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Albania
 
[Ottoman flag (to 1912)]
                  to 29 Jul 1913
 
[Autonomous Albania, 1912]
 Jun 1912 - 28 Nov 1912 Autonomous Albanians 
 
[Albanian flag 1912-1913]
           28 Nov 1912 - 29 Jul 1913 
 
[Essad's
                            provisional government flag 1914-1916
                            (Albania)]
            12 Oct 1913 - 12 Feb 1914,
          & 5 Oct 1914 - 27 Feb 1916 
              Estat Toptani government
 
[Albanian
                            principality 1914-1920]
          7 Mar 1914 - 20 Jan 1920
 
[Albania de
                            facto Flag used in 1914-15]
            Sep 1914 - 1915  (de facto)
 
[Albania
                            Republic under Italian control 1917-18]
  22 Jun 1917 - 20 Jan 1920 in Italian zone
 
[Albanian Flag
                            1920-1929]
            20 Jan 1920 - 8 Aug 1929
 
[Kingdom of
                            Albania 1929-1934]
                 8 Aug 1929 - 1934
 
[Kingdom of
                            Albania, 1934-1939, 1943-1944]
   1934 - 3 Jun 1939, 25 Jul - 20 Oct 1943
 
[Italian
                            Albania flag 1939-1943]
              3 Jun 1939 - 25 Jul 1943
 
[Albania under
                            German occupation, 1943-44]
                   20 Oct 1943 - 14 Mar 1946
 
[Albanian Provisional autonomous
                          communist government (1943)]
            14 Sep 1943 - 10 Oct 1944 
          (provisional; Communist govt.)
 
[Provisional Democratic Government of
                          Albania, 1944-46]
   10 Oct 1944 - 14 Mar 1946 (provisional)
 
 
[Albania flag 1946-1992]  
          14 Mar 1946 - 7 Apr 1992
 
 
[Albania flag]
               Adopted 7 Apr 1992
 


Map of Albania
Hear National Anthem
"Hymni i Flamurit"
(Hymn to the Flag)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1912
Constitution
 (28 Nov 1998)
-----------------------
Royal Constitutions
(1 Dec 1928-1944)
Capital: Tirana (Tiranė)
(Durrėsi/Durrės 7 Mar 1914 -
11 Feb 1920; Vlora/Vlorė
28 Sep 1912 - 7 Mar 1914;
Lezha/Lezhė 1444-1478;
Kruja/Krujė 1190-1258, 1444-1478;
 Durazzo/
Durrėsi 1258-1286,
 1304-1392)
Currency: Lek (ALL)
(from 1922)
National Holiday: 28 Nov (1912)
Independence Day
Population: 3,011,405 (2013)
GDP: $26.73 billion (2013)
note: Albania has a large
informal sector that may be as
large as 50% of official GDP 
Exports: $1.22 billion (2013)
Imports: $4.11 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Albanian 82.6%, Greek 0.9%, other 1% (including
 Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Macedonian, Montenegrin, and
Egyptian), unspecified 15.5% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 14,295 (2010)
Merchant marine: 17 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 56.7%, Roman Catholic 10%, Orthodox 6.8%,
 atheist 2.5%, Bektashi (a Sufi order) 2.1%, other 5.7%,
 unspecified 16.2% (2011)

 (religious observances prohibited 1967-Nov 1990)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BSEC, BTWC, CCM, CE, CEFTA, CEI, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NPT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Albania Index
Chronology

c.500 BC - 146 BC          Part of Epirus (Ķpeiros/Épeiros).        
146 BC - 17 Jan 395 AD     Part of Roman Empire.  
17 Jan 395                 Part or Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire.
c.809                      Organized as separate theme of Dyrrįchion.
986 - 1005                 Bulgarian occupation.

1005 - 1203                Byzantine rule (restored).
118. - 1256                An Albanian principality in Įrvanon/Arbėr (Arbanon)
                            (at Krujė in modern central Albania) autonomous
                             under Byzantine (from 1203, Epirus) rule.
1203 - 1213                Venetian rule (as Duchy of Durazzo).

1213 - 1230                Despotate of Epirus suzerainty. 
1230 - 1240                Under Bulgarian suzerainty.
1240 - 1256                Despotate of Epirus suzerainty
1256 - 1258                Byzantine (Nicean) occupation.

1257 - 1272                Sicily occupies coastal parts of Albania with
                             headquarters at
Durrachium/Durazzo/Durrėsi,
                             under suzerainty of Epirus.
1258 - 21 Feb 1272         Part of Despotate of Epirus
.    
27 May 1267                Claim over Albania ceded from Byzantines to Sicily
                             ("Naples") by treaty.
21 Feb 1272                Kingdom of Albania (Regnum Albaniae); Sicilian
                             domains are formally separated from Epirus under
                             the rule of Sicily ("Naples").

1286 - 1296                Byzantine occupation (of Durazzo/Durrėsi from 1288).
13 Aug 1294                Son of king of Sicily ("Naples") invested with Anjou
                             possessions and claims in Albania and Greece

                             (effected 9 Oct 1304 by take-over).
1296 -  9 Oct 1304         Part of Serbia.

 
9 Oct 1304                Kingdom of Albania re-established under the lordship
                             of j
unior members of the Neapolitan royal house
                             who use title
"Lords of the Kingdom of Albania."  
17 Dec 1332                Exchanged with Achaia by agreement (ratified 14 Mar
                             1338 by Sicily).
With the Kingdom of Albania
                             greatly reduced in size, the new rulers adopt the
                             style Dux Duracii ("Duke
of Durazzo").
Mar 1368                   Anjou are ousted by force by Karl Topia who makes
                            
Durazzo/Durrėsi part of his enlarged domain. He 
                             is styled Albaniae princeps et Durachii dominus
                             ("Prince of Albania and Lord of Durazzo
")
1376 - 1377                Durazzo occupied by the Navarese Company.
18 Aug 1392 - 17 Aug 1501  Durazzo
/Durrėsi ceded to Venice, administered as
                             part of Albania Veneta (see under Montenegro)

14 Apr 1396 - 26 Jan 1479  Scutari/Skadar/Shkodra ceded to Venice.
1417                       Ottoman rule as Arvanid (Albanian) sanjak (by
                             submission), within Eyalet of Rumelia.
28 Nov 1443                Albanian uprising launched by regional alliance.
 
2 Mar 1444 - 15 Jun 1478  Albania League (in Lezha) in central Albania, a
                             confederation of Albanian principalities in
                             revolt against Ottoman rule. 

Jul 1466                   Split into Avlona and Elbasan sanjaks as part
                            
of Rumelia Elayet (see Bulgaria).
15 Jun 1478                Kruja/Krujė part of the Ottoman Empire.
26 Jan 1479                Shkodra/Skadar/Scutari part of the Ottoman Empire.
17 Aug 1501                Durrėsi/Durazzo part of the Ottoman Empire.
1774 - 1809                Separate Pashalik of Berat in central Albania.
21 Jan 1867                Area separated from Rumelia as Uskudar Vilayet.
16
Sep 1912                Ottoman Empire grants autonomy by the Agreement of
                             Skopje
(Old style date 4 Sep 1912).
28 Nov 1912                Independence proclaimed (Albania).
29 Nov 1912 - Apr 1913     Durrėsi, Tirana, Elbasan, Lezha annexed by Serbia
                             as
Durrės county (
Drački okrug)(Old style date
                             16 Nov 1912 - Apr 1913).
24 Apr 1913 - 14 May 1913 
Shkodra/Shkodėr occupied by Montenegro.
14 May 1913 - 21 Aug 1914  Shkodra under International military administration.
30 May 1913                Autonomy granted to Albania by Allies.
29 Jul 1913                Independence recognized by the London Conference.
21 Feb 1914                Albanian Principality
27 Oct 1914 - 15 Nov 1916  Greek administration of Northern Epirus.
28 Dec 1914 -  3 Sep 1920  Valona/
Vlora occupied by Italy. 
26 Apr 1915                In (secret) Treaty of London the Allies promise
                            
Italy, Valona/Vlora and protectorate over Albania.
27 Jun 1915 - 23 Jan 1916 
Shkodra re-occupied by Montenegro.
 
