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Greece
 
[Ottoman flag]
                      to 24 Jan 1822
[Flag
                                    of Greece 1821-1822]
    25 Mar 1821 - 27 Mar 1822 (unofficial) 
[Flag
                                    of Greek guerillas, 1821-1822]
    5 Mar 1821 - Jan 1822 Greek Guerrillas
[Greece,
                                    1822-1924]
                27 Mar 1822 - 1924
 
[Alternative Flag of Greece,
                                    1832-1924, 1935-41, 1944-70,
                                    1975-78]
    Co-National Flag: 1832 - 16 Mar 1924, 
            10 Oct 1935 - 6 Apr 1941
[Greece, 1924-1970]
                1924  - 18 Aug 1970 
 
[Greece, 1970-1975]
                18 Aug 1970 - 7 Jun 1975
[Alternative Flag of Greece,
                                    National flag 1975-78]
             7 Jun 1975 - 22 Dec 1978
[Greece]
              Re-adopted 22 Dec 1978
Map of Greece
----------------------------
Administrative divisions map
Hear National Anthem
"Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían"
(Hymn to Freedom) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1865
Constitution
(11 Jun 1975)
Capital: Athens (Athína)
(Nauplion [Náfplio] 1822 -
13 Dec 1834)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1833-1 Jan 2002 Drachma
(GRD); 1828-1833 Greek
Phoenix (GRP)
National Holiday: 25 Mar (1821)
Independence Day
Population: 10,768,477 (2017)
 8,388,553 (1961)
5,536,375 (1920)
2,187,208 (1889)
753,400 (1828)
GDP: $289.4 billion (2016)
Exports: $21.9 billion (2016)
Imports: $42.7 billion (2016) 
Ethnic groups: Greek 90.4%, Macedonian 1.8%, Albanian 1.5%,
Turkish 1.4%, Pomak 0.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.5%, other 3.2% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 177,600 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 382 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 860 ships (2010)
Religions: Christian 95.2% (Greek Orthodox 94%, Roman
Catholic 0.5%), Sunni Muslim 1.3%, other 3.5% (1995)
International Organizations/Treaties: AG, AIIB (applicant), ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC, BTWC, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Euratom, Eutelsat, FAO, FATF, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC,  KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, OST, PAM, PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Greece Index
Chronology

c.1400 BC - c.1100 BC      Mycenaean civilization.
c.1260 BC – c.1180 BC      Modern dating
period of the legendary Trojan War
                             between Mycenaean Greeks and Troy (Troía/Ílios).
c.900 BC                   Athens founded, as one of many independent city-
                             states.
776 BC                     Traditional date for first historic Olympic Games
                             held at Olympia (Olýmpia).
594/93 BC                  Solon (Sólon) the archon of Athens.
c.550 BC - 366 BC          Peloponnesian League, a loose confederation of
                             Greek city-states led by Sparta.
Aug/Sep 490 BC             Battle of Marathon (Marath
ón), Athens defeats
                             the Persians.
Aug/Sep 480 BC             Battle of Thermopylae (Thermopýlai), Persians
                             defeat the Greeks.
27 Sep 480 BC              Persians
capture and burn Athens.
478 BC - 404 BC            Delian League (First Athenian League), alliance of
                             Greek city-states led Athens to continue fighting
                             the Persian Empire.
461 BC - 429 BC            Pericles (Periklís) the ruler of Athens.
460 BC - 445 BC            (First) Peloponnesian War between Sparta as the
                             leaders of the Peloponnesian League and Sparta's
                             other allies, most notably Thebes, and the Delian
                             League led by Athens with support from Argos.
431 BC - 404 BC            (Second) Peloponnesian War between the Delian
                             League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian
                             League led by Sparta.
378 BC - 355 BC            (Second) Athenian League, a coalition of Greek
                             city-states, led by Athens, formed to fight the
                             power of Sparta.
 2 Aug 338 BC              Battle of Chaeronea (Chairóneia), Phillip II of
                             Macedonia defeats Athens and Thebes.
338 BC - 197 BC            Subjugated by Macedonia (under Alexander III "the
                            
Great" [Aléxandros ho Mégas] 336 BC - Jun 323 BC)
338 BC - 322 BC            Hellenic League (League of Corinth), a federation
                             of Greek states under Macedonia.
290 BC – 189 BC            League of the Aetolians, confederation of Greek
                             city-states in Aetolia in opposition to Macedonia
                             and to the Achaean League.
280 BC – 146 BC            League of the Achaeans (Achaean League), formed as
                             a confederation of Greek city-states in Achaea
                             as rival of Antigonid Macedonia and ally of Rome.
22 Jun 168 BC              Roman Republic defeats and annexes Macedonia.
146 BC                     Romans defeat the Achaean League, destroying the
                             city-state of Corinth.
146 BC - 27 BC             Part of Roman Republic (as
Provincia Macedoniae).
87 BC -  1 Mar 86 BC       Romans led by Sulla sack Athens (and Piraeus) which
                             had allied itself with the Kingdom of Pontus.
 2 Sep 31 BC               Battle of Actium (Áktion), Octavian defeats the
                             forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra VII.
27 BC                      Part of the Roman Empire (Provincia Achaea is
                             separated from Provincia Macedoniae).
11 May 330 AD              Emperor Constantine moves the capital of the Roman
                             Empire to Constantinople (Konstantinoúpolis)
                             formerly Byzantium (Byzántion), officially
                             called New Rome (Nova Roma [Néa Rómi]).

393 AD                     Last ancient Olympic Games take place.
17 Jan 395                 Divided de jure into the Eastern Roman (Byzantine)
                             Empire (
Constantinople) and Western Roman Empire
                             (Rome).

 4 Sep 476                 Last Emperor in the West is deposed by barbarians.
680 - 893                  Bulgaria expands into Byzantine Empire lands of  
                             Dobruja, Moesia (Moisía), Macedonia and Thrace.
1018 - 1185                Byzantine Empire annexes Bulgaria.
1185 - 1204                (Second) Bulgarian Empire re-occupies Moesia and
                             most of Thrace and Macedonia from the Byzantines.
12 Apr 1204                Latin Crusaders sack Constantinople.
16 May 1204 - 15 Aug 1261  Part of Latin Empire (Empire of Romania), Eastern
                             Roman (Byzantine) Empire overthrown by Crusaders.

1205 - Jun 1458            (Latin) Duchy of Athens (in Attica).
1205 - Jan 1430            (Latin) Principality of Achaea (Achaia)(at
                             Andravída).

1206 - 25 Dec 1261         Empire of Nicaea (at Níkaia)(largest of the three
                             main Byzantine successor states [Nicea, Epirus,
                             and Trebizond]).
 6 Jan 1209 - Dec 1246     (Latin) Kingdom of Thessalonica (at Salonika).

24 Jul 1261                Empire of Nicaea under Mikhaíl VIII Palaiológos
                             captures Constantinople from the Latins.
15 Aug 1261                Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (restored
).
25 Oct 1349 - 29 May 1460  Despotate of the Morea (Mystras), an appanage of
                             the Byzantine Empire.
1362                       Adrianople (Edirne) part of the Ottoman Empire.

 9 Apr 1387-Jan/Feb 1403   Thessalonica (Saloníki) part of Ottoman Empire.
Sep 1423 - 29 May 1430     Venetian occupation of Thessalonica.
29 May 1430                Thessalonica reconquered by the Ottoman Empire.
29 May 1453                Constantinople captured by the Ottomans, end of 

                             the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
 4 Jun 1456                Athens captured by the Ottomans (the Acropolis is
                             finally occupied in Jun 1458).
29 May 1460                Despotate of the Morea captured by the Ottomans.
1460/1470                  Achaea, the Peloponnese, and Euboea part of 

                             the Ottoman Empire (part of Rumelia Eyalet). 
1533                       Attica, Aetolia-Acarnania, Boeotia, Euboea, coastal
                             Anatolia and nearly all of the Ottoman islands of
                             Eastern Mediterranean (except Crete) separated as
                            
Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid ("Islands of
                             the White Sea" or "Archipelago").
 7 Oct 1571                Battle of Lepanto, Ottomans defeated by the Holy
                             League (incl. Spain and Venice) off Patras.
1661                       Peloponnese separated from Rumelia (see Bulgaria)
                             as
Eyalet of Morea (Eyālet-i Mōra).
27 Sep 1669                Crete captured from Venice by the Ottoman Empire.

