World Statesmen.org HOME >

 

 


 



 

Georgia
 
[Kingdom of Georgia Flag]
           19 Jan 1762 - 14 Apr 1802 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
           24 Apr 1802 - 26 May 1918 
 
[Flag
                                    of Georgia 1918]
              26 May 1918 - 10 Sep 1918
   
[flag
                                    of Georgia 1918 - 1921]
                    10 Sep 1918 - 22 Feb 1921 
 
[Flag
                                    of Georgia Feb. 1921]
                    22 Feb 1921 - 25 Feb 1921
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
[Flag
                                    of Georgia 1990-2004]
              14 Nov 1990 - 14 Jan 2004

[Flag of
                                    Georgia]
                Adopted 14 Jan 2004


Map of Georgia
Hear National Anthem
"Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
Adopted 23 Apr 2004
Hear Former Anthem
"Dideba" (Praise)
(1918-1920, 1991- 2004)
Constitution
(17 Oct 1995)
Capital: T'bilisi 
Currency: Lari (GEL)
National Holiday: 26 May (1918)
Independence Day
Population: 4,942,157 (2013)
2,500,000 (1921)
GDP: $27.3 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.61 billion (2013)
Imports: $7.06 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%,
Russian 1.5%, other 2.5% (2002) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 37,461 (2010)
Merchant marine: 142 ships (20010)
Religions: Orthodox Christian 83.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%,
Catholic 0.8%, Muslim 9.9%, other 0.8%, none 0.7% (2002) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APM, BSEC, BTWC, CE, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (applicant), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NPT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PAM (observer), PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Georgia Index
Chronology
1491                       Kingdom of Georgia divided into three Kingdoms 
                             (Imertia, K`art`li, and Kakhet`i).
1505                       Under Persian suzerainty.
1516                       Under Ottoman suzerainty.
1620 - 1683                Under Ottoman suzerainty.
1727 - 1735                Annexed by Ottoman Empire.
1736 - 1744                Annexed by Persia.
19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal 
                             union, often officially styled Kingdom of 
                             Georgia.
28 Feb 1801                Kingdom annexed by the Russian Empire.
24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar"
                             added to imperial style from 1882.
27 Dec 1844                Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus 
                             (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
22 Nov 1881                Part of the Government-general of the Caucasus
26 Feb 1905                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (restored).
20 Sep 1917                Transcaucasian Federation created (Armenia,
                             Azerbaijan, and Georgia).
22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Part of Democratic Federative Republic
                             of Transcaucasia.
 4 Jun 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Brief German protectorate.
18 Sep 1918 - 12 Apr 1919  Sochi district annexed by Georgia (occupied 
                             from 6 Jul 1918).
26 May 1918                Democratic Republic of Georgia (in dissidence to
                             16 Mar 1921).
 7 May 1920                Independence recognized by Soviet Russia.
25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia.
13 Oct 1921                Georgia cedes Ardahan and Artuin to Turkey; Lorri 
                             to Armenian S.S.R., Zaqatala to Azerbaijani
                             S.S.R.
12 Mar 1922                Part of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet
                             Republics of Transcaucasia.
13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative 
                             Soviet Republic (see below).
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
                             (see Russia).
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian Soviet Socialist
                            Republic becomes a full union republic.
18 Nov 1989                State sovereignty declared.
14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia
 9 Apr 1991                Independence declared.
28 Nov 1991                South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia
                            (not recognized; only from 26 Aug 2008 by Russia).
25 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).
23 Jul 1992                Abkhazia declares its independence from Georgia 
                            (not recognized; only from 26 Aug 2008 by Russia).
26 Nov 1995                Georgia
8/9 Aug 2008               Russian intervention in South Ossetia and Abkhazia
                             and Georgia proper at Gori, Poti and Zugdidi;
                             Russian forces leave Georgia proper 8 Oct 2008,
                             but remain in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Georgia
(1918-1922,
from 1993)
Kingdom of
Georgia
  • K`art`li
  • Kakhet`i
  • K`art`li-Kakhet`i
  • Imeret`i
  • Georgian S.S.R.
    (1921-1991)
    Transcaucasia and
    Transcaucasian
    S.S.R.
    (1802-1936)
    Abkhazia
    Adjaria
    South Ossetia
    Georgian Principalities
  • Guria
  • Mingrelia
  •       (Samegrelo)
  • Svania
  •        (Svanet`i)
    Georgian Orthodox
    Church
    Map of Georgia
    in May 1921
     

    K`art`li

    [Kingdom of K`art`li Flag]

    1491                       Kingdom of K`art`li, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                                 established.
    1516 - 1620                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
    1620 - 1688                Vassal of Persia.
    1683 - 1801                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
    1727 - 1735                Annexed by Ottoman Empire.
    1736 - 1744                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
    19 Jan 1762                Personal union with Kakhet`i re-established.

    Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
    1695 - 1703                Nikoloz Irakli I                  (b. 1643 - d. 1710)
                                 (Nazar `Ali Khan) (2nd time)
    1703 -  2 May 1709         Giorgi XI (Gurjin Khan            (b. af.1648 - d. 1709)
                                 and Shah Nawaz III) (3rd time)
     2 May 1709 - Jul 1709     Levanti (Shah Qoli Khan)          (b. c.1659 - d. 1709)
    Jul 1709 -  8 Oct 1711     K`aikhosro (Khosraw Khan)         (b. 1674 - d. 1711)
     8 Oct 1711 - Oct 1714     Vakhtang VI (Hoseyn Qoli Khan)    (b. 1675 - d. 1737)
                                 (1st time)
    Oct 1714 - Jun 1716        Iese (`Ali Qoli Khan) (1st time)  (b. 16.. - d. 1727)
    1716 - 1717                Vakhtang VI (Hoseyn Qoli Khan)    (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1717 - Aug 1719            Bak`ar III (Shah Nawaz IV)        (b. 1700? - d. 1750)
                                 (1st time)
    Aug 1719 - May 1723        Vakhtang VI (Hoseyn Qoli Khan)    (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
    May 1723 - Jun 1723        Konstantine III (Mahmud Qoli Khan)
    Jun 1723 - Jul 1724        Bak`ar III (Ebrahim Pasha)        (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    1724 - 1727                Iese (Mostafa Pasha) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
    1727 - 1735                Vacant
    1735 - 1736                Alek`sandre II (`Ali Mirza)
    1736 - 1744                Vacant
    Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     T`eimuraz II                      (b. 1680 - d. 1762)


    Kakhet`i

    [Kingdom of Kakhet`i Flag]

    1491                       Kingdom of Kakhet`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia, established.
    1516 - 1620                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
    1620 - 1676                Vassal of Persia.
    1676 - 1703                Annexed by Persia (Iran).
    1703 - 1801                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.

    Kings (alternative names are the official Ottoman and/or Persian names)
    May 1703 - May 1721        Davit` II (Emam Qoli Khan)         (b. 1678 - d. 1721)
    May 1721 -  4 Dec 1732     Konstantine II (Mahmud Qoli Khan   (d. 1732)
                                 [from 1724] Mahmud Pasha)
     4 Dec 1732 - 1736         T`eimuraz II (1st time)            (b. 1680 - d. 1762)
    1736 - 1738                Alek`sandre III                    (d. 1739)
    1738 - 1744                T`eimuraz II (2nd time)            (s.a.)
    Jul 1744 - 19 Jan 1762     Irakli II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)


    K`art`li and Kakhet`i  (styled Kingdom of Georgia)

    [Kingdom of Georgia Flag]

    19 Jan 1762                Kingdoms of K`art`li and Kakhet`i in personal union,
                                 often officially styled Kingdom of Georgia.
     6 Feb 1784                Vassal of Russian Empire.
    28 Feb 1801                Annexed by Russia.

    24 Apr 1802                Incorporation into Russian Empire; "Georgian Tsar" added
                                 to imperial style on 15 Nov 1882.

    Kings
    19 Jan 1762 - 22 Jan 1798  Irakli II                          (b. 1721 - d. 1798)
    22 Jan 1798 -  9 Jan 1801  Giorgi XII (Giorgi XIII)           (b. 1746 - d. 1801)
     9 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Provisional Government
                               - Ivan Petrovich Lazarev           (b. 1763 - d. 1803)
                                 (chairman from 3 Jun 1801)
                               - Prince Ioane Batonishvili        (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
                               - Ignati T`umanishvili
    20 Jan 1801 - 24 Apr 1802  Crown Prince Davit` Batonishvili   (b. 1767 - d. 1819)
                                 (semi-officially recognized as regent)


    Imeret`i

    [Imereti Kingdom,
                XVth-XVIIIth centuries]

    1491                       Kingdom of Imeret`i, part of the Kingdom of Georgia,
                                 established.
    1716 - 1720                Ottoman occupation.
    21 Apr 1804                Russian protectorate.
    23 May 1810                Incorporation into Russian Empire.

    Kings
    1701 - 1702                Mamia (1st time)                   (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
    1702 - 1703                Giorgi V (1st time)                (b. 16.. - d. 1722)
    1703                       Giorgi VI (1st time)               (b. 1691 - d. 1720)
    1703 - 1707                Giorgi V (2nd time)                (s.a.)
    1707 - Oct 1711            Giorgi VI (2nd time)               (s.a.)
    Oct 1711 - Jun 1712        Mamia (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
    Jun 1712 - Nov 1713        Giorgi VI (3rd time)               (s.a.)
    Nov 1713 - May 1714        Mamia (3rd time)                   (s.a.)
    May 1714 - Mar 1720        Giorgi VI (4th time)               (s.a.)
    Mar 1720 - Jun 1720        Giorgi IV                          (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
    Jun 1720 - 1741            Alek`sandre V (1st time)           (d. 1752)
    1741 - 1742                Giorgi VII                         (b. 1721 - d. af.1772)
    1742 - 1747                Alek`sandre V (2nd time)           (s.a.)
    1747 - 1749                Mamuka
    1749 - Mar 1752            Alek`sandre V (3rd time)           (s.a.)
    Mar 1752 - 1766            Solomon I "Didi" (1st time)        (b. 1735 - d. 1784)
    1766 - 1768                T`eimuraz
    1768 -  4 May 1784         Solomon I "Didi" (2nd time)        (s.a.)
     4 May 1784 - 1789         Davit`                             (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
                                 (continuing in rebellion to 1792)
    1789 - 23 May 1810         Solomon II                         (b. 1773 - d. 1815)


    Georgia

    26 May 1918                Democratic Republic of Georgia (in dissidence to 16 Mar 1921).
    25 Feb 1921                Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia
    12 Mar 1922                Part of the Federative Union of Socialist Soviet
                                 Republics of Transcaucasia (see below).
    13 Dec 1922                Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                                 Republic (see below).
     5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
                                 becomes a full union republic (see below).
    14 Nov 1990                Republic of Georgia
     9 Apr 1991                Independence declared.
    25 Dec 1991                Final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).
    26 Nov 1995                Georgia

