         (b. 1660 - d. 1730)
1682 - 1683                Hans friherre von Fersen              (b. 1625 - d. 1684)
1683 - 1687                Göran greve von Sperling              (b. 1630 - d. 1691)
Governors-general
1687 - 1691                Göran greve von Sperling              (s.a.)
1691 - 1698                Otto Wilhelm friherre von Fersen      (b. 1623 - d. 1703)
 4 Jul 1698 - 1703         Otto greve Wellingk                   (b. 1649 - d. 1708)
Chairmen of Governing Council (in Kirjasalo)
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termonen
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokko                      (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Georg (Yrjö) Elfvengren               (b. 1889 - d. 1927)
Jun 1920 -  5 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen

Swedish Noble titles: greve = Count; friherre = Baron.


Inner Horde (Bokei Horde)

11 Mar 1801                The Inner Horde (also called Bokei Horde) a nomadic state
                            (under Russian suzerainty) founded in territory between 
                             Volga and Yaik (Ural) rivers (to the North from Caspian sea)
                             where 5,000 families of Kazakhs from Younger Kazakh Zhuz tribe
                             (see under Kazakhstan) settled. 
1812                       Khanate of the Inner Horde.
1847                       Post of Khan was abolished and Inner Horde is ruled by provisional
                             council which consisted of Russian government officials.
1876                       Incorporated into Astrakhan province of the Russian Empire.

Ruler
11 Mar 1801 - 1812         Bokei                                (d. 1815)
Khans
1812 - 12 May 1815         Bokei Khan                           (s.a.)
1815 - 1823                Shiga Khna -Regent              
1823 - 1845                Zhangir Khan                         (b. 1801 - d. 1845)
1845 - 1847                Saip-Kerey Khan                      (d. 1847)



Kalmyk Khanate

c.1632                     The Torghut branch (known as the Kalmyks) of the Mongolian Oirats 
                             settled along the lower Volga River (in modern day Russia and
                             Kazakhstan).
1664                       Under Russian suzerainty.
 4 Jan 1771                Ubashi and a majority of the Kalmyks return to Dzungaria.
19 Oct 1771                Incorporated into Astrakhan province of Russian Empire.

Khans
1670 - 1713                Ayuka (1st time)        (b. 1642 - d. 1724)
1713 - 171.                Chadurdzab
171. - 1724                Ayuka (2nd time) 
20 Sep 1724 - 17 Mar 1735  Cheren Donduk
1724 - 1737                Dharmapala (f) -Regent
 3 Mar 1737 - 21 Mar 1741  Donduk Ombu             (d. 1741)
1741                       Kandul I                (d. 1781)
1741                       Gan (f) -Regent
1741 - 21 Jan 1761         Donduk Ta'lshi          (d. 1761)
1761 -  4 Jan 1771         Ubashi



Karafuto

[Japan]
                  1905 - 1945

[Karafuto
                      prefecture emblem, 1911-1945]
            Emblem 1911 - 1945

Map of Karafuto
Capital: Toyohara
(Otomari 1905-1908)
Currency: Japanese Yen
(JPY) (1905-1945)
Population: 415,000
(1940 est.) 

1287 - 131.                Mongols garrison Sakhalin.
1616                       Ming dynasty China sends troops to the islands.
1644                       Claimed as a Japanese vassal by Lord Matsumae, 
                             named Kita Ezo (North Hokkaido).
1679                       Japanese establish trading post at Otomari (Korsakov).
 2 Aug 1689                Chinese sovereignty confirmed by Treaty of Nerchnishk. 
1845                       Claimed by Japan.
 1 Aug 1850                Russia claims Sakhalin Island.
 3 Oct 1853                Northern Sakhalin claimed for Russia.
 7 Feb 1867                Sakhalin a joint condominium of Japan and Russia.
 7 May 1875                Sakhalin incorporated into Russia.
24 Jun 1905                Southern Sakhalin occupied by Japan (Russian forces
                             surrender on 16 Jul 1905).
 5 Sep 1905                Karafuto (southern Sakhalin Island) annexed to Japan
                             (formally from 25 Nov 1905).
 1 Apr 1907                Karafuto Agency established to administer Karafuto. 
22 Apr 1920 - 15 May 1925  Northern Sakhalin Island occupied by Japan.
 1 Nov 1942                Karafuto Agency is transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs,
                             incorporated into the Japanese home islands.