 7 Aug 1687 - 20 Jul 1715  Morea (Peloponnese) and adjacent islands occupied
                             by the Republic of Venice.

 9 Mar 1770 - Jun 1770     Greek revolutionary governments in Laconia
                             (Mystras) and Crete under Russian protection.
Oct 1770 -  3 Jun 1775     Russian occupation of Naxos and Cyclades Islands.
23 Mar 1821                Beginning of the Greek War of Independence (the
                             Battle of Kalamáta).

23 Mar 1821 - 1822         Parts of Greece controlled by many insurrectionary
                             revolutionary administrations.
29 Mar 1821                Revolution launched in Máni (Mani) by "Petrobey",
                             Turkish forces soon limited to nine fortresses,
                             Greeks controlling countryside (17 Mar 1821 OS).
 7 Jun 1821                Peloponnesian Senate established in revolt for the
                             whole
Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos)(26 May 1821 OS).
 5 Oct 1821                Greeks occupy Trabliçe (Tripolitsá [Trípoli]), the
                             then provincial capital of Morea (23 Sep 1821 OS)
16 Nov 1821                Senate of Western Greece
established, in revolt,
                             for Western Greece.
29 Nov 1821                Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece is elected
                             in revolt, for Continental Greece, then part of
                             the Aegaean province.
 1 Jan 1822                National Assembly convened, superseding the three
                             regional bodies; on 13 Jan 1822 a provisional
                             constitution adopted, regional bodies abolished
                             on 30 Apr 1823.
24 Jan 1822                Independence proclaimed (Greece, with Greek State
                             as additional and ultimately preferred form).

 9 Jun 1822                Ottoman garrison surrenders the Acropolis in Athens
15 Feb 1825                Egyptian intervention (requested by Ottoman Sultan)

24 May 1827                Ottomans recapture the Acropolis.
 6 Jul 1827                British, French, and Russian intervention.
20 Oct 1827                Egyptian fleet destroyed in battle by U.K., French,
                             Russian intervention, ending Egypt intervention.
29 Aug 1828 - 26 Sep 1833  French occupation force in the Morea.
16 Nov 1828                Greece to be autonomous within Ottoman Empire (by
                             U.K.-France-Russia protocol); 22 Mar 1829 amended
                             (
territory extended).
12 Sep 1829                Ottomans defeated at Petra in the final battle
                             in the Greek War of Independence (Ottoman
                             garrison leaves the Acropolis 31 Mar 1833).
 3 Feb 1830                International recognition of independence of Greece
                             (by France, U.K. and Russia by London Protocol);
                             encompassing the Morea (Peloponnese), Continental
                             Greece and the Cyclades Islands.

 6 Feb 1833                Kingdom of Greece (monarchy instituted).

26 May 1854 - 28 Feb 1857  Piraeus (Pireás) occupied by Anglo-French forces to
                             enforce Greek neutrality
during the Crimean War.
 1 Jun 1864                Ionian Islands incorporated into Greece.

 2 Jul 1881                Thessaly incorporated into Greece.
30 May 1913                Crete incorporated into Greece.
10 Aug 1913                Macedonia (Salonika) and Epirus incorporated into
                             Greece.
13 Feb 1914                Most Aegean Islands (except Rhodes and Dodecanese)

                             incorporated into Greece.
15 May 1919 -  8 Sep 1922  Greece occupies Smyrna (see under Turkey) and
                             surrounding areas and most of Eastern Thrace.
23 May 1920                Western Thrace incorporated into Greece.
10 Aug 1920                Eastern Thrace, except Constantinople, incorporated

                             into Greece.
1922 - 1923                Population exchanges between Greece and Turkey.
28 Sep 1922                Eastern Thrace restored to Turkey.

 1 Mar 1923                Greece adopts the New Style (Gregorian) Calendar 
                             (on 15 Feb 1923 O.S., becoming 1 Mar 1923 N.S.)
31 Aug 1923 - 17 Sep 1923  Corfu occupied by Italy during "Corfu Incident."
14 Mar 1924                All references to the monarchy, including the name
                             of the polity, in official documents replaced by
                             Greek State.
25 Mar 1924                Monarchy formally abolished.

24 May 1924                Greek Republic
10 Oct 1935                Kingdom of Greece (restored).
 6 Apr 1941 - 13 Oct 1944  Italian - German occupation (completed 30 Apr
                             1941); from 27 Apr 1941, Greek State.
20 Apr 1941 - 15 Oct 1944  Western Thrace, Samothrace and Thasos islands
                             occupied by Bulgaria.
 8 Sep 1943                Germans occupy Italian controlled areas.
 2 Sep 1944                Germans begin withdrawal from Aegean islands.

13 Oct 1944                Kingdom of Greece (declared restored).
15 Oct 1944 - 1947         British occupation (forces remain to Feb 1950).
 3 Nov 1944                Last German troops are withdrawn from Greece.

 9 Jan 1948                Rhodes and Dodecanese Islands incorporated into
                             Greece (retroactive to 28 Oct 1947).
24 Dec 1947 - 28 Aug 1949  Communist Party of Greece (KKE) declares
                             Provisional Democratic Government in areas of
                             northern Greece under its control.
 1 Jun 1973                Monarchy abolished (ratified by plebiscite on
                             29 Jul 1973).
 1 Jun 1973                Greek Republic

 8 Dec 1974                Return of king/monarchy refused by plebiscite
                             69.2%-30.8%
30 Apr 1976                Demotic language (dimotikí glóssa) introduced in
                             education.










Regions
(since 2011)
Mount Athos
Byzantine
Empire

(395-1453)

Regional
Insurrectionary
Governments
(1821-1822)
Communist
"Mountain"

Governments

(1944,1947-1949)
Occupations
(1941-1946)
Morea
(1661-1821)
----------------
Venetian Morea
(1685-1715)
------------
 Mani
(1771-1821)
Thessaly
(1839-1867)
Thessalonica
(1839-1912)
Epirus
(1205-1479,
1670-1912)
Western
Thrace
(1913-1920)
Crete
(1699-1913)

Ionian Islands
(1701-1864,
1941
-1943)
and Venetian
Dependencies

Dodecanese
Islands
(1849-1948)
and
Kastellorizo
(1913-1922)
Samos
(1821-1913)
Icaria
(1912)
Naxos and
the Cyclades

(1204-1566,
1770
-1775)
Hydra
(1802-1832)
Psara
(1816-1822)
Spetses
(1800-1832)
Orthodox
Church of

Greece
Ecumenical
Patriarchs of
Constantinople
Historical Maps
of Greece
Map of Axis Occupation
1941-44
 

Note: Greek names are listed (some with notes) using a modified Hellenic Organization for Standardization (ELOT) 743 romanization system. Dates for Greek records before 1822 are given according to Old Style (Julian) calendar, and after according to New Style (Gregorian) calendar. New Style was introduced in Greece effective 15 Feb/1 Mar 1923.