3 Jan 1916 - 13 Nov 1918  Occupied by Austria-Hungary (from 23 Jan 1916 in
                             Shkodra, 9 Feb 1916 Tirana, 27 Feb 1916 Durrės)
                             and Bulgaria (in east
10 Dec 1915 - 9 Sep 1917).
15 Nov 1916 - 26 May 1920  Korēa occupied by France (autonomous 1916-1918).
10 Dec 1916                France proclaims an Autonomous Albania under a
                             French protectorate.
 3 Jan 1917               
Independence of Albania under Austro-Hungarian
                             protection declared by Austria-Hungary.
 
3 Jun 1917                Independence of all Albania under Italian 
                             protectorate proclaimed by Italy.
14 Oct 1918 -  3 Sep 1920  Durazzo/Durrėsi occupied by Italy.

31 Oct 1918 - 11 Mar 1920 
Shkodra occupied by Allied military forces.
 
2 Aug 1920                Independence recognized by Italy, protectorate is
                             relinquished effective 5 Aug 1920.
 9 Nov 1921                Ambassadors Conference confirms the independence of 

                             Albania within the frontiers of 1913 and its
                             'special relationship' with Italy.

 
1 Feb 1925                Albanian Republic (proclaimed 21 Jan 1925).
27 Nov 1926                Italo-Albanian Alliance and Security Treaty of
                             Tirana signed
. Along with 15 Mar 1925 convention
                             and 22 Nov 1927 treaty, Albania becomes a de facto
                             protectorate of Italy.
 1 Sep 1928                Albanian Kingdom
 
8 Apr 1939                Italian invasion.
16
Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943  Personal union with Italy (de facto annexation).
 
8 Dec 1940 - 24 Apr 1941  Greek occupation of Northern Epirus (see below).
10 Jul 1941 - 20 Oct 1944  Kosovo, parts of western Macedonia (Kičevo, Debar,
                             Tetovo, and Struga), and from 3 Dec 1941 parts of
                             Montenegro (Bar, Gusinje Plav, Péc, and Ulcinj)
                             are annexed to Albania. From Sep 1944, Kumanovo
                             and surroundings in former Bulgarian occupied
                             Macedonia
are also annexed to Albania.
 
9 Sep 1943 - 17 Nov 1944  German occupation (last forces expelled 29 Nov 1944)
14 Sep 1943                Independence declared (recognized by Germany on
                             13 Jul 1944).

10 Oct 1944                Provisional Democratic Government of Albania
                             (in opposition to Germans until 17 Nov 1944).
11 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Albania
28 Dec 1976                People's Socialist Republic of Albania
29 Apr 1991                Republic of Albania
16 Apr 1997 - 12 Aug 1997  Multinational Protection Force deployed in Albania.
 
6 Jul 1997                Referendum rejects restoration of monarchy by 66%.

Venetian Durazzo
 (1392-1501)
French Korce
 (1916-1920)
Italian Valona
(1914-1920)
Northern Epirus
(1914, 1940-41)

Mirditė Republic
(1921)
Saseno Island
(1914-1944)
Shkodra (Shkodėr)
(1913-1914,
1918-1920)
Historical Maps
of Albania
 

Note: dates before 1912 are given according to Old Style (Julian) calendar, and after according to New Style (Gregorian) calendar. New Style was formally introduced in Albania Dec 1912.

First secretaries of the Albanian Communist Party
(from Nov 1948, Albanian Party of Labour)

 8 Nov 1941 - 11 Apr 1985  Enver Hoxha                       (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
                           (Secretary of the Central Committee to 22 Mar
                            1943, then General Secretary to 17 Jul 1954)
11 Apr 1985 - 13 Apr 1985  Vangjel Misto Ēėrrava             (b. 1941)
                           + Lenka Ēuko (f)                  (b. 1938)
                           + Simon Stefani                   (b. 1929 - d. 2000)
                           (secretaries acting)
13 Apr 1985 -  4 May 1991  Ramiz Tafė Alia                   (b. 1925 - d. 2011)
                           ("leading role" of the Party abolished 11 Dec 1990)


Archons/Princes
¹ (in Kruja/Krujė)
(Greek names with Albanian in
parentheses)      
118. - c.1198              Progonos (Progon)                 (b. 11.. - d. c.1198)           
c.1198 - 1208              Ginźs (Gjin)                      (b. 11.. - d. 1208)             
1208 - 1216                Dźmźtrios (Dhimitėr Progoni)      (b. 11.. - d. 1216)
1216 - 12..                Gr
źgorios Kamōnas (Grigor Kamona)
12.. - 1256                Goulamos (Golem)
Greek Commander               
1256 - 1258                Kōnstantinos Chabarōn
1258 - 21 Feb 1272         part of Epirus       
Kings of Albania¹  
Feb 1272 - 1286            the kings of Sicily
1286 - 1296                Byzantine rule
1296 -  9 Oct 1304         Serbian rule   
Sicilian Captains and Vicars-general in the Kingdom of Albania
¹ (in Durrachium/Durrėsi)
25 Feb 1272 - May? 1273    Gazzo Chinardo 
May? 1273 - Mar? 1274      Anselme de Caen (Chaus)           (b. 12.. - d. 1274)  
Mar? 1274 - May 1274       Johannes de Bussiaco (acting)
May 1274 - Oct 1275        Narzone de Tuziaco (Toucy)

Oct 1275 - Oct 1277        Guillelmo Bernardi (1st time)
                             (Guillaume Bernard)

Oct 1277 - Jun? 1279       Johan (Jean) de Vaubecourt   
Jun? 1279 - 1282           Johan Scocto (Jean Scotto)
1282 - 1286                Guillelmo Bernardi (2nd time) 
Lords of the Kingdom of Albania¹ (in Durazzo/Durrėsi)
(Italian names with French
in parentheses)
 9 Oct 1304 - 26 Dec 1331  Filippo, principe di Taranto      (b. 1278 - d. 1331)
                             (6 Oct 1304 - 29 Jul 1313, e Acaia)
                             (
Philippe,
prince de Tarente et d'Achaļe)
26 Dec 1331 - 17 Dec 1332  Roberto, principe di Taranto      (b. 1326 - d. 1364)
                            
(Robert, prince de Tarente)
26 Dec 1331 - 17 Dec 1332  Caterina (f)
-Regent              (b. 1303 - d. 1346)
                            
