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Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire
 


[Byzantine
                          imperial flag, c.1204-1453]
   Imperial flag c.1204 - 1453

 
[Standard of Konstantinos XI o
                          Palaiologos (1449-1453)]
  Flag of Konstantínos XI 1449 - 1453


Maps of Byzantine Empire
Capital: Konstantinoúpolis
[Constantinople]
395-1204, 1261-1453;

Nicean Empire:
Níkai
[
Nicea] 1206-1261;
Latins: Constantinople 1204-1261)

Currency: Stereós (Solidus)
(from 1092, Nómisma Hypérpyron)
Population: 2,000,000 (1320)
5,000,0000 (1282)
12,000,000 (1025)
26,000,000 (556)

Byzantine
Empire
Chronology

11 May 330                 Emperor Constantine moves the capital of the Roman
                             Empire to Constantinople (Konstantinoúpolis),
                             formerly named Byzantium (Byzántion), officially
                             called New Rome (Nova Roma [Néa Rómi]).
17 Jan 395                 Roman Empire is divided de jure into the Eastern
                             (Byzantine) Empire, at Constantinople, and Western
                             Empire, at Rome.
 4 Sep 476                 L
ast Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus (b. c.460 -
                             d. c.480),
is forced to abdicate by Odovacar.
Apr 534                    Kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa and the Western
                             Mediterranean Islands conquered by the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire.
535 - c.810                Dalmatia and Croatia part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine)
                             Empire.
May 540 -  3 Sep 569       Most of the Italian Peninsula part of the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire.
552 - 624                  Andalusia (Provincia Spaniae) part of the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire.

559                        Corsica lost to the Lombards.
 
5 Oct 610                 Starting with the Heraclid dynasty, coin labels change from
                             Latin to Greek and rulers stop using Roman name forms.
634                        Arab conquest of Syria and Palestine begins (Damascus on
                            
19 Sep 634, Aleppo Oct 637, Jerusalem Apr 637, and
                             Caesarea 640).
Dec 639                    Arab conquest of Egypt launched, Alexandria falls Sep 641
                             (
conquest of Egypt completed 17 Sep 642).
c.648 - c.680              Cyprus occupied by the Arabs (and again briefly 911-912).
670                        Permanent Arab conquest of "Africa" (Tunisia, 698 expulsion
                             of Byzantines completed) and the Maghreb (Morocco and
                             Algeria) begun.
674 - 680                  Arabs besiege Constantinople (and again Aug 716 - Sep 717).
680 - 1018                 Bulgaria expands into the Byzantine Balkans (Dobruja,
                             Dioclea, Epirus, Macedonia, Moesia, and Thrace).

824 - 7 Mar 961            Arabs occupy Crete.
18 Jun 827                 Arab conquest of Sicily launched (Palermo capitulates
12
                             Sep 831
,
Siracusa occupied, 21 May 878, conquest
                             completed by taking of Taormina
1 Aug 902).
c.827                      Byzantine control over Sardinia effectively lost.
29 Aug 870                 Arabs
occupy Malta.
c.892                      Bosnia lost to Croatia and Serbia (re-occupied 1167-1183).
995 - 1075                 Byzantine forces re-occupy
parts of Syria.
1018 - 1185                Byzantine Empire re-annexes Bulgaria.
16/20 Jul 1054             The Great Schism. The Latin Roman Church and the Greek
                             Orthodox Church excommunicate each other.
16 Apr 1071                Fall of Bari to the Normans ends Byzantine rule in
                             Southern Italy.
1071 - 1308                Most of Anatolia conquered by the Seljukids Sultanate,
                             later from 1092 by the (
Seljukids) Sultanate of Rūm.
1077                       Dioclea (Diókleia)(see Montenegro) independent.
1091                       Secession of "Raška/Rascia" (see Serbia).
1185 - 1204                (Second) Bulgarian Empire re-occupies Moesia and most of
                             Thrace and Macedonia from the Byzantines. Bulgarian
                             independence recognized by Byzantines in 1188.
May 1191                   Cyprus lost.
13 Apr 1204                Latin Crusaders sack Constantinople.
16 May 1204 - 24 Jul 1261 
Constantinople part of Latin Empire (Empire of Romania),
                            
Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire overthrown by Latin
                             (Western) Crusaders.
1205 -  4 Jun 1456         (Latin) Duchy (Lordship to 1260) of Athens (in Attica).
1205 - Jan 1430            (Latin) Principality of Achaea (Achaia)(at Andravída).
1206 - 25 Dec 1261         Empire of Nicaea (at Níkaia)(largest of the three main
                             Byzantine successor states [Nicea, Epirus, Trebizond
                             (Trapezoús)]).
 6 Jan 1209 - Dec 1246     (Latin) Kingdom of Thessalonica (at Salonika).
24 Jul 1261                Nicaea under Mikhaíl VIII "
o Palaiológos" re-captures
                             Constantinople from the Latins.
15 Aug 1261                Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (restored).
1330                       Smyrna (Smýrna) lost to the Beylik of Aydın.
25 Oct 1349 - 29 May 1460  Despotate of the Morea (Mystrás), an appanage of the
                            
Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Jul 1362                   Adrianople (Adrianoúpolis) part of the Ottoman Empire.
1372 - 1394                Byzantine Empire tributary to the Ottoman Empire.
 9 Apr 1387 - Jan/Feb 1403 Thessalonica (Saloníki) part of Ottoman Empire.
17 Sep 1390                Philadelphia (Filadélfeia), part of Ottoman Empire.
10 Jun 1422 - Sep 1422     Ottoman siege of Constantinople.
Sep 1423 - 29 May 1430     Venetian occupation of Thessalonica.
Feb 1424 - 29 May 1453    
Byzantine Empire tributary to the Ottoman Empire.
29 May 1430                Thessalonica reconquered by the Ottoman Empire.
29 May 1453                Constantinople captured by the Ottoman Empire (having been
                             under siege since 6 Apr 1453), end of the Eastern Roman
                             (Byzantine) Empire.
15 Aug 1461                Trebizond (Trapezoús
) Empire, the last of the Byzantine
                             successor states, is
conquered by the Ottoman Empire.

Latin Empire
(1204-1261)
Nicean Empire
(1206-1261)
Epirus Despotate
(1204-1479)
Trebizond Empire
(1204-1461)
 
 
 
 
 
 


Emperors¹
17 Jan 395 -  1 May 408    Arkádios (Arcadius)                    (b. 377 - d. 408)
                             (Flavius Arcadius Augustus)

10 Jan 402 - 28 Jul 450    Theodósios II (Theodosius II)          (b. 401 - d. 450)
                             (Flavius Theodosius iunior Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 1 May 408)
 1 May 408 - 18 Apr 414   
Flávios Anthímios -Regent (de facto)   (b. 35. - d. 414)
                            
(Flavius Anthemius)
 4 Jul 414 - 10 Apr 422   
Aélia Poulchería (f) -Regent           (b. 399 - d. 453)
                            
(Aelia Pulcheria)
28 Jul 450 - 24 Aug 450   
Poulchería -Empress (acting)           (s.a.)
                            
(Aelia Pulcheria)
25 Aug 450 - 27 Jan 457    Markianós (Marcianus)                  (b. 392 - d. 457)
                             (Flavius Marcianus Augustus)
27 Jan 457 -  7 Feb 457    Asp
ár (Flavius Ardabur Aspar)(acting)  (b. c.400 - d. 471)
 7 Feb 457 - 18 Jan 474    Léon I "o
Makéllis" (= Tarasis Kodissa)(b. 400 - d. 474)
                             (Leo I "the Macelles" [Butcher])
                             (
Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus
)
18 Jan 474 - 17 Nov 474   
Léon II "o Mikrós"                     (b. 467 - d. 474)
                             (
Leo II "the Little")
                             (
Flavius Leo iunior Augustus)
 9 Feb 474 -  9 Jan 475    Zínon (Zeno) (1st time)                (b. c.427 - d. 491)
                             (Flavius Zeno Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 17 Nov 474)
 9 Jan 475 - Aug 476       Vasilískos (Basiliscus)                (b. 41. - d. 476)
                             (Flavius Basiliscus Augustus)
475 - Aug 476              Márkous (Marcus) -Co-ruler             (d. 476)
                             (Flavius Marcus Augustus)
Aug 476 -  9 Apr 491       Zínon (Zeno) (2nd time)                (s.a.)
19 Jul 484 -  8 Aug 484    Leóntios I (
Leontius I)                (b. 43. - d. 488)
                             (pretender, in
Antiochia)
 9 Apr 491 - 11 Apr 491    Aélia Ariádni (
Aelia Ariadne) -Empress (b. 44. - d. 515)
                             (acting)
11 Apr 491 -  8 Jul 518    Anastásios I "
o Díkoros"               (b. c.430 - d. 518)
                             (Anastasius I "Dicorus" [Two-pupiled]
)
                             (Flavius Anastasius)
 9 Jul 518 -  1 Aug 527    Ioustínos I (Justin I)                 (b. c.450 - d. 527)
                             (Flavius Iustinus Augustus)
 1 Apr 527 - 14 Nov 565    Ioustinianós I "o Mégas"               (b. 482 - d. 565)
                             (Justinian I "the Great")
                             (Flavius Petrus
Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 1 Aug 527)
14 Nov 565 -  5 Oct 578    Ioustínos II
(Justin II)               (b. c.520 - d. 578)
                             (Flavius Justinus iunior)
Nov 573 -  5 Oct 578       Aélia Sofía (Aelia Sophia) (f) -Regent (b. c.530 - d. c.601)
 7 Dec 574 - 26 Sep 578   
Tivérios Konstantínos -Regent          (b. c.532 - d. 582)
                             (Tiberius Constantinus)
26 Sep 578 - 14 Aug 582    Tivérios II
Konstantínos               (s.a.)
                            