President of the Peloponnesian Senate
(in Tripolitsá [Trípoli])
 7 Jun 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Theodóritos Vasileíou Vresthénis   (b. 1787 - d. 1843)  Non-party
President of the Senate of Western Greece (in Mesolóngi)
21 Nov 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (b. 1791 - d. 1865)  Mod
President of the Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece (in Sálona [Ámfissa])
29 Nov 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Theódoros Georgíou Négris          (b. 1790 - d. 1824)  Non-party
Presidents of the Executive
27 Jan 1822 -  9 May 1823  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (b. 1791 - d. 1865)  Mod
 9 May 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Petrómpeis (Pétros) Ilíou          (b. 1765 - d. 1848)  Non-party
                             Mavromichális ("Petróbey")
31 Dec 1823 - 30 Apr 1826  Geórgios Andréa Kountouriótis      (b. 1782 - d. 1858)  Lib
                             (in dissidence to 18 Jan 1824)
President of the Administrative Committee
30 Apr 1826 - 14 Apr 1827  Andréas Asimákou Zaïmis            (b. 1791 - d. 1840)  Non-party
Governors
15 Apr 1827 - 24 Jan 1828  Governor-Lieutenancy Commission
                           - Geórgios Pétrou Mavromichális    (b. 1800 - d. 1831)  Non-party
                           - Ioánnis Nikoláou Nákos
                              "Iannoúlis"
                           - Ioánnis Markí Milaïtis           (b. 1784 - d. 1861)
                           (acting)
24 Jan 1828 -  9 Oct 1831  Ioánnis Antoníou Kapodístrias      (b. 1776 - d. 1831)  Con
                             (= conte Giovanni di Antonio Capo d'Istria)
Apr 1830 - May 1830        Ioánnis Ilíou Mavromichális        (b. 1792 - d. 1873)
                             (in rebellion, in Lakonía)
Jan 1831 - Jan 1831        Konstantínos Ilíou Mavromichális   (b. 1797 - d. 1831)  Mil
                             (in rebellion, in Lakonía)
1831                       Ilías "Katsákos" Ioánnou           (d. 1836)
                             Mavromichális (in rebellion)
President of the Administrative Committee
 9 Oct 1831 - 20 Dec 1831  Ioánnis María Avgoustínos Antoníou (b. 1778 - d. 1857)  Con
                             Kapodístrias
                           (= conte Giovanni Maria Agostino di Antonio Capo d'Istria)
President of the Greek Government
20 Dec 1831 - 27 Mar 1832  Ioánnis María Avgoustínos Antoníou (s.a.)               Con
                             Kapodístrias
Governor
27 Mar 1832 -  9 Apr 1832  Ioánnis María Avgoustínos Antoníou (s.a.)               Con
                             Kapodístrias
22 Dec 1831 - 14 Apr 1832  Administrative Commission
                           (in dissidence; originally based in
                            Árgos, then in Perachóra and Megára)
                           - Andréas Asimákou Zaïmis          (s.a.)               Non-party
                           - Geórgios Andréa Kountouriótis    (s.a.)               Lib
                           - Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis        (b. 1774 - d. 1847)  Lib
                              (Colettis)
 9 Apr 1832 - 14 Apr 1832  Administrative Committee of Greece
                           - Vasíleios Voudoúris
                           - Andréas Asimákou Zaïmis          (s.a.)               Non-party                            - Theódoros Kolokotrónis           (b. 1770 - d. 1843)  Mil
                           - Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis        (s.a.)               Lib
                           - Andréas Pétrou Metaxás           (b. 1790 - d. 1860)  Con
15 Apr 1832 -  6 Feb 1833  Administrative Committee of Greece
                           - Geórgios Andréa Kountouriótis    (s.a.)               Lib
                              (president)
                           - Dimítrios Konstantínou Ypsilántis(b. 1794 - d. 1832)  Mil
                              (to 16 Aug 1832) 
                           - Andréas Asimákou Zaïmis          (s.a.)               Non-party
                           - Andréas Pétrou Metaxás           (s.a.)               Con
                           - Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis        (s.a.)               Lib
                           - Dimítris Nikoláou Plapoútas      (b. 1786 - d. 1864)  Mil
King¹
 6 Feb 1833 - 22 Oct 1862  Óthon I (Otto I)                   (b. 1815 - d. 1867)
                             (formally deposed 3 Feb 1863)
18 Feb 1833 -  1 Jun 1835  kómis Iosíf Loudovíkos Ármansperg  (b. 1787 - d. 1853)  Non-party
                             (= Joseph Ludwig Franz Xaver Graf von Armansperg)
                             (chairman of the Council of Regency)
President of the Provisional Government
22 Oct 1862 - 21 Feb 1863  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (b. 1802 - d. 1878)  Mod
President of the National Assembly
21 Feb 1863 - 23 Feb 1863  Aristeídis Moraïtínis (acting)     (b. 1806 - d. 1875)  Con  
Presidents of the Provisional Government
23 Feb 1863 -  8 Apr 1863  Zinóvios (Zafeírios) Ioánnou Válvis(b. 1800 - d. 1886)  Non-party
 8 Apr 1863 - 11 May 1863  Diomídis Athanásiou Kyriákos       (b. 1811 - d. 1869)  Non-party
11 May 1863 -  1 Jul 1863  Benizélos Athanásiou Roúfos        (b. 1795 - d. 1868)  Lib
                             (Roúphos) (1st time) 
President of the National Assembly
 1 Jul 1863 -  3 Jul 1863  Diomídis Athanásiou Kyriákos       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 6 Jun 1863, pending Geórgios I taking office)
President of the Provisional Government
 3 Jul 1863 - 30 Oct 1863  Benizélos Athanásiou Roúfos        (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(pending Geórgios I taking office)
Kings¹
 6 Jun 1863 - 18 Mar 1913  Geórgios I (George I)              (b. 1845 - d. 1913)
                             (takes office upon landing at Piraeus 30 Oct 1863)
18 Mar 1913 - 12 Jun 1917  Konstantínos I (Constantine I)     (b. 1868 - d. 1923)
                             (1st time) 
12 Jun 1917 - 25 Oct 1920  Aléxandros (Alexander)             (b. 1893 - d. 1920)
Regents
25 Oct 1920 - 28 Oct 1920  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (b. 1864 - d. 1936)  KF
                             (president of the Council of ministers)
28 Oct 1920 - 17 Nov 1920  Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis     (b. 1854 - d. 1935)  Mil
                             (1st time)
17 Nov 1920 - 19 Dec 1920  vasilomítor Ólga (f)               (b. 1851 - d. 1926)
                             (= velikaya knyazhna Ol'ga Konstantinovna)
Kings¹
17 Nov 1920 - 27 Sep 1922  Konstantínos I (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                            (arrives in Athens 19 Dec 1920)
27 Sep 1922 - 25 Mar 1924  Geórgios II (1st time)             (b. 1890 - d. 1947)
                            (left Greece 19 Dec 1923)
Regent
20 Dec 1923 - 14 Apr 1924  Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis     (s.a.)               Mil
                            (for absent Geórgios to 25 Mar 1924)
                            (2nd time)
Governor
14 Apr 1924 - 24 May 1924  Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis     (s.a.)               Mil
Presidents
24 May 1924 -  6 Apr 1926  Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis     (s.a.)               Mil
                             (1st time)
 6 Apr 1926 - 22 Aug 1926  Theodóros Dimitírou Pánkalos       (b. 1878 - d. 1952)  Mil
                             (Pángalos)(acting to 18 Apr 1926)
22 Aug 1926 - 24 Aug 1926  Geórgios Themistokléous Kondýlis   (b. 1879 - d. 1936)  LK
                             (acting)
24 Aug 1926 - 10 Dec 1929  Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis     (s.a.)               Mil 
                             (2nd time)
10 Dec 1929 - 10 Oct 1935  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (b. 1855 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                             (acting to 14 Dec 1929)
Regent
10 Oct 1935 - 22 Nov 1935  Geórgios Themistokléous Kondýlis   (s.a.)               LK
                             (from 10 Nov 1935, pending the return of Geórgios II)
King¹
22 Nov 1935 - 22 May 1941  Geórgios II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                             (lands in Greece 25 Nov 1925; continues in dissidence
                             from 29 Apr 1941 and then in exile² from 22 May 1941)
Presidents of the Government (under Axis occupation)
29 Apr 1941 -  2 Dec 1942  Geórgios Konstantínou Tsolákoglou  (b. 1886 - d. 1948)  Mil
 2 Dec 1942 -  7 Apr 1943  Konstantínos Ioánnou               (b. 1878 - d. 1951)  Non-party
                             Logothetópoulos
 7 Apr 1943 - 12 Oct 1944  Ioánnis Dimitríou Rállis           (b. 1878 - d. 1946)  Non-party
Kings¹
13 Oct 1944 -  1 Apr 1947  Geórgios II (2nd time [restored])  (s.a.)
                             (in exile³ to 27 Sep 1946)
13 Oct 1944 - 30 Dec 1944  Geórgios Andréou Papandréou        (b. 1888 - d. 1968)  Non-party
                             (acting; returns to Athens 18 Oct 1944)
Regent
30 Dec 1944 - 27 Sep 1946  archiepískopos Damaskinós          (b. 1891 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                             (= Dimítrios Nikoláou Papandréou)
Kings¹
 1 Apr 1947 -  6 Mar 1964  Pávlos I (Paul I)                  (b. 1901 - d. 1964)
20 Feb 1964 -  6 Mar 1964  prínkipas Konstantínos -Regent     (b. 1940)            Non-party
 6 Mar 1964 -  1 Jun 1973  Konstantínos II                    (s.a.) 
                             (forced to leave Greece 14 Dec 1967)
Regents (not recognized by the King)
13 Dec 1967 - 21 Mar 1972  Geórgios Konstantínou Zoitákis     (b. 1910 - d. 1996)  Mil
21 Mar 1972 -  1 Jun 1973  Geórgios Chrístou Papadópoulos     (b. 1919 - d. 1999)  Mil
Presidents
 1 Jun 1973 - 25 Nov 1973  Geórgios Chrístou Papadópoulos     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (provisional to 19 Aug 1973)
25 Nov 1973 - 14 Dec 1974  Faídon Dimitríou Gkizíkis          (b. 1917 - d. 1999)  Mil
14 Dec 1974 - 18 Dec 1974  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (b. 1907 - d. 1998)  ND
                             (1st time) (acting) 
18 Dec 1974 - 20 Jun 1975  Michaíl Dimitríou Stasinópoulos    (b. 1903 - d. 2002)  Non-party
20 Jun 1975 - 14 May 1980  Konstantínos Dimitríou Tsátsos     (b. 1899 - d. 1987)  ND
15 May 1980 - 10 Mar 1985  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ND
                             (2nd time)
10 Mar 1985 - 29 Mar 1985  Ioánnis Nikoláou Alevrás (acting)  (b. 1912 - d. 1995)  PASOK
30 Mar 1985 -  4 May 1990  Chrístos Antoníou Sartzetákis      (b. 1929)            Non-party
 4 May 1990 - 10 Mar 1995  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ND
                             (3rd time) 
10 Mar 1995 - 12 Mar 2005  Konstantínos Dimitríou             (b. 1926 - d. 2016)  Non-party
                             Stefanópoulos
12 Mar 2005 - 13 Mar 2015  Károlos Grigoríou Papoúlias        (b. 1929)            PASOK
13 Mar 2015 -              Prokópios Vasileíou Pavlópoulos    (b. 1950)            ND

