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Montenegro

Ottoman
                                    Empire
                    to 3 Mar 1878
 
 
[Montenegro merchant flag
                                    1878-1880]
                1763 - 1773 Prince's Flag 

         3 Mar 1878 - 1880 Merchant Flag
 
[Montenegro Prince's Flag
                                  1852-1861]
   1852 - 1861 Prince's Flag
 
 
[Montenegro Royal flag 1878-1881,
                                  1910-1918]
  1861 - 1878, 1910 - 28 Nov 1918 Royal Flag
 
[Montenegro merchant flag
                                    1879-1880]
              1879 - 1880  Civil Ensign
 
[Montenegro merchant flag
                                    1880-1881]
            1880 - 1881  Civil Ensign
 
[Montenegro merchant flag
                                  1881-1918]
   1881 - 29 Nov 1918, Jul 1941 Civil Ensign
 
[Montenegro state flag
                                    1910-1918]
         1910 - 29 Nov 1918 State Flag
 
[Flag
                                    of Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1919-1946]
  1 Dec 1918 - 17 Apr 1941, 4 Dec 1943 - 31 Dec 1946
 
[Flag
                                    of SR Montenegro 1946-1993]
                   31 Dec 1946 - 21 Dec 1993
 
[Flag of
                                    Montenegro 1993-2004]
                     21 Dec 1993 - 12 Jul 2004
 
[Flag of
                                    Montenegro]
                       Adopted 12 Jul 2004
Map of Montenegro
Hear National Anthem
 "Oj, Svijetla Majska Zoro"
(O' The Bright Dawn of May)
Adopted 12 Jul 2004
Hear Former Anthem
"Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori"
 (To Our Beautiful Montenegro)
(1870-1918)
Constitution
(22 Oct 2007)
------------------------------------

1992  Constitution
(12 Oct 1992 - 22 Oct 2007)
Capital: Podgorica
(Titograd 1946-1992;
Cetinje 1482-1946;
Obod 1475-1482;
Zabljak 1474-1475;
Bar [Antivari] 1403-1408;
Ulcinj [Olcinium] 1385-1403;
Skadar [Shkoder] 1042-1385
and 1408-1474;
Prapratna  to 1042)
Historic Capital: Cetinje
(from 12 Oct 1992)
Currency: Euro (EUR)
German Mark (DEM)
2 Nov 1999 - 28 Feb 2002;
Yugoslav Dinar (YUD)
1918- 1999; Montenegro
Perper (MEP) 1852-1918 
National Holiday: 13 Jul (1878)
National Day
Population: 653,474 (2013)
615,035 (1991)
311,341 (1921)
436,800 (1918)
GDP: $7.42 billion (2013)
Exports: $489.2 million (2012)
Imports: $2.4 billion (2012)
Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 43.16%, Serbs 31.99%, 
Bosniaks 7.77%, Albanian 5.03%, Slavic 
Muslim 3.97%, Croat 1.10%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.42%, 
Yugoslav 0.30%, others 4.69% (2003) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 3,127 (2010)
37,000 (1914)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
(22 ships [1909]) 
Religions: Montenegrin and Serbian  Orthodox 74.24%,
Muslim 17.74%, Roman Catholic 3.54%, Protestant 0.06%
 other 0.39%, non-religious and atheist 3.2% (2003)
International Organizations/Treaties: before 1918: ICRM, ITU, PCA, UPU; from 2006: APM, BSEC (dialogue partner), BIS (candidate), BTWC, CCM, CE, CEFTA, CEI, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NTBT, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, PFP, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Montenegro
Index
Chronology
   