(Tiberius II Constantine)
                            
(Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
                             (co-ruler to 5 Oct 578)
13 Aug 582 - 22 Nov 602    Mavríkios (Mauricius)                  (b. 539 - d. 602)
                             (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 14 Aug 582)
23 Nov 602 -  5 Oct 610   
Flávios Fokás (Phocas)                 (b. 547 - d. 610)
                            
(Flavius Phocas Augustus)
 5 Oct 610 - 11 Feb 641    Irákleios (Heraclius)                  (b. c.575 - d. 641)
                             (Flavius Heraclius Augustus)
22 Jan 613 - 11 Feb 641   
Irákleios Néos Konstantínos (1st time) (b. 612 - d. 641)  
                             (Heraclius New Constantine)
                             (H
eraclius Novus Constantinus Augustus)
                             (co-ruler)
 4 Jul 638 - 11 Feb 641   
Konstantínos Irákleios (Iraklonás)     (b. c.626 - d.641)
                             (
Constantinus Heraclius [Herakleonas])
                             (
Flavius Constantinus Heraclius [
Heraclianus] Augustus)
                             (
co-ruler) (1st time)
11 Feb 641 - 26 Feb 641    Irákleios
Néos Konstant
ínos (2nd time) (s.a.)
11 Feb 641 - 14 Sep 641    Konstantínos Irákleios (Iraklonás)     (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler to 26 Feb 641) (2nd time)

26 May 641 - 14 Sep 641    Martína (Martina) (f) -Regent          (b. 59. - d. af.641)
 
9 Sep 641 - 15 Sep 668    K
onstantínos III "o Pogonátos"         (b. 630 - d. 668)
                             (
Constantine III "the Pogonatus" [Bearded])
                             (Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 14 Sep 641; in Syracuse 663-668)
13 Apr 654 - 15 Jul 668    Konstantínos IV
-Co-ruler (1st time)   (b. c.648 - d. 685)
                             (Constantine IV)
                             (Flavius Constantinus Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to
15 Sep 668)
659 - 15 Sep 668           Irákleios (Heraclius) -Co-ruler        (b. 65. - d. af.681)
                             (1st time)
659 - 15 Sep 668           Tivérios (Tiberius) -Co-ruler          (b. 65. - d. af.681)
                             (1st time)
15 Sep 668 - 14 Sep 685   
Konstantínos IV (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                             (Constantine IV)
15 Sep 668 - Oct? 681     
Irákleios (Heraclius) -Co-ruler        (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
15 Sep 668 - Oct? 681     
Tivérios (Tiberius) -Co-ruler          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Oct? 681 - 695             Ioustinianós II
"o Rinótmitos"         (b. 669 - d. 711)
                             (Justinian II "Rhinotmetus" [the Noseless])
                             (Flavius Iustinianus Augustus)
                             (co-ruler to 14 Sep 685) (1st time)
695 - 15 Feb 698          
Léon (II)(Leóntios) (Leon)             (b. 64. - d. 705)
                             (Leontius Augustus)
15 Feb 698 - 21 Aug 705    Tivérios III (= Apsímaros)             (b. 65. - d. 705)
                             (Tiberius III "Absimerus")
                             (Tiberius Augustus)
21 Aug 705 - 24 Nov 711    I
oustinianós II "o Rinótmitos"         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Sep 705 - 24 Nov 711       Tivérios (Tiberius) -Co-ruler          (b. c.703 - d. 711)
24 Nov 711 -  3 Jun 713    Filippikós
(= Vardánis)                (b. 67. - d. 714)
                            