 
Prime ministers (presidents of the ministerial council)
 6 Feb 1833 - 24 Oct 1833  Spyrídon Ioánnou Trikoúpis         (b. 1788 - d. 1873)  Mod
                             (Tricoupis)(acting to 15 Apr 1833)
24 Oct 1833 - 12 Jun 1834  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (s.a.)               Mod
                             (1st time)
12 Jun 1834 -  1 Jun 1835  Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (Colettis)(1st time) (acting)
 1 Jun 1835 - 14 Feb 1837  kómis Iosíf Loudovíkos Ármansperg  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (= Joseph Ludwig Franz Xaver Graf von Armansperg)
                             (chief secretary of state)
14 Feb 1837 - 20 Dec 1837  Ignátios fon Roúdchart             (b. 1790 - d. 1838)  Non-party
                             (Ippótis de Roudárt)
                             (= Ignaz von Rudhart)
20 Dec 1837 -  6 Jul 1841  Vacant
 6 Jul 1841 - 22 Aug 1841  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
22 Aug 1841 - 15 Sep 1843  Vacant
15 Sep 1843 - 28 Feb 1844  Andréas Pétrou Metaxás             (s.a.)               Con
28 Feb 1844 - 11 Apr 1844  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (b. 1793? - d. 1877) Con
                             (1st time)
11 Apr 1844 - 18 Aug 1844  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (s.a.)               Mod
                             (3rd time)
18 Aug 1844 - 12 Sep 1847  Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
12 Sep 1847 - 17 Sep 1847  Vacant
17 Sep 1847 - 20 Mar 1848  Kyriákos "Kítsos" Fotíou Tzavélas  (b. 1801 - d. 1855)  Lib
                             (Tsavéllas)
20 Mar 1848 - 27 Oct 1848  Geórgios Andréa Kountouriótis      (s.a.)               Lib
27 Oct 1848 - 24 Dec 1849  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
24 Dec 1849 - 28 May 1854  Antónios Georgíou Kriezís          (b. 1796 - d. 1865)  Mod
28 May 1854 -  4 Oct 1855  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (s.a.)               Mod
                             (4th time)
28 May 1854 - 29 Aug 1854  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (s.a.)               Con
                             (acting for absent Mavrokordátos)
 4 Oct 1855 - 25 Nov 1857  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Lib
                             (1st time)
25 Nov 1857 -  7 Jun 1862  Athanásios Andréa Miaoúlis         (b. 1815 - d. 1867)  Mil
 7 Jun 1862 - 23 Oct 1862  Ioánnis "Gennaíos" Theodórou       (b. 1803 - d. 1868)  Con
                             Kolokotrónis
Presidents of the Provisional Government
23 Oct 1862 - 30 Oct 1863  the heads of state
Prime ministers (until 8 Oct 1973, presidents of the ministerial council)
30 Oct 1863 -  6 Nov 1863  Vacant
 6 Nov 1863 - 17 Mar 1864  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time) 
17 Mar 1864 - 28 Apr 1864  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (s.a.)               Con
                             (3rd time) 
28 Apr 1864 -  7 Aug 1864  Zinóvios (Zafeírios) Ioánnou       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Válvis
 7 Aug 1864 - 14 Mar 1865  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (s.a.)               Con
                             (4th time) 
14 Mar 1865 -  1 Nov 1865  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(b. 1814? - d. 1883) KE
                             (1st time)
 1 Nov 1865 - 15 Nov 1865  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (b. 1829 - d. 1879)  Lib
                             (1st time) 
15 Nov 1865 - 18 Nov 1865  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (3rd time) 
18 Nov 1865 - 25 Nov 1865  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (2nd time)
25 Nov 1865 - 10 Dec 1865  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time) 
10 Dec 1865 - 21 Jun 1866  Benizélos Athanásiou Roúfos        (s.a.)               Lib
21 Jun 1866 - 30 Dec 1866  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (4th time) 
30 Dec 1866 -  1 Jan 1868  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (3rd time)
 1 Jan 1868 -  6 Feb 1868  Aristeídis Moraïtínis (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Con
 6 Feb 1868 -  6 Feb 1869  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (6th time) 
 6 Feb 1869 - 21 Jul 1870  Thrasývoulos Andréa Zaïmis         (b. 1825 - d. 1880)  Mod
                             (1st time) 
21 Jul 1870 - 15 Dec 1870  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (s.a.)               Mod
                             (3rd time) 
15 Dec 1870 -  9 Nov 1871  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (4th time)
 9 Nov 1871 -  6 Jan 1872  Thrasývoulos Andréa Zaïmis         (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time) 
 6 Jan 1872 - 20 Jul 1872  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (6th time) 
20 Jul 1872 - 21 Feb 1874  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (s.a.)               Lib
                             (4th time) 
21 Feb 1874 -  9 May 1875  Dimítrios Georgíou Voúlgaris       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (7th time) 
 9 May 1875 - 27 Oct 1875  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (b. 1832 - d. 1896)  NK
                             (1st time) 
27 Oct 1875 -  8 Dec 1876  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (5th time)
 8 Dec 1876 - 13 Dec 1876  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (s.a.)               Lib
                             (5th time) 
13 Dec 1876 - 10 Mar 1877  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (6th time)
10 Mar 1877 - 31 May 1877  Epameinóndas Dimitírou Deligeórgis (s.a.)               Lib
                             (6th time) 
31 May 1877 -  7 Jun 1877  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (7th time)
 7 Jun 1877 - 14 Sep 1877  Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris       (s.a.)               Con
                             (5th time) 
14 Sep 1877 - 23 Jan 1878  Council of Ministers
                           - Aléxandros Spyrídonos            (s.a.)               KE
                               Koumoundoúros
                           - Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis   (s.a.)               NK
                           - Epameinóndas Dimitírou           (s.a.)               Lib
                               Deligeórgis
                           - Thrasývoulos Andréa Zaïmis       (s.a.)               Mod
                           - Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis     (b. 1824 - d. 1905)  KE
                               (Diligiánnis)
                           - Charálampos Zymvrakákis          (b. 1812 - d. 1880)  Mil
                           (acting)
23 Jan 1878 -  2 Nov 1878  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (8th time)
 2 Nov 1878 -  7 Nov 1878  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Nov 1878 - 22 Mar 1880  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (9th time)
22 Mar 1880 - 25 Oct 1880  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (3rd time) 
25 Oct 1880 - 15 Mar 1882  Aléxandros Spyrídonos Koumoundoúros(s.a.)               KE
                             (10th time) 
15 Mar 1882 -  1 May 1885  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (4th time) 
 1 May 1885 - 12 May 1886  Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis       (s.a.)               KE
                             (Diligiánnis) (1st time) 
12 May 1886 - 21 May 1886  Dimítrios Zafeiríou Válvis         (b. 1814 - d. 1892)  Non-party
21 May 1886 -  5 Nov 1890  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (5th time) 
 5 Nov 1890 -  2 Mar 1892  Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis       (s.a.)               KE
                             (2nd time)
 2 Mar 1892 - 22 Jun 1892  Konstantínos Konstantópoulos       (b. 1832 - d. 1910)  KE
22 Jun 1892 - 15 May 1893  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (6th time) 
15 May 1893 - 11 Nov 1893  Sotírios Sotirópoulos              (b. 1831 - d. 1898)  KE
11 Nov 1893 - 24 Jan 1895  Charílaos Spyrídonos Trikoúpis     (s.a.)               NK
                             (7th time) 
24 Jan 1895 - 12 Jun 1895  Nikólaos Pétrou Deligiánnis        (b. 1845 - d. 1910)  KE
12 Jun 1895 - 30 Apr 1897  Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis       (s.a.)               KE
                             (3rd time) 
30 Apr 1897 -  3 Oct 1897  Dimítrios Georgíou Rállis          (b. 1844 - d. 1921)  TK
                             (1st time)
 3 Oct 1897 - 14 Apr 1899  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (1st time) 
14 Apr 1899 - 25 Nov 1901  Geórgios Nikoláou Theotókis        (b. 1843 - d. 1916)  NK
                             (1st time)
25 Nov 1901 -  7 Dec 1902  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time) 
 7 Dec 1902 - 27 Jun 1903  Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis       (s.a.)               KE
                             (4th time) 
27 Jun 1903 - 11 Jul 1903  Geórgios Nikoláou Theotókis        (s.a.)               NK
                             (2nd time)
11 Jul 1903 - 19 Dec 1903  Dimítrios Georgíou Rállis          (s.a.)               TK
                             (2nd time)
19 Dec 1903 - 29 Dec 1904  Geórgios Nikoláou Theotókis        (s.a.)               NK
                             (3rd time)
29 Dec 1904 - 14 Jun 1905  Theódoros Pangaí Deligiánnis       (s.a.)               KE
                             (5th time) 
14 Jun 1905 - 22 Jun 1905  Vacant
22 Jun 1905 - 21 Dec 1905  Dimítrios Georgíou Rállis          (s.a.)               TK
                             (3rd time)
21 Dec 1905 - 20 Jul 1909  Geórgios Nikoláou Theotókis        (s.a.)               NK
                             (4th time)
20 Jul 1909 - 28 Aug 1909  Dimítrios Georgíou Rállis          (s.a.)               TK
                             (4th time)
28 Aug 1909 - 31 Jan 1910  Kyriakoúlis Pétrou Mavromichális   (b. 1850 - d. 1916)  Non-party
31 Jan 1910 - 19 Oct 1910  Stéfanos Nikoláou Dragoúmis        (b. 1842 - d. 1923)  Non-party
19 Oct 1910 -  9 Mar 1915  Elefthérios (Elevthérios) Kyriákou (s.a.)               KF 
                             Venizélos (1st time) 
 9 Mar 1915 - 23 Aug 1915  Dimítrios Panagióti Goúnaris       (b. 1867 - d. 1922)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
23 Aug 1915 -  7 Oct 1915  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF 
                             (2nd time)
 7 Oct 1915 -  7 Nov 1915  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (3rd time)
 7 Nov 1915 - 22 Jun 1916  Stéfanos Ioánnou Skouloúdis        (b. 1836 - d. 1928)  Non-party
22 Jun 1916 - 16 Sep 1916  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (4th time)
16 Sep 1916 - 10 Oct 1916  Nikólaos P. Kalogerópoulos         (b. 1852 - d. 1927)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
28 Sep 1916 - 27 Jun 1917  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF
                             (in Crete, from 9 Oct 1916 in Saloníki;
                             in opposition to the King, recognized
                             by the Allied Powers from 19 Dec 1916)
                             (3rd time)