    Chairmen of the National Council
    26 May 1918 - 24 Jun 1918? Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (b. 1868 - d. 1953)  SDLP-G
    24 Jun 1918? -  4 Oct 1918 Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926)  SDLP-G
    Chairman of the Parliament
     
    4 Oct 1918 - 12 Mar 1919 Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
    Chairmen of the Constituent Assembly
    12 Mar 1919 - 1920         Aleksandre Spiridonis dze                               SDLP-G
                                 Lomtatidze (acting)
    1920 - 25 Feb 1921         Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                                 (in dissidence to 16 Mar 1921)
    Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee

    25 Feb 1921 –  6 Mar 1921  Mamia Dimitris dze Orakhelashvili  (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  SKP
                                 (acting)
     6 Mar 1921 -  7 Jul 1921  Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze        (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  SKP
     7 Jul 1921 -  7 Mar 1922  Polikarpe Gurgenis dze Mdivani     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  SKP
    Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
     7 Mar 1922 - 22 Jan 1923  Pilipe Ieses dze Makharadze        (s.a.)               SKP
    Chairman of the Supreme Council
    14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantines dze             (b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS
                                 Gamsakhurdia
    Presidents
    14 Apr 1991 -  2 Jan 1992¹ Zviad Konstantines dze             (s.a.)               MM-TS
                                 Gamsakhurdia
                                (in dissidence to 6 Jan 1993)
     2 Jan 1992 - 10 Mar 1992  Tengiz Kalistrates dze Kitovani    (b. 1939)            Mil
                               + Jaba Aleksandres dze Ioseliani   (b. 1926 - d. 2003)  Mil
                               (co-leaders of the Military Council)
    Chairman of the State Council
    10 Mar 1992 -  4 Nov 1992  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (b. 1928 - d. 2014)  Non-party
    Head of State
     4 Nov 1992 - 26 Nov 1995  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (Chairman of the Parliament to 6 Nov 1992)
    Presidents

    26 Nov 1995 - 23 Nov 2003  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               SMK
    23 Nov 2003 - 25 Jan 2004  Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (b. 1964)            BDA
                                 (1st time)(acting)
    25 Jan 2004 - 25 Nov 2007  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (b. 1967)            ENM
                                 (1st time)
    25 Nov 2007 - 20 Jan 2008  
    Nino Anzoris asuli Burjanadze (f)  (s.a.)               BDA
                                 (2nd time)(acting)
    20 Jan 2008 - 17 Nov 2013  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                                 (2nd time)
    17 Nov 2013 -              Giorgi Teimurazis dze              (b. 1969)            KODS
                                 Margvelashvili

    Prime ministers
    26 May 1918 - 24 Jun 1918  Noe Besarionis dze Ramishvili      (b. 1881 - d. 1930)
    24 Jun 1918 - 1921         Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (s.a.)               SDLP-G
    Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
    Feb 1922 - 1923            Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  SKP
    Prime ministers
    15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ipolitovich Sigua (1st time)(b. 1934)            Non-party 
    18 Aug 1991 - 23 Aug 1991  Murman Omanidze (acting)           (b. 1938)            Non-party
    23 Aug 1991 -  6 Jan 1992¹ Bessarion Paatovich Gugushvili     (b. 1945)            MM-TS
     6 Jan 1992 -  6 Aug 1993  Tengiz Ipolitovich Sigua (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
     6 Aug 1993 - 20 Aug 1993  Eduard Ambrosis dze Shevardnadze   (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (acting) 
    20 Aug 1993 -  5 Oct 1995  Otar Ambakovich Patsatsia          (b. 1929)            Non-party
    Ministers of state
     8 Dec 1995 -  7 Aug 1998  Nikoloz "Niko" Mikheilis dze       (b. 1947)            SMK
                                 Lekishvili
     7 Aug 1998 - 11 May 2000  Vazha Giorgis dze Lortkipanidze    (b. 1949)            SMK
    11 May 2000 - 21 Dec 2001  Giorgi Longinozovich Arsenishvili  (b. 1942)            SMK
    21 Dec 2001 - 27 Nov 2003  Avtandil Khristoforovich           (b. 1951)            SMK
                                 Jorbenadze
    27 Nov 2003 - 17 Feb 2004  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (b. 1963 - d. 2005)  BDA
    Prime ministers
    17 Feb 2004 -  3 Feb 2005  Zurab Besarionis dze Zhvania       (s.a.)               BDA
     3 Feb 2005 - 17 Feb 2005  Mikheil Nikolozis dze Saakashvili  (s.a.)               ENM
                                 (acting) 
    17 Feb 2005 - 22 Nov 2007  Zurab Teymurazovich Nogaideli      (b. 1964)            BDA
    22 Nov 2007 -  1 Nov 2008  Vladimer "Lado" Gurgenidze         (b. 1970)            Non-party
     1 Nov 2008 -  6 Feb 2009  Grigol Mgaloblishvili
                 (b. 1973)            Non-party
     6 Feb 2009 -
     4 Jul 2012  Nikoloz "Nika" Gilauri             (b. 1975)            Non-party
     4 Jul 2012 - 
    25 Oct 2012  Ivane "Vano" Merabishvili          (b. 1968)            ENM
    25 Oct 2012 - 20 Nov 2013  Bidzina Ivanishvili                (b. 1956)            KODS
    20 Nov 2013 -              Irakli Garibashvili                (b. 1982)            KODS


    National Government of Georgia (NGG) in exile

    [Flag of Georgia Feb.
                  1921]

    Heads of state
    18 Mar 1921 - 11 Jan 1953  Noe Nikolozis dze Zhordania        (s.a.)               SDLP-G
                                 (in Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)
    1953 - Jun 1954            Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori      (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  SDLP-G
                                 (in Leuville-sur-Orge, France exile)

     ¹The ousted administration of Gamsakhurdia and Gugushvili formed a counter-government at Zugdidi on 24 Sep 1993 that controlled part of western Georgia until 6 Nov 1993.

    Territorial Disputes: Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Georgia; boundary with Armenia remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas including the Georgian David Gareja monastery complex. 

    Party abbreviations: EDP = Erovnul Demokratiuli Partia (National Democratic Party, christian-democratic, est.1988); ENM = Ertiani Natsionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = Kartuli Otsneba–Demokratiuli Sakartvelo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, social liberal, nationalist, anti-communist, est.2012); Mil = Military;
    - Former parties: BDA = Burdzhanadze-Demokratiuli Aliansi (Burdzhanadze-Democratic Alliance, reform, social-democratic, 2003-2004); MM-TS = Round Table-Free Georgia, nationalist, Z. Gamsakhurdia personalist, 1991-1992); SDLP-G = Social Democratic Labour Party of Georgia (split from Russian Social Democratic Labour Party "Mensheviks", Marxist, center-leftist, 1918-1921); SKP = Sakartvelos Komunisturi Partia (Communist Party of Georgia, communist, 1922-1991); SMK = Sakartvelos Mokalaketa Kavshiri (Citizens Union of Georgia, centrist, pro-Shevardnadze, 1995-2003)



    Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
     
    Flag of Georgian SSR in 1921
                       25 Feb 1921 - 20 May 1921 
     
    Flag of Georgian SSR in 1921-1937
                       20 May 1921 - 13 Feb 1937
     
    Flag of Georgian SSR in 1937
                            13 Feb 1937 - 1941
     
    Flag of Georgian
                          SSR in 1941
                             1941 - 11 Apr 1951
     
    Flag of Georgian
                          SSR in 1951
                       11 Apr 1951 - 14 Nov 1990

    Capital: Tbilisi
    (Tiflis 1921-1936)
    Hear SSR Anthem
    "State Anthem of
    Georgian SSR"
    (1946-1991)
    Constitution
    (3 Apr 1978)
    Population: 5,015,000 (1980)

    13 Dec 1922 -  5 Dec 1936  Part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                                 Republic (see below).

    First secretaries of the Georgian Communist Party (SKP)
    Mar 1921 - Apr 1922        Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
    Apr 1922 - 22 Oct 1922     Mikhail Stepanovich Okudzhava      (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
    25 Oct 1922 - Aug 1924     Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)

    Aug 1924 -  6 May 1930     Mikhail Ivanovich Kakhiani         (b. 1897 - d. 1937)

     6 May 1930 - 19 Nov 1930  Levan Davydovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
    20 Nov 1930 - 11 Sep 1931  Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
    11 Sep 1931 - 14 Nov 1931  Lavrenty Iosipovich Kartvelishvili (b. 1891 - d. 1938)
    14 Nov 1931 -
    31 Aug 1938  Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria           (b. 1899 - d. 1953)
    31 Aug 1938 -  2 Apr 1952  Kandid Nestorovich Charkviani      (b. 1907 - d. 1994)
     2 Apr 1952 - 14 Apr 1953  Akaki Ivanovich Mgeladze           (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
    14 Apr 1953 - 19 Sep 1953  Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirtskhulava (b. 1911 - d. 1992)
    20 Sep 1953 - 29 Sep 1972  Vasily Pavlovich Mzhavanadze       (b. 1902 - d. 1988)
    29 Sep 1972 -  6 Jul 1985  Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze  (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
     6 Jul 1985 - 14 Apr 1989  Dzhumber Ilich Patiashvili         (b. 1939)
    14 Apr 1989 -  7 Dec 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (b. 1945)
     7 Dec 1990 - 19 Feb 1991  Avtandil Antonovich Margiani       (b. 1945)
    20 Feb 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  Dzhemal ("Jimi") Pridonovich       (b. 1936)
                                 Mikeladze        

    Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
    25 Feb 1921 –  6 Mar 1921  Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (acting)
     6 Mar 1921 -  7 Jul 1921  
    Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  SKP
     7 Jul 1921 - 28 Feb 1922  Polikarpe Gurgenovich "Budu"       (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  SKP
                                 Mdivani 
    Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
    28 Feb 1922 - Oct 1922     Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (1st time)
    Oct 1922 - Jan 1923        Ivan Fyodorovich Sturua            (b. 1870 - d. 1931)  SKP
    22 Jan 1923 - Jun 1925     Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1959)  SKP
                                 (1st time)
    Jun 1925 - 14 Jun 1927     Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (2nd time)
    14 Jun 1927 - Apr 1928     Lavrenty Iosipovich Kartvelishvili (s.a.)               SKP
    Apr 1928 - Jun 1929        Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (3rd time) 
    Jun 1929 - Dec 1930        Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (2nd time)
    Jan 1931 - Jul 1938        Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (4th time)
    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
    10 Jul 1938 - 10 Dec 1941  Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
    14 Dec 1941 - 26 Mar 1948  Georgy Fyodorovich Sturua          (b. 1884 - d. 1956)  SKP
    26 Mar 1948 -  6 Apr 1952  Vasily Barnabovich Gogua           (b. 1908 - d. ....)  SKP
     6 Apr 1952 - 15 Apr 1953  Zakhary Nikolayevich               (b. 1903 - d. ....)  SKP
                                 Chkhubianishvili 
    15 Apr 1953 - 29 Oct 1953  Vladimir Gedevanovich              (b. 1905 - d. 1976)  SKP
                                 Tskhovrebashvili 
    29 Oct 1953 - 17 Apr 1959  Miron Dmitriyevich Chubinidze      (b. 1905)            SKP
    18 Apr 1959 -  6 Jan 1976  Georgy Samsonovich Dzotsenidze     (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  SKP
    26 Jan 1976 - 29 Mar 1989  Pavel Georgyevich Gilashvili       (b. 1918 - d. 1994)  SKP
    29 Mar 1989 - 17 Nov 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (b. 1933)            SKP
    17 Nov 1989 - 14 Nov 1990  Givi Grigoryevich Gumbaridze       (s.a.)               SKP
    Chairman of the Supreme Council
    14 Nov 1990 - 14 Apr 1991  Zviad Konstantonovich Gamsakhurdia (b. 1939 - d. 1993)  MM-TS

    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
     7 Mar 1922 - Apr 1922     Polikarp Gurgenovich Mdivani       (s.a.)               SKP
    Apr 1922 - Jan 1923        Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  SKP
    Jan 1923 - Jun 1927        Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  SKP
    Jun 1927 - 1929            Lavrenty Iosipovich Kartvelishvili (s.a.)               SKP 
    Jun 1929 - Jan 1931        Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               SKP
    Jan 1931 - 22 Sep 1931     Vladimir (Levan) Pavlovich                              SKP
                                 Sukhishvili
    22 Sep 1931 - Jun 1937     German Andreyevich Mgaloblishvili  (d. 1937)            SKP
     9 Jul 1937 - 15 Apr 1946  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)  SKP
    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
    15 Apr 1946 - Dec 1946     Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (1st time)
    Dec 1946 -  6 Apr 1952     Zakhary Nikolayevich               (s.a.)               SKP
                                 Chkhubianishvili
     6 Apr 1952 - 16 Apr 1953  Zakhary Nikolayevich Kechkhoveli   (b. 1902 - d. 1970)  SKP
    16 Apr 1953 - 20 Sep 1953  Valerian Minayevich Bakradze       (s.a.)               SKP
                                 (2nd time)
    21 Sep 1953 - 17 Dec 1975  Givi Dmitriyevich Dzhavakhishvili  (b. 1912 - d. 1985)  SKP
    17 Dec 1975 -  5 Jun 1982  Zurab Aleksandrovich Pataridze     (b. 1928 - d. 1982)  SKP
     2 Jul 1982 - 12 Apr 1986  Dmitry Levanovich Kartvelishvili   (b. 1927)            SKP
    12 Apr 1986 - 29 Mar 1989  Otar Yevtikhiyevich Cherkeziya     (s.a.)               SKP
    29 Mar 1989 - 14 Apr 1989  Zurab Amvrosiyevich Chkheidze      (b. 1930)            SKP
    14 Apr 1989 - 15 Nov 1990  Nodari Amvrosiyevich Chitanava     (b. 1935)            SKP
    15 Nov 1990 - 18 Aug 1991  Tengiz Ippolitovich Sigua          (b. 1934)            SKP

    Party abbreviations: MM-TS = Round Table-Free Georgia, nationalist, Z. Gamsakhurdia personalist, 1991-1992); SKP = Sakartvelos Komunisturi Partia (Communist Party of Georgia, communist -only legal party 1922-1991)


    Kutaisi

     3 Nov 1951                Kutaisi oblast
    23 Apr 1953                Abolished.

    First Secretaries of the Oblast Committee of the Communist Party
    Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Akaki Ivanovich Mgeladze           (b. 1910 - d. 1980)  SKP
    27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Maksim Konstantinovich Balavadze   (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  SKP

    Chairmen of the Executive Committee
    25 Dec 1951 - 1952         Boris Yermolayevich Lomidze        (b. 1909 - d. 19..)  SKP
    1952 - Apr 1953            Sergey Viktorovich Sakvarelidze    (b. 1911 - d. 19..)  SKP


    Tbilisi

     3 Nov 1951                Tbilisi oblast
    23 Apr 1953                Abolished.

    First Secretaries of the Oblast Committee of the Communist Party
    Nov 1951 - 26 Apr 1952     Mikhail Mikhailovich Lelashvili    (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  SKP
    27 Apr 1952 - Apr 1953     Konstantin Dmitriyevich
               (b. 1904 - d. 19..)  SKP
                                 Budzhiashvili

    Chairman of the Executive Committee
     4 Dec 1951 - Apr 1953     Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..)  SKP



    Transcaucasia

     
    [Russian flag]
                     1802 - 22 Apr 1918
     
    [Transcaucasian
                          Federation error flag, 1918 (no flag was
                          adopted)]
       22 Apr - 26 May 1918 Error Flag, No Flag Adopted
     
    [Flag of Federative Union of
                          Socialist Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia,
                          1923-1936]
                             1923 - 5 Dec 1936
     
    Capital: Tiflis
    Hear National Anthem
    (1923-1936)
    Constitution
    (13 Dec 1922 - 5 Dec 1936)
    Population: 5,850,700 (1926)

    1801                       Russian regional administration established.
    27 Dec 1844                Part of the Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, 
                                 and Georgia).
     3 Mar 1878                Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi ceded to Russia by Ottoman Empire.
    22 Nov 1881                Part of the Government-general of the Caucasus
    26 Feb 1905                Viceroyalty of the Caucasus (restored).
     9 Mar 1917                Viceroyalty replaced by Special Transcaucasian Committee.
    28 Nov 1917                Transcaucasian Commissariat founded at Tiflis (modern Tbilisi).
    23 Feb 1918                Transcaucasian Parliament Convoked by Transcaucasian Commissariat
                                 in Tiflis (modern Tbilisi), included members of
                                 Constituent Assembly (from Petrograd, Jan 1918)
                                 elected from Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
    26 Mar 1918                Transcaucasian Commissariat abolished.
    22 Apr 1918                Democratic Federative Republic of Transcaucasia
                                 (consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia),
                                 independence from Russia.
    26 May 1918                Dissolution into three independent republics, including 
                                 the Georgian Democratic Republic, after parleys with 
                                 German and Turkish military forces at Batum 
                                 (24 May 1918-8 Jun 1918).
    12 Mar 1922                Federative Union of Socialist Soviet Republics of 
                                 Transcaucasia.  
    13 Dec 1922                Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (T.S.F.S.R.)
    30 Dec 1922                Accession to the Soviet Union.
     5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved.

    First Secretaries of the Transcaucasian Communist Party (CPTSSF)
    Apr 1922 - 22 Mar 1925     Aleksandr Miasnikyan               (b. 1886 - d. 1925)
                                 (Armenian SSR)
    26 Mar 1925 - Sep 1926     Sergo (Grigory Konstantinovich)    (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
                                 Ordzhonikidze (Georgian SSR)
    Sep 1926 - Jun 1929        Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
                                 (Georgian SSR) (1st time)

    Jun 1929 - Nov 1930        Rukholla Ali ogly Akhundov         (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                                 (Azerbaijani SSR)
    Nov 1930 - 11 Nov 1931     Vissarion Vissarionovich Lominadze (b. 1897 - d. 1935)
                                 (Georgian SSR)
    11 Nov 1931 -  9 Oct 1932  Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (s.a.)
                                 (Georgian SSR) (2nd time)
     9 Oct 1932 -  4 Dec 1936  Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria           (b. 1899 - d. 1953)
                                 (Georgian SSR)

    Governors
     9 Apr 1802 - 1803         Carl Heinrich von Knorring         (b. 1746 - d. 1820)
    1803 -  8 Feb 1806         Pavel Dmitryevich Tsitsianov       (b. 1754 - d. 1806)
    1806 - 1809                Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich    (b. 1741 - d. 1820)
    Feb 1809 - 1811            Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
    1811 - 1812                Philip Osipovich Paulucci          (b. 1779 - d. 1849)
    16 Feb 1812 - Oct 1816     Nikolay Fyodorovich Rtishchev      (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
    Oct 1816 - 1827            Aleksey Petrovich Yermolov         (b. 1777 - d. 1861) 
    28 Mar 1827 - 1830         Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich         (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
    1831 - 1837                Grigory Vladimirovich Rozen        (b. 1782 - d. 1841)
    30 Nov 1837 - 25 Oct 1842  Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Golovin     (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
    1842 - 1844                Aleksandr Ivanovich Neidgardt      (b. 1784 - d. 1845)
    Viceroys of Transcaucasia
    27 Dec 1844 -  1 Mar 1854  Mikhail Semyonovich Prince         (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
                                 Vorontsov
     1 Mar 1854 - 1854         Nikolay Andreyevich Ready (acting) (b. 1792 - d. 1855)
    1854                       Prince Vasily Osipovich Bebutov    (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
                                 (acting)
    29 Nov 1854 - 22 Jul 1856  Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyev      (b. 1794 - d. 1866) 
    22 Jul 1856 -  6 Dec 1862  Prince Aleksandr Ivanovich         (b. 1814 - d. 1879)
                                 Baryatinsky
     6 Dec 1862 - 23 Jul 1881  Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich    (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
                                 Romanov
    Chief Heads of the Civil Administration of the Caucasus
     1 Jan 1882 -  3 Jun 1890  Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich      (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
                                 Dondukov-Korsakov 
     3 Jun 1890 -  6 Dec 1896  Sergey Aleksandrovich Sheremetyev  (b. 1836 - d. 1896)
    12 Dec 1896 -  1 Jan 1905  Prince Grigory Sergeyevich         (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
                                 Golitsyn
    Viceroys
    26 Feb 1905 - 23 Aug 1915  Count Illaryon Ivanovich,          (b. 1837 - d. 1916)
                                 Vorontsov-Dashkov 
    23 Aug 1915 -  9 Mar 1917  Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich    (b. 1837 - d. 1929)
                                 Romanov
    Chairman of the Special Transcaucasian Committee
     9 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Vasily Akimovich Kharlamov         (b. 1875 - d. 1857)  KDP
    Chairman of the Transcaucasian Commissariat
    28 Nov 1917 - 26 Feb 1918  Yevgeniy Petrovich Gegechkori      (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  SDLP-G
    Chairman of the Transcaucasian Diet
    26 Feb 1918 - 26 May 1918  Nikoloz Simonis dze Chkheidze      (b. 1865 - d. 1926)  SDLP-G
    Chairmen of the Union Council of the Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia
    12 Mar 1922 - 15 Jan 1923  Nariman Kerbalay Nejef ogly        (b. 1870 - d. 1925)  AKP
                                 Narimanov (Azerbaijani SSR)
                               + Polikarp Gurgernovich "Budu"     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  SKP
                                   Mdivani (Georgian SSR)
                                   (to
    4 Dec 1922)
                               + Aleksandr Fyodorovich Miasnikyan (b. 1886 - d. 1925)  HKK
                                  (Armenian SSR)
                               + Shalva Zurabovich Eliava         (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  SKP