(Philippicus)(= Bardanes) 
 4 Jun 713 - Nov 715       Anastásios
II (= Artémios)             (b. 67. - d. 719)
                            
(Anastasius II)
May 715 - 25 Mar 717       Theodósios III (Theodosius III)        (b. 67. - d. af.717)
                             (in opposition to Nov 715)
18 Apr 716 - 18 Jun 717   
Léon III (Leo III) (= Kónon)           (b. c.685 - d. 741)
                             (
in opposition to 25 Mar 717)
31 Mar 720 - 14 Sep 775    Konstantínos V (Constantine V) 
       (b. 718 - d. 775)
                             (co-ruler to 18 Jun 741)
Jun 741 -  2 Nov 743       A
rtávasdos (= Artavazd) (pretender)    (b. 67. - d. 74.)
                            
(Artabasdus)
 6 Jun 751 -  8 Sep 780    Léon IV "
o Cházaros"                   (b. 750 - d. 780)
                             (Leo IV "the Khazar")
                            
(co-ruler to 14 Sep 775)
14 Apr 776 - 19 Apr 797    Konstantínos VI (Constantine VI)       (b. 771 - d. c.803)
                             (co-ruler to 8 Sep 780)

 8 Sep 780 - Oct 790       Eiríni (Irene)(f) -Regent              (b. 752 - d. 803)
15 Jan 791 - 31 Oct 802   
Eiríni (Irene) -Empress                (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler to 19 Apr 797)

31 Oct 802 - 26 Jul 811    Nikifóros I
"o Logothétis"             (b. 74. - d. 811)
                            
(Nicephorus I "the Logothete") 
19 Jul 803 -  8 Sep 803    Vardánis "
o Toúrkos" (pretender)       (b. 74. - d. af.813)
                             (
Vardan "the Turk")
25 Dec 803 - 26 Oct 811    Stavrákios
(Stauracius)                (b. 77. - d. 812)
                             (co-ruler to 26 Jul 811)
 2 Oct 811 - 12 Jul 813    M
ichaíl I "o Rangavé"                  (b. c.770 - d. 844) 
                             (Michael I "Rhangabe")
25 Dec 811 - 12 Jul 813    Theofýlaktos
(Theophylactus) -Co-ruler (b. c.793 - d. 849)
12 Jul 813 - 25 Dec 820    Léon V "
o Arménios" (= Levon)          (b. c.775 - d. 820)
                             (Leo V "the Armenian")
16 Apr 814 - 25 Dec 820    K
onstantínos (= Symvátios) -Co-ruler   (b. 80. - d. af.847)
                             (Constantine [= Symbatios])
25 Dec 820 -  2 Oct 829    M
ichaíl II "o ex Amoríou", "o Travlós" (b. c.775 - d. 829)
                             (Michael II "the Amorian", "the Stammerer") 
Jan 821 - Oct 823          Thom
ás "o Slávos" (Thomas "the Slav")  (b. 76. - d. 823)
                             (pretender)
12 May 821 - 20 Jan 842    T
heófilos (Theophilus)                 (b. c.803 - d. 842)
                             (co-ruler to 2 Oct 829) 
16 May 840 - 24 Sep 867    Michaíl III (Michael III)              (b. 840 - d. 867)
                             (co-ruler to 20 Jan 842)
20 Jan 842 - 20 Nov 855    Theodóra (Theodora) (f) -Regent        (b. 815 - d. af.867)
20 Jan 842 - 20 Nov 855    Theóktistos (Theoctistus) -Regent      (b. 77. - d. 855) 
26 May 866 - 29 Aug 886    Vasíleios I "o Makedón"                (b. 82. - d. 886)
                             (Basil I "the Macedonian")
                             (co-ruler to 24 Sep 867)
 6 Jan 868 -  3 Sep 879    K
onstantínos (Constantine) -Co-ruler   (b. 866 - d. 879)
879 - 29 Aug 886           Aléxandros (Alexander)(1st time)       (b. 872 - d. 913)
869 - 11 May 912           Léon VI "
o Sofós" (Leo VI "the Wise")  (b. 867 - d. 912)
                             (co-ruler to 29 Aug 886)
29 Aug 886 - 11 May 912   
Aléxandros -Co-ruler (2nd time)        (s.a.)
15 May 908 -
11 May 912    Konstantínos VII "o Porfyrogénnitos"   (b. 905 - d. 959)
                             (Constantine VII "
the Porphyrogenitus" [Purple-born])
                             (1st time) -Co-Ruler