11 Aug 1945                Soviet invasion begins.
25 Aug 1945                Soviet occupation.

 2 Feb 1946                Incorporation into U.S.S.R. (as Southern Sakhalin oblast
                             see [Russian SFSR Admin.]).
 8 Sep 1951                Japan formally renounced sovereignty over southern Sakhalin
                             by the Treaty of San Francisco.

Japanese Military governor 
24 Jun 1905 - 31 Mar 1907  Kensai Haraguchi                   (b. 1874 - d. 1919)  
Director of Department of Civil Affairs
28 Jul 1905 - 31 Mar 1907  Kiichiro Kumagai                   (b. 1866 - d. 1949)
 

Governors-general
(Directors of the Karafuto Agency) 

 
1 Apr 1907 - 24 Apr 1908 
Yukihiko Kusunose                  (b. 1858 - d. 1927) 
24 Apr 1908 - 12 Jun 1908  Takejiro Tokonami                  (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
12 Jun 1908 -  5 Jun 1914  Sadataro Hiraoka                   (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
 5 Jun 1914 -  9 Oct 1916  Bunji Okada                        (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
13 Oct 1916 - 17 Apr 1919  Akira Masaya (1st time)            (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
17 Apr 1919 - 11 Jun 1924  Kinjiro Nagai                      (b. 1874 - d. 1927)
11 Jun 1924 -  5 Aug 1926  Akira Masaya (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1926 - 27 Jul 1927  Katsuzo Toyoda                     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)
27 Jul 1927 -  9 Jul 1929  Koji Kita                          (b. 1878 - d. 1934)
 9 Jul 1929 - 17 Dec 1931  Shinobu Agata                      (b. 1881 - d. 1942)
17 Dec 1931 -  5 Jul 1932  Masao Kishimoto                    (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
 5 Jul 1932 -  7 May 1938  Takeshi Imamura                    (b. 1880 - d. 1960)
 7 May 1938 -  9 Apr 1940  Munei Toshikazu                    (b. 1893 - d. 19..)  
 9 Apr 1940 -  1 Jul 1943  Masayoshi Ogawa                    (b. 1894 - d. 1977)          
 1 Jul 1943 - 25 Aug 1945  Toshio Otsu                        (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
                             (Soviet prisoner 20 Dec 1945 - 1950)
Soviet Military governors

25 Aug 1945 - 1945         I. Alimov
Sep 1945 - 1946            Maksim Alekseyevich Purkayev       (b. 1894 - d. 1953)

Head of Civil Administration of Southern Sakhalin
23 Sep 1945 -  2 Feb 1946  Dmitriy Nikolayevich Kryukov       (b. 1899 - d. 1985)



Tannu Tuva
 
[Flag of Tuva,
                          1918-c.1921]
                    1918 - c.1921 
   
[Flag of Tuva ,
                          c.1921-c.1926]
                           c.1921 - c.1926 
   
[Flag of Tuva ,
                          1926-1930]
                    24 Nov 1926 - 28 Jun 1930
   
[Flag of Tuva,
                          1930 (missing Latinized Tuvan script instead
                          of Uighur alphabet of 1926]
                    28 Jun 1930 - 18 Oct 1930
 
[Flag of
                          Tuva, 1930-1935]
                    18 Oct 1930 - 2 Jul 1935
 
[Flag of Tuva, 1935-1941]
               2 Jul 1935 - 25 Jun 1941 
 
[Flag of Tuva,
                          1941-1943]
                     25 Jun 1941 - 8 Sep 1943

[Flag of Tuva, 1943-1944]
                     8 Sep 1943 - 11 Oct 1944

Map of Tannu Tuva
Hear National Anthem
"Tyva Internacional"
(
Tuvan Internationale)
Text of National Anthem
(to 1944)
Constitutions
(1921, 25 Jun 1941)
Capital: Kyzyl
(Khem-Beldyr 1918-1926;
Belotsarsk 1914-1918)
Currency: 1921-1944 Aksha
(TVAA); Russian/Soviet
Ruble (RUFS) 1914-1944
(1 Aksha = 1.35 Soviet Rubles
 1936; 1 Aksha = 1.31 Soviet
 Rubles 1944)

National Holiday: 14 Aug (1921)
Independence Day
Population: 95,400 (1944)
56,356 (1917)
GNP: 25.8 million TVAA (1943)
Exports: N/A
Imports: 810,000 TVAA (1941)
Ethnic groups: Tuvan 85%, Russian 14.4%,
other 0.6%% (1944)
Total Armed Forces: 1,500 (1932)
Merchant marine: None
Religions: Traditional beliefs (Shamanist),
Buddhist,
Orthodox Christian, Orthodox Old Believers
International Organizations/Treaties 1921-1944:  None?