                                  (Georgian SSR)
    (from 4 Dec 1922)
    Chairmen of the Transcaucasian C
    entral Executive Committee
    - Armenian SSR -
    15 Jan 1923 - 15 Apr 1925  Sarkis Saakovich Ambartsumyan      (b. 1880 - d. 1944)  CPTSSF
    15 Apr 1925 -  9 Apr 1927  Sarkis Meliksetovich Khanoyan      (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  CPTSSF
     9 Apr 1927 - 27 Feb 1931  Sarkis Ivanovich Kasyan            (b. 1876 - d. 1937)  CPTSSF
    27 Feb 1931 - 18 Jan 1935  Armenek Artyomovich Ananyan        (b. 1893 - d. 1958)  CPTSSF
    18 Jan 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Sergo Nikolayevich Martikyan       (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  CPTSSF
    - Azerbaijani SSR -
    15 Jan 1923 - 26 Jan 1930  Samed Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev      (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  CPTSSF
    18 Jan 1931 - 28 Jan 1932  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  CPTSSF
    28 Jan 1932 -  5 Dec 1936  Sultan Medzhid Medzhid ogly        (b. 1887 - d. 1938)  CPTSSF
                                 Efendiyev
    - Georgian SSR -
    15 Jan 1923 - 27 Feb 1931  Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya     (b. 1865 - d. 1950)  CPTSSF
                                 (Mikheil Chkhakaia)
    27 Feb 1931 -  5 Mar 1935  Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  CPTSSF
                                 (1st time)
     5 Mar 1935 - 27 May 1935  Aveli Safronovich Enukidze         (b. 1877 - d. 1937)
     CPTSSF
    27 May 1935 -  5 Dec 1936  Filipp Yeseyevich Makharadze       (s.a.)               CPTSSF
                                 (2nd time)

    Chiefs of the Civil Administration
    1847 - 1857                Prince Vasily Osipovich Bebutov    (s.a.)
    1857 - 1863                Alexis Aleksey Fyodorovich af      (b. 1813 - d. 1887)
                                 Krusenstiern 
    1863 - 1875                Alexander Pavlovich Freiherr von   (b. 1821 - d. 1895)
                                 Nikolay
    1875 - 1877                Pavel Nikolayevich Klushin         (b. 1814 - d. 1886)
    1878 - 1881                Dmitry Semyonovich Staroselysky    (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
    1882 - 1905                the chief heads of civil administration
    Assistants for Civil Affairs
    1905                       Nikolay Aleksandrovich Sultan-     (b. 1836 - d. 19..)
                                 Krym-Giray
    1906 - 1909                Iustin Vasilyevich Mickevich       (b. 1841 - d. 19..)
    1909 - 1913                Emanuil Aleksandrovich Vataci      (b. 1856 - d. 1920)
    1913 - 1915                Nikolay Leonidovich Peterson       (b. 1854 - d. 1920)
    1915 - 1917                Prince Vladimir Nikolayevich Orlov (b. 1868 - d. 1927) 
    Prime minister
    22 Apr 1918 - 26 May 1918  Akaki I. Chkhenkeli                (b. 1876 - d. 1959)  SDLP-G
    Chairmen of the Transcaucasian Council of People's Commissars
    16 Jan 1923 -  9 Jun 1927  Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (s.a.)               CPTSSF
                                 (1st time)(Georgian SSR)
     9 Jun 1927 - 29 Jan 1931  Shalva Zurabovich Eliava           (s.a.)               CPTSSF 
                                 (Georgian SSR)
    29 Jan 1931 - 12 Nov 1931  Mamia Dmitriyevich Orakhelishvili  (s.a.)               CPTSSF 
                                 (2nd time)(Georgian SSR)
    12 Nov 1931 -  5 Dec 1936  Gazanfar Makhmud ogly Musabekov    (s.a.)               CPTSSF 
                                 (Azerbaijani SSR)

    Party abbreviations: AKP = Azerbaycan Kommunist Partiyasi (Azerbaijani Communist Party, 1918-1991); CPTSSF = Communist Party of the Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Federation (Communist, only legal party 1922-1936); HKK = Hayastani Komunistakan Kusaktsutyun (Armenian Communist Party, 1918-1990)KDP = Konstitutsionno Demokraticheskaya Partia (Constitutional Democrat Party "Cadets", nationalist, social-democratic, 1905-1921); SDLP-G = Social Democratic Labour Party of Georgia (split from Russian Social Democratic Labour Party "Mensheviks", Marxist, center-leftist, 1918-1921); SKP = Sakartvelos Komunisturi Partia (Communist Party of Georgia, communist -only legal party 1922-1991)



    Autonomous Regions

    Abkhazia (Apsny)
     
    [Flag of Abkhazia c.1770-1866]
                          c.1770 - 1866
     
    Flag of
                          Abkhazian SSR in1925
                          1 Apr 1925 - 7 Jan 1935
     
    Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR in 1935
                         7 Jan 1935 - 2 Aug 1937
       
    Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR in 1937
                            2 Aug 1937 - 1938
     
    Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR in 1938
                            1938 - 26 Apr 1951
     
    Flag of Georgian
                          SSR in 1951
                         26 Apr 1951 -  3 Nov 1978
     
    Flag of Abkhazian ASSR 1978
                         3 Nov 1978 - 21 Jul 1981
     
    Flag of
                          Abkhazian ASSR 1981
                         21 Jul 1981 - 25 Dec 1991
     
    Flag of
                          'Abkhazian SSR' 1990
                       1990 - 23 Jul 1992 Unofficial? 
     
    [Flag of
                          Abkhazia]
                            Adopted 23 Jul 1992



    Map of Abkhazia
    Hear National Anthem
    "Aiaaira" (Victory)
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 1992
    (formally adopted 24 Oct 2007)
    Constitution
     (26 Nov 1994)
    Capital: Sukhum (Sukhumi) (Gudauta Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993)
    Currency: Russian Ruble
    (RUR) and Abkhazian Apsar
    (from 2008)

    National Holidays: 30 Sep (1993)
    Liberation Day
    ------------------------------------
    26 Nov (1994)
    Constitution Day

    Population: 242,862 (2012)
    526,800 (1989)
    GDP: $682 million (2010)
    Exports: $22 million (2006)
    Imports: $117 million (2006)
    Ethnic groups: Abkhazian 50.71%, Georgian (including
    Megrelians) 19.26%, Armenian 17.39%, Russian 9.17%,
    Greeks 0.57%, others 2.9% (2011)

    1989: Georgian 45.68%, Abkhazian 17.76%, Armenian 14.58%,
    Russian 14.27%, Greeks 2.79%, others 4.92% (1989)
    Total Active Armed Forces: 2,100 (2009)
    Russian Forces: 3,500 (2009)
    Merchant marine: N/A
    Religions: Christian (mainly Orthodox) 60%, Muslim
    (mainly Sunni) 16%, animist 5%, Abkhazian
    traditional religion 3%,
     atheist and non-religious 8%, undeclared 6%, other 2% (2003)
    International Organizations/Treaties: UNPO

    c.730                      Abkhaz and Lazik principalities oust Arab and Byzantine rulers.
    c.767                      Kingdom of Abkhazia
     7 May 1014                Incorporated into Kingdom of Georgia.
    c.1440                     Principality of Abkhazia
    1578                       Part of the Ottoman Empire.
    22 Jun 1810                Russia occupies Sukumi, Abkhazia a Russian protectorate.
    1854 - 1856                Occupied by Ottoman Empire.
    24 Jun 1866                Incorporated into Russian Empire (from 1883, renamed Sukhumi
                                 district).
     8 Mar 1918                Independence declared.
    19 Apr 1918                Incorporated into Georgian Republic (as Sokhumi government-general
                                 from 26 Jun 1918, then from 20 Mar 1919 Sokhumi oblast).
     4 Mar 1921                Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia declared.
    16 Dec 1921                Union agreement signed between the Georgian S.S.R. and the
                                 Abkhazian S.S.R.
    19 Feb 1931                Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia within Georgia.
     5 Dec 1936                Renamed Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
    25 Aug 1990                State sovereignty declared as Abkhazian Soviet Socialist Republic,
                                 declaring itself part of Russian S.F.S.R. (not recognized).
    23 Jul 1992                Abkhazia declares independence (Republic of Abkhazia)(recognized only
                                 by Russia on 26 Aug 2008, Nicaragua on 4 Sep 2008, Venezuela on
                                 10 Sep 2009, Nauru on 15 Dec 2009, Vanuatu on 23 May 2011
                                 [withdrawn 20 May 2013], and Tuvalu on 18 Sep 2011).
    14 Aug 1992 - 26 Sep 1993  Georgian occupation of Sukhumi.
    24 Nov 1992                Georgian government organizes Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                                 government in T'bilisi.
    10 Oct 2002                Georgia designates Abkhazia an autonomous republic.
    10 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Abkhaz intervention by Russian military forces.

    Note: Imeret`i rather than the Abkhazian principality, is the geographic (but not ethnic) predecessor of present-day Abkhazia.