10 Oct 1916 -  5 May 1917  Spyrídon Pávlou Lámpros            (b. 1851 - d. 1919)  Non-party
 5 May 1917 - 27 Jun 1917  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (5th time)
27 Jun 1917 - 17 Nov 1920  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF 
                             (4th time)
17 Nov 1920 -  6 Feb 1921  Dimítrios Georgíou Rállis          (s.a.)               LK
                             (5th time)
 6 Feb 1921 -  8 Apr 1921  Nikólaos P. Kalogerópoulos         (s.a.)               LK
                             (2nd time)
 8 Apr 1921 - 16 May 1922  Dimítrios Panagióti Goúnaris       (s.a.)               LK
                             (2nd time)
16 May 1922 - 22 May 1922  Nikólaos Andréa Strátos            (b. 1872 - d. 1922)  ESK
22 May 1922 - 10 Sep 1922  Pétros Emmanouíl Protopapadákis    (b. 1860 - d. 1922)  LK
10 Sep 1922 - 29 Sep 1922  Nikólaos Triantafyllákos           (b. 1855 - d. 1939)  Non-party
                             (Triantaphillákos)
29 Sep 1922 - 30 Sep 1922  Anastásios A. Charalámpis          (b. 1862 - d. 1949)  Mil
30 Sep 1922 - 27 Nov 1922  Sotírios Georgíou Krokidás         (b. 1852 - d. 1924)  Non-party
27 Nov 1922 - 11 Jan 1924  Stylianós Epameinónda Gonatás      (b. 1876 - d. 1966)  Mil
11 Jan 1924 -  6 Feb 1924  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF
                             (4th time)
 6 Feb 1924 - 12 Mar 1924  Geórgios Konstantínou Kafantáris   (b. 1873 - d. 1946)  KF
                             (Kaphantáris)
12 Mar 1924 - 24 Jul 1924  Aléxandros Panagióti Papanastasíou (b. 1876 - d. 1936)  KF
                             (1st time) 
24 Jul 1924 -  7 Oct 1924  Themistoklís Panagióti Sofoúlis    (b. 1860 - d. 1949)  KF
                             (Sophoúlis) (1st time) 
 7 Oct 1924 - 26 Jun 1925  Andréas Spíliou Michalakópoulos    (b. 1875 - d. 1938)  KF
26 Jun 1925 - 19 Jul 1926  Theódoros Dimitírou Pánkalos       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (Pángalos) 
19 Jul 1926 - 22 Aug 1926  Athanásios Loukã Eftaxías          (b. 1849 - d. 1931)  Non-party
                             (Evtaxías)
22 Aug 1926 -  4 Dec 1926  Geórgios Themistokléous Kondýlis   (s.a.)               EDK
                             (1st time)(acting to 26 Aug 1926)
 4 Dec 1926 -  4 Jul 1928  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (6th time)
 4 Jul 1928 - 26 May 1932  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF
                             (5th time)
26 May 1932 -  5 Jun 1932  Aléxandros Panagióti Papanastasíou (s.a.)               AEK
                             (2nd time) 
 5 Jun 1932 -  4 Nov 1932  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF 
                             (6th time)
 4 Nov 1932 - 16 Jan 1933  Panagiótis "Panagís" Epameinónda   (b. 1868 - d. 1936)  LK
                             Tsaldáris (1st time)
16 Jan 1933 -  6 Mar 1933  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF 
                             (7th time)
 6 Mar 1933                Nikólaos Chrístou Plastíras        (b. 1883 - d. 1953)  Non-party
                             (acting)
 6 Mar 1933 - 10 Mar 1933  Aléxandros Othonaíos               (b. 1879 - d. 1970)  Mil
10 Mar 1933 - 10 Oct 1935  Panagiótis "Panagís" Epameinónda   (s.a.)               LK
                             Tsaldáris (2nd time)
10 Oct 1935 - 30 Nov 1935  Geórgios Themistokléous Kondýlis   (s.a.)               ERK
                             (2nd time)
30 Nov 1935 - 13 Apr 1936  Konstantínos Demertzís             (b. 1876 - d. 1936)  Non-party
13 Apr 1936 - 29 Jan 1941  Ioánnis Panagióti Metaxás          (b. 1871 - d. 1941)  KTE;1936 
                            (from 4 Aug 1936 semi-official style Archigós [Chief]) Non-party
29 Jan 1941 - 18 Apr 1941  Aléxandros Georgíou Korízis        (b. 1885 - d. 1941)  Non-party
                             (Koryzís)
19 Apr 1941 - 20 Apr 1941  Vacant
20 Apr 1941 - 21 Apr 1941  Aléxandros Sakellaríou (acting)    (b. 1887 - d. 1982)  Mil
21 Apr 1941 - 14 Apr 1944  Emmanouíl Ioánnou Tsouderós        (b. 1882 - d. 1956)  Non-party
                             (in exile³ from 23 May 1941)
30 Apr 1941 - 17 Nov 1942  Geórgios Konstantínou Tsolákoglou  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (collaborator government) 
17 Nov 1942 -  7 Apr 1943  Konstantínos Ioánnou               (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Logothetópoulos
                             (collaborator government)
 7 Apr 1943 - 12 Oct 1944  Ioánnis Dimitríou Rállis           (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (collaborator government)
14 Apr 1944 - 26 Apr 1944  Sofoklís Elefthériou Venizélos     (b. 1894 - d. 1964)  Non-party
                             (1st time)(in exile³)
26 Apr 1944 -  3 Jan 1945  Geórgios Andréou Papandréou        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (1st time)(in exile³ to 18 Oct 1944)
12 Oct 1944 - 18 Oct 1944  Vacant
                             (collaborator government)
 3 Jan 1945 -  8 Apr 1945  Nikoláos Chrístou Plastíras        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)     
 8 Apr 1945 - 17 Oct 1945  Pétros Voúlgaris                   (b. 1884 - d. 1957)  Mil
17 Oct 1945 -  1 Nov 1945  archiepískopos Damaskinós (acting) (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (president of the government)
 1 Nov 1945 - 22 Nov 1945  Panagiótis Kanéllou Kanellópoulos  (b. 1902 - d. 1986)  EEK
                             (1st time)
22 Nov 1945 -  4 Apr 1946  Themistoklís Panagióti Sofoúlis    (s.a.)               KF
                             (2nd time)
 4 Apr 1946 - 18 Apr 1946  Panagiótis Ilía Poulítsas          (b. 1881 - d. 1968)  Non-party
18 Apr 1946 - 24 Jan 1947  Konstantínos Stávrou Tsaldáris     (b. 1884 - d. 1970)  LK
                             (1st time)
24 Jan 1947 - 29 Aug 1947  Dimítrios Epameinónda Máximos      (b. 1873 - d. 1955)  LK
29 Aug 1947 -  7 Nov 1947  Konstantínos Stávrou Tsaldáris     (s.a.)               LK
                             (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1947 - 24 Jun 1949  Themistoklís Panagióti Sofoúlis    (s.a.)               KF
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1949 -  7 Jan 1950  Aléxandros Nikoláou Diomídis       (b. 1875 - d. 1950)  KF
                             (acting to 30 Jun 1949)
 7 Jan 1950 - 23 Mar 1950  Ioánnis Georgíou Theotókis         (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  LK
23 Mar 1950 - 15 Apr 1950  Sofoklís Elefthériou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF
                             (2nd time)
15 Apr 1950 - 21 Aug 1950  Nikoláos Chrístou Plastíras        (s.a.)               EPEK
                             (3rd time)     
21 Aug 1950 - 27 Oct 1951  Sofoklís Elefthériou Venizélos     (s.a.)               KF
                             (3rd time)
27 Oct 1951 - 11 Oct 1952  Nikoláos Chrístou Plastíras        (s.a.)               EPEK
                             (3rd time)      
11 Oct 1952 - 19 Nov 1952  Dimítrios Ilía Kiousópoulos        (b. 1892 - d. 1977)  Non-party
19 Nov 1952 -  4 Oct 1955  Aléxandros Leonída Papágos         (b. 1883 - d. 1955)  ES
 4 Oct 1955 -  6 Oct 1955  Stéfanos Chrístou Stefanópoulos    (b. 1898 - d. 1982)  ES
                             (Stephanópoulos)(1st time)(acting) 
 6 Oct 1955 -  5 Mar 1958  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ES:1956 ERE
                             (1st time)
 5 Mar 1958 - 17 May 1958  Konstantínos Georgíou              (b. 1890 - d. 1973)  Non-party
                             Georgakópoulos
17 May 1958 - 20 Sep 1961  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ERE
                             (2nd time) 
20 Sep 1961 -  4 Nov 1961  Konstantínos Thomá Dóvas           (b. 1898 - d. 1973)  Non-party
 4 Nov 1961 - 19 Jun 1963  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ERE
                             (3rd time)
19 Jun 1963 - 28 Sep 1963  Panagiótis Nikoláou Pipinélis      (b. 1899 - d. 1970)  ERE
28 Sep 1963 -  8 Nov 1963  Stylianós Ioánnou Mavromichális    (b. 1902 - d. 1981)  Non-party
 8 Nov 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Geórgios Andréou Papandréou        (s.a.)               EK
                             (2nd time) 
31 Dec 1963 - 19 Feb 1964  Ioánnis Polychróni Paraskevópoulos (b. 1900 - d. 1984)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
19 Feb 1964 - 15 Jul 1965  Geórgios Andréou Papandréou        (s.a.)               EK
                             (3rd time) 
15 Jul 1965 - 20 Aug 1965  Geórgios Themistokléous            (b. 1893 - d. 1987)  FDK
                             Athanásios-Nóvas
20 Aug 1965 - 17 Sep 1965  Ilías Ioánnou Tsirimókos           (b. 1907 - d. 1968)  FDK
17 Sep 1965 - 22 Dec 1966  Stéfanos Chrístou Stefanópoulos    (s.a.)               FDK
                             (2nd time) 
22 Dec 1966 -  3 Apr 1967  Ioánnis Polychróni Paraskevópoulos (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
 3 Apr 1967 - 21 Apr 1967  Panagiótis Kanéllou Kanellópoulos  (s.a.)               ERE
                             (2nd time)
21 Apr 1967 - 13 Dec 1967  Konstantínos Vlasíou Kóllias       (b. 1901 - d. 1998)  Non-party
13 Dec 1967 -  8 Oct 1973  Geórgios Chrístou Papadópoulos     (s.a.)               Mil
 8 Oct 1973 - 25 Nov 1973  Spyrídon Vasileíou Markezínis      (b. 1909 - d. 2000)  Non-party
25 Nov 1973 - 24 Jul 1974  Adamántios A. Androutsópoulos      (b. 1919 - d. 2000)  Non-party
24 Jul 1974 - 10 May 1980  Konstantínos Georgíou Karamanlís   (s.a.)               ND
                             (4th time)
10 May 1980 - 21 Oct 1981  Geórgios Ioánnou Rállis            (b. 1918 - d. 2006)  ND
21 Oct 1981 -  2 Jul 1989  Andréas Georgíou Papandréou        (b. 1919 - d. 1996)  PASOK
                             (1st time) 
 2 Jul 1989 - 12 Oct 1989  Tzanís Pétrou Tzannetákis          (b. 1927 - d. 2010)  ND
12 Oct 1989 - 23 Nov 1989  Ioánnis "Giánnis" Athanásiou Grívas(b. 1923 - d. 2016)  Non-party
23 Nov 1989 - 11 Apr 1990  Xenofón Efthymíou Zolótas          (b. 1904 - d. 2004)  Non-party
                             (Xenophón Evthimíou Zolótas)
11 Apr 1990 - 13 Oct 1993  Konstantínos Kyriakoú Mitsotákis   (b. 1918 - d. 2017)  ND
13 Oct 1993 - 21 Jan 1996  Andréas Georgíou Papandréou        (s.a.)               PASOK
                             (2nd time)
21 Jan 1996 - 10 Mar 2004  Konstantínos "Kóstas" Georgíou     (b. 1936)            PASOK
                             Simítis
10 Mar 2004 -  6 Oct 2009  Konstantínos Alexándrou Karamanlís (b. 1956)            ND
 7 Oct 2009 - 11 Nov 2011  Geórgios Andréou Papandréou        (b. 1952)            PASOK
11 Nov 2011 - 17 May 2012  Loukás Dimitríou Papadímos         (b. 1947)            Non-party
17 May 2012 - 20 Jun 2012  Panagiótis Óthona Pikramménos      (b. 1945)            Non-party
20 Jun 2012 - 26 Jan 2015  Antónis Konstantínou Samarás       (b. 1951)            ND
26 Jan 2015 - 27 Aug 2015  Aléxis Pávlou Tsípras (1st time)   (b. 1974)            SYRIZA
27 Aug 2015 - 21 Sep 2015  Vasilikí Spyrídonos Thánou-        (b. 1950)            Non-party
                             Christofílou (f)
21 Sep 2015 -              Aléxis Pávlou Tsípras (2nd time)   (s.a.)               SYRIZA