(Cathérine de Valois)
D
ukes of Durazzo
, Lords of the Kingdom of Albania¹ (in Durazzo/Durrėsi)
(Italian names with French in parentheses)
17 Dec 1332 - 1. May 1335 
Giovanni (Jean de Gravina)        (b. 1294 - d. 1335) 
1. May 1335 - 22 May 1348  Carlo (Charles)                   (b. 1323? - d. 1348)
18 Jul 1337 - 22 May 1346  Ludovico (
Louis)(acting)          (b. 1327 - d. 1362)
                             (vicar and captain-general)
22 May 1348 - Mar 1368     Giovanna (Jeanne)(f) -Duchess     (b. 1344 - d. 1387)
                           - jointly with -
19 Jun 1366 - Mar 1368    
Ludovico (Louis d'Évreux)         (b. 1341 - d. 1372)
Princes of Albania and Lords of Durazzo¹ (in Durazzo/Durrėsi)
(Albanian names with Greek in parentheses)  
Mar 1368 - Jan 1388       
Karl Andreas Topia                (b. 134. - d. 1388)
                             (Karolos Andreou Topia)
1383 - 18 Sep 1385         Balša Balšić Zetskoi              (b. 133. - d. 1385)
                             (pretender, in dissidence)
Jan 1388 - 18 Aug 1392     Gjerj Karl Topia                  (b. 137. - d. 1392)
                             (Geōrgios Karolou Topia)
18 Aug 1392 - 1417         Venetian rule  
1417 -  2 Mar 1444         Turkish rule
Captains-general of the Albania League (in Kruja/Krujė)      
(Albanian names with Greek in parentheses)  
 2 Mar 1444 - 17 Jan 1468 
Gjergj Gjon Kastrioti             (b. 1406 - d. 1468)
                             (Geōrgios Ioannou Kastriotis)      
                             (from c.1459, Iskandar Beg "Skanderbeg")
17 Jan 1468 - 15 Jun 1478  Gjon Gjergj Kastrioti             (b. 144. - d. af.1495)
                             (Giannis Georgiou Kastriotis)
Ottoman Walis (governors) of Valona (Vlora/Vlorė)
1466 - 1810                ....
Walis
of Yanya
(Janina) 
1670 - 1911                see under Greece
Pashas of Berat
1774 - 1787                Ahmet Kurt Pasha                   (d. 1787)
1787 - 1809                Ibrahim Pasha
Walis
of Ishkodra
(Shkodra/Shkodėr)

1479 - 173.                ....
173. - 173.                Hodaverdi
173. - 1740                Süleyman Pasha Ēausholli
1740 - 1747                Jusuf Pasha Ēausholli
1746                       Mehmet Bushatli (in rebellion)
1747 - 1755                ....
1755 - 1757                Ömer Pasha Kavajė 
1757 - 14 Jul 1775         Mehmed Pasha Bushati               (d. 1775)
14 Jul 1775 - 1775         Mehmed Pasha Küstendili
1775 - 1778                Mustafa Pasha                      (d. 1778)
1778 - 22 Sep 1796         Kara Mahmut Pasha Bushati          (b. 1758 - d. 1796)
22 Sep 1796 - 1810         Ibrahim Pasha Bushati              (d. 1810)
                             (in opposition from 1793)
 3 May 1812 -  9 Oct 1831  Mustafa Pasha Bushati              (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
1831 - 1832                Morali Namik Ali Pasha
1833 - 1835                Ēerkes Hafiz Pasha
1835 - 1838                Bayram Beg
1838 - 1842                Hasan Pasha
1842 - 1843                Reza Pasha
1843 - 1854                Osman Mazhar Pasha
Jul 1854 - Sep 1854        Osman Pasha
Sep 1854 - Jan 1855        Sarayli Mehmed Ragib Pasha
Jan 1855 - Mar 1855        Hekimbashi Ismail Pasha
Apr 1855 - Dec 1855        Agha Abdulaziz Pasha               (d. 1855)
Dec 1855 - Nov 1857        Ataullah Pasha
Nov 1857 - Oct 1861        Ēerkes Abdi Pasha (1st time)
Oct 1861 - Apr 1862        Mehmed Rashid Pasha
Apr 1862 - Apr 1863        Ēerkes Abdi Pasha (2nd time)
Apr 1863 - Dec 1864        Aziz Pasha
Dec 1864 - May 1868        Divitēi Ismail Hakki Pasha
                             (1st time)
May 1868 - Dec 1868        Kücük Omer Fevzi Pasha
Dec 1868 - Aug 1870        Sakizli Ahmed Esad Pasha
Aug 1870 - Sep 1871        Divitēi Ismail Hakki Pasha
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1871 - Jan 1872        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
                             (1st time)
Apr 1872 - Jan 1873        Sevket Pasha
Jan 1873 - Mar 1873        Fosfor Mustafa Sidki Pasha
Mar 1873 - May 1873        Gürcü Ali Pasha
May 1873 -  7 Nov 1873     Sevket Pasha                       (d. 1873)
Nov 1873 - Sep 1874        Ahmed Razim Pasha                  (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
Oct 1874 - May 1876        Mustafa Eshref Pasha               (d. 1873)
May 1876 - Aug 1876        Yakali Ali Pasha                   (d. 1876)
Aug 1876 - Jul 1878        Alyanak Mustafa Pasha              (d. 1884)
1878                       Hüseyin Pasha
Nov 1878 - Nov 1879        Arif Pasha
Nov 1879 - Aug 1880        Mehmed Izzet Pasha
Aug 1880 - Apr 1882        Ēürüksulu Osman Ziya Pasha         (d. 1908)
Apr 1882 - Jul 1883        Abdi Pasha
Aug 1883 - May 1884        Hasan Pasha
May 1884 - Jan 1887        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1887 - Aug 1888        Tahir Pasha
Aug 1888 - Jan 1891        Ēürüksulu Süleyman Bahri Pasha        
Oct 1891 - Jul 1894        Bursali Abdülkerim Pasha
Jul 1894 - Jun 1896        Osman Fevzi Pasha                  (d. 1924)
Jun 1896 - Jul 1898        Hasan (Edip) Adib Pasha            (b. 1834 - d. 1904)
Jul 1897 - Nov 1901        Alpa Kazim Pasha                   (b. 1839 - d. 1936)
Nov 1901 - May 1903        Shakir Pasha
May 1903 - Apr 1906        Haydar Pasha
Apr 1906 - Feb 1907        Salih Sekki (Zeki) Pasha           (b. 1848 - d. 1908)
Feb 1907 - Dec 1907        Hilmi Pasha
Dec 1907 - Feb 1908        Dagistanli Seyfullah Pasha
Jun 1908 - Sep 1908        Mustafa Nuri Bey
Sep 1908 - Dec 1908        Yeniser Fenerli Seyfettin Bey
Dec 1908 - May 1909        Fahri Pasha
May 1909 - Sep 1910        Agabeyzade Ēemal Pasha
Sep 1910 - May 1911        Manastirli Hasan Bedrieddin Beg
May 1911 - Jan 1912        Mustafa Nedim Beg
Jan 1912 - Mar 1912        Hayri Pasha
Mar 1912 - 30 Jan 1913     Hasan Riza Pasha                   (b. 1871 - d. 1913)     
Apr 1912 - 23 Aug 1912     Hasan Bej Prishtina (in rebellion) (b. 1873 - d. 1933)
Serbian District Chiefs of Durrės (Drač) County (in Drač/Durrėsi)  
29 Nov 1912 - 1912         Ivan Ivanić                        (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
1912 - Apr 1913            Dragutin Anastasijević             (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
Chairman of the National Assembly
(in Vlora)
28 Nov 1912 -  4 Dec 1912  Ismail Qemali Bej Vlora            (b. 1844 - d. 1919)  Lib
Chairman of the Provisional Government (in Vlora) 
 4 Dec 1912 - 22 Jan 1914  Ismail Qemali Bej Vlora            (s.a.)               Lib
12 Oct 1913 - 12 Feb 1914  Esat Ali Pashė Toptani             (b. 1863 - d. 1920)  Non-party
                             (chairman Council of Elders of Central Albania,
                              in opposition in Durrėsi)