mid 9th cent.              Principality of Dioclea (Duklja) located
                             in present-day Montenegro, a Byzantine vassal.
c.1030                     First reliable mention of the state of Zeta,
                             encompassing the region of Brda and a small 
                             part of present-day Montenegrin coast.
Aug 1036 - Dec 1037        Byzantine occupation.
1042                       Kotor (Cattaro) and Skadar (Shkodër/Scutari) areas 
                             form the independent state of Zeta.
1077                       The Pope sends a crown to Prince Mihajlo as
                             "King of Dioclea" (Rex Docleae) recognizing the 
                             independence of Kingdom of Zeta.
1091 - 1101                Byzantine occupation.
1189 - 1356                Incorporated into the Serbian Empire.
1296                       Name Crna Gora (Montenegro) mentioned for the 
                             first time in a charter of St. Nicholas' 
                             monastery.
1356 - 1421                Zeta Vojvodstvo (Voivodeship).
28 Apr 1421 - 1435         Zeta under Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarevic who
                             passed rule to Djuradj Brankovic in 1427.
c.1430                     Name Crna Gora (Montenegro) in general use
1474                       Skadar (capital of Montenegro) falls to Ottomans.
1479 - 1481                Ottoman occupation.
1496                       Montenegro falls under Ottoman suzerainty.
Nov 1496 - 1498            Ottoman occupation.
1499 - 1503                Venetian-Ottoman war; tribal anarchy in 
                             Montenegro.
1513 - 1528                Montenegro a Sanjak of Ottoman Empire.
1516                       Prince Djuradj V Crnojevic abdicates in favor of
                             the Vladika
20 Sep 1692 - 1692         Ottoman occupation of Cetinje.
1799                       Sultan Selim III renounces Ottoman suzerainty 
                             over Montenegro.
28 Feb 1806 - 12 Aug 1807  Allied to Russians during Napoleonic wars,
                             Petar I occupies Boka Kotorska (Cattaro).
11 Sep 1813 - 10 Jun 1814  Montenegro administers the Boka Kotorska.
13 Mar 1852                Principality of Montenegro
30 Mar 1856                By Treaty of Paris, Ottomans forced to abandon 
                             claim to Montenegro.
 3 Mar 1878                By Treaty of San Stefano, Ottomans recognize
                             the independence of Montenegro.
13 Jul 1878                Independence recognized by the Congress 
                             of Berlin; Montenegro acquires Bar (Antivari)
                             Ulcinj and Podgorica.
13 Jul 1878 - 10 Aug 1913  Austria-Hungary occupies the Sanjak of Novi 
                             Pazar, however remains part of the Ottoman
                             Empire.
28 Aug 1910                Kingdom of Montenegro 
23 Apr 1913 -  6 May 1913  Montenegro occupies Shkodër (Skadar).
10 Aug 1913                Sanjak of Novi Pazar partitioned between Serbia
                             and Montenegro (Montenegro gets Pljevlja, Bijelo
                             Polje, Berane, Plav, Rozaje and Metohija [Pec]).
14 Jun 1915 - 23 Jan 1916  Montenegro occupies Shkodër.
17 Jan 1916 - Oct 1918     Occupied by Austria-Hungary (in Cetinje from 
                             15 Jan 1916).
20 Jul 1917                Corfu Declaration declares Montenegro unified
                             with Serbia.
26 Nov 1918                Unification with Serbia proclaimed.
 1 Dec 1918                Merged into what became Yugoslavia (see Serbia).
11 Dec 1920                By Treaty of Rapallo Allies recognizes de facto
                             union with Serbia.
13 Jul 1921                Paris Ambassadors conference recognizes de jure
                             union with Serbia.
 4 Oct 1929                Part of the Banovina of Zeta (Zetska Banovina).
17 Apr 1941 - 10 Sep 1943  Occupied by Italy (see commanders under Albania).
12 Jul 1941 - 24 Jul 1941  Independence of the Montenegrin state as a 
                             constitutional monarchy declared (under Italian
                             protectorate) exiled King Mihajlo I refuses 
                             the throne, the Montenegrin crown is offered to
                             Prince Roman Romanov of Russia (b. 1896 - d. 
                             1978) who also refuses.
13 Jul 1941 - Jul 1941     Partisan uprising in Montenegro, in next few days
                             almost all Montenegro liberated (except Podgorica,
                             Cetinje, Niksic, and Pljevlja).
10 Sep 1943 - 18 Dec 1944  Occupied by Germany (in Kotor to 21 Nov 1944, 
                             Budva to 22 Nov 1944, Podgorica to 18 Dec 1944).
29 Nov 1943                Re-incorporation into Yugoslavia declared in
                             opposition to occupation (see under Serbia).
29 Nov 1945                Part of Yugoslavia (People's Republic of
                             Montenegro).
 7 Apr 1963                Socialist Republic of Montenegro
12 Oct 1992                Republic of Montenegro
 4 Mar 2003 -  3 Jun 2006  Part of Serbia and Montenegro (a loose
                             confederation)(see under Serbia).
21 May 2006                Independence referendum approved 55.5% to 44.5%.
 3 Jun 2006                Independence declared (Republic of Montenegro).
 8 Jun 2006                Independence recognized by Serbia (formally from 
                             15 Jun 2006). 
22 Oct 2007                Montenegro
Socialist Republic of
Montenegro
(1945-1991)
Kingdom in Exile
(1917-1922)
Boka Kotorska
(Cattaro)
(1420-1814, 1941-1943)
Montenegrin
Orthodox Church
 Montenegrin
Orthodox Church

(Schismatic
from 1993)
Ethnic map of
Montenegro

(2002) 
Historical Maps
of Montenegro
 
 