1207                       Mongol rule.
1400's                     Khanate of Tuva
end 16th-early 17th cent.  Most of the Tuvinian tribes under the dominion of Sholoy
                             Ubashi-huntaiji, the first Altyn-Khan ("the Golden Khan").
Oct 1616 - 1688            Russian protectorate.
1688                       Under the Dörben Oryiad (Dzungarian Kalmyks).
27 Oct 1727                Chinese sovereignty recognized by Russia under Treaty of Bura.
Mar 1756                   Annexed to China (as Tang-nu Wulianghai). 
Jan 1912                   A meeting of clan chiefs declares the territory of several
                             districts "independent" and "under Russian protectorate", but
                             this does not lead to emergence of a polity or a Tuvan central
                             authority.
15 Feb 1912                Paramount chief formally requests Russian protection, which
                             is declined.
Mar 1913                   Declared to be part of Mongolia by Mongolian government.
17 Apr 1914                Russian protectorate over modern Tuva declared (Uryankhay kray
                          
   [Uriankhai territory]).
13 Jun 1917                Congress of Russian colonists approves annexation to Russia.
Aug 1917                   Russian provisional government confirms protectorate.
18 Jun 1918                Declaration of self-determination under Soviet protection adopted.
 7 Jul 1918 - 18 Jul 1919  Occupation of central and northern
Uryankhay by "White" Russian
                             forces under
Kolchak
Mar 1919 - Jul 1920        Mongolian troops under Khatan Bator Maksarzhab (b. 1877 - d. 1927)
                            
occupy southern Uryankhay
.
Jul 1919 - Mar 1920        Chinese troops occupy southwestern Uryankhay at Chadan.
 2 Aug 1919 -  4 Sep 1919  Occupation of central and northern Uryankhai by Soviet Partisants.
Dec 1920                   Soviet Red Army re-takes Belotsarsk, and by Mar 1921 the entire
                             territory.
18 May - 23 May 1921       Failed "White" invasion from Mongolia by Ataman of Yenisei Cossacks
                             in Mongolia, I.G. Kazantsev, backed by Baron Ungern-Sternberg.
14 Aug 1921                Independence declared (People's Republic of Tannu Tuva)

                             under Soviet protectorate
Aug 1926                   Independence recognized by Mongolia in the Mongol-Tuvan
                             Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Recognition.
24 Nov 1926                Tuvinian People's Republic
1929                       Darkhat region is ceded to Mongolia.
11 Oct 1944                Incorporated into the U.S.S.R. (confirmed 1 Nov 1944).

10 Oct 1961                Tuvinian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within R.S.F.S.R.
                             (see R.S.F.S.R. admin.)

General Secretaries of the Tuva People's Revolutionary Party 
1921 - Feb/Mar 1922        Mongush Nimachap (Namachyan)       (b. 1879 - d. 1932)
                             (acting) 

Feb/Mar 1922 - 9 Jul 1923  Maadi Lobsan-Osur                  (b. 1876 - d. 1934?)
                             (chairman of Central Committee)
 9 Jul 1923 - 15 Mar 1924 
Oyun Kursedy (president)
First Secretaries of the Tuva People's Revolutionary Party 
Apr 1924 - Jan 1926        Shagdyr (general secretary)
Jan 1926 - Feb 1927        Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy              (b. 1892 - d. 1932) 
Feb 1927 - Jan 1929        Sodnam Oorzhak                     (b. 1901 - d. ....)
Jan 1929 - Mar 1932        Irgit Shagdyrzhap                  (d. 1932)
 6 Mar 1932 - 11 Oct 1944  Salchak Toka                       (b. 1901 - d. 1973)
                             (Salchak Kolbakkhorekovich Toka)