11 May 912 -  6 Jun 913   
Aléxandros (Alexander)(3rd time)       (s.a.)
11 May 912
- 27 Jan 945   
Konstantínos VII "o Porfyrogénnitos"   (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler to 6 Jun 913) (2nd time)

 6 Jun 913 - 17 Dec 920    Regents
                           - Patriárchis Nikólaos "o Mystikós"    (b. 852 - d. 925)
                              (Patriarch Nicholas I "the Mystic")
                              (
to Mar 914)
                           - Zoí "i Karvonopsína" (f)             (b. c.885 - d. 920?)
                              (
Zoë "Carbonopsina" [Coal-black Eyes])
                              (
Mar 914 - May 919)
                           - R
omanós "o Lakapínos"                (b. 87. - d. 948)
                              (Romanus "Lecapenus")
                              (May 919 - 17 Dec 920)   

May 913 - Jun 913         
Konstantínos "o Doúkas" (pretender)    (b. 87. - d. 913)
                             (Constantine "Ducas")
17 Dec 920 - 16 Dec 944   
Romanós I "o Lakapínos"                (s.a.)
                             (Romanus "Lecapenus")

17 May 921 - 14 Aug 932    Christofóros
"o Lakapínos" -Co-ruler   (b. 90. - d. 932)
                             (Christopher "Lecapenus")
25 Dec 924 - 27 Jan 945    Stéfanos
"o Lakapínos" -Co-ruler       (b. c.907 - d. 963)
                             (Stephen "Lecapenus")
25 Dec 924 - 27 Jan 945    K
onstantínos "o Lakapínos" -Co-ruler   (b. c.916 - d. 948)
   
                         (Constantine "Lecapenus")
27 Jan 945 -  9 Nov 959
    Konstantínos VII "o Porfyrogénnitos"   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

 
6 Apr 945 - 15 Mar 963    Romanós II (Romanus II)                (b. 938 - d. 963)
                             (co-ruler to 9 Nov 959) 

15 Mar 963 - 16 Aug 963    Vasíleios II
"o Voulgaroktónos"        (b. 959 - d. 1025)
                             (Basil II "the Bulgar Slayer")
                             (1st time)
15 Mar 963 - 16 Aug 963    K
onstantínos VIII -Co-ruler (1st time) (b. 960 - d. 1028)
                             (Constantine VIII)
15 Mar 963 - 16 Aug 963    Theofan
ó (= Anastasíi)(f) -Regent      (b. 943 - d. af.969)
                             (Theophano)
 3 Jul 963 -
11 Dec 969    Nikifóros II "o Fokás"                 (b. c.912 - d. 969)
                             (Nicephorus II "Phocas")
                             (pretender to 16 Aug 963)

11 Dec 969 - 10 Jan 976    I
oánnis I "o Kourkoúas", "o Tsimiskís" (b. c.925 - d. 976)
                             (John I "Kourkouas", "Tzimiskes")
                             (= Hovhannes Gurgen "Ch'mshkik")

10 Jan 976 - 15 Dec 1025   Vasíleios II
"o Voulgaroktónos"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
10 Jan 976 - 15 Dec 1025   Konstantínos VIII -Co-ruler (2nd time) (s.a.)
976 - 24 May 979           Várdas Sklirós (Bardas Sclerus)        (b. 93. - d. 991)

                             (pretender)
15 Aug 987 - 13 Apr 989    Várdas
"o Fokás" (Bardas "Phocas")     (b. 93. - d. 989)
                             (pretender)
15 Dec 1025 - 11 Nov 1028  K
onstantínos VIII (3rd time)           (s.a.)
15 Nov 1028 - 18 Apr 1042  Zoí (Zoë) -Empress (1st time)          (b. c.978 - d. 1050)
11 Nov 1028 - 11 Apr 1034  Romanós III "o Argyrós"                (b. 968 - d. 1034)
                             (Romanus III "Argyrus") 

11 Apr 1034 - 10 Dec 1041  Michaíl IV "o Paflagón"                (b. 1012? - d. 1041)
                             (Michael IV "the Paphlagonian")

10 Dec 1041 - 20 Apr 1042 
Michaíl V "o Kalafátis"                (b. c.1015 - d. 1042)

                             (Michael V "the Caulker"])

20 Apr 1042 - 11 Jun 1042
  Zoí (Zoë) -Empress (2nd time)          (s.a.)
20 Apr 1042 - 11 Jun 1042  T
heodóra (f)(Theodora) -Co-ruler       (b. c.980 - d. 1056)
                             (1st time)