22 Jan 1914 -  7 Mar 1914  International Control Commission (in Durrėsi)
                           - Léon Alphonse Thaddé Krajewski   (b. 1863 - d.af.1931)
                              (1st time) (France)
                           - Harry Harling Lamb (1st time)    (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
                              (United Kingdom)
                           - Alessandro di Luigi Leoni        (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
                              (Italy) (1st time)
                           - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Petryayev (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
                              (1st time) (Russia)
                           - Aristoteles K. Petrović          (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
                              (Aristotelis K. Petraki)
                              (Austria-Hungary)

                           - August Kral (1st time)           (b. 1869 - d. 1953)
                              (acting for Petrović from 24 Feb 1914)
                              (Austria-Hungary)
                           - Julius Winckel (Germany)         (b. 1857 - d. 1941)

                           -
Rudolf Nadolny (Germany)         (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
                              (acting for
Winckel from 31 Jan 1914)
                          
- Ahmet Myfit Neki Bej Libohova
   (b. 1876 - d. 1927) 
                              (Albania)
Director-general of the Central Government

(subordinated to the International Control Commission)
22 Jan 1914 -  7 Mar 1914  Fejzi Bej Alizoti                  (b. 1874 - d. 1945)  Non-party
Sovereign Prince
¹
 7 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Vilhelm I                          (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
                           
(
Wilhelm Prinz zu Wied-Neuwied)
                            (accepted throne 21 Feb 1914; in exile formally to 31 Jan 1925)
 3 Sep 1914 -  6 Sep 1914  International Control Commission (in Durrėsi)
                           - Léon Alphonse Thadée Krajewski   (s.a.) 
                              (2nd time) (France)
                           - Harry Harling Lamb (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                              (United Kingdom)
                           - Alessandro di Luigi Leoni        (s.a.)
                              (Italy) (2nd time)
                           - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Petryayev (s.a.)
                              (2nd time) (Russia)
                           - Hellmuth Eduard Ferdinand        (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
                              Lucius von Stoedten (Germany)
                           - Mehdi Bej Frashėri               (b. 1872 - d. 1963)
                              (Albania)
                           - August Kral (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                              (Austria-Hungary)
Chairman of the Administrative Commission
(appointed by the Control Commission)
 3 Sep 1914 -  6 Sep 1914  Qamil Musa Haxhi Feza              (b. 1876 - d. 1915)
Chairman of the General Council of the Albanian Senate

 6 Sep 1914 -  5 Oct 1914  Mustafa Bej Ndroqi (in Shijak)
                            
(in rebellion from 3 Jun 1914)
Chairman of the Provisional Government
(in Durrėsi)
 5 Oct 1914 - 27 Feb 1916  Esat Ali Pashė Toptani             (s.a.)               Non-party
                            
(in exile from 24 Feb 1916)
27 Feb 1916 - 28 Dec 1918 
No national government
Austro-Hungarian Military Commandants in Albania (in Skutari/Shkodra)
27 Feb 1916 - 17 Mar 1916  Hermann Freiherr Kövess von        (b. 1854 - d. 1924)
                             Kövesshįza (commandant of 3rd Army)
17 Mar 1916 - Oct 1917     Ignaz Trollmann                    (b. 1860 - d. 1919)
                             (from 17 Aug 1917, Ignaz Freiherr Trollmann  
                             (commandant of the XIX Corps)

Oct 1917 - 13 Jul 1918     Ludwig Koennen-Horįk, Edler von    (b. 1861 - d. 1938)
                             Höhenkampf
                             (commandant of the XIX Corps)
13 Jul 1918 - 14 Oct 1918  Karl Freiherr von Pflanzer-Baltin  (b. 1855 - d. 1925)
                             (commander of Army Group Albania)
Chairman of the Provisional Government (in Durrėsi)
25 Dec 1918 - 20 Feb 1920  Turhan Pashė Pėrmeti               (b. 1839 - d. 1927)  Non-party
Chairman of the National Government (in Tiranė)
28 Jan 1920 - 30 Jan 1920  Sylejman Bej Delvina               (b. 1882 - d. 1932)  Non-party
31 Jan 1920 - 25 Dec 1921  High Council
                           - Aqif Pashė Biēakēiu Elbasani     (b. 1860 - d. 1926)
                             (to 22 Dec 1922)
                           - Abdi Adem Bej Toptani            (b. 1864 - d. 1942)
                           - Luigj Bumēi, mitropolit Lezhė    (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
                             (to 22 Dec 1922)
                           - Mihal Turtulli Bej Korēa         (b. 1847 - d. 1935)
25 Dec 1921 - 31 Jan 1925  High Council
                           - Omer (Ymer) Pashė Vrioni         (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
                             (to 3 Oct 1922)
                           - Ndoc Pistulli  
                             (to 3 Oct 1922)
                           - Sotir Jovan Peci                 (b. 1873 - d. 1932)
                             (absent 2 Jul 1924 - 13 Nov 1924)
                           - Refik Seit Bej Toptani           (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
                             (absent 10 Jun 1924 - 24 Dec 1924)
                           - Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi            (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
                             (from 2 Dec 1922; absent 10 Jun 1924 - 24 Dec 1924)
                           - Gjon F. Ēoba
                             (2 Dec 1922 - 24 May 1924)
 2 Jul 1924 - 24 Dec 1924  Fan Noli                           (b. 1882 - d. 1965)  PPo
                           (mitropolit Theofan Stylian Noli)
                           (acting for the High Council)

President
 1 Feb 1925 -  1 Sep 1928  Ahmet Zogu (Ahmet Bej Zogolli)     (b. 1895 - d. 1961)  Con
Kings¹
 1 Sep 1928 -  8 Apr 1939  Zog I (in exile to 11 Jan 1946)    (s.a.)
 9 Apr 1939 - 12 Apr 1939  Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi              (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (chairman Provisional Administration Committee)
12 Apr 1939 - 23 Apr 1939  Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci                (b. 1877 - d. 1946)  PFS
                            (acting head of state)
16 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943  Viktor Emanueli III                (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                            (Vittorio Emanuele III)
Italian Commander of the Overseas Expeditionary Corps - Tirana
 8 Apr 1939 - 23 Apr 1939  Alfredo Guzzoni                    (b. 1877 - d. 1965)  Mil 
Lieutenants-general (representing Viktor Emanueli III)
23 Apr 1939 - 18 Mar 1943  Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino   (b. 1893 - d. 1973)  PNF
18 Mar 1943 -  9 Sep 1943  Alberto Pariani                    (b. 1876 - d. 1955)  Mil
German Commanding General of the XXI Mountain Army Corps
 9 Sep 1943 -  3 Oct 1943  Paul Bader                         (b. 1883 - d. 1971)  Mil
German Military Commander in Albania and Montenegro
 9 Sep 1943 -  3 Oct 1943  Theodor Geib                       (b. 1885 - d. 1944)  Mil
Chairman of Provisional Executive Committee
14 Sep 1943 - 20 Oct 1943  Ibrahim Aqif Bej Biēakēiu (Biēaku) (b. 1905 - d. 1977)  BK
Chairman of High Council of Regency 
20 Oct 1943 - 26 Oct 1944  Mehdi Bej Frashėri                 (s.a.)               BK
Chairman Presidium of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation
27 May 1944 - 12 Jan 1946  Omer Nishani                       (b. 1887 - d. 1954)  Non-party
                             (in rebellion to 17 Nov 1944)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly

12 Jan 1946 -  1 Aug 1953  Omer Nishani                       (s.a.)               PCS;1948 PPS
                             (chairman of the Presidium of Constituent
                             Assembly to 16 Mar 1946)
 1 Aug 1953 - 22 Nov 1982  Haxhi Halit Lleshi                 (b. 1913 - d. 1998)  PPS
22 Nov 1982 - 29 Apr 1991  Ramiz Tafė Alia                    (s.a.)               PPS
Presidents
29 Apr 1991 -  3 Apr 1992  Ramiz Tafė Alia                    (s.a.)               PSS
 3 Apr 1992 -  6 Apr 1992  Kastriot Selman Islami (acting)    (b. 1952)            PSS
 6 Apr 1992 -  9 Apr 1992  Pjetėr Filip Arbnori (acting)      (b. 1935 - d. 2006)  PDS
 9 Apr 1992 - 23 Jul 1997  Sali Ram Berisha                   (b. 1944)            PDS 
24 Jul 1997  (hours)       Skėnder Et'hem Gjinushi (acting)   (b. 1949)            PDS
24 Jul 1997 - 24 Jul 2002  Rexhep Kemal Meidani               (b. 1944)            PSS 
24 Jul 2002 - 24 Jul 2007  Alfred Spiro Moisiu                (b. 1929)            Non-party
24 Jul 2007 - 24 Jul 2012  Bamir Myrteza Topi                 (b. 1957)            Non-party
24 Jul 2012 -              Bujar Faik Nishani                 (b. 1966)            PDS 
 

Prime minister (minister-president)
17 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Turhan Pashė Pėrmeti (1st time)    (s.a.)               Non-party 
 3 Sep 1914 - 11 Feb 1920  Vacant
Chairman of the Senate

1915 - 1916                Hasan Basri Bej Dukagjini                               Non-party 
                            
(in eastern Albania, under Bulgarian occupation)
Austro-Hungarian Civilian State Commissioner
(Zivillandeskommissär)
 
4 Apr 1916 - 17 Oct 1918  August Kral                        (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             (from 4 Sep 1917, August Ritter von Kral)
Prime ministers
(minister-presidents)

11 Feb 1920 - 20 Nov 1920  Sulejman Bej Delvina               (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Nov 1920 - 16 Oct 1921  Ilias Bej Vrioni (1st time)        (b. 1882 - d. 1932)  Non-party
16 Oct 1921 -  6 Dec 1921  Pandeli Jano Evangjeli (1st time)  (b. 1859 - d. 1949)  Non-party
 6 Dec 1921 -  7 Dec 1921  Qazim Muhamet Koculi               (b. 1887 - d. 1943)  PPė
 7 Dec 1921 - 12 Dec 1921  Hasan Bej Prishtina                (b. 1873 - d. 1933)  Lib
12 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921  Idhomene Kosturi                   (b. 1873 - d. 1943)  PPė
24 Dec 1921 -  2 Dec 1922  Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi              (s.a.)               PPo
 2 Dec 1922 - 25 Feb 1924  Ahmet Zogu (1st time)              (s.a.)               Con
25 Feb 1924 -  5 Mar 1924  Pandeli Jano Evangjeli (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Con
                            
(interim)
 5 Mar 1924 - 27 May 1924  Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci (1st time)     (s.a.)               PPė
27 May 1924 - 10 Jun 1924  Ilias Bej Vrioni (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Jun 1924 - 24 Dec 1924  Fan Noli                           (s.a.)               PPo
                             (mitropolit Theofan Stylian Noli)
24 Dec 1924 -  6 Jan 1925  Ilias Bej Vrioni (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party
 6 Jan 1925 - 31 Jan 1925  Ahmet Zogu (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Con
31 Jan 1925 -  5 Sep 1928  Post abolished
 
5 Sep 1928 -  6 Mar 1930  Kostaq "Koēo" Nuēi Kota (1st time) (b. 1889 - d. 1949)  Con
 6 Mar 1930 - 22 Oct 1935  Pandeli Jano Evangjeli (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Con
22 Oct 1935 -  9 Nov 1936  Mehdi Bej Frashėri                 (s.a.)               Con
 9 Nov 1936 -  8 Apr 1939  Kostaq "Koēo" Nuēi Kota (2nd time) (s.a.)               Con
 
8 Apr 1939 - 12 Apr 1939  Vacant
12 Apr 1939 -  3 Dec 1941  Shefqet Bej Vėrlaci (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PFS

 3 Dec 1941 - 18 Jan 1943  Mustafa Merlika-Kruja              (b. 1887 - d. 1958)  PFS
18 Jan 1943 - 12 Feb 1943  Eqrem Bej Libohova (1st time)      (b. 1882 - d. 1948)  PFS
12 Feb 1943 - 11 May 1943  Maliq Bej Bushati                  (b. 1880 - d. 1946)  PFS
11 May 1943 -  8 Sep 1943  Eqrem Bej Libohova (2nd time)      (s.a.)             PFS;1943 GSHM
 
8 Sep 1943 -  3 Nov 1943  Vacant
 5 Nov 1943 - 18 Jul 1944  Rexhep Bej Mitrovica               (b. 1887 - d. 1967)  BK
18 Jul 1944 -  6 Sep 1944  Fiqri Bej Dine                     (b. 1897 - d. 1960)  BK
 6 Sep 1944 - 26 Oct 1944  Ibrahim Aqif Bej Biēakēiu (Biēaku) (s.a.)               BK
Chairmen of the Government

28 May 1944 - 20 Jul 1954  Enver Hoxha                        (s.a.)               PCS;1948 PPS
                           
(chairman of the Anti-Fascist Committee
                             of National Liberation to 22 Oct 1944
                             [in rebellion to 17 Nov 1944])
20 Jul 1954 - 28 Dec 1976  Mehmet Ismail Shehu                (b. 1913 - d. 1981)  PPS

Chairmen of the Council of ministers (prime ministers)
28 Dec 1976 - 18 Dec 1981  Mehmet Ismail Shehu                (s.a.)               PPS
18 Jan 1982 - 22 Feb 1991  Adil Haki Ēarēani                  (b. 1922 - d. 1997)  PPS

                             (acting to 15 Jan 1982)
22 Feb 1991 - 11 Jun 1991  Fatos Thanas Nano (1st time)       (b. 1952)            PPS
11 Jun 1991 - 18 Dec 1991  Ylli Sokrat Bufi                   (b. 1948)            PSS 
18 Dec 1991 - 13 Apr 1992  Vilson Faik Ahmeti                 (b. 1951)            Non-party
13 Apr 1992 - 11 Mar 1997  Aleksandėr Gabriel Meksi           (b. 1939)            PDS
11 Mar 1997 - 25 Jul 1997  Bashkim Muhamet Fino               (b. 1963)            PSS
25 Jul 1997 -  2 Oct 1998  Fatos Thanas Nano (2nd time)       (s.a.)               PSS
 2 Oct 1998 - 28 Nov 1998  Pandeli Sotir Majko                (b. 1967)            PSS
Prime ministers
(minister-presidents)
28 Nov 1998 - 29 Oct 1999  Pandeli Sotir Majko (1st time)     (s.a.)               PSS
29 Oct 1999 - 22 Feb 2002  Ilir Rexhep Meta                   (b. 1969)            PSS
22 Feb 2002 - 29 Jul 2002  Pandeli Sotir Majko (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PSS
29 Jul 2002 - 10 Sep 2005  Fatos Thanas Nano (3rd time)       (s.a.)               PSS
10 Sep 2005 - 15 Sep 2013  Sali Ram Berisha                   (s.a.)               PDS
15 Sep 2013 -              Edi Kristaq Rama                   (b. 1964)            PSS  