Princes
c.900                      Petrislav I
... - ...                  Predimir
                           - jointly with -
... - ...                  Hvalimir I
                           - jointly with -
... - ...                  Boleslav 
                           - jointly with -
... - ...                  Dragislav 
                           - jointly with -
... - ...                  Svevlad 
                           - jointly with -
... - ...                  Legec
9.. - 9..                  Silvester
9.. - 9..                  Tugomir
9.. - 971                  Hvalimir II 
971 - 996                  Petrislav II 
996 -  4 Jun 1016          Jovan Vladimir II                  (d. 1016) 
 4 Jun 1016 - 23 Apr 1034  Dragomir I                         (d. 1040) 
23 Apr 1034 - Aug 1036     Stefan Vojislav (1st time)         (d. 1052)
                             (Dobroslav I)
Aug 1036 - Dec 1037        Byzantine rule
Dec 1037 - 1052            Stefan Vojislav (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1052 - 1077                Stefan Mihajlo                     (b. 1042 - d. 1081)
1052 - 1054                Neda (f) -Regent
Kings 
1077 - 1081                Stefan Mihajlo I                   (s.a.)
1081 - 1091                Konstantin Bodin                   (d. 1101)
1091 - 1101                Byzantine rule
1101 - 1102                Mihajlo II
                           - jointly with -
1101 - 1102                Dobroslav II
1102                       Dobroslav III
1102 - 1103                Kocapar 
1103 - 1113                Vladimir II                        (d. 1114) 
1113 - 1118                Djordje (1st time)                 (d. 1135)
1118 - 1125                Grubesa                            (d. 1125) 
1125 - 1127                Djordje (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
1127 - 1146                Gradinja                           (d. 1146) 
1146 - 1162                Radoslav                           (d. 1162) 
1162 - Jan 1186            Mihajlo III                        (d. 1186)
Kings (as Serbian Viceroys of Zeta)
Jan 1186 - 1190            Stefan Nemanja                     (b. 1113 - d. 1199) 
1190 - May 1208            Stefan Vukan Nemanjic              (d. 1208)
May 1208 - 1248            Djordje Nemanjic                   (d. 1248) 
1248 - 1276                Stefan Nemanjic
1276 - 1309                Jelena of Anjou -Queen             (d. 1314)
1309 - 1314                Stefan Uros III Decani             (b. 1274 - d. 1331)
1314 - 1322                Stefan Konstantin                  (d. 1322)
1322 - 1331                Stefan Uros IV Dusan "the Mighty"  (b. 1308 - d. 1355) 
Princes
1356 - 1362                Balsa I Balsic                     (d. 1362)
1362 - 1372                Stracimir                          (d. 1372/73) 
                           - jointly with the following -
1362 - 13 Jan 1378         Djuradj I                          (d. 1379) 
1362 - 18 Sep 1385         Balsa II                           (d. 1385)
30 Sep 1385 - 1417         Rudjina -Princess                  (d. 1422)
                           - jointly with the following -
30 Sep 1385 - Mar 1391     Komnina Ksenija -Princess
                           - jointly with the following -
Mar 1391 - 1414            Mrksa Zarkovic                     (d. 1414)
                           - jointly with the following -
30 Sep 1385 - Apr 1403     Djuradj II Stracimirovic Balsic    (d. 1403) 
Apr 1403 - 10 May 1421     Balsa III                          (b. 1387 - d. 1421) 
Apr 1403 - 1405            Jelena-Jela Lazarevic-             (b. 1366 - d. 1443)
                             Balsic (f) -Regent
Serbian governors
28 Apr 1421 - 1427         Despot Stefan Lazarevic            (b. 1374 - d. 1427)
1427 - 1435                Despot Djuradj Brankovic           (b. 1375 - d. 1456)
Grand Voivodes
1426 - Jan 1465            Stefan I Crnojevic                 (d. 1465)
Jan 1465 - 1479            Ivan-beg I Crnojevic (1st time)    (d. 1490)
1479 - 1481                Ottoman rule
1481 - Jul 1490            Ivan-beg I Crnojevic (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Jul 1490 - Nov 1496        Djuradj IV Crnojevic               (d. 1504) 
Nov 1496 - 1498            Ottoman rule 
1496 - 1499                Stefan II Crnojevic                (d. 1499) 
1499 - 1515                Ivan II
1515 - 1516                Djuradj V Crnojevic
Sanjak Bey
1513 - 1528                Stanisa (Skender-beg) Crnojevic    (d. 1531) 
Bishops (Vladikas) and Governors¹
1516 - 1520                Vavila (vladika from 1493)
1520 - 1530                German II
1530 - 1532                Pavle 
1532 - 1540                Vasilije I
1540                       Nikodim 
1540 - 1559                Romil
1560 - 1561                Makarije
1561 - 1569                Ruvim I 
1569 - 1579                Pahomije II Komanin 
1575 - 1582                Gerasim 
1582 - 1591                Venijamin 
1591 - 1593                Nikanor
                           - jointly with -
1591 - 1593                Stefan 
1593 - 1637                Ruvim II Boljevic-Njegos
1637 - 1639                Vacant
1639 - 1649                Mardarije I Kornecanin 
1649 - 1659                Visarion II Kolinovic
1659 - 1673                Mardarije II Kornecanin 
1673 - 1685                Ruvim III Boljevic                 (d. 1685)
1685                       Vasilije II Velikrasic 
1685 - 1692                Visarion II Borilovic-Bajica       (d. 1692)
1692 - 1694                Vacant
1694 - 1697                Sava I Kaludjerovic (Kaludericic)  (b. 1612? - d. 1697)
Jul 1697 - 22 Jan 1735     Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos           (b. 1675 - d. 1735)
22 Jan 1735 -  9 Mar 1781  Sava II Petrovic-Njegos            (b. 1700 - d. 1781)
                           - jointly with following -
1750 - 21 Mar 1766         Vasilije Petrovic-Njegos           (b. 1709 - d. 1766)
Oct 1767 -  9 Oct 1773     Scepan "Mali" ("the Short")        (b. c.1734 - d. 1773) 
                             (false Russian Emperor Peter III; titled 
                             Czar and given civil authority by Sava II)
 9 Mar 1781 - Mar 1782     Arsenije II Plamenac -Regent       (b. c.1700 - d. 1784)
Mar 1782 - 30 Oct 1830     Petar I Petrovic-Njegos            (b. 1747 - d. 1830)
30 Oct 1830 - 31 Oct 1851  Petar II Petrovic-Njegos           (b. 1813 - d. 1851)
 1 Nov 1851 - 13 Jan 1852  Pero Petrovic-Njegos -Regent       (b. 1811 - d. 1854)
                             (regent; assumes style, but not position, of Prince)
13 Jan 1852 - 13 Mar 1852  Danilo II Petrovic-Njegos          (b. 1826 - d. 1860)
Princes¹
13 Mar 1852 - 13 Aug 1860  Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos           (s.a.)
13 Aug 1860 - 28 Aug 1910  Nikola I Petrovic-Njegos           (b. 1841 - d. 1921)
King¹
28 Aug 1910 - 26 Nov 1918  Nikola I Petrovic-Njegos           (s.a.)
                             (from 17 Jan 1917, in France exile)
Austro-Hungarian Military Governors-general
17 Jan 1916 - 26 Feb 1916  Herman Freiherr Kövess             (b. 1854 - d. 1924)
                             von Kövessháza (1st time)
26 Feb 1916 - 10 Jul 1917  Viktor Weber Edler von Webenau     (b. 1861 - d. 1932)
10 Jul 1917 - Oct 1918     Heinrich Graf von Clam-Martinic    (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
Oct 1918                   Herman Freiherr Kövess             (s.a.)
                             von Kövessháza (2nd time)
President of the Assembly
26 Nov 1918 - 23 Apr 1919  Savo Cerovic
Bans of Zeta
 9 Oct 1929 - 1931         Krsto Smiljanic                    (b. 1868 - d. 1944)
1931 - 1932                Uros Krulj                         (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
1932 - 1934                Aleksa Stanisic                    (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
1934 - 1936                Mujo Socica                        (d. 1942)
12 Aug 1936 - 1939         Petar Ivanisevic                   (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
1939 - 1941                Bozidar Krstic 
1941 - 17 Apr 1941         Blazo Djukanovic                   (b. 1883 - d. 1943) 
Italian Commandant of Montenegro and the Cattaro district
17 Apr 1941 - 29 Apr 1941  Principe Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
Civil Commissioner
29 Apr 1941 - 22 May 1941  Conte Serafino Mazzolini           (b. 1890 - d. 1945)
High commissioner (to 12 Jul 1941, also styled Regent)
22 May 1941 - 23 Jul 1941  Conte Serafino Mazzolini           (s.a.)
President of the Assembly
12 Jul 1941 - 13 Jul 1941  Mihailo Ivanovic                   (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
Governors
23 Jul 1941 - 13 Jul 1943  Principe Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  (s.a.)
13 Jul 1943 - 10 Sep 1943  Conte Curio Barbasetti di Prun     (b. 1885 - d. 1962)
German plenipotentiary generals
10 Sep 1943 - 31 May 1944  Theodor Geib                       (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
 1 Jun 1944 - 15 Dec 1944  Wilhelm Keiper                     (b. 1893 - d. 1957)
Presidents
23 Dec 1990 - 15 Jan 1998  Momir Bulatovic                    (b. 1956)          SKCG;1991 DPSC
15 Jan 1998 - 25 Nov 2002  Milo Djukanovic                    (b. 1962)            DPSC
25 Nov 2002 - 19 May 2003  Filip Vujanovic (1st time)         (b. 1954)            DPSC
                             (acting)
19 May 2003 - 22 May 2003  Rifat Rastoder                     (b. 1950)            SDP
                           + Dragan Kujovic                   (b. 1948 - d. 2010)  DPSC
                           (acting)
22 May 2003 -              Filip Vujanovic (2nd time)         (s.a.)               DPSC