11 Jun 1042 - 11 Jan 1055  K
onstantínos IX "o Monomáchos"         (b. 100. - d. 1055)
                             (
Constantine IX "Monomachus" [Gladiator])
2. Sep 1047 - Dec 1047     Léon Torníkios (in Adrianoúpolis)      (b. 9.. - d. af.1047)
                             (Leo Tornikios)(pretender)

11 Jan 1055 - 31 Aug 1056  T
heodóra (Theodora) -Empress (2nd time)(s.a.)
31 Aug 1056 -  1 Sep 1057  Michaíl VI "
o Vríngas"                 (b. 99. - d. 1058?)
                             (Michael VI "Bringas")
 8 Jun 1057 - 25 Nov 1059  Isaákios I "
o Komninós                 (b. c.1007 - d. 1060)
                             (Isaac I "Comnenus") 
                             (pretender to 1 Sep 1057)
25 Nov 1059 - 22 May 1067  Konstantínos X "o Doúkas"              (b. 1006 - d. 1067)
                             (Constantine X "Ducas")
22 May 1067 -  7 Jan 1078  Michaíl VII "
o Doúkas"                 (b. c.1052 - d. 1090)
                             (Michael VII "Ducas")

22 May 1067 -  7 Jan 1078  Andrónikos
"o Doúkas" -Co-ruler        (b. 1057? - d. 108.)
                             (Andronicus "Ducas")
22 May 1067 -  7 Jan 1078  K
onstantínos "o Doúkas" -Co-ruler      (b. 1060 - d. 1081)
                             (Constantine "Ducas")
22 May 1067 -  1 Jan 1068  Evdokía "
i Makremvolítissa" (f)-Regent (b. c.1021 - d. 1096)
                            
(Eudocia "Macrembolitissa")
 1 Jan 1068 - 24 Oct 1071  Romanós IV "o Diogénis"                (b. 102. - d. 1072)
                             (Romanus IV "Diogenes")
                             (Turkish prisoner from 19 Aug 1071)
26 Aug 1071 - 24 Oct 1071  Evdokía "i Makremvolítissa" -Empress   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 7 Jan 1078 - 24 Mar 1078  Nikifóros "o Vryénnios" (pretender)    (b. 103. - d. 109.)
                            
(Nikephoros "the Bryennios")
 7 Jan
1078 -  4 Apr 1081  Nikifóros III "
o Votaneiátis"          (b. c.1003 - d. 1081)
                             (Nikephoros III "Botaniates")
                             (pretender to 24 Mar 1078)
Feb 1081 -  8 Apr 1081     Nikifóros Melissinós (in Níkaia)       (b. c.1045 - d. 1104)
                             (Nicephorus Melissenus)(pretender)

 4 Apr 1081 - 15 Aug 1118  Aléxios I "
o Komninós"                 (b. c.1056 - d. 1118)
                             (Alexius I "Comnenus")
 1 Sep 1092 -  8 Apr 1143  Ioánnis II
"o Komninós"                (b. 1087 - d. 1143)
                             (John II "Comnenus")

                             (co-ruler to
15 Aug 1118
1122 -  2 Aug 1142         Aléxios "o Komninós" -Co-ruler         (b. 1106 - d. 1142) 
                             (Alexius "Comnenus")
 8 Apr 1143 - 24 Sep 1180  Manouíl I "
o Komninós"                 (b. 1118 - d. 1180)
                             (Manuel I "Comnenus")

24 Mar 1171 - Sep 1183     Aléxios II
"o Komninós" -Co-ruler      (b. 1169 - d. 1183)
                             (Alexius II "Comnenus")
                             (co-ruler to 24 Sep 1180)
24 Sep 1180 -  2 May 1182  Mar
ía (Maria de Antiochia) (f) -Regent (b. 1145 - d. 1182)
16 May 1182 - 11 Sep 1185  A
ndrónikos I "o Komninós"              (b. c.1123 - d. 1185)
                             (Andronicus I "Comnenus")
                             (co-ruler to Sep 1183)

11 Sep
1185 -  8 Apr 1195  Isaákios II "
o Ángelos" (1st time)     (b. 1156 - d. 1204)
                             (Isaac II "Angelus")
 8 Apr 1195 - 17 Jul 1203  Aléxios III "
o Ángelos"                (b. c.1153 - d. 1211)
                             (Alexius III "Angelus")
17 Jul 1203 - 28 Jan 1204  Isaákios II "o Ángelos" (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 
1 Aug 1203 - 28 Jan 1204  Aléxios IV "o Ángelos" -Co-ruler       (b. c.1182 - d. 1204)
                             (Alexius IV "Angelus")