 

Italian Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary
(since the
first Italo-Albanian Treaty of Tirana)
 9 Mar 1926 - 1927         Pompeo barone Aloisi               (b. 1875 - d. 1949)
 4 Jul 1927 - 1930         Ugo Sola                           (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1930 - 1932                Antonio marchese Meli-Lupi di      (b. 1885 - d. 1971)
                             Soragna 
Nov 1932 - 1934            Ottaviano Armando Koch
1934 - 1936                Mario barone Indelli               (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
 9 Sep 1936 - 22 Apr 1939  Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino   (s.a.)
Commanders, Italian Forces in Albania (and from 1941, Montenegro)
 7 Apr 1939 -  5 Dec 1939  Alfredo Guzzoni                    (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1939 -  5 Jun 1940  Carlo Geloso                       (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
 5 Jun 1940 - 11 Sep 1940  Sebastiano Visconti Prasca         (b. 1883 - d. 1961)
11 Sep 1940 - 30 Dec 1940  Ubaldo Soddu                       (b. 1889 - d. 1949)
30 Dec 1940 - Jan 1941     Conte Ugo Cavallero                (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
13 Jan 1941 - Mar 1941     Mario Vercellino                   (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Mar 1941 - Jul 1941        Alessandro Pirzio Biroli           (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
Jul 1941 -  1 Oct 1942     Camillo Mercalli                   (b. 1882 - d. 1974)
 1 Oct 1942 -  9 Jan 1943  Lorenzo Dalmazzo (1st time)        (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
11 Jan 1943 - Jul 1943     Alberto Pariani                    (s.a.)
Jul 1943 - Sep 1943        Lorenzo Dalmazzo (2nd time)        (s.a.)     
German Agents General in Albania
 3 Oct 1943 - 31 May 1944  Theodor Geib                       (s.a.)               Mil
 1 Jun 1944 - 30 Oct 1944  Otto Gullmann                      (b. 1887 - d. 1963)  Mil
31 Oct 1944 - 17 Nov 1944  Ernst Ulrich Hans von Leyser       (b. 1889 - d. 1962)  Mil 
    

Multinational Protection Force in Albania 

[Multinational Protection
                Force flag 1997]

Commander of the Multinational Protection Force (FMP)
16 Apr 1997 - 12 Aug 1997  Luciano Forlani (Italy)            (b. 1940)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: 
(a) 118. - 1256 (in Greek): Įrchontes ("Rulers");
(b)
Feb 1272 - 1286 (in Latin): Rex Albaniae ("King of Albania"), the royal Captains and Vicars-general were styled Capitanei et vicarii generales in regno Albaniae ("Captains and Vicar-generals in the Kingdom of Albania");
(c) 9 Oct 1304 - 29 Jul 1313: Despot Romaniae et Dominus regni Albaniae ("Despot of Romania and Lord of the Kingdom of Albania"); from
(d) 29 Jul 1313 - 17 Dec 1332: Constantinopolitani imperatores, Despoti Romaniae et Domini regni Albaniae ("Emperors of Constantinpole, Despots of Romania and Lords of the Kingdom of Albania);
(e) 17 Dec 1332 - Mar 1368: Dux Duracii regni Albaniae et honoris Montis Sancti Angeli dominus ac Gravine comes ("Duke of Durazzo, Lord of the Kingdom of Albania and the fief of Monte Sant' Angelo [in Sicily "Naples"], as well as Count of Gravina");
(f) Mar 1368 - 18 Aug 1392: Albaniae princeps et Durachii dominus ("Prince of Albania and Lord of Durazzo"), 1388-1392 dominus Durachii ("Lord of Durazzo");        
(g) 7 Mar 1914 - 3 Sep 1914: Princ Sovran i Shqipėrisė ("Sovereign Prince of Albania"); in informal and some official use, instead: Mbret ("King")(additional title "Skanderbeg II" was used);
(h) 1 Sep 1928 - 8 Apr 1939: Mbret i Shqiptarėve ("King of the Albanians")(additional title "Skanderbeg III" was used);
(i) 23 Apr 1939 - 3 Sep 1943: Mbret i Italis dhe i Shqipnis, Perandor i Ethiopis ("King of Italy and of Albania, Emperor of Ethiopia").

Territorial Disputes: None.

Party abbreviations: PDS = Partia Demokratike e Shqipėrisė (Democratic Party of Albania, conservative, center-right, est.12 Dec 1990); PSS = Partia Socialiste e Shqipėrisė (Socialist Party of Albania, social-democratic, center-left, former PPS, est.5 Jun 1991); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: BK = Balli Kombėtar (National Front, Albanian nationalist, anti-communist, Nov 1942-1944); Con = Conservative; GSHM = Garda e Shqipėrisė sė Madhe (Guard of Greater Albania, Albanian fascist, former PFS, 27 Jul 1943-10 Sep 1943); Lib = Liberal; PD = Partia Demokratike (Democratic Party, radical liberal, Jul 1924-1924); PFS = Partia Fashiste e Shqipėrisė (Fascist Party of Albania, Albanian fascist, nationalist, only legal party, 2 Jun 1939-27 Jul 1943, renamed GSHM); PNF = Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian fascist, Italian nationalist, 1921-1943); PPė = Partia Pėrparimtare (Progressive Party); PPo = Partia Popullore (Albanian Popular Party, conservative liberal, 1920-1924); PPS = Partia e Punės e Shqipėrisė (Party of Labour of Albania, communist, 1941-1991, named Partia Komuniste e Shqipėrisė [Communist Party of Albania] PCS Dec 1941-Nov 1948, only legal party 1948-1990, then PSS)



Korēa (Korēė) French Occupied Zone

[France]
     
[Autonomous
                          Korēa (Korce) French Occupied Zone,
                          1916-1918]
     10 Dec 1916 - 16 Feb 1918
Map of Korce Region 1916
Capital: Korytza (Korēa)
18 Aug 1916 - 15 Nov 1916  Korēė occupied by Bulgaria.
15 Nov 1916                French administration of Korēa district (by take-over).

10 Dec 1916                France proclaims an Autonomous Albania - Korēė (later
                             Albanian Republic - Korēė) under French protectorate.
16 Feb 1918                Autonomy cancelled by French authorities.
 1 Mar 1918                Albanian Military Frontier Territories (Territoire militaire
                             des confins albanais
) established.
26 May 1920                Korēa district re-incorporated into Albania.
21 Jun 1920                French forces withdrawn.

French Military Commanders
in Korytza/Korēa
15 Nov 1916 - 21 Nov 1916  Joseph Marie Franēois Albert Bardi  (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
                             de Fourtou
21 Nov 1916 - 15 May 1917  Henri Vincent Descoins              (b. 1869 - d. 1930)   
15 May 1917 -  1 Mar 1918  Jules Henri Salle                   (b. 1859 - d. 1942)      
French Commanders of the Albanian
Frontier (les Confins Albanais)
 1 Mar 1918 - Oct 1918     Joseph Marie Franēois Albert Bardi  (s.a.)
                             de Fourtou
Oct 1918 - 24 Oct 1919     Louis Joseph Reynard Lespinasse     (b. 1865 - d. 1929)
24 Oct 1919 - 26 May 1920  Paul Émile León Auguste Cretin      (b. 1868 - d. 19..)