Occupation of Greece 1941-1946
Italian Plenipotentiary (in Athens)
 6 May 1941 -  9 Sep 1943  Pellegrino Ghigi                   (b. 1899 - d. 1995)  PNF
Italian Military Commanders Greece (in Athens)
(in Epirus, Thessaly, Peloponnese, Attica, Corfu, Cephalonia, Leucadia, Ithaca, Paxos,
Zante, Euboea, Naxos, Cyclades, Samos, and Eastern Crete [Lasithi prefecture])
25 Jun 1941 -  3 May 1943  Carlo Geloso                       (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
 3 May 1943 -  9 Sep 1943  Carlo Vecchiarelli                 (b. 1884 - d. 1948)     

German Plenipotentiaries (in Athens)
 1 May 1941 - 21 Oct 1943  Günther Altenburg                  (b. 1894 - d. 1984)  NSDAP
21 Oct 1943 - 18 Oct 1944  Kurt Fritz von Graevenitz          (b. 1898 - d. 1987)  NSDAP
German Military Commander
(of 12th Army)
 6 Apr 1941 -  5 Jul 1941  Wilhelm Sigmund List               (b. 1880 - d. 1971)
German Military Commanders of Salonika-Aegean (Saloniki-Ägäis)(in
Thessalonica [Thessaloníki])
(in Thessalonica, Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios,
Skyros, Athos, Central Macedonia, Evros
prefecture, and to 5 Jul 1943 and from
29 Aug 1944 Kilkis and Chalkidiki Peninsula)
 5 Jul 1941 - 31 Dec 1942  Curt von Krenzki                   (b. 1888 - d. 1962)
 1 Jan 1943 - 13 Jan 1943  Bogislav von Studnitz              (b. 1888 - d. 1943)
13 Jan 1943 - 20 Jan 1943  Paul Herrmann (acting)             (b. 1892 - d. 1974)
21 Jan 1943 - 24 Aug 1943  Johannes Haarde                    (b. 1889 - d. 1945)
25 Aug 1943 - 18 Oct 1944  Kurt Pflugradt                     (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
                             (from 8 Sep 1943, subordinated to commanders for Greece)
German Military Commanders of Southern Greece (Südgriechenland)(in Athens)
(in Athens, Piraeus, Salamis, Kythera, Antikythera, Melos, and Crete)
27 Jun 1941 - 11 Sep 1942  Hellmuth Felmy                     (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
11 Sep 1942 -  8 Sep 1943  Wilhelm Speidel                    (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
German Military Commanders for Greece (Griechenland)(in Athens)
(including Dodecanese Islands and former Italian zone, excluding Bulgarian zone) 
 8 Sep 1943 - 26 Aug 1944  Alexander Löhr                     (b. 1885 - d. 1947)
26 Aug 1944 - 18 Oct 1944  Maximilian Maria Joseph Freiherr   (b. 1881 - d. 1954)
                             von und zu Weichs