 
Governors (gubernadur)(for the Vladika)
.... - ....                Dijkan Vukotic
.... - ....                Stano Radonjic                     (b. c.1650 - d. c.1720)
c.1711                     Vukota Vukotic (or Vukota Ozrinic,
                             some sources Vukajle Vukotic)
17.. - 17..                Stefan Kovacevic
1739 - 1742                Vukadin Vukotic
1755 - 17 Mar 1758         Stanislav Radonjic                 (b. 1690 - d. 1758)
1758 - 1762                Vukajlo Radonjic
1762 - 1764                Vukotic
1764 -  8 Jul 1803         Jovan Radonjic                     (b. 1748 - d. 1803)
1803 - 17 Nov 1831         Vukolaj "Vuk" Radonjic             (b. 1765 - d. 1832)
17 Nov 1831 - 1832         Sima Milutinovic Sarajlija         (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
1832 - 20 Mar 1879         Post abolished
Prime ministers
20 Mar 1879 - 19 Dec 1905  Bozo Petrovic-Njegos               (b. 1846 - d. 1929)  Non-party
19 Dec 1905 - 24 Nov 1906  Lazar Mijuskovic (1st time)        (b. 1867 - d. 1936)  Non-party
24 Nov 1906 -  1 Feb 1907  Marko Radulovic                    (b. 1866 - d.af.1935)RP?
 1 Feb 1907 - 17 Apr 1907  Andrija Radovic (1st time)         (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  NS
17 Apr 1907 - 19 Jun 1912  Lazar Tomanovic                    (b. 1845 - d. 1932)  
19 Jun 1912 -  8 May 1913  Mitar Martinovic                   (b. 1870 - d. 1954)  Mil
 8 May 1913 - 16 Jul 1915  Janko Vukotic                      (b. 1866 - d. 1927)  Mil
17 Aug 1914 - 16 Jul 1915  Risto Popovic (acting for Vukotic)
16 Jul 1915 -  2 Jan 1916  Milo Matanovic (1st time)          (b. 1879 - d. 1955)  Mil
 2 Jan 1916 - 12 May 1916  Lazar Mijuskovic (2nd time)        (s.a.)               PNS
                             (from Mar 1916 in Bordeaux, France exile)
12 May 1916 - 17 Jan 1917  Andrija Radovic (2nd time)         (s.a.)               NS
                             (in Bordeaux exile to Oct 1916;
                             from Oct 1916 in Neuilly-sur-Seine)
17 Jan 1917 - 11 Jun 1917  Milo Matanovic (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France exile)
11 Jun 1917 - 26 Nov 1918  Evgenije Popovic                   (b. 1842 - d. 1931?) Non-party
                             (in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France exile)
President of the Executive National Council
26 Nov 1918 - 23 Apr 1919  Stevo Vukotic                      (b. 1861 - d. 1922)
Chairman of the Advisory Council 
28 Apr 1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Jovo Popovic
Prime minister
12 Jul 1941 - 13 Jul 1941  Sekula Drljevic                    (b. 1884 - d. 1945)  CCS
Presidents of the National Committee
1941 - 19 Oct 1943         Blazo Djukanovic                   (s.a.)               NM
1944 - May 1945            Sekula Drljevic                    (s.a.)               CCM
                            (Montenegrin State Council leader, in Croatia exile)
19 Oct 1943 - Apr 1945     Ljubo Vukcevic
Prime ministers 
15 Feb 1991 -  5 Feb 1998  Milo Djukanovic (1st time)         (s.a.)             SKCG;1991 DPSC
 5 Feb 1998 -  8 Jan 2003  Filip Vujanovic                    (s.a.)               DPSC 
 5 Nov 2002 -  8 Jan 2003  Dragan Djurovic                    (b. 1959)            DPSC
                             (acting for Vujanovic)
 8 Jan 2003 - 10 Nov 2006  Milo Djukanovic (2nd time)         (s.a.)               DPSC
10 Nov 2006 - 29 Feb 2008  Zeljko Sturanovic                  (b. 1960)            DPSC
29 Feb 2008 - 29 Dec 2010  Milo Djukanovic (3rd time)         (s.a.)               DPSC
29 Dec 2010 - 
 4 Dec 2012  Igor Luksic                        (b. 1976)            DPSC
 4 Dec 2012 -              Milo Djukanovic (4th time)         (s.a.)               DPSC
 