Prefect of Police
10 Dec 1916 -  7 Nov 1917  Themistokli Gėrmėnji                (b. 1871 - d. 1917)
                            
(Themistocle Germenji)
Chairman of the Albanian Administrative Council

c.Mar 1917 - Feb 1918      Qani Bej Dishnica 



Valona (Vlora) Italian Occupied Zone

[Kingdom of Italy flag]

Map of Albania 1916
Headquarters: Valona (Vlora)

28 Dec 1914                Italy occupies Valona/Vlora/Vlorė and adjacent territory.
26 Apr 1915                In (secret) Treaty of London the Allies promise Italy the port
                            
of Valona/Vlora and a protectorate over Albania.
24 Dec 1915                Italian presence enlarged into Corpo Speciale d'Albania.
 
3 Jun 1917                Independence of all Albania under Italian protectorate proclaimed
                             by Italy.

27 Oct 1918                Subordinated to Comando Superiore delle Forze Italiane nei Balcani.
13 Nov 1918                Austria-Hungary evacuates Albania and Italy occupies most of
                             Albania.
25 Dec 1918                Albanian provisional government is recognized by Italy as the sole

                             legal government of Albania.
 2 Aug 1920                Independence of Albania recognized by Italy, protectorate is
                             relinquished effective 5 Aug 1920.

 3 Sep 1920                Last Italian forces evacuated (except for Saseno/Sazan island).

Italian Commissioners
1919 - 1920                Vincenzi
Mar 1920 - Jun 1920        Fortunato Castoldi                   (b. 1876 - d. 1961)
1920 -  3 Sep 1920         Gaetano conte Manzoni                (b. 1871 - d. 1937)

Italian Commanders of the Corps of Occupation of Valona/Vlora
28 Dec 1914 - 20 Nov 1915  Emanuele Mosca
20 Nov 1915 - 24 Dec 1915  Emilio Bertotti 
Commanders of the Special Corps of Albania (Corpo Speciale d'Albania)(in Valona/Vlora)
24 Dec 1915 -  8 Mar 1916  Emilio Bertotti
 8 Mar 1916 - 19 Mar 1916  Settimio di Tommaso Piacentini       (b. 1859 - d. 1921)
Commanders of the XVI Army Corps (XVI Corpo d'Armata)
(in Valona/Vlora)
20 Mar 1916 - 17 Jun 1916  Settimio di Tommaso Piacentini       (s.a.)
18 Jun 1916 - 19 Jun 1916  Oreste di Giovanni Bandini           (b. 1860 - d. 1916)
Commanders of the Troops of Occupation of Albania (in Valona/Vlora)
20 Jun 1916 - 11 Dec 1916  Oreste di Giovanni Bandini           (s.a.)  
11 Dec 1916 - 15 May 1917  Giacinto di Luigi Ferrero            (b. 1862 - d. 1922) 
Commander of the XVI Army Corps (XVI Corpo d'Armata)(in Valona/Vlora)
16 May 1917 - 10 Apr 1919  Giacinto di Luigi Ferrero            (b. 1862 - d. 1922)
Superior Commander of the Italian Forces in Balkans (Forze Italiane in Balcania)
27 Oct 1918 - 10 Apr 1919  Settimio di Tommaso Piacentini       (b. 1859 - d. 1921)
Commander of Italian Troops in Albania     
10 Apr 1919 -  3 Sep 1920  Settimio di Tommaso Piacentini       (s.a.)

Secretary for Civil Affairs of Albania
 
9 Mar 1916 - 191.         Ugo Capialbi                         (b. 1880 - d. 1930)



Northern Epirus

 
[Provisional
                          Government of Epirus 1914]
            Mar 1914 - 1914 
 
[Greek
                          government of Epirus 1914-1915]
                  1914 - 1915
 
[Possible flag
                          of Northern Epirus in 1915-1916]
                  1915 - 1916 
 
Capital: Argyrokastro
 (Gjirokastra)
Population: N/A

13 Mar 1913 - 28 Apr 1914  Northern Epirus under Greek administration.
17 Dec 1913                Assigned to Albania (by protocol to 30 May 1913 peace treaty).
 1 Mar 1914                Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus established.
 1 Mar 1914                Korēa district integrated into Albania.
28 Apr 1914                Greek withdrawal completed.
17 May 1914                Autonomy recognized by Albania (ratified 23 Jun 1914).
 8 Jul 1914                Korēa part of autonomous territory.
14 Oct 1914                Greek occupation of Gjirokastra (and from 27 Oct 1914 Korēa),
                             autonomous government is disbanded.
27 Oct 1914 - 15 Nov 1916  Greek administration.
28 Oct 1940                Italian invasion of Greece.
22 Nov 1940 - 22 Apr 1941  Greek occupation (of Korēa to 14 Apr 1941; and from 8 Dec 1940
                             of Gjirokastra).

Chairman of the Provisional Government (in Argyrokastro/Gjirokastra)
 1 Mar 1914 - 27 Oct 1914  Georgios Christakis Zographos       (b. 1863 - d. 1920)
Greek Commanders of the Army Department of Western Macedonia
(in Korytsa/Korēa)
22 Nov 1940 -  8 Mar 1941  Ioannis Dimitriou Pitsikas          (b. 1881 - d. 1975)
 9 Mar 1941 - 14 Apr 1941  Georgios Konstantinou Tsolakoglou   (b. 1886 - d. 1948)
Greek Commanders of the 1st Army Corps
(in Dervitsani/Derviēan) 
12 Dec 1940 -  5 Mar 1941  Georgios Ioannou Kosmas             (b. 1886 - d. 1964)
 6 Mar 1941 - 22 Apr 1941  Panagiotis Petrou Demestichas       (b. 1885 - d. 1960) 



Mirditė Republic
 
[Mirdite Republic, 1921 (Albania)]
       17 Jul 1921 - 9 Aug 1921
 
[Mirdite Flag
                          variant (Albania)]
               Reported Variant
Capital: Oroshi (Orosh)
Population: N/A

17 Jul 1921                Mirditė Republic (Republika e Mirditės) proclaimed in north central
                             Albania by Roman Catholic Mirditė clans which is supported by
                             Yugoslavia
.
 9 Aug 1921                Re-occupied by Albania.   
 1 Nov 1921 - 20 Nov 1921  Occupied by Yugoslavia.
 1 Nov 1921                Restored under Yugoslav occupation.
20 Nov 1921                Dissolved.

President
17 Ju1 1921 -  9 Aug 1921  Gjon Markagjoni (1st time)          (b. 1888 - d. 1966)
 1 Nov 1921 - 20 Nov 1921  Gjon Markagjoni (2nd time)          (s.a.)


Shkodra (Shkodėr)

24 Apr 1913 - 14 May 1913  Scutari/Skadar (Shkodra/Shkodėr) occupied by Montenegro.
14 May 1913 - 21 Aug 1914  International military administration (by Austria-Hungary,
                             France, Germany, Italy and U.K.).
27 Jun 1915 - 23 Jan 1916  Occupied by Montenegro.
23 Jan 1916 - 31 Oct 1918  Occupied by Austria-Hungary (see above).
31 Oct 1918 - 11 Mar 1920  Occupied by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
11 Mar 1920                Allied forces withdrawn, Shkodra district incorporated into
                             Albania.