    First Secretaries of the Communist Party

    14 Feb 1921 - 1921         N.E. Zhvaniya
                                 (chairman of the organization bureau)
    29 Mar 1921 - 1921         G. Krishtof
    1921                       Pyotr Semenovich Agniashvili
          (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
                                 (Agniev)
    1921                       Larionov
    Sep 1921 - Jan 1922        Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
    1922                       S.A. Gubeliya-Mezdmarishvili
    1922 - 1923                Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
    1923 - 1924                G.M. Makarov
    Apr 1924 - Jan 1925        Yervand Mikhailovich Asribekov     (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
    1925 - 1927                Georgy Fydorovich Sturua           (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
    1928 - 1929                Aleksand Semyonovich Amas          (b. 1904 - d. 1938)
                                 (Amirbekov)
    1929 - 1930                Pavel Grigoryevich Meladze         (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
    1930 - 17 Jan 1936         Vladimir Konstantinovich Ladariya  (b. 1900 - d. 1937)

    17 Jan 1936 - 18 Feb 1937  Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
    1937 - 1940                Kirill Georgyevich Bechvaya        (b. 1903 - d. 19..)
                                 (acting to Jun 1938)

    1940 - 20 Feb 1943         Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
    20 Feb 1943 - Nov 1951     Akaky Ivanovich Mgeladze           (b. 1910 - d. 1980)
    Dec 1951 - 21 Apr 1953     Shota Dmitriyevich Getiya          (b. 1904 - d. 19..)
    21 Apr 1953 -  2 Oct 1953  Grigory Zosimovich Karchava        (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
     
    2 Oct 1953 - Jan 1956     Georgy Andreyevich Gegeshidze      (b. 1924 - d. 1971)
    Jan 1956 - 1958            Otar Davidovich Gociridze          (b. 1919)
    Feb 1958 - Sep 1965        Mikhail Temurovich Bgazhba         (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
    Sep 1965 - 1975            Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhia       (b. 1929 - d. 1992)
    1975 - Feb 1978            Valery Mikhailovich Khintba        (b. 1940)
    Feb 1978 -  6 Apr 1989     Boris Viktorovich Adlejba          (b. 1931 - d. 1990)
    Apr 1989 - 1991            Vladimir Filippovich Khishba       (b. 1936)

    Lords
    c.510 – c.530              Anos
    c.530 – c.550              Ghozar
    c.550 – c.580              Istvine
    c.580 – c.610              Phiniktios
    c.610 – c.640              Barnuk
    c.640 – c.660              Dimitri I
    c.660 – c.680              Theodosi I
    c.680 – c.710              Konstante I
    c.710 – c.730              Theodor
    c.730 – c.756              Konstante II
    c.745 – c.767              Levanti I
    Kings

    c.767 – c.811              Levanti II
    c.811 – c.837              Theodosi II
    c.837 – c.872              Dimitri II
    c.872 – c.878              Giorgi I Aghts’epi
    c.878 – c.880              Ivane Shavliani
    c.800 – c.887              Adarnase Shavliani
    c.887 – c.898              Bagrat I
    c.898 – c.916              Konstantine III
    c.916 – 960                Giorgi II
    960 – 969                  Levanti III
    969 – 976                  Dimitri III                        (d. 976)
    976 – 979                  Theodosi III "Brms"
    979 –  7 May 1014          Bagrat II                          (b. c.906 – d. 1014)
    Princes

    1440 - 1459                Davit II Hutuni
    1459 - 1491                Rabia
    1491 - 1520                Salomoni I
    1520 - 1578                Ars Khan
    1625 - 1637                T `eimuraz Khan
    1637 - 1650                Khara Begi
    1650 - 1665                Kuapu
    1665 - 1700                Salomoni II 
    1700 - 1730                Jagetshi (Dzhigeshti)
    1730 - 1750                Hamid Begi
    1750 - 1757                Manuch`ar I                        (d. af.1757)
    1757 - 1770                Manuch`ar II
    1770 - 1779                Zurab
    1779 - 1789                Levanti V (Muhammed Pasha) 
    1789 - 14 May 1806         Kelesh-Ahmad Begi                  (b. 1747 - d. 1806)
    14 May 1806 - 10 Jun 1810  Arslan Begi (1st time)
                               - jointly with following -
    10 Jun 1810 - 13 Nov 1821  Safar Ali Begi (from 1810, Giorgi) (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
                                 (in rebellion from 17 Feb 1810)
    13 Nov 1821 - 16 Oct 1822  Dimitri IV (Umar Begi)             (d. 1822)
    13 Nov 1821 - 1821         Tamar (f) -Regent
    1821 - 1822                Arslan Begi (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                                 (in rebellion)
    16 Oct 1822 - 15 Feb 1864  Mikheil II                         (d. 1866)
    15 Feb 1864 - Apr 1865     Grigol III
    29 Jul 1866 - Aug 1866     Giorgi Mikhailovitch               (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
                                 (in rebellion)
    Chairmen of Committee of Public Safety
    10 Mar 1917 - Nov 1917     Aleksandr Georgyevich Sharvashidze
                                (Chachba)

    Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
    16 Feb 1918 - Sep 1918     Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba (1st time)(b. 1893 - d. 1939)
    Governor-general
    18 Jun 1918 – 191.         G. Mazniev (Maznaishvilli)
    District commissioners
    191. –  9 Oct 1918         I. Marganija
    10 Oct 1918 – 191.         V. Chhikvishvili
    Chairman of the People's Council

    May 1919 - Jan 1921
           Varlam Aleksandrovich Sharvashidze (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
                                 (Chachba)  
    Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee
    17 Feb 1921 -  6 Mar 1921  N.E. Zhvaniya
     6 Mar 1921 - 1921         Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba (2nd time)(s.a.)
    Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
    1921 - 1922                Yefrem Aleksyevich Eshba           (s.a.)
    1922 - 1923                Samson Alekseyevich Kartoziya      (b. 1893 - d. 1937)
    1925 - 17 Apr 1930         Samson Yakovlevich Chanba          (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
    17 Apr 1930 - 28 Dec 1936  Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (b. 1893 - d. 1936)
    28 Dec 1936 - 1937         Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (s.a.)
     2 Nov 1937 - 12 Jul 1938  Avksenty Narikyevich Rapava        (b. 1899 - d. 1955)
    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

    13 Jul 1938 -  7 Apr 1948  Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
     7 Apr 1948 - 1958         Andrey Maksimovich Chochua         (b. 1879 - d. 1965)
    Feb 1958 - Apr 1978        Bagrat Vasilyevich Shinkuba        (b. 1917 - d. 2004)    
    Apr 1978 - 1989            Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhia       (s.a.)
    Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
    1989 - 1990                Valerian Osmanovich Kobakhia       (s.a.)              
     4 Dec 1990 - 23 Jul 1992  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (b. 1945 - d. 2010)
    Chairman of Parliament
    23 Jul 1992 - 26 Nov 1994  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 (at Gudauta Aug 1992 - 27 Sep 1993)
    Presidents
    26 Nov 1994 - 12 Feb 2005  Vladislav Grigoryevich Ardzinba    (s.a.)               Non-party
    12 Feb 2005 - 29 May 2011  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (b. 1949 - d. 2011)  YA
    29 May 2011 -  1 Jun 2014  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (b. 1952)            Ait
                                 (acting to 26 Sep 2011)
    31 May 2014 -              Valery Ramshukhovich Bganba        (b. 1953)
                                 (acting [for Ankvab to 1 Jun 2014])


    Chairmen of the National Council

     8 Nov 1917 - 1918         Simon Petrovich Basariya           (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
    1918 -  9 Oct 1918         Aleksandr Georgyevich Sharvashidze
                                 (Chachba)

    Sep 1918 -  9 Oct 1918     Varlam Aleksandrovich Sharvashidze (b. 1889 - d. 1957)
                                 (Chachba)  
    18 Mar 1919 - 19..         D. Yemuhvari
    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

    Feb 1922 - 28 Dec 1936     Nestor Apollonovich Lakoba         (s.a.)
    Feb 1937 - Sep 1937        Aleksey Sergeyevich Agrba          (s.a.) 
    Sep 1937 - 14 Jul 1938     ....
    14 Jul 1938 - 23 Nov 1938  
    Avksenty Narikyevich Rapava        (s.a.)
    23 Nov 1938 - May 1943     Konstantin Georgiyevich            (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
                                 Chichinadze
    1943 - Mar 1946            Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirckhulava  (b. 1911 - d. 19..)

    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
    Mar 1946 -  7 Apr 1948     Aleksandr Iordanovich Mirckhulava  (s.a.)
     7 Apr 1948 - Oct 1953     Mikhail Konstantinovich Delba      (s.a.)
    Oct 1953 - 1957            Arkhip Mironovich Labakhua         (b. 1910 - d. 19..)  
    1957 - Feb 1958            Mikhail Temurovich Bgazhba         (s.a.)
    Feb 1958 - 25 May 1967     Mikhail Gerasimovich Chikovany     (b. 1911 - d. 19..)
    1967 - 1972                Pavel Georgyevich Gilashvili       (b. 1918 - d. 1994)
    1972 - 1973                Boris Gerasimovich Gigiberiya      (b. 1917)
    May 1973 - Oct 1975        Shota Mikhailovich Tatarishvili    (b. 1922)
    Oct 1975 - Sep 1978        A
    vtandil Petrovich Sakvarelidze
    Sep 1978 - Apr 1987        Yuzha Dzhakhoyevich Ubilava        (b. 1941)  
    Apr 1987 - Jul 1989        Otar Georgiyevich Zukhbaya         (b. 1940) 
    Jul 1989 - May 1990        Givi Alekseyevich Anchabadze       (b. 1933)
    May 1990 -  5 May 1992     Vladimir Tachevich Mikanba         (b. 1931)
    Prime ministers

     5 May 1992 - 18 Aug 1992  Vazha Illarionovich Zarandia       (b. 1932)
    Oct 1992 - 18 Jul 1993     Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (b. 1954 - d. 2004)
    18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Zhiuli Kalistratovich Shartava     (b. 1944 - d. 1993)
     1 Nov 1993 - Dec 1993     Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (b. 1947)
                                 (1st time) (acting)
    Dec 1993 - 26 Nov 1994     Sokrat Rachevich Djindjolia       
    (b. 1937)
                                 (Dzhindzholya)   
    Jan 1995 - 29 Apr 1997     Gennady Leonidovich Gagulia        (b. 1948
    )            Non-party
                                 (1st time)
    29 Apr 1997 - 20 Dec 1999  Sergey Vasilyevich Bagapsh         (s.a.)               Non-party
    20 Dec 1999 - 30 May 2001  Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Tsugba     (b. 1944)            Non-party
     7 Jun 2001 - 29 Nov 2002  Anri Mikhailovich Djergenia        (b. 1941)            Non-party
                                 (Dzhergenya)
    29 Nov 2002 - 22 Apr 2003  Gennady Leonidovich Gagulia        (s.a.
    )               Non-party
                                 (2nd time)
    22 Apr 2003 -  6 Oct 2004  Raul Dzhumkovich Khadjimba         (b. 1958)            Non-party  
    30 Aug 2004 -  6 Oct 2004  Astamur Borisovich Tarba           (b. 1961)
                                 (acting for Khadjimba)
     6 Oct 2004 - 14 Feb 2005  Nodar Vladimirovich Khashba        (b. 1951)            YA
    14 Feb 2005 - 13 Feb 2010  Aleksandr Zolotinskovich Ankvab    (s.a.)               Ait
    13 Feb 2010 - 27 Sep 2011  Sergey Mironipa Shamba             (b. 1951)            SDP 
    27 Sep 2011 -  2 Jun 2014  Leonid Ivanovich Lakerbaya         (s.a.)               Ait
                                 (2nd time)
     2 Jun 2014 -              Vladimir Valeryevich Delba (acting)(b. 1974)

     