Kingdom of Montenegro in Exile
 

[Montenegro state flag
                1910-1918]

Kings¹
26 Nov 1918 -  1 Mar 1921  Nikola I Petrovic-Njegos         (s.a.)
                            (in France exile 25 Jan 1916 - 1 Mar 1921
                             [to Mar 1916 in Lyon; Mar - Oct 1916
                             in Bordeaux; Oct 1916 - 1920 in
                             Neuilly-sur-Seine; from 1920 in Antibes])
 1 Mar 1921 -  7 Mar 1921  Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos         (b. 1871 - d. 1939)
                            (in San Remo, Italy exile)
 7 Mar 1921 - 14 Sep 1929  Mihajlo I Petrovic-Njegos        (b. 1908 - d. 1986)
                            (in San Remo, Italy exile)
 7 Mar 1921 - 16 Mar 1923  Queen Milena Vukotic (f) -Regent (b. 1847 - d. 1923)
                            (in San Remo, Italy exile)
                           - jointly with -
 7 Mar 1921 - 14 Nov 1929  Anto Gvozdenovic -Regent         (b. 1853 - d. 1935)  Mil 
 

Prime ministers 
26 Nov 1918 - 17 Feb 1919  Evgenije Popovic                 (s.a.)
                             (in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France exile)
Dec 1918 - 17 Feb 1919     Pero Soc (acting for Popovic)    (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
17 Feb 1919 - 28 Jun 1921  Jovan S. Plamenac (1st time)     (b. 1873 - d. 1944)
                             (in San Remo, Italy exile)
28 Jun 1921 - 13 Jul 1922  Milutin Vucinic                  (b. 1869 - d. 1922)
                             (in San Remo, Italy exile)
Sep 1922 - 1922            Jovan S. Plamenac (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1922                       Milo Vujovic (acting)            (b. 1881 - d. 1935)
23 Oct 1923 - 14 Sep 1929  Anto Gvozdenovic                 (s.a.)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) before 13 Mar 1852 (New Style): Vladika i upravitelj Crne Gore i Brde ("Vladika [bishop] and Ruler of Montenegro and Brda");
(b) 13 Mar 1852 - 28 Aug 1910 (New Style): Po Bozjoj milosti knjaz i gospodar Crne Gore i Brde
("By the grace of God Prince and Sovereign of Montenegro and Brda");
(c) from 28 Aug 1910 (New Style): Po Bozjoj milosti kralj i gospodar Crne Gore ("By the grace of God, King and Sovereign of Montenegro").

Territorial Disputes: None

Party abbreviations: DLECG = Demokratska Lista za Evropsku Crnu Goru (Democratic List for European Montengro, pro-European Union, center-left coalition, DPS and SDP, est.2002);
DPSC = Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crna Gore (Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, social-democratic, former SKGC, est.22 Jun 1991); NSCG = Narodna Stranka Crne Gore (People's Party of Montenegro, pro-Serbia, conservative, est.1990); SDP = Socijaldemokratska Partija Crne Gore (Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, socialist, est.1993); SNPCG = Socijalisticka Narodna Partija Crne Gore (Socialist People's Party of Montenegro, center-left, pro-Serbia, split from DPSC, est.21 Mar 1998); Mil = Military;
- Former parties:
CCS = Crnogorska Cederalisticka Stranka (Montenegrin Federal Party, autonomist, 1922-1945); KPCG = Komunisticka Partija Crne Gore (Communist Party of Montenegro, 1945-1952, renamed SKCG); LSCG = Liberalnu Savez Crne Gore (Liberal Alliance of Montenegro, liberal, pro-Montenegro independence, 1990-2005); NM = National Movement (Montenegrin separatist, 1941-1945); NS = Narodna Stranka (People's Party, pro-democracy, union with Serbia, 1906-1918); PNS = Prava Narodna Stranka (True People's Party, supporters of King Nikola, 1907-1914); RP = Radical Party; SKCG = Savez Komunista Crne Gore (League of Communists of Montenegro, former KPCG, 1952-1991, renamed DPSC)


Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor) (Cattaro)

 
1391 - 1420                Kotor an independent city state.
1420                       Part of Venetian Republic (Cattaro)
                             (see Dalmatia under Croatia).
1687                       Venetian possessions in present-day Montenegro (Gulf 
                             of Boka Kotorska and coastal Montenegro) organized
                             into one administrative unit named: Albania Veneta,
                             which is subordinated to Dalmatia.
 4 Oct 1797                Occupied by Austria.
24 Aug 1798                Part of Austria.
26 Dec 1805                Ceded to France by Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg.
28 Feb 1806 - 12 Aug 1807  Russian occupation.
 7 Jul 1807                Ceded to France by Russia by the Treaty of Tilsit.
12 Aug 1807                French rule; part of Dalmatia; from 14 Oct 1809 annexed
                             to France as part of the Illyrian provinces.
11 Sep 1813 - 10 Jun 1814  Rule by a central commission, based in Dobrota under the
                             Prince of Montenegro.
 5 Jan 1814                French garrison in fort of Kotor surrenders.
10 Jun 1814                Restored to Austria; part of Austrian crownland of Dalmatia
                             (see under Croatia).
 1 Dec 1918                Part of Yugoslavia (part of Croatia).
 3 May 1941 - 10 Sep 1943  Annexed by Italy (as province of Cattaro within Dalmatia).
10 Sep 1943 - 21 Nov 1944  German military administration.
21 Nov 1944                Re-incorporated into Yugoslavia (part of Montenegro).