Paramount chiefs (title Ambyn-noyon)
(from 1729, subordinated to the Chinese military governors at Uliasutai [Uliastai])
1686 - 1696                Gendun Dayishin Altan Khan
1696 - 1703                Sanchin Senge Altan Khan
1717 - 1720                Qurulmei
c.1720                     Erinchin
c.1722                     Lobsang Shirap
c.1754                     Chilun
1754 - 1757                Tsengumchab
1757 - 17..                .... (3 names not known)
17.. - 1789                Dazhi
1789 - 1794                Danzin
1794 - 1807                Sedenbal
1807 - 1826                Badizhap
1826 - 1861                Lamazhap
1861 - 1862                Shindazin
1862 - 1868                Olzey-Ochur
1868 - 1912                Kombu-Dorzhu (Gombodorchzhy)
1912 - 1913                Agbaan-Demchy
1914 - 1921                Sodnam Balchir                     (d. 1924) 
Russian Civil Commissioners for the Affairs of Uryankhay Territory
Apr 1914 - 1915            Boris Tsererin
1915 - 24 Mar 1917         V.Y. Grigoriyev
Chairman of the Soviet
24 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     A.P. Yermolayev                                       SRP
Commissar of the Provisional Government 

Nov 1917 - 16 Mar 1918     Aleksey Aleksandrovich Turchaninov (b. 1876 - d. 1919)
                             (1st time)

Chairmen of the Executive of
Committee of the Soviet of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies 
16 Mar 1918 -  2 May 1918  Stepan Konstantinovich Bespalov    (b. 1895 - d. 1918)  RSDLP-B
 7 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  M.M. Terentyev                     (b. 18.. - d. 1918)  RSDLP-B
Commissar of the Provisional Government
 7 Jul 1918
-  2 Aug 1919  Aleksey Aleksandrovich Turchaninov (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Commander of the (Soviet) Siberian Partisans
 
2 Aug 1919 -  4 Sep 1919  Pyotr Yefimovich Shchetinkin       (b. 1884 - d. 1927)  Mil
Chinese Military governor (at Chandan)
Jan 1919 - Mar 1921        Yan Shichao (Yen Shih-ch'ao)
Soviet Representative (at Belotsarsk)
Aug 1920 - 1921            Innokentiy G. Safyanov             (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
Chairman of the Constituent Khural

14 Aug 1921 - 15 Aug 1921  Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy              (s.a.)               TNRP 
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Little Hural
18 Sep 1924 -  4 Feb 1929  Mongush Nimazhap (Nimachyan)       (b. 1879 - d. 1932)  TNRP  
 5 Feb 1929 -  5 Nov 1936  Adyg-Tulush Chuldum                (b. 1900 - d. 1933)  TNRP
                             (Lopsanovich)
 6 Nov 1936 - Feb 1938     Adyg-Tulush Khemchik-ool           (b. 1893 - d. 1938)  TNRP
 2 Mar 1938 -  4 Apr 1940  Oyun Polat                         (b. 1906 - d. 1992)  TNRP 
 6 Apr 1940 - 11 Oct 1944  Khertek Anchimaa-Toka (f)          (b. 1912 - d. 2008)  TNRP  


Chairman of the Central Council
15 Aug 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Sodnam Balchir                     (s.a.)               TNRP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 1 Mar 1922 - 15 Aug 1922  Maadi Lopsan-Osur                  (s.a.)               TNRP
15 Aug 1922 - 19 Sep 1923  Idam-Syurun (Sürun)                                     TNRP
20 Sep 1923 - 18 Sep 1924  Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy              (s.a.)               TNRP
18 Sep 1924 - 1925         Soyan Oruygu                       (b. 1876 - d. 19..)  TNRP
1925 - Jan 1929            Kuular Donduk                      (b. 1888 - d. 1932)  TNRP
Jan 1929 -  6 Nov 1936     Adyg-Tulush Khemchik-ool           (s.a.)               TNRP 
 6 Nov 1936 - Feb 1938     Sat Churmit-Dazhi                  (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  TNRP
1938 - 1940                Bayr Ondar                         (b. 1904 - d. 1986)  TNRP
                             (Chimit-Dorzhu Bayyrovich Ondar)              
 6 Apr 1940 - 11 Oct 1944  Saryg-Dongak Chymba                (b. 1906 - d. 1985)  TNRP 
                             (Aleksander Mangeyevich Chimba) 