    Pro-Georgian  Government of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia (in Tbilisi; 27 Sep 2006 - 12 Aug 2008
    in Chkhalta, Abkhazia
    )

    [Possible Former Abkhazian Autonomous
                      Republic Flag to 2004?]                     to 2004?
    [Pro-Georgian Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                      flag to 2013]                         2004? - 2013
    [Pro-Georgian Abkhazian Autonomous Republic
                      flag]                   From 2013

    Chairmen of the Supreme Council
    24 Nov 1992 - 16 Mar 2004  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (b. 1954 - d. 2004)  ALP
    16 Mar 2004 - 20 Mar 2009  Temur Mzhavia                      (b. 1952)
    20 Mar 2009 -              Elguja "Gia" Gvazava               (b. 1952)      
     

    Prime ministers
    24 Nov 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Tamaz Vladimirovich Nadareishvili  (s.a.) 
    18 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Zhiuli Kalistratovich Shartava     (b. 1944 - d. 1993) 
    Nov 1993 - Jul 1998        Zurab Erkvania                     (b. 1951)
    Jul 1998 - 30 Sep 2004     Londer Tsaava
    30 Sep 2004 - 21 Mar 2006  Irakli Alasania                    (b. 1973)
    21 Mar 2006 - 15 Jun 2009  Malkhaz Akishbaya                  (b. 1972)
    15 Jun 2009 -  5 Apr 2013  Giorgi Baramia                     (b. 1966)
     8 Apr 2013 -              Vakhtang Kolbaya (acting)          (b. 1952)              DM-ES
           

    [United Nations
                    Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) 1993-2009]

    Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and Head of Mission 
    of United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)      
     
    May 1993 –  1 Jul 1997     Eduard Brunner (Switzerland)       (b. 1932 - d. 2007)
     1 Jul 1997 - 18 Oct 1999  Liviu Bota (Romania)               (b. 1936)
    18 Oct 1999 – 23 May 2002  Dieter Boden (Germany)             (b. 1940)
    23 May 2002 – 16 Jul 2006  Heidi Tagliavini (f) (Switzerland) (b. 1950)
    Jul 2006 – Sep 2008        Jean Arnault (France)              (b. 1951)
    30 Sep 2008 — 15 Jun 2009  Johan C. Verbeke (Belgium)         (b. 1951)


    Party abbreviations:
    ALP = Abkhazia Liberation Party (pro-autonomy with in Georgia, est.1999);
    Ait = Aitayra (Revival, anti-Ardzinba); CPA = Apsny Akomunistta Apart (Communist Party of Abkhazia, communist, est.1994); DM-ES = Demokratiuli Modzraoba — Ert'iani Sak'art'velo (Democratic Movement – United Georgia, conservative, M. Saakashvili opposition, est.2008); SDP = Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Abkhazia (Social-Democratic Party of Abkhazia, social-democratic, anti-Ardzinba, est.2004); YA = Yedinaya Abkhazia/Apsny Akzaara (United Abkhazia, anti-Ardzinba until 2011, est.2004)



    Adjaria (Adzharia)
    [Southwestern
                            Caucasian Republic 1918-1919]
                1 Dec 1918 - 10 Apr 1919
           Southwestern Caucasian Republic
       
    Republic of
                            Batum 1919-1920
              1919 - 1920 Batumi Republic
     
     
    Flag of Ajarian ASSR 1937 -
                            1951
                    25 Oct 1937 - 22 May 1951 
     
     
    Flag of Ajaria ASSR 1937
                            Reported Variant
                25 Oct 1937 - 22 May 1951 Variant
     
    Flag of Georgian
                            SSR 1951
                        22 May 1951 - 9 Jun 1981
     
    Flag of
                            Ajarian ASSR 1981
                        9 Jun 1981 - 25 Dec 1991 
     
    [Flag of
                            Georgia 1990-2004]
                  25 Dec 1991 - 26 Jun 2000
       
    [Flag of
                            Ajaria, 2000-2004 (Georgia)]
                     26 Jun 2000 - 20 Jul 2004
       
    [Flag of Ajaria (Georgia)]
                   Adopted 20 Jul 2004

    Map of Adjaria
    Hear Local Anthem
    Text of Local Anthem
    Adopted 26 Jun 2000
    Constitution
    (29 Jul 2004)
    Capital: Batumi
    (Kars 1918-1919)
    Currency: Georgian Lari
    (GEL) 
    Religions: Georgian
    Orthodox 63%, Sunni
    Muslim 30%, Armenian
     Christian 0.8% Roman
     Catholic 0.2%, others 6%
      (2006)
    Population: 393,700 (2012)
    1535                       Part of Principality of Guria.
    1547 - 1564                Batumi under Ottoman occupation.
    1582 - 1609                Batumi under Ottoman occupation.
    1614                       Annexed by Ottoman Empire (named Acara).
     3 Mar 1878                Kars, Adjaria, and Batumi ceded to Russia by Ottoman Empire.
     3 Mar 1918                Russia cedes Kars, Adjaria, and Batumi to 
                                 the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Brest-Litvosk.
    14 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Ottoman occupation.
    15 Aug 1918                Sultan's decree proclaims incorporation of Batumi
                                 region into Ottoman Empire.
     1 Dec 1918 - 19 Apr 1919  South-Western Caucasian Republic proclaimed with
                                 capital at Kars after departure of Turkish Army 
                                 (see under Turkey).
    16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  British occupation.
    2. Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919  Council for Batum region founded (under British control). 
    21 Jan 1919                Independence of Batum Republic declared. 
    13 Sep 1919                Committee for Liberation of Muslims of Georgia
                                 found a Mejlis (parliament) of Adjaria at Batum. 
     8 Apr 1920                By decision of the high council of the Entente,
                                 the port of Batumi is proclaimed a free port and
                                 coastal Adjaria declared a protectorate of the League
                                 of Nations (guaranteed by UK, France, and Italy).
    20 Jul 1920                Georgian army enters Adjaria.
    12 Feb 1921                Republic of Adjaria declares independence. 
    11 Mar 1921 - 18 Mar 1921  Turkish occupation.
    16 Mar 1921                Turkey recognizes Batumi as part of Georgian S.S.R.
                                 but retains Kars.
    16 Jul 1921                Adjarian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic
                                 (within Georgian S.S.R.) proclaimed.
    25 Dec 1991                Autonomous Republic of Adjaria part of Georgia
                                 (style confirmed by Georgia 20 Apr 2000).

    First Secretaries of the Communist Party 
    1921                       Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
    1921                       K. Bardzenishvili
    1921 - 1922                Simon Aliyevich Takoyev            (b. 1876 - d. 1938)

    1922 - 1924                Nikolay Samsonovich Svanidze       (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
    1924 - 1925                Levan Davydovich Gogoberidze       (b. 1896 - d. 1937)
    Apr 1926 - Dec 1926
           Nikolay Nikolayevich Akirtava      (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
    Dec 1926 - 1929            Nikolay Yevseyevich Pantskhava     (d. 1937)

    1929 - 1930                Samson Andreyevich Mamulia         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
    1931 - 1932                Mikhail Alekseyevich Gobechiya     (d. 1937)
    13 Jan 1932 - 13 Apr 1937  Artemy Grigorevich Geurkov         (b. 1901 - d. 1937)
    13 Apr 1937 - 23 Feb 1938  Iosif Dmitriyevich Kochlamazashvili(b. 1906 - d. 19..)
    23 Feb 1938 - 29 Nov 1938  Aleksey Nikolayevich Sadzhaya      (b. 1898 - d. 1942)
    1938                       Aron Iosifis Tapalshvili
    1938 - 1940                Mikhail Ivanovich Baramiya         (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
    1940 - 1944                Georgy Grigoryevich Tvalchrelidze  (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
    1944 - 1951                Kiril Georgyevich Bechvaya         (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
    1951 - 12 Jul 1952         Davyd Georgyevich Khantadze        (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
    12 Jul 1952 - May 1953     Grigory Nayevich Tsintsabadze
    May 1953 - Jan 1954        Makary Ivanovich Dzhashi           (b. 1902 - d. 19..)
    Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        Davyd Mikhailovich Mamuladze       (b. 1910 - d. 19..) 
    Mar 1961 - Jan 1975        Aleksandr Dursunovich              (b. 1914 - d. 19..)
                                 Tkhilaishvili
    Jan 1975 - Aug 1986        Vakhtang Rafayelovich Papunidze    (b. 1929)
    Aug 1986 - Mar 1990        Guram Khuseynovich Emiridze        (b. 1937)
    Mar 1990 - 1991            Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (b. 1952)
    May 1991 - 1991            Ilya Tsulukidze

    Governor-general
    16 Dec 1918 - 20 Jul 1920  William James Norman Cooke-Collis  (b. 1876 - d. 1941)
                               
    (U.K.)
    Chairman of Batum Council 
    2. Dec 1918 - 28 Apr 1919  P. Maslov
    Chairman of Batum Regional Revolutionary Committee
    20 Mar 1921 -  8 Sep 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (b. 1885 - d. 1971)
    Chairmen of the Parliament
     6 Jun 1921 -  4 Nov 1921  Hasan Lordkipanidze
     7 Nov 1921 - 15 Nov 1921  Hasan Takhsin
    Chairman of Batum Regional Revolutionary Committee
    16 Jul 1921 -  8 Sep 1921  Sergey Ivanovich Kavtaradze        (s.a.) 
    Chairmen of Revolutionary Committee (chairman unknown)
     8 Sep 1921 - 15 Nov 1921  Hasan Lordkipanidze
                               + Z. Kharazi
                               + M. Kontselidze
                               + D. Pagava
                               + Zakariya Dursunis Lordkipanidze
                               + Kh. Beridze
                               + A.G. Gambarov
                               + Tengiz Gigoyevich Zhgenti        (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
                               + K.V. Sadzhaya
                               (chairman unknown)
    Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
    15 Nov 1921 - 1921         Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
    1921 - 1922                ....
    Dec 1922 - 192.            Osman Khulusovich Motskobili       (d. 1937)
    1927 - 1930                Muedin Ferkhatovich Surmanidze
    1930 - 1937                Zakariya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
    1937 - 1938                Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze
                                 (acting)

    Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
    Jul 1938 - Jan 1954        Dawud Aliyevich Davitadze          (b. 1901 - d. 19..)
    Jan 1954 - 1955            Archil Mikhailovich Beridze        (b. 1922)
                                 (acting)