Venetian governors (conte e capitano)
1418 - 1421                Antonio delle Boccole
1421 - 1423                Marco Barbarigo
1423 - 1425                Stefano Querini
1425 - 1427                Pietro Duodo
1427 - 1429                Zuanne Balbi
1429 - 1432                Niccolò Pisani
1432 - 1434                Antonio Pesaro
1434 - 1436                Lorenzo (or Vincenzo) Vitturi
1436 - 1438                Paolo Contarini  
1438 - 1440                Albano Sagredo
1440 - 1442                Pietro Dalmario
1442 - 1444                Leonardo Bembo
1444 - 1447                Zuanne Nani
1447                       Nicolò Miani
1447 - 1449                Jacopo (or Giacomo) Morosini
1449                       Leone da Molin
1449 - 1451                Zuanne Lion
1451 - 1453                Lodovico Barbo
1453                       Nicolò Soranzo
1453 - 1454                Nicolò Trevisan
1454 - 1456                Zuanne Barbo
1456 - 1457                Paolo Barbo
1457 - 1459                Alvise Duodo
1459 - 1462                Antonio Donà (or Donato)
1462 - 1465                Paolo Priuli
1465 - 1467                Alvise (or Lodovico) Bon
1467 - 1469                Eustachio ("Stae") Balbi
1469 - 1472                Bertuccio Gabriel
1472 - 1474                Michele Michiel
1474 - 1477                Giovanni Donato
1477 - 1480                Francesco Lippomano
Venetian governors (Rettori e provveditori)
1480 - 1483                Antonio Ferro di Giovanni
1483 - 1485                Marin Zeno
1485 - 1486                Francesco Lion
1486 - 1488                Francesco Basadonna
1488 - 1489                Priamo Trón
1489 - 1491                Paolo Erizzo
1491 - 1492                Michele Emo
1492 - 1494                Girolamo Orio
1494                       Lorenzo Gritti
1494 - 1496                Zuanne Nani
1496 - 1497                Piero Lion
1497 - 1498                Francesco Cicogna
1498 - 1500                Francesco Querini
1500 - 1501                Zan Paolo Gradenigo
1501 - 1503                Sebastiano Contarini
1503 - 1504                Girolamo Foscarini
1504 - 1505                Alvise Zeno
1505 - 1507                Oliviero Contarini
1507 - 1509                Nicolò Coppo
1509 - Nov 1510            Paolo Vallaresso
1510 - 1511                Marco Arimondo
1511 - 1513                Anzolo Malipiero
Aug 1513 - 1515            Francesco Gradenigo
1515 - 1516                Pietro Zeno
1516 - 1517                Bernardino da Riva
1517 - 1519                Simone Capello
1519 - 1520                Vincenzo Trón
1520 - 1521                Alvise Capello
1521 - 1523                Vettore Diedo
1523 - 1525                Moise Venier
1525 - 1526                Francesco Taiapiera
1526 - 1527                Domenico Gritti
1527 - 1528                Marco Barbo
1528 - 1530                Alvise Muazzo
1530 - 1532                Benedetto Valier
1532 - 1533                Trifon Gradenigo
1533 - 1534                Francesco Sanudo
1534 - 1536                Andrea Valerio
1536 - 1538                Melchiorre Michiel
1538 - 1540                Givanni Matteo Bembo
1540 - 1542                Alvise da Riva
1542 - 1544                Lorenzo Salamon
1544 - 1545                Alvise Renier
1545 - 1546                Francesco (or Federigo) da Mosto
1546 - 1548                Gianbattista Barbaro
1548 - 1549                Francesco Pisani 
1549 - 1551                Valerio da Mosto  
1551 - 1552                Zan Francesco da Canal
1552 - 1553                Paolo Donà (or Donato)
1553 - 1554                Lunardo Bollani
1554 - 1556                Benardino Renier
1556 - 1558                Domenico Priuli
1558 - 1560                Marin Pisani
1560 - 1562                Delfin Valier
1562 - 1563                Francesco Priuli
1563 - 1565                Andrea Duodo
1565 - 1567                Jacopo Celsi
1567 - 1569                Alvise Minotto
1569 - 1570                Zaccaria Salamon
1570 - 1571                Bernardo Contarini
1571 - 1572                Antonio Bragadin
1572 - 1574                Zanbattista Calbo
1574 - 1576                Benetto Erizzo
1576 - 1579                Pellegrino Bragadin
1579 - 1581                Marco Diedo
1581 - 1583                Vincenzo da Canal
1583 - 1586                Marcantonio Venier
1586 - 1588                Andrea Gabriel
1588 - 1590                Girolamo Pisani
1590 - 1592                Giovanni (or Zuanne) Loredano
1592 - 1594                Zuanne Lippomano
1594 - 1596                Alvise Barbaro
1596 - 1598                Zuanne Garzoni
1598 - 1600                Zuanne Magno
1600 - 1602                Antonio Grimani
1602 - 1604                Zuan Marco da Molin
1604 - 1606                Zuanfrancesco Bragadin
1606 - 1608                Tomaso Contarini
1608 - 1610                Francesco Morosini
1610 - 1612                Girolamo da Molin
1612 - 1614                Zaccaria Soranzo
1614 - 1616                Zanfrancesco Dolfin
1616 - 1618                Camillo Michiel
1618 - 1620                Marcantonio Contarini
1620 - 1623                Paris Malipiero
1623 - 1625                Iseppo Michiel
1625 - 1627                Pietro Morosini
1627 - 1628                Francesco Contarini
1628 - 1630                Girolamo Loredan
1630 - 1633                Francesco Tiepolo
1633 - 1635                Agostino da Canal
1635 - 1637                Girolamo Molin
1637 - 1638                Alesandro Contarini
1638 - 1640                Zorzi (or Giorgio) Morosini
1640 - 1641                Anzolo Gabriel
1641 - 1644                Marino Pisauro
1644 - 1646                Zuan Trevisan
1646 - 1648                Paolo Donato
1648 - 1650                Alvise Gabriel
1650 - 1652                Antonio Diedo
1652 - 1654                Francesco Bragadin
1654 - 1656                Francesco Battaglia
1656 - 1657                Tommaso Tron
1657 - 1658                Zuan Briani
1658 - 1659                Marcantonio Pasqualigo
1659 - 1660                Pietro Gabriel
1660 - 1661                Zuan Paolo Foscarini
1661 - 1663                Nicola Calergi
1663 - 1666                Antonio Maria Bernardo
1666 - 1668                Alvise Foscarini
1668 - 1670                Santo Barbaro
1670 - 1672                Leonardo Venier
1672 - 1674                Girolamo Morosini
1674 - 1676                Lorenzo Bembo
1676 - 1678                Vincenzo da Riva
1678 - 1679                Alvise Foscarini
1679 - 1681                Lorenzo Tiepolo
1681 - 1683                Benetto Valier
1683 - 1685                Alessandro Beregano
1685 - 1687                Lucio Balbi
1687 - 1690                Zuan Michele Pizzamano
1690 - 1692                Stefano Balbi
1692 - 1694                Ferigo Papafava
1694 - 1695                Francesco Foscarini
1695 - 1697                Filippo Bragadin
1697 - 1699                Giovanni Silvestro Zane
1699 - 1701                Andrea Bembo
1701 - 1703                Francesco Dandolo
1703 - 1704                Domenico Malipiero
1704 - 1706                Andrea Pasqualigo
1706 - 1708                Nicolò Barbaro
1708 - 1709                Paolo Foscolo
1709 - 1711                Pietro Donato
1711 - 1713                Zanfrancesco Zorzi
1713 - 1715                Girolamo Loredan
1715 - 1716                Foscarino Foscarini
1716 - 1718                Bartolo Pisani
1718 - 1720                Angelo Barbaro
1720 - 1722                Pietro Badoer
1722 - 1724                Marino da Riva
1724 - 1726                Gianantonio Balbi
1726 - 1729                Francesco Barozzi
1729 - 1731                Jacopo (or Giacomo) Foscarini
1731 - 1733                Gian Giacomo Querini
1733 - 1735                Marco da Riva
1735 - 1737                Lodovico Balbi
1737 - 1739                Marcantonio Badoer
1739 - 1741                Pietro Donato
1741 - 1744                Marino Gheltof
1744 - 1746                Pietro Bembo
1746 - 1747                Marino Morosini
1747 - 1749                Antonio Delfin
1749 - 1751                Iseppo Contarini
1751 - 1753                Lorenzo Pasqualigo
1753 - 1755                Giorgio Pizzamano
1755 - 1757                Girolamo Bragadin
1758 - 1760                Daniel Renier
1760 - 1763                Pietro Angelo Magno (or Manin?)
1763 - 1765                Nicolò Soranzo
1765 - 1767                Lorenzo Paruta
1767 - 1769                Pasquale Cicogna
1769 - 1771                Pier Alvise Barbaro
1771 - 1773                Gaetano da Molin
1773 - 1775                Gian Carlo Zorzi
1775 - 1777                Alvise Balbi
1777 - 1779                Zuanantonio Maria Dolfin (or Delfin)
1779 - 1781                Agostino Soranzo
1781 - 1783                Alvise Soranzo
1783 - 1785                Gerardo Sagredo
1785 - 1787                Zuan Longo
1787 - 1789                Alvise Soranzo
1789 - 1791                Marchio (or Marco) Querini
1791 - 1793                Vincenzo Dolfin
1793 - 1794                Francesco Dandolo
1794 - 1795                Marco Zorzi
1795? - 1797               Lorenzo Soranzo
Commissioner
 4 Oct 1797 - 1801         Thomas Freiherr von Brady          (b. 1752 - d. 1827)
Civil governors
1801 - 1805                Bernhard Anton Maria Vincenz       (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
                            