Montenegrin Military governors
24 Apr 1913 - 1914         Janko Vukotić                       (b. 1866 - d. 1927)
1914 - 24 May 1914         Jovo Bečir                          (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
Montenegrin Civil governor

24 Apr 1913 - 14 May 1914  Petar Plamenac
Chairman of the International Military Commission for Shkodėr (
Shkodra)
14 May 1913 - 15 Oct 1913  Sir Cecil Burney (U.K.)             (b. 1858 - d. 1926)
Commanders and Military governors of Shkodėr (Shkodra)
15 May 1913 - 15 Oct 1913  Lebrecht von Klitzing (Germany)     (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 
15 Oct 1913 -  1 Aug 1914  George Fraser Phillips (U.K.)       (b. 1863 - d. 1921)
 1 Aug 1914 - 21 Aug 1914  Alessandro Vigliani (Italy)         (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
Allied Commander

31 Oct 1918 - 11 Mar 1920  Joseph Marie Franēois Albert Bardi  (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
                             de Fourtou (France)



Saseno Island 

[Kingdom of Italy flag]

Map of Saseno (Sazan)  Island
Population: N/A

 5 Nov 1815                Sįson (Saseno) Island, commanding the Bay of Vlora/Vlorė, is part
                             of Ionian Islands British Protectorate (previously part of
                             Venetian possessions by 1696)(see under Greece).
 
2 Jun 1864                Ceded to Greece with the rest of the Ionian Islands, but it is
                             occupied, coming under de facto Ottoman control. It was not
                             until 1912 that Greece landed soldiers on the island and formally
                             claimed it.

 6
Dec 1912                Occupied by Greece.
19 Dec 1913                Allied Ambassadors Conference includes Saseno within Albania

                             in protocol of Florence.
18 Jun 1914                Ceded to Albania by Greece.
30 Oct 1914                Occupied by Italy.
26 Apr 1915                Promised to Italy by Treaty of London.
 2 Aug 1920                Ceded to Italy by Albania (Isola di Saseno)
19 Dec 1920                Made part of the Italian commune of Lagosta.
18 Jan 1923                Included within Italian province of Zara.
 7 Jun 1941                Included within Italian province of Cattaro (within Dalmatia).
10
Sep 1943 - 15 Oct 1944  Occupied by Germany.
15 Oct 1944                Occupied by Albania.
10 Feb 1947                Formally ceded by Italy to Albania (Sazan/Sazani). 


Italian Commanders of Saseno (in Valona/Vlora)
30 Oct 1914 - 17 May 1916  ....

17 May 1916 – 17 Feb 1917  Enrico Millo                        (b. 1885 - d. 1930)
Feb 1917 – 14 Mar 1917     Emilio Solari                       (b. 1864 - d. 1954)
14 Mar 1917 –  7 Jun 1917  Mario Casanuova Ierserinch
 7 Jun 1917 – 20 Nov 1917  Stefano Morino
21 Nov 1917 –  8 Jan 1918  Ugo Rombo                           (b. 1865 - d. 1941)
 8 Jan 1918 –  6 Mar 1918  Paolo Marzolo
 6 Mar 1918 – 15 Oct 1918  Diego Simonetti
15 Oct 1918 – 1918?        Pio Lobetti-Bodoni
1918? - 31 Aug 1920        ....
Commanders on Saseno

31 Aug 1920 - 1921         Edoardo Gaio
13 Sep 1921 - 1922         Roberto Somigli
 8 Apr 1922 - 1922         Gaetano Sansone
 1 Sep 1922 - 1923         Antonio Celozzi
16 Apr 1923 - 1923         Emilio Brenta
1923 - 1924                Edoardo Roggeri
1924 - 1926                Pietro Barone
1926 - 1937                Emilio Bonfigli (1st time)
1927 - 1928                Gaetano Correale
1928 - 1929                Giuseppe Fiorentino
1929 - 1930                Carlo Petrusio
1930 - 1931                Emilio Bonfigli (2nd time)
1931 - 1935                Enzo Vannini
29 Mar 1935 – 21 Feb 1938  Giacinto Mazzella
 4 Jun 1938 - 1940         Giuseppe Lauricella
 8 Aug 1940 - 1943         Giuseppe Donegani
 6 Jun 1943 – 10 Sep 1943  Domenico Vigliotta
Sep 1943 - Oct 1944        .... (Germany)



Venetian Durazzo


18 Aug 1392                City of Durrėsi/Durazzo ceded to Venice by agreement with Gjerj
                             Karl Topia
; administered as part of Albania Veneta
                             (see Boka Kotorska).
17 Aug 1501                Part of Ottoman Empire (follows rest of Albania from 1501).


Venetian Bailiffs and Captains (Baili e Capitani) of Durrazo

1392                       Marino Cocco
1392 - 1393                Paolo da Canale
1393 - 1395                Francesco Giorgio
1395 - 1397                Francesco Dandolo
1397 - 1398                Pietro Michieli
1398 - 1399                Gabriele Nadal
1399 - 1400                Pietro Mocenigo
1400 - 1403                Giovanni Valaresso
1403 - 1405                Ranieri Venier
1405 - 1407                Antonio Bollani
1407 - 1408                Pietro Arimondo
1408 - 1410                Antonio Ferro
1410 - 1412                Giorgio Loredano
1412 - 1414                Matteo Gradenigo
1414 - 1415                Biagio Malipiero
1415 - 1417                Bertuccio Contarini
1417 - 1419                Jacopo Darnerio
1419 - 1421                Giovanni Morosini
1421 - 1422                Lorenzo Foscarini
1422                       Paolo Bondumier
1422 - 1423                Andrea Dolfin
1423 - 1424                Gherardo Sagredo
1424 - 1425                Giovanni Venier
1425                       Zaccaria Nadal
1425 - 1426                Giuliano Loredano
1426 - 1427                Niccolo Venier
1427 - 1429                Michele Minio
1429 - 1430                Moise Suriano (1st time)
1430 - 1432                Pietro Contarini
1432 - 1433                Niccolo da Molin
1433 - 1435                Francesco Priuli
1435 - 1438                Ferigo Loredano
1438 - 1440                Marco Renier
1440 - 1442                Pasquale Gradenigo
1442 - 1444                Girolano Gradenigo
1444 - 1447                Giovanni Contarini
1447 - 1450                Paolo Zane
1450                       Alessandro Falier
1450 - 1452                Giovanni Marcello
1452 - 1454                Moise Suriano (2nd time)
1454 - 1455                Marco Diedo
1455 - 1460                Francesco Barbo
1460 - 1463                Pietro da Mosto
1463 - 1466                Paolo Quirini
1466 - 1468                Bartolomeo Contarini
1468 - 1471                Stefano Magrio
1471 - 1475                Pietro Zane
1475 - 1477                Francesco Marcello
1477 - 1479                Luigi Cornaro
1479 - 1482                Andrea Marcello
1482 - 1485                Niccolo Morosini
1485 - 1486                Girolamo Abramo
1486 - 1487                Giovanni Bollani
1487 - 1490                Francesco Zane
1490 - 1492                Marco Zeno
1492 - 1495                Paolo Zane
1495 - 1498                Donato Baffo
1498 - 1500                Vito Diedo
1500 - 1501                Vincenzio Qurini




© Ben Cahoon