Party abbreviation: TNRP = Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisyal-tu nam/Tuvinskaya Narodno-Revolyutsionnaya Partiya (Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, communist, anti-feudal, from Apr 1941 Marxist-Leninist, from 1922 only legal party, 1921-11 Oct 1944)



Chechnya  (Chechen Republic of Ichkeria)
 
[Flag of
                      Chechenya 1990-91]
           23 Nov 1990 - 2 Nov 1991
[Flag of
                      Chechen Ichkeria 1991-2007]
             2 Nov 1991 - 11 Oct 2007
[vilayat of Nokhchicho of
                      Caucasian Emirate flag, 2007 (Chechnya)]    
   From 11 Oct 2007 Nokhchicho
Vilayat
[Caucasian Emirate flag from 2007
                      (Chechnya)]
       Adopted 11 Oct 2007 Caucasian Emirate



Map of Chechnya Hear National Anthem
 "Şatlaqan Illi" (Shatlak’s Song)
 (a.k.a. Anthem of the Chechen Republic) Adopted 2004

Former National Anthem
 "Jozalla ya marşo"
 (Death or Freedom)

12 Mar 1992 - 2004
Constitutions
(27 Mar 2003 and
12 Mar 1992-23 Mar 2003)
Capital: Grozny
(Dzokhar-Ghala 1996-2000;
Suyuchkala 1917;

Vedeno 1834-1859,
and 1917-1920)
Currency: Russian
Ruble (RUR); Chechen
Nakhar 1994 (not issued)
National Holiday: 31 Dec (1996)
Day of Liberation of the
Motherland
Population: 1,325,000 (2013)
1,103,686 (2002)
GDP: N/A
Exports: N/A
Imports: N/A
Ethnic groups: Chechen, Ingush, Nogy, Russian
Total Armed Forces: 2,000 (2002)
Russian Forces: 10-100,000 (2002)
Merchant marine: None
Religions: Sunni Muslim, Orthodox Christian
International Organizations/Treaties Chechen-Ichkeria: UNPO (1991-2010)

12 Oct 1813                Sovereignty ceded by Iran to Russia by Treaty of Gulistan.
1818                       Groznaya fortress (from Dec 1869 renamed Grozny) established
                             by Russian.

1834                       Imamate of Ichkeria (capital at Vedeno).
1859                       Annexed to Russia.
 2 Dec 1917                Independence declared (Emirate of Chechenia).
11 May 1918 -  7 Mar 1920  Part of Republic of North Caucasus Federation
                             (from Sep 1919, North Caucasian Emirate).
 4 Feb 1919 -  7 Mar 1920  Grozny occupied by "White" Russian army under Denikin.
 7 Mar 1920                Part of Russian S.F.S.R.
1921                       Part of Mountain People's Republic.
30 Nov 1922                Chechen autonomous oblast within R.S.F.S.R.
                             (not including Grozny)(see R.S.F.S.R. admin.).
1929                       Grozny added to the Chechen A.O.
15 Jan 1934                Checheno-Ingush Autonomous Region.
 5 Dec 1936                Checheno-Ingush A.S.S.R.
1940 - 1944                Chechen nationalist Khasan Israilov forms an anti-Soviet 
                             Caucasus Provisional Revolutionary People's Government
                             in rebellion.
 7 Mar 1944                Abolished (Grozny oblast).
 5 Jan 1957                Checheno-Ingush A.S.S.R. re-established.
27 Nov 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
15 Sep 1991                Ingushetia approves declaration on formation of 
                             Ingush Republic within the R.S.F.S.R.
 1 Nov 1991                Independence declared (Republic of Chechnya)
                             (not recognized).
 1 Dec 1991                Referendum approves creation of an Ingush Republic 
                             within Russia.
10 Dec 1992                Checheno-Ingush A.S.S.R. formally abolished by Russia.
16 Jan 1994                Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
19 Jan 1995 -  6 Aug 1996  Capital Grozny occupied by Russian forces.
12 May 1997                Peace Treaty signed with Russia; Russians withdraw.
30 Sep 1999                Russia begins re-occupation.
 6 Feb 2000                Grozny again captured by Russian forces.
11 Oct 2007                Caucasian Emirate proclaimed; declared to encompass Chechnya,
                             Ingushetia, Dagestan, Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkariya, Karachayevo
                             -Cherkisiya (Chechen Republic of Ichkeria abolished and converted
                             into the vilayat of Nokhchicho [Ichkeria] within the Emirate).