Freiherr von Rossetti zu
                             Roseneck (Rosenegg)

1805 - 1806                Gian-Pietro Baroni-Cavalcabo       (b. 1773 - d. 1850?)
Military governors
1801 - Jul 1802            Gauss von Starnberg
Jul 1802 - 1804            Franz von Nicoletti                (d. 1808)
Jun 1804 - 1806            Thomas Freiherr von Brady          (s.a.)
1806 - 28 Feb 1806         Filippo Carlo marchese Ghisilieri
                             (commissioner)
Military Governor
28 Feb 1806 - 12 Aug 1807  Dimitry Nikolayevich Senyavin      (b. 1763 - d. 1831)
Civil Governor (imperial commissioner)
28 Feb 1806 - 12 Aug 1807  Stefan Andreyevich Sankovski 
Sub-delegate of Bocche di Cattaro
1810 -  5 Jan 1814         Luigi Paulucci                     (b. 1774 - d. 1844)
President of the Central Commission

11 Sep 1813 - 10 Jun 1814  Petar I Petrovic-Njegos            (s.a.)
Prefects of the Province of Cattaro
 7 Jun 1941 - 15 Jun 1943  Francesco Scassellati Sforzolini   (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
15 Jun 1943 - 15 Aug 1943  Mario Pigli                        (b. 1904 - d. af.1966)
 1 Sep 1943 - 10 Sep 1943  Umberto Sciorilli Borrelli         (b. 1892 - d. 1969)
German Military Administrator
10 Sep 1943 - 21 Nov 1944  ....