    Apr 1955 - Nov 1968        Revaz Muradovich Komakhidze        (b. 1911 - d. 1968)
    Nov 1968 - Mar 1969        ....
    Mar 1969 - 1989            Davyd Dursunovich Diasamidze       (b. 1925 - d. 1989) 
    1990 - 1991                Tengiz Suleymanovich Khakhva       (s.a.)
    Chairman of the Supreme Council (from 1998, also Head of the Republic)
    15 Mar 1991 -  6 May 2004  Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (b. 1938)            RDU
                                 (acting to Jul 1991)
    Chairman of the Interim Council
     7 May 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Levan Varshalomidze                (b. 1972)            ENM
    Chairmen of the Supreme Council
    20 Jul 2004 - 28 Oct 2012  Mikheil Makharadze                 (b. 1946)            TA
    28 Oct 2012 -              Avtandil Beridze                   (b. 1955)            KODS
     

    Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
    Jan 1922 - Nov 1922        Aleksandr Grigoryevich Gambarov    (s.a.)
    1922 - 1928?               Takhsim Khimshiashvili             (d. 1930)
    192. - 1929                Mamed Gogoberidze
    1929 - 193.                Zakariya Dursunovich Lordkipanidze (s.a.)
    193. - 193.                Suleyman Diasamidze   
    Jul 1938 - 1946            Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze

    Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
    1946 - Oct 1947            Ismail Khasanovich Futkaradze 
    Oct 1947 - 1953            Mamiya Alekseyevich Gogolishvili   (b. 1912 - d. 19..)
    1953 - Jan 1954            Davyd Mikhailovich Mamuladze       (s.a.)
    Jan 1954 - Mar 1961        Aleksandr Dursunovich              (s.a.)
                                 Tkhilaishvili
    Mar 1961 - Jun 1975        Levan Mikhailovich Davitadze       (b. 1916 - d. 19..)
    Jun 1975 - Aug 1977        Irakli Azizovich Dzhashi 
    Aug 1977 - 1986            Yuri Gedevanovich Ungiadze         (b. 1928)
    1986 - Aug 1993            Guram Yegorovich Chigogidze        (b. 1935)
    Aug 1993                   Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)
                                 (acting)
    Prime ministers
    Aug 1993 - 1994            Guram Varshalomidze
    1994 - 16 Nov 1996         Jemal Nakashidze
    16 Nov 1996 - May 1999     Avtandil Gorgiladze                (b. 1952)
    May 1999 - 2002            Giorgi Tsintskiladze
    2002 - 13 Jul 2003         Eduard Rasim Kakabadze
    13 Jul 2003 - Aug 2003     Aslan Ibraimis dze Abashidze       (s.a.)               RDU
                                 (acting)
    Aug 2003 -  6 Apr 2004     Rezo Shamilishvili
     6 Apr 2004 - 20 Jul 2004  Rostom Japaridze                   (b. 1948)
    20 Jul 2004 - 30 Oct 2012  Levan Varshalomidze                (s.a.)               ENM
    30 Oct 2012 -              Archil Khabadze                    (b. 1980)            KODS

    Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Natsionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = Kartuli Otsneba–Demokratiuli Sakartvelo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, progressive, est.2012); RDU = Democratic Revival Union ("Revival", social-democratic, pro-Abashidze, Adjar nationalist, est.1995); TA = Our Adjara (Ajaria regionalist bloc, anti-Abashidze, est.2003)



    South Ossetia (Hussar Iryston) 
    [South Ossetian flag]
                           Adopted 26 Nov 1990
    Map of South Ossetia
    Hear National Anthem
    "Respublikae Xussar Irystony
     Paddzaxadon Gimn"
    (The National Anthem of the
    Republic of South Ossetia
    )
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 5 May 1995
    Constitution
    (8 Apr 2001)
    Capital: Tskhinvali
    (Staliniri 1934-1961;
    Shida Kartli - Gori)
    Currency: Russian Ruble
    (RUR)
    National Holidays: 20 Sep (1990)
    Indepenence Day
    ------------------------------------
    29 May (1992)
    Day of the Act of Independence

    Population: 86,454 (2012)
    98,527 (1989)
    GDP: $15 million (2002)
    Exports: $N/A
    Imports: $N/A
    Ethnic groups: Ossetian 64.3%, Georgian 25%, Russian 2.8%,
    Armenian 1.2%, Jews 0.9%, others 5.8% (2008)
    1989: Ossetian 66.2%, Georgian 28.9%,
    Russian 2.1%,
    Armenian 1%, Jews 0.4%, others 1.4% (1989)

    Total Active Armed Forces: 2,500 (2009)
    Russian Forces: 5,500 (2009)
    Merchant marine: None (2008)
    Religions: Orthodox Christian, Jewish
    International Organizations/Treaties: None

    1775                       Russian protectorate over Ossetian lands.
    1801                       Ossetian lands annexed by the Russian Empire.
    Mar 1918                   Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic declared.
    17 May 1920                Occupied by Georgia.
    20 Apr 1922                South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within Georgian S.S.R.
    10 Nov 1989                South Ossetian Autonomous Republic declared.
    20 Sep 1990                State sovereignty of South Ossetia declared as
                                 a constituent republic of the U.S.S.R.
                                (South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic)(not recognized).
    16 Oct 1990                Declaration of sovereignty confirmed.
    28 Nov 1990                South Ossetian Soviet Republic
    11 Dec 1990                Georgia rescinds autonomy, districts divided between Georgian
                                 regions, mostly Shida Kartli (Inner Georgia)(see below).
     4 May 1991                Former Oblast authorities rescind sovereignty and declare autonomy
                                 (
    South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast); not recognized by Georgia.
     1 Sep 1991                State sovereignty re-declared (South Ossetian Soviet Republic)
                                 (not recognized).
    28 Nov 1991                Declaration of independence (Republic of South Ossetia)(recognized
                                 only by Russia on 26 Aug 2008, Nicaragua on 4 Sep 2008, Venezuela
                                 on 10 Sep 2009, Nauru on 16 Dec 2009 and Tuvalu on 19 Sep 2011).
    19 Jan 1992                South Ossetian population votes in favor of independence and or
                                 integration with Russia (as part of North Ossetia) 99.1%.
    29 May 1992                South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.
    12 Nov 2006                Referendum supports independence from Georgia by 99%.
    10 May 2007                Georgia forms the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia
                                 at Kurta.
     8 Aug 2008 - 10 Aug 2008  Georgian occupation of Tskhinvali.
     9 Aug 2008 -              Pro-Ossetian intervention by Russian military forces.

    Chairman of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party
    Jun 1918 - 1920            Vladimir Arzhevanovich
    Sanakoyev   (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
                                 (chairman of organizing bureau to 30 Jul 1919)

    First Secretaries of the Oblast Committee of the Communist Party
    1921                       Sergey Grigoryevich Gagloyev       (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
    1921 - 22 Apr 1924         Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (s.a.)
    1924 - 192.                Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Dzhatiyev   (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
    1929 - 1930?               Sergey Aleksandrovich Kudryavtsev  (b. 1903 - d. 1938)
    1932 - 1934?               Isaak Yeftimovich Zhvaniya         (d. 1937)
    1936? - 1937               Boris (Abdul-Bekir) Gasanovich    
    (d. 1937)
                                 Tautiyev
    1937 - 1938                Georgiy Aleksandrovich Gochashvili (b. 1904 - d. 19..)
    Feb 1938 - Jan 1949        Vladimir Gedenvanovich
                (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
                                 Tskhovrebashvili    
    Jan 1949 - May 1953        Akaky Gabrielovich Imnadze         (b. 1908 - d. 19..)
    May 1953 - 1954            Ivan Petrovich Kudzhiashvili       (b. 1906 - d. 19..)
    1954 - 1959                Grigory Georgiyevich Sanakoyev     (b. 1914 - d. 19..)
    1959 - 1962                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (b. 1917 - d. 19..)
    1962 - Feb 1965            Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (b. 1907 - d. ....)
    Feb 1965 - Nov 1973        Georgy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev     (b. 1926)
    Nov 1973 - Apr 1988        Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (b. 1939)
    Apr 1988 - Jan 1990        Anatoly Georgyevich Chekhoyev      (b. 1950)
    Jan 1990 - Feb 1991        Valnin Vladimirovich
                  (b. 1933)
                                 Tskhovrebashvili
    Feb 1991 - Aug 1991        Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (b. 1925)
     


    Chairman of the National Council
     1 Jun 1918 - May 1919     A
    leksandr Tibilov                  (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
    Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
    23 Mar 1920 -  9 Apr 1920  Vladimir Davidovich 
    Abayev         (b. 1886 - d. 1964)
                                 (1st time)
     7 Jun 1920 - Dec 1920
        Vladimir Davidovich Abayev         (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    25 Feb 1921 - 1921         Vladimir Arzhevanovich Sanakoyev   (s.a.)
    22 Apr 1922 - 1924         Aleksandr Mikhailovich Dzhatiyev   (s.a.)
    Chairmen of the Executive Committee
    1924 - May 1925            T. Bekuzarov

    1926 - 1929?               Aleksandr Nafanailovich Abayev     (b. 1895 - d. 1976)
    1936? - 1937               Ivan Petrovich Dzhidzhoyev         (d. 1937)
    1937 - 1943                Vladimir Ivanovich Khubayev        (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
    Jul 1943 - 13 Apr 1948     Aleksandr Georgiyevich Galavanov   (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
    13 Apr 1948 - 1953         Ilya Davidovich Kulukhov           (b. 1901 - d. 19..)
    1953 - 1954                Grigory Georgiyevich Sanakoyev     (s.a.)
    1954 - 1956                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Kozayev      (s.a.)
    1956 - 1957                Iosif Semyonovich Chiayev          (s.a.)
    1957 - 1959                Semyon Grigoryevich Tibilov        (b. 1900 - d. 19..)