Rulers
1822 - 1828                Kadir Abdul
                           + Beibulat Tamazov (from 1825)
1828 - 1832                Ghazi Muhammed (Gazimulla)         (b. 1795 - d. 1832)
1832 - 19 Sep 1834         Hamzah Bek (Gamzat Bek)            (b. 1789 - d. 1834)
1834 - 1838                Hadzhi Tasho
1838 - 1840                Bulat Mirza
Imams
1834 - 1859                Shamil bin Muhammed                (b. 1797 - d. 1871)
1859 - 1861                Boiskhar Beno                      (b. 1794 - d. 1861)
Emir
 2 Dec 1917 - Mar 1920     Uzur Haji Khair Khan               (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Mar 1990 - 15 Sep 1991     Doku Gapurovich Zavgayev           (b. 1940)
Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council 
15 Sep 1991 - 17 Sep 1991  Lecha Dobachevich Magomadov        (b. 1938 - d. 2005)
Chairman of the Provisional Council of Chechen Republic
17 Sep 1991 -  5 Oct 1991  Huseyn Saydaliyevich Akhmadov      (b. 1950)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the All-National Congress of the Chechen People
 5 Oct 1991 -  7 Oct 1991  Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev        (b. 1944 - d. 1996)  NCChP
                             (1st time)
Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council of the Chechen-Ingush Republic 
 7 Oct 1991 -  2 Nov 1991  Baudin Bakhmadov
                             (in opposition from 8 Oct 1991)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the All-National Congress of the Chechen People
 8 Oct 1991 -  9 Nov 1991  Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev        (s.a.)               NCChP
                             (2nd time)
Presidents
 9 Nov 1991 - 21 Apr 1996  Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev        (s.a.)               NCChP
21 Apr 1996 - 12 Feb 1997  Zelimkhan Abdulmuslimovich         (b. 1952 - d. 2004)  VDP
                             Yandarbiyev 
12 Feb 1997 -  8 Mar 2005  Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov          (b. 1951 - d. 2005)  VDP
                             (abandoned Grozny 1 Feb 2000)
 9 Mar 2005 - 17 Jun 2006  Abdul-Khalim Abu-Salamovich        (b. 1967 - d. 2006)  Non-party
                             Sadulayev
17 Jun 2006 - 11 Oct 2007  Doku Khamatovich Umarov            (b. 1964 - d. 2013)  Non-party
Emirs
11 Oct 2007 -  7 Sep 2013  Abu Usman (= Doku Umarov)          (s.a.)
23 Nov 2007 -              Akhmed Khalidovich Zakayev         (b. 1959)
                             (chairman of the cabinet of Chechen
                             Republic of Ichkeria, in opposition)
 
1 Aug 2010 - 13 Aug 2010  Aslambek Vadalov (in dissidence)   (b. 1972)
                             (= Aslambek Ilimsultanovich Vadalov)
18 Mar 2014 - 19 Apr 2015  Ali Abu Mukhammad                  (b. 1972 - d. 2015)
                             (
= Aliaskhab Alibulatovich Kebekov)
May 2015 - 11 Aug 2015    
Mukhammad Abu Usman Gimrinskiy     (b. 1976 - d. 2015)
                             (=
Magomed Aliyevich Suleymanov)


Prime ministers (chairmen of the cabinet of ministers)
Sep 1991 - 22 Nov 1991     Sergey Mazhitovich Bekov           (b. 1939)
Nov 1991 - 16 Jan 1992     Yaragi Mamodayev                   (b. 1953) 
                             (chairman of Committee on Operative 
                             Management of the National Economy of
                             the Chechen Republic)
16 Jan 1992 - 17 Apr 1993  Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev        (s.a.)               NCChP
17 Apr 1993 - 16 Oct 1996  Post abolished
16 Oct 1996 -  1 Jan 1997  Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov          (s.a.)               VDP
                            