Socialist Republic of Montenegro

  [Flag of SR Montenegro
              1946-1993]                
                      31 Dec 1946 - 27 Apr 1992

 
 2 Dec 1945                People's Republic of Montenegro
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Montenegro

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
May 1943 - 29 Jun 1963     Blazo Jovanovic                    (b. 1907 - d. 1976)
29 Jun 1963 - 14 Dec 1968  Djordjije "Djoka" Pajkovic         (b. 1917 - d. 1980)
14 Dec 1968 - 21 Mar 1977  Veselin Djuranovic                 (b. 1925 - d. 1997)
21 Mar 1977 -  1 Jul 1982  Vojo Srzentic                      (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1982 - May 1984     Dobroslav "Toro" Culafic           (b. 1926 - d. 2011)
May 1984 - 30 Jul 1984     Vidoje Zarkovic                    (b. 1927 - d. 2000)
30 Jul 1984 - May 1986     Marko Orlandic                     (b. 1930)
May 1986 - 11 Jan 1989     Miljan Radovic                     (b. 1933)
11 Jan 1989 - 26 Apr 1989  Veselin Vukotic (acting)           (b. 1949)
26 Apr 1989 - 28 Apr 1989  Milica Pejanovic-Djurisic (f)      (b. 1959)
28 Apr 1989 - 22 Jun 1991  Momir Bulatovic                    (b. 1956)
 

President of the Anti-Fascist Council of People's Liberation of Montenegro and Boka
15 Nov 1943 - 13 Jul 1944  Nikola Miljanic                    (b. 1892 - d. 1957)  KPCG
President of the Montenegrin Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation
13 Jul 1944 - 21 Nov 1946  Nikola Miljanic                    (s.a.)               KPCG
President of the Presidium of the Constitutional Assembly
21 Nov 1946 -  1 Jan 1947  Milos Rasovic                                           KPCG
Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
 1 Jan 1947 -  6 Nov 1950  Milos Rasovic                                           KPCG 
 6 Nov 1950 -  4 Feb 1953  Nikola Kovacevic                   (b. 1890 - d. 1964)  KPCG;
Presidents of the People's Assembly                                                1952 SKCG
 4 Feb 1950 - 15 Dec 1953  Nikola Kovacevic                   (s.a.)               SKCG
15 Dec 1953 - 14 Jul 1962  Blazo Jovanovic                    (s.a.)               SKCG
14 Jul 1962 -  5 May 1963  Filip Bajkovic                     (b. 1910 - d. 1985)  SKCG
 5 May 1963 -  5 May 1967  Andrija Mugosa                     (b. 1912 - d. 2006)  SKCG
 5 May 1967 -  6 Oct 1969  Veljko Milatovic                   (b. 1921 - d. 2004)  SKCG
 6 Oct 1969 -  6 May 1974  Vidoje Zarkovic                    (s.a.)               SKCG
Presidents of the Presidency
 6 May 1974 -  7 May 1982  Veljko Milatovic                   (s.a.)               SKCG
 7 May 1982 -  7 May 1983  Veselin Djuranovic                 (s.a.)               SKCG
 7 May 1983 -  7 May 1984  Marko Orlandic                     (s.a.)               SKCG
 7 May 1984 -  7 May 1985  Miodrag Vlahovic                                        SKCG
 6 May 1985 -  6 May 1986  Branislav Soskic                   (b. 1922)            SKCG
 6 May 1986 -  6 May 1988  Radivoje Brajovic                  (b. 1935)            SKCG
 6 May 1988 - 13 Jan 1989  Bozina Ivanovic                    (b. 1931 - d. 2002)  SKCG
13 Jan 1989 - 17 Mar 1989  Slobodan Simovic (acting)                               SKCG
17 Mar 1989 - 23 Dec 1990  Branko Kostic                      (b. 1939)            DPSC
President
23 Dec 1990 - 15 Jan 1998  Momir Bulatovic                    (s.a.)             SKCG;1991 DPSC



Minister for Montenegro (part of Yugoslav government)
 7 Mar 1945 - 1945         Milovan Djilas                     (b. 1911 - d. 1993)  KPCG
Prime minister
17 Apr 1945 -  4 Feb 1953  Blazo Jovanovic                    (s.a.)           KPCG;1952 SKKCG
Chairmen of the Executive Council
 4 Feb 1953 - 16 Dec 1953  Blazo Jovanovic                    (s.a.)               SKCG 
16 Dec 1953 - 12 Jul 1962  Filip Bajkovic                     (s.a.)               SKCG 
12 Jul 1962 - 25 Jun 1963  Djordjije "Djoka" Pajkovic         (s.a.)               SKCG 
25 Jun 1963 -  8 Dec 1966  Veselin Djuranovic                 (s.a.)               SKCG 
 8 Dec 1966 -  5 May 1967  Mijusko Sibalic                    (b. 1915 - d. 1995)  SKCG 
 5 May 1967 -  7 Oct 1969  Vidoje Zarkovic                    (s.a.)               SKCG 
 7 Oct 1969 -  6 May 1974  Zarko Bulajic                      (b. 1922 - d. 2009)  SKCG
 6 May 1974 - 28 Apr 1978  Marko Orlandic                     (s.a.)               SKCG
28 Apr 1978 -  7 May 1982  Momcilo Cerovic                    (b. 1928 - d. 2001)  SKCG
 7 May 1982 -  6 Jun 1986  Radivoje Brajovic                  (s.a.)               SKCG 
 6 Jun 1986 - 29 Mar 1989  Vuko Vukadinovic                   (b. 1937)            SKCG 
29 Mar 1989 - 15 Feb 1991  Radoje Kontic                      (b. 1937)            SKCG 

Party abbreviations: DPSC = Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crna Gore (Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, est.22 Jun 1991 former SKCG); KPCG = Komunisticka Partija Crne Gore (Communist Party of Montenegro, communist, 1945-1952, renamed SKCG); SKCG = Savez Komunista Crne Gore (League of Communists of Montenegro, communist, former KPCG, 1952-1991, renamed DPSC)






© Ben Cahoon