28 Jan 1204 -  3 Feb 1204  Nikólaos "o Kanavós"                   (b. 11.. - d. 1204)
                             (Nicholas "Kanabus")
 3 Feb 1204 -  5 Feb 1204  Aléxios "o Doúkas" (acting)            (b. 116. - d. 1204)
                             (Alexius "Ducas") 
 5 Feb 1204 - 13 Apr 1204 
Aléxios V "o Doúkas", "o Moúrtzouflos" (s.a.)
                             (Alexius V "Ducas", "Mourtzouphlos")
13 Apr 1204 -  9 May 1204  .... (acting)

Latin Emperor
s¹ (in Constantinople)
 9 May 1204 - 11 Jul 1205  Balduinus (Balduin) I (Baudouin I)     (b. 1171 - d. 1205)
                             (Baudouin, comte de Flandre et de Hainaut)
                             (Bulgarian prisoner from 14 Apr 1205)
14 Apr 1205 - 20 Aug 1206 
Henri de Hainaut (acting)              (b. 1176? - d. 1216)B.
20 Aug 1206 - 11 Jul 1216  Henricus (Henry)                       (s.a.)
                             (
Henri de Hainaut)
11 Jul 1216 - 1217         Conon de Béthune (acting)              (b. 115. - d. 1220)
 9 Apr 1217 - Jun 1219     Petrus (Peter)                         (b. 1155? - d. 1219)
                             (Pierre de Courtenay, comte de Namur;
                             prisoner of despot of Epirus 1217 - 1219)
1217 - 2. Sep 1219         Yolens (Yolande)(f) (acting)           (b. 117. - d. 1219) 
                             (for absent Pierre)
2. Sep 1219 - 17 Dec 1220  Conon de Béthune -Regent               (s.a.)
17 Dec 1220 - 25 Mar 1221  Cardinal Giovanni di Giordano Colonna  (b. 11.. - d. 1245)
                             (acting)
25 Mar 1221 - 2. Jan 1228  Robertus (Robert)                      (b. 1201 - d. 1228)
2. Jan 1228 - 25 Jul 1261  Balduinus (Balduin) II
(Baudouin II)   (b. 1217 - d. 1273)
                             (
Baudouin, comte de Namur)
                             (absent 1236 - Jul 1239 and 1243 - 1247)
2. Jan 1228 -
15 Apr 1240  Regents
                           - Marie de Courtenay (f)               (b. 1204 - d. 1228)
                              (
2. Jan 1228 - Sep 1228)
                           - Narjot, seigneur de Toucy (
Tusciaci) (b. 11.. - d. 1241)
                              (
Sep 1228 - 1231 and 1238 - 15 Apr 1240)
                           - Johan (Jean de Brienne)              (b. 117. - d. 1237)
                              (
1231 - 27 Mar 1237)
                           - Ansel, seigneur de Kayeu             (b. 117. - d. 1238?)
                             
(Anseau de Cayeux) 
                             