(1st time)
 1 Jan 1998 -  3 Jul 1998  Shamil Salmanovich Basayev         (b. 1965 - d. 2006)  Mil
                             (acting)
 3 Jul 1998 -  8 Mar 2005  Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov          (s.a.)               VDP
                             (2nd time)
23 Aug 2005 - 17 Jun 2006  Abdul-Khalim Abu-Salamovich        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Sadulayev
17 Jun 2006 - 11 Oct 2007  Doku Khamatovich Umarov            (s.a.)               Non-party


Pro-Moscow Leaders: Republic of Chechnya
 
[Flag of
                            Chechenia Government of National Revival,
                            1995-1996]
              3 Jan 1995 - 23 Oct 1996
[Flag of
                            Chechen Republic 2000-2004]
           29 Jun 2000 - 25 May 2004
[Flag of Chechen
                            Republic 2004]
                Adopted 25 May 2004

Chairman of the Chechen Republic Provisional Council
 2 Aug 1994 -  3 Jan 1995  Umar Dzhunitovich Avturkhanov      (b. 1946)            MP
Chairman of the Government of National Revival
 3 Jan 1995 - 23 Oct 1995  Salambek Khadzhiyev                (b. 1941)
Head of State
24 Oct 1995 -  9 Dec 1996  Doku Gapurovich Zavgayev           (b. 1940)
Representative of the Federal Government in Chechnya
15 Oct 1999 - 28 Jun 2000  Nikolay Pavlovich Koshman          (b. 1944)
Head of the Administration
20 Jun 2000 - 27 Mar 2003  Akhmat Abdulhamidovich Kadyrov     (b. 1951 - d. 2004)  Ind
Presidents
27 Mar 2003 -  9 May 2004  Akhmat Abdulhamidovich Kadyrov     (s.a.)               Ind
                             (acting to 19 Oct 2003)
 5 Aug 2003 - 18 Oct 2003  Anatoliy Aleksandrovich Popov      (b. 1960)
                             (acting for Kadyrov)
 9 May 2004 -  5 Oct 2004  Sergey Borisovich Abramov (acting) (b. 1972)            Ind
 5 Oct 2004 - 15 Feb 2007  Alu Dadashevich Alkhanov           (b. 1957)            Ind
15 Feb 2007 -  2 Sep 2010  Ramzan Akhmatovich Kadyrov         (b. 1976)            URP
                             (acting to 5 Apr 2007)
Head of the Republic
 2 Sep 2010 -              Ramzan Akhmatovich Kadyrov         (s.a.)               URP

Prime ministers
13 Apr 1996 - 17 Nov 1996  Nikolay Pavlovich Koshman          (s.a.)
19 Jan 2001 - 15 Nov 2002  Stanislav Valentinovich Ilyasov    (b. 1953)
15 Nov 2002 - 10 Feb 2003  Mikhail Viktorovich Babich         (b. 1969)
10 Feb 2003 - 17 Mar 2004  Anatoliy Aleksandrovich Popov      (s.a.)
 3 Dec 2003 - 17 Mar 2004  Eli Abubakarovich Isayev           (b. 1964)
                             (acting for Popov) 
17 Mar 2004 -  2 Mar 2006  Sergey Borisovich Abramov          (s.a.)               Ind
                             (acting 5-15 Oct 2004)
17 Nov 2005 - 10 Apr 2007  Ramzan Akhmatovich Kadyrov         (s.a.)               URP
                             (acting to 4 Mar 2006 [for Abramov to 2 Mar 2006])
10 Apr 2007 - 21 May 2012  Odes Khasayevich Baisultanov       (b. 1965)
17 May 2012 - 21 May 2012  Magomed Khozhakhmedovich Daudov    (b. 1980)
                             (acting for Baisultanov)
21 May 2012 - 24 May 2012  Isa Abubakarovich Tumkhadzhiyev    (b. 1981)
                             (acting)
24 May 2012 -              Abubakar Sayd-Khusainovich         (b. 1974)
                             Edelgeriyev              

Party abbreviations: Ind = Independent; MP = Marsho Party (anti-Dzhokhar Dudayev); NCChP = All-National Congress of the Chechen People (pro-Chechen sovereignty, pro-Dzhokhar Dudayev, 1991-1996); VDP = Vainakh Democratic Party (pro-Chechen independence, est.1990)








 © Ben Cahoon