Bulgarian Military Commanders (of 2nd Bulgarian Army 20 Apr - 12 May 1941; 1st Bulgarian
Army 12 - 24 May 1941; White Sea Detachment 24 May - 12 Nov 1941; 16th Infantry Division
12 Nov 1941 - 22 Nov 1943; 2nd Occupation Corps 22 Nov 1943 - 1 Oct 1944; from 1 Oct 1944,
7th Bulgarian Army)(in Eastern Macedonia, Western Thrace, Kavala [excluding Evros prefecture];
from 9 May 1941 Samothrace and Thasos Islands; and 5 Jul 1943 - 29 Aug 1944 Kilkis and
Chalkidiki Peninsula)(at Xanthi to 22 Nov 1943; Drama 22 Nov 1943 - 9 Sep 1944; then Kavala)
20 Apr 1941 -  2 May 1941  Ivan Hristov Markov                (b. 1889 - d. 1945)
 2 May 1941 - 21 Jul 1941  Konstantin Ludvig Lukash           (b. 1890 - d. 1945)
21 Jul 1941 - 12 Nov 1941  Georgi Hristov Kovachev            (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
12 Nov 1941 - 14 May 1944  Trifon Yordanov Trifonov           (b. 1895 - d. 1945)
14 May 1944 - 15 Oct 1944  Asen Nikolov Sirakov               (b. 1895 - d. 1960)
Directors of Belomorska (White Sea) oblast (at Xanthi)
12 May 1941 - 20 Oct 1941  Iliya Ivanov Kozhuharov            (b. 1893 - d. 1994)  Non-party
20 Oct 1941 - 20 Jan 1942  Hristo Gerdzhikov (acting)                              Mil
20 Jan 1942 - 18 Sep 1944  Stefan Rachev Klechkov             (b. 1900 - d. 1945)  Non-party

British General Officers Commanding III Corps and Commander Land Forces Greece
[17 Dec 1944 - 1 Apr 1945, H.Q. Land Forces and Military Liaison (Greece);
from 1 Apr 1945, H.Q. Land Forces (Greece)]
13 Oct 1944 - Feb 1946     Sir Ronald MacKenzie Scobie        (b. 1893 – d. 1969)
Mar 1946 - 1947            Kenneth Noel Crawford              (b. 1895 - d. 1961)

 

French Occupation in Morea (at Navarin [Avarínos] and Modone [Methóni]) 1828-1833

French Military Commanders of the Occupation in Morea

29 Aug 1828 - 22 May 1829  Nicolas Joseph, marquis Maison     (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
                            (
général commandant en chef l'armée d'expédition en Morée)
22 May 1829 - 28 Oct 1831  Antoine Virgile Schneider          (b. 1779 - d. 1847)
                            (
général commandant de la brigade Française en Morée)
28 Oct 1831 - 26 Sep 1833  Charles Louis Joseph Olivier,   
  (b. 1783 - d. 1849)
                             comte de Gueheneuc

                            (
général commandant de la brigade Française en Morée)
 
 
¹The full style of the ruler:
(a) 6 Feb 1833 - 22 Oct 1862
(New Style): Eléo Theoú Vasiléfs tis Elládos ("By the grace of God, King of Greece [Hellas]");
(b) 6 Jun 1863 - 25 Oct 1920, 17 Nov 1920 - 25 Mar 1924 (New Style), 4 Nov 1935 - 22 May 1941 and 13 Oct 1944 - 1 Jun 1973: Vasiléfs ton Ellínon ("King of the Greeks [Hellenes]").

 ²Greek sources are very obscure on the style and function of this body. In some - non-Greek - sources it is described as a Regency.

 ³Having left Athens 23 Apr 1941, the King and government left Crete - the last free Greek soil - on 23 May 1941, staying in Alexandria (Egypt) 2-29 Jun 1941, then Johannesburg (South Africa) 20 Jul - 5 Sep 1941, and arriving in London (England) 24 Sep 1941. There the government remained until 14 Apr 1943, then staying at Cairo (Egypt) 5 May 1943 - 6/8 Sep 1944, moving to Italy 9 Sep 1944 (from 1 Oct 1944 at Cava dei Tirreni), and finally returning to Athens 18 Oct 1944. The King returned from London 27 Sep 1946, entering Athens 28 Sep 1946.

Noble and Ecclesiastical Titles: Antivasiléfs = Regent; Archiepískopos = Archbishop; Kómis/Graf/Conte = Count; Prínkipas = Prince; Varónos (Barónos) = Baron; Velikaya knyazhna = Grand Princess; Vasilomítor = Queen Mother.

Territorial Disputes: Greece and Turkey continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, and boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Cyprus question with Turkey; Greece rejects the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy. Greece's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from the Middle East and northern Africa.