    Dec 1959 - 196.
               V.G. Sanakoyev
    1961 - 1964                Vladimir Isakovich Gazzayev        (b. 1918)
    1964 - 1965                Georgy Nikolayevich Dzhussoyev     (s.a.)
    Feb 1965 - 1972            Kosta Kargoyevich Dzhioyev         (b. 1916)
    1972 - 1973                Feliks Sergeyevich Sanakoyev       (s.a.)
    Nov 1973 - Nov 1981        Genrikh Irakliyevich Mardanov      (b. 1933)
    Nov 1981 - May 1986        Tamara Shalvovna Kabulova (f)      (b. 1938)
    May 1986 - 20 Sep 1990     Anatoly Abramovich Kachmazov 

    Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Council of People's Deputies
    20 Sep 1990 – 16 Oct 1990  Feliks Mikhaylovich Zasseyev
                                 (Mihaily fyrt Feliks Zassety)
    Chairman of the (to 28 Nov 1990, Provisional) Executive Committee
    16 Oct 1990 – 10 Dec 1990  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov
         (b. 1938 – d. 2006)    
                                 (Georgijy fyrt Torez Huylymbegty)

    Chairman of the Supreme Council

    10 Dec 1990 - 23 Mar 1991  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)
                                 (Georgian prisoner 29 Jan – 29 Dec 1991)
                                 (1st time)
    29 Jan 1991 - 23 Mar 1991  Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
                                (chairmen of the Executive Committee of Council
                                 of People's Deputies; acting for Kulumbegov)
    Chairman of the Committee for Stabilization of the Situation in South Ossetia
    23 Mar 1991 -  4 May 1991
     Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
                                 (Nikolajy fyrt Znauyr Gassity)

    Chairmen of the Supreme Council (1992-1994, Chairman of the State Nyhas)
    26 Nov 1991 – 29 Dec 1991  Znaur Nikolayevich Gassiyev        (s.a.)
                   Non-party
    29 Dec 1991 – 23 Sep 1993  Torez Georgiyevich Kulumbegov      (s.a.)                Non-party
                                 (2nd time)
    23 Sep 1993 - 27 Nov 1996  
    Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (b. 1932
    )             Non-party
                                 (Aleksejy fyrt Ludvig Cybyrty)
    Presidents

    27 Nov 1996 - 18 Dec 2001  Lyudvig Alekseyevich Chibirov      (s.a.
    )               Non-party
    18 Dec 2001 - 
    10 Dec 2011  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyev        (b. 1964)        Non-party:2003 YP
                                 (Dzabejy fyrt Eduard Kokoyty)
     
    10 Dec 2011 - 19 Apr 2012  
    Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (b. 1969)            Non-party
                                 (acting) 
    19 Apr 2012 -              Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov
          (b. 1952)            Non-party
                                 (Tybylty Harithony fyrt Leonid)

    Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
    Apr 1922 - 192.            Razden Shamelovich 
    Kozayev         (b. 1873 - d. 1937)
    Prime ministers

    28 Nov 1991 - Sep 1993     Oleg Dzherikhanovich Teziyev       (b. 1948)            Non-party
    Oct 1993 - May 1994        Gerasim ("Rezo") Georgyevich       (b. 1945)            Non-party
                                 Khugayev (1st time)
    May 1994 - 1995            Eduard Gassiyev
    1995 - 25 Sep 1996         Vladislav Nikolayevich Gabarayev   (b. 1957)            Non-party
    25 Sep 1996 -  2 Dec 1996  Valery Nikolayevich Hubulov
           (b. 1966 - d. 1998)  Non-party
                                 (acting)
     2 Dec 1996 - Aug 1998     Aleksandr Apollonovich Shavlokhov  (b. 1940
    )            Non-party
    Aug 1998 -  6 Jun 2001     Merab Illyich Chigoyev             (b. 1950)            Non-party
     6 Jun 2001 - 14 Jun 2001  Leonid Kharitonovich Tibilov       (b. 1952)            Non-party
                                 (acting)
    14 Jun 2001 - 19 Dec 2001  Dmitry Ivanovich Sanakoyev         (b. 1969
    )            Non-party
    19 Dec 2001 - 13 Aug 2003  Gerasim ("Rezo") Georgyevich       (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 Khugayev (2nd time)
                                 (acting to 9 Jan 2002)
    14 Aug 2003 - 17 Sep 2003  Eduard Dzhabeyevich Kokoyev        (s.a.)               Non-party  
                                 (acting)
    17 Sep 2003 - May 2005     Igor Viktorovich Sanakoyev         (b. 1947)
               Non-party
    May 2005 -  5 Jul 2005     Zurab Revazovich Kokoyev (acting)  (b. 1960)            YP
     5 Jul 2005 - 17 Aug 2008  Yury Ionovich Morozov              (b. 1949)            Non-party
    17 Aug 2008 - 22 Oct 2008  Boris Eliozovich Chochiyev         (b. 1957)            Non-party
                                 (acting)
    22 Oct 2008 -  5 Aug 2009  Aslanbek Soltanovich Bulatsev      (b. 1963)            YP
     5 Aug 2009 - 26 Apr 2012  Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev       (s.a.)               Non-party
    26 Apr 2012 - 20 Jan 2014  Rostislav Erastovich Khugayev      (b. 1951
    )            Non-party
                                 (acting to 15 May 2012)
    20 Jan 2014 -              Domenty Sardionovich Kulumbegov    (b. 1955)            Non-party
                                 (acting)


    Pro-Georgian South Ossetian Provisional Government (from 10 May 2007, Provisional
    Administration of South Ossetia)
    at Kurta (until Aug 2008)

    [Pro-Georgian South
                  Ossetian flag]

    10 May 2007                Georgia forms the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia.

    President
     1 Dec 2006 - 10 May 2007  
    Dmitry Ivanovich Sanakoyev         (s.a.)               PSOP
    Head of Provisional Administration

    10 May 2007 -
                 Dmitry Ivanovich Sanakoyev         (s.a.)               PSOP

    Prime minister
     7 Dec 2006 - Sep 2007     Uruzmag Karkusov


    Georgia: Shida Kartli Region

    [Flag of Georgia]

    Governors (formally State Commissioners)
    1998 - 2002                Irakli Bochoridze
    2002 - Nov 2003            Davit Koblianidze
    Dec 2003 - Jan 2004        Irakli Okruashvili                 (b. 1973)
    Jan 2004 - 12 Sep 2007     Mikheli Kareli
    12 Sep 2007 -  5 Feb 2008  Lasha "Lado" Gegelashvili          (b. 1978?)           ENM
     5 Feb 2008 - Jul 2010     Lado Vardzelashvili                (b. 1979)            ENM
    10 Jul 2010 - Sep 2011     Zurab Arsoshvili                   (b. 1978)            ENM
    Sep 2011 - 10 Jul 2012     Giorgi Tatishvili                  (b. 1946?)           ENM
    10 Jul 2012 - 12 Jan 2013  Sulkhan Sibashvili                                      ENM
    12 Jan 2013 - 23 Apr 2013  Andro Barnovi                                           ENM
    24 Apr 2013 - Oct? 2013    Zurab Chkheidze                    (b. 1930)  
    13 Dec 2013 -              Zurab Rusishvili                                        KODS

    Party abbreviations: ENM = Ertiani Natsionaluri Modzraoba (United National Movement, center-right, reformist, est.2001); KODS = Kartuli Otsneba–Demokratiuli Sakartvelo (Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, social liberal, nationalist, anti-communist, est.2012); KPRSO = Hussar Iriston Kommuniston party (Communist Party of the Republic of South Ossetia, est.1993);
    PSOP = Tsaegat Rayguyrynts Iriston Hussar (People of South Ossetia for Peace, anti-Kokoity, pro-Georgia reunification, est.2006); YO = Yedinaya Osetiya (United Ossetia, pro-unification with Russia); YP = Yedinstvo Partiya (Unity Party, South Ossetia regionalist, social conservative, pro-Kokoity, pro-Russia, est.2003)



    Georgian Principalities

    Guria

    [Flag of Guria]

    1352                       Principality of Guria established.
     8 Apr 1811                Russian protectorate.
    1830                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.

    Princes
    1689 - 1712                Mamia III (1st time)               (b. 16.. - d. 1714)
    1712                       Giorgi IV (1st time)               (b. 1702 - d. 1726)
    1712 - 16 Jan 1714         Mamia III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
    16 Jan 1714 - 1716         Giorgi IV (2nd time)               (s.a.)
    1716                       K`aikhosro III
    1716 - 1726                Giorgi IV (3rd time)               (s.a.)
    1726 - 1744                Mamia IV                           (b. c.1717 - d. 1778)
    1744                       Giorgi V
    1744 - 1792                Svimon II (1st time)               (d. 1792)
    1778 - 178.                K`aikhosro IV                      (d. af.1820)
    1788 - 1792                Svimon II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
    1792 - 1803                Vakhtang II                        (d. af.1814)
    1803 - Jul 1823            Mamia V                            (b. 1789 - d. 1823)
    1803 - 1805                K`aikhosro IV -Regent              (s.a.)
    1805 - 1814                Makrina (f) -Regent                (d. 1814)
    Jul 1823 -  2 Sep 1829     Davit`                             (b. 1815 - d. 1839)



    Mingrelia (Megrelia)

    [Flag of Mingrelia
                (Samegrelo)]

    bf.1323                    Principality of Mingrelia (Samegrelo) established.
     4 Dec 1803                Russian protectorate.
    1854 - 1856                Occupied by Ottoman Empire.
    1857 -  4 Jan 1867         Russian administration.
     4 Jan 1867                Incorporation into Russian Empire.

    Princes
    1681 - 1691                Levan IV                           (d. af.1694)
    1691 - 1704                Giorgi IV Lipartiani (1st time)    (d. 1716)
    1704 - 1710                Kats`ia I                          (d. 1710)
    1710 - 1714                Giorgi IV Lipartiani (2nd time)    (s.a.)
    1715 - 1728                Bezhan                             (d. 1728)
    1728 - 1744                Otia                               (d. 1744)
    1744 - 17 Dec 1788         Kats`ia II                         (d. 1788)
    17 Dec 1788 - 1791         Grigol (1st time)                  (b. 1774 - d. 1804)
    1791 - 1793                Manuch`ar II                       (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
    1793 - 1794                Tariel (1st time)                  (b. 17.. - d. 1802)
    1794 - Mar 1802            Grigol (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
    MAr 1802 - 1802            Tariel (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
    1802 -  4 Nov 1804         Grigol (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
     4 Nov 1804 - 1840         Levan V                            (b. 1793 - d. 1846)
     4 Nov 1804 - 1804         Nino Bagratuni (f) -Regent         (d. 1847)
    1804                       Nikoloz Dadiani -Regent 
    1804                       Chkondideli Bessarion -Regent      (d. 1823)
    1804                       Beri Gelovani Chikovani -Regent 
    1840 - 11 Sep 1853         Davit`                             (b. 1812 - d. 1853)
    11 Sep 1853 -  4 Jan 1867  Nikoloz                            (b. 1847 - d. 1903)
    11 Sep 1853 - 1857         Ekaterina Chavchandaze (f) -Regent (b. 1816 - d. 1882)
    18.. - 18..                Gigol -Regent                      (b. 1814 - d. 1901)
    18.. - 18..                Zakaria, bishop of Mingrelia -Regent



    Svania (Svanet`i)

    [flag of Svania (Svanet`i)

    1460                       Principality of Svania established.
    c.1505 - c.1516            Persian occupation.
    c.1516                     Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
    26 Nov 1833                Russian protectorate.
    1858                       Incorporation into Russian Empire.

    Princes
    1750?                      Otar "the Great"
    c.1780 - c.1800            Mistost                            (d. c.1800)
    c.1800 - Sep 1841          Tsiokh Nikoloz                     (d. 1841)
    Sep 1841 - 11 Sep 1857     Konstantine                        (b. 1827 - d. 1858)
    Sep 1841 - 1846            Mikheil -Regent                    (d. 1850)







     © Ben Cahoon