(27 Mar 1237 - 1238)
1243 - 1247                Philippe, seigneur de Toucy -Regent    (b. 12.. - d. 1277)
Nicean Emperors¹ (in Nicea [Níkaia])
1206 - Nov 1221            Theódoros I "
o Komninós o Láskaris"    (b. c.1173 - d. 1221)
                             (Theodorus I
"Comnenus Laskaris")
Nov 1221 -  3 Nov 1254     Ioánnis III "
o Doúkas o Vatátzis"      (b. 1192? - d. 1254)
                             (John III "Ducas Vataces")
 3 Nov 1254 - 16 Aug 1258  Theódoros II "o
Doúkas o Láskaris"     (b. 1221 - d. 1258)
                             (Theodorus II "Ducas Lascaris")
16 Aug 1258 - 25 Dec 1261  Ioánnis IV "
o Doúkas ó Láskaris"       (b. 1250 - d. c.1305)
                             (John IV "Ducas Lascaris")
16 Aug 1258 - 25 Aug 1258  Geórgios
"o Mouzálon" -Regent          (d. 1258)
                             (George Mouzalon)
25 Aug 1258 -  1 Jan 1259  Michaíl "o Palaiológos" -Regent        (b. 1224 - d. 1282)
                             (Michael "Palaeologus")
 1 Jan 1259 - 15 Aug 1261  Michaíl VIII "
o Palaiológos" -Co-ruler (s.a.)
                             (Michael VIII "Palaeologus")
Emperor
s¹ (in Constantinople)
15 Aug 1261 - 11 Dec 1282  Michaíl VIII "o Palaiológos"           (s.a.)
                             (Michael VIII "Palaeologus")
                             (crowned
25 Dec 1261)
Nov 1272 - 24 May 1328     Andrónikos II "
o Palaiológos"          (b. 1259 - d. 1332)
                             (Andronicus II "
o Palaeologus")
                             (co-ruler to
11 Dec 1282)
21 May 1294 - 12 Oct 1320  M
ichaíl IX "o Palaiológos" -Co-ruler   (b. 1277 - d. 1320)
                             (Michael IX "Palaeologus")
 2 Feb 1325 - 15 Jun 1341  Andrónikos III "
o Palaiológos"         (b. 1297 - d. 1341)
                             (Andronicus III "Palaeologus")
                             (co-ruler to
24 May 1328)
15 Jun 1341 -  8 Feb 1347  Ioánnis V "
o Palaiológos" (1st time)   (b. 1332 - d. 1391)
                             (John V
"Palaeologus")
15 Jun 1341 - Oct 1341     Ioánnis "
o Kantakouzinós" -Regent      (b. c.1294 - d. 1383)
                             (John "Cantacuzenus")
Oct 1341 -  8 Feb 1347     Regents
                           - Ánna (Anna)(= Jeanne de Savoie)(f)   (b. 1308? - d. 1365?)
                           - Patriárchis Ioánnis Kalékas          (b. c.1282 - d. 1347)
                             (Patriarch John XIV Kalekas)
21 May 1346 - 
4 Dec 1354  Ioánnis VI "o Kantakouzinós"           (s.a.)
                             (John VI "Cantacuzenus")
                             (pretender to 8 Feb 1347)
 8 Feb 1347 - 12 Aug 1376  Ioánnis V "o Palaiológos" (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler to 4 Dec 1354)
25 Sep 1373 - 12 Aug 1376  Manouíl II "o Palaiológos" -Co-ruler   (b. 1350 - d. 1425)
                             (Manuel II "Palaeologus")
                             (1st time)
12 Aug 1376 -  1 Jul 1379  Andrónikos IV "
o Palaiológos"          (b. 1348 - d. 1385)
                             (Andronicus IV Palaeologus)
                             (1st time)
Sep? 1377 -  1 Jul 1379    Ioánnis VII
"o Palaiológos" -Co-ruler  (b. 1370 - d. 1408)
                             (John VII "Palaeologus")
                             (1st time)
 1 Jul 1379 - 14 Apr 1390  Ioánnis V "o Palaiológos" (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1379 - 14 Apr 1390  Manouíl II "o Palaiológos" -Co-ruler   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1381 - 28 Jun 1385         Andrónikos IV "o Palaiológos"-Co-ruler (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
14 Apr 1390 - 17 Sep 1390  Ioánnis VII "
o Palaiológos" (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (John VII "Palaeologus")
17 Sep 1390 - 16 Feb 1391  Ioánnis V "
o Palaiológos" (4th time)   (s.a.)
17 Sep 1390 - 21 Jul 1425  Manouíl II "o Palaiológos" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (
co-ruler to 16 Feb 1391)
19 Jan 1421 - 31 Oct 1448  Ioánnis VIII "o
Palaiológos"           (b. 1392 - d. 1448)
                             (John VIII "Palaeologus")
                             (co-ruler to
21 Jul 1425)
31 Oct 1448 - 29 May 1453  Konstantínos XI "
o Palaiológos o       (b. 1404 - d. 1453)
  
                           Dragásis"
                             (
Constantine XI "P
alaeologus, Dragases")
31 Oct 1448 - 12 Mar 1449  Eléni i Dragásina (f) -Regent          (b. c.1372 - d. 1450)

                             (Elena Dragaš)(for absent
Constantine)

 ¹Style of the rulers:
(a) 17 Jan 395 - 5 Oct 610 (in Latin): Imperator Augustus ("Emperor Augustus");
(b) 5 Oct 610 - 9 May 1204 (in Greek): Basileús Romaíon ("Emperor of the Romans");
(c) Latins: 9 May 1204 - 15 Aug 1261 (in Latin): Imperator, Romanorum moderator et semper augustus
("Emperor, Ruler of the Romans and always venerable [august]");
(d) Nicea (Níkaia): 1206 - 25 Dec 1261 (in Greek): Basile
ús kaí Aútokrátor Romaíon ("Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans");
(e) 15 Aug 1261 - 29 May 1453: Basile
ús kaí Aútokrátor Romaíon ("Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans").






© Ben Cahoon