Party abbreviations: DIKKI = Dimokratikó Koinonikó Kínima (Democratic Social Movement, social democratic, split from PASOK, est.20 Dec 1995); KKE = Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas (Communist Party of Greece, communist, Eurosceptic, banned Dec 1947-23 Jul 1974, est.17 Nov 1918); ND = Néa Dimokratía (New Democracy, center-right, christian democratic, est.4 Oct 1974); PASOK = Panellínio Sosialistikó Kínima (Panhellenic Socialist Movement, center-left, social democratic, est.3 Sep 1974); SYRIZA = Synaspismós Rizospastikís Aristerás (Coalition of the Radical Left, democratic socialist, left-wing populist, est.22 May 2012); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties (parties banned 4 Aug 1936 - 29 Jan 1941 and 23 Apr 1967-23 Jul 1974): AEK = Agrotikón Ergatikón Kómma (Agricultural and Labour Party, democratic socialist, agrarian, republican, split from KF, 1926-4 Aug 1936); Con = "Róssiko Kómma" ("Russian party," called Kómma ton Napaíon [Napist Party], conservatives, populist, centralist, monarchist, pro-Russian, c.1821-c.1875); EDK = Ethnikón Dimokratikón Kómma (National Republican Party, liberal conservative, anti-Venizelism, 1923-1928, renamed ERK); EEK = Ethnikón Enotikón Kómma (National Unionist Party, republican, 1935-1950, merged unto Métọpo Ethnikís Anadimiourgías [National Reconstruction Front]); EK = Énosis Kéntrou (Centre Union, national liberal, Venizelism, 1961-1974); EPEK = Ethnikí Proodeftikí Évosi Kéntrou (National Progressive Centre Union, liberal, centrist, 1949-1961); ERE = Ethnikí Rizospastikí Énosis (National Radical Union, conservative, former ES, 4 Jan 1956-1967); ERK = Ethnikón Rizospastikón Kómma (National Radical Party, liberal conservative, anti-Venizelism, former EDK, 1928-4 Aug 1936); ES = Ellinikós Synagermós (Greek Rally, nationalist, conservative, monarchist, Metaxism, 6 Aug 1951-4 Jan 1956, merged into ERE); ESK = Ethnikó Syntiritikón Kómma (National Conservative Party, 1916-19..); FDK = Fileléftheron Dimokratikón Kéntron (Liberal Democratic Centre, liberal, split from EK, 1965-1966); KE = Kómma Ethnikófronon (Nationalist Party, conservative, pan-Greek, Megali Idea, 1865-1909); KF = Kómma Filelefthéron (Liberal Party, Greek nationalist, national liberal, republican, Venizelism, split from NK, 23 Aug 1910-1961, merged into EK); KTE = Kómma ton Eleftherofrónon (Freethinkers' Party, nationalist, right-wing, agrarian, Metaxism, 12 Oct 1922 - 4 Aug 1936); Lib = "Gallikó Kómma" ("French party", called Ethnikó Kómma [National Party], liberals, centrist, nationalist, pro-French, c.1821-c.1875); LK = Laïkó Kómma (People's Party, conservative, monarchist, nationalist, anti-Venizelism, 1920-1958, merged into ERE); Mod = "Anglikó Kómma" ("English party," called Syntagmatikó Kómma [Constitutional Party], moderates, constitutional monarchist, pro-British, c.1821-c.1875); NK = Neoteristikón Kómma (Modernist Party, 'old' liberal party, sometimes called 'New' Party, 1875-23 Aug 1910, merged into KF); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, German nationalist, 24 Feb 1920-20 Oct 1945); PNF = Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian fascist, Italian nationalist, authoritarian, 9 Nov 1921-25 Jul 1943); TK = Tríto Kómma (Third Party, moderate, c.1883-19..)


Greek Local Insurrectionist Administrations Mar 1821 - Jan 1822

23 Mar 1821                Beginning of the Greek War of Independence (the Battle
                             of Kalamáta).

23 Mar 1821 - 1822         Parts of Greece controlled by many insurrectionary
                             revolutionary administrations.
29 Mar 1821                Revolution launched in Máni (Mani) region of Morea by
                            
"Petrobey", Turkish forces soon limited to nine fortresses,
                             Greeks controlling countryside (OS date 17 Mar 1821).
 7 Jun 1821                Peloponnesian Senate established in revolt for the whole
                            
Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos)(OS date 26 May 1821).
 5 Oct 1821                Greeks occupy Trabliçe (Tripolitsá [Trípoli]), the then
                             provincial capital of Morea (OS date 23 Sep 1821).
16 Nov 1821                Senate of Western Greece
established, in revolt, for
                             Western Greece.
29 Nov 1821                Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece is elected in revolt
                             for Continental Greece, then part of the Aegaean province.
 1 Jan 1822                National Assembly convened, superseding the three regional
                             bodies; on 13 Jan 1822 a provisional constitution is adopted,
                             regional bodies are abolished on 30 Apr 1823 (see Greece above).
24 Jan 1822                Greek independence proclaimed.

Crete: see under Crete

Central Macedonia

- General Conservancy of Athos (Áthos) -
17 May 1821 - Dec 1821     Emmanouíl Pappás                   (b. 1772 - d. 1821)

Peloponnese

- Conservancy of Karytaena (Karýtaina) (in Arcadia) -
(from 7 Jun 1821, under Peloponnesian Senate)
21 Mar 1821 -  7 Jun 1821  Kanéllos Deligiánnis (
Diligiánnis) (b. 1780 - d. 1862)
-
Municipality of Elea (
Ileía)(in Gastoúni-Ileía [Elea]) -
(from
7 Jun 1821, under Senate of Peloponnese)
26 Mar 1821 - 26 May 1821  Geórgios Sisínis                   (b. 1769 - d. 1831)
-
Consulate of Argos (Árgos) -
(from 7 Jun 1821, under Peloponnesian Senate)
28 Mar 1821 -  7 Jun 1821  Stamatéllos Antonópoulos           (b. 1759 - d. 1839)
-
General Conservancy of Trifyllia (between Arcadia and Messinia) -
(from 7 Jun 1821, under Peloponnesian Senate)
24 Mar 1821 -  7 Jun 1821  Amvrósios Frantzís                 (b. 1778 - d. 1851)
- Senate of Messinia (
Messinía) -
(from 7 Jun 1821, under Peloponnesian Senate)
23 Mar 1821 -  7 Jun 1821  Pétros Ilíou Mavromichális         (b. 1765 - d. 1848)
                            
"Petrómpeis" ("P
etróbey")
-
Committee of Achaïa (Achaea)-
(from 7 Jun 1821, under Peloponnesian Senate)
24 Mar 1821 -  7 Jun 1821 
epískopos Germanós III tis Pátra   (b. 1771 - d. 1826)

President of the Peloponnesian Senate (in Tripolitsá [Trípoli])
 
7 Jun 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Theodóritos Vasileíou Vresthénis   (b. 1787 - d. 1843)  Non-party

Continental (Mainland) Greece (Attica and Euboea)

- Athens (Athína) -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
25 Apr 1821 -  8 Jun 1821  Dímos Antoníou
 8 Jun 1821 - 29 Jun 1821  Melétis Vasileíou (interim)        (b. 1778 - d. 1826)
                           + Geórgios Néngas (interim)
29 Jun 1821 - Oct 1821     Livéris Lymperópoulos (Liber
ópoulos)
Oct 1821 - Nov 1821        Panagiótis Ktenás
Nov 1821 - 29 Nov 1821     Ilías "Katsákos" Ioánnou           (d. 1836)
                             Mavromichális

- Euboea (Eúboia) -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under
Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
May 1821 - 27 May 1821     Nikólaos Tomarás (1st time)        (d. 1832)
27 May 1821 (days)         Veroúsis (Beroúsis)
May 1821 (days)            Nikólaos Tomarás (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Jun 1821                   Aléxandros Kriezís
Jun 1821 - 29 Nov 1821     Angelís Goviós (Govginas)          (b. 1780 - d. 1822)
- Consulate of Eastern Greece (in Livadiá [Levadea]) -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
 1 Apr 1821 - 29 Nov 1821  Consuls
                           - Lámbros Nákos
                           - Ioánnis Logothétis               (d. 1826)
                           - Ioánnis Fílon (Filonas)
- Hydra (
Ýdra) - see under Hyrda
-
Poros
(Póros) -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
Apr 1821 - 27 Jan 1822     Geórgios Mertíkas
                           + Christódoulos Mertíkas
                           + Geórgios Kriezís
- Aegina (Aígina) -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
Apr 1821 -
29 Nov 1821     Geórgios Márkellos
                           + Geórgios Logothétis
- Salamís -
(from 29 Nov 1821, under Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece)
Apr 1821 -
29 Nov 1821     igoúmenos Grigórios Kanéllos tis
                             Faneroméni (Phanerom
éni)

- Spetses (Spétses) - see under Spetses

President of the Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece (in Sálona [Ámfissa])
29 Nov 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Theódoros Georgíou Négris          (b. 1790 - d. 1824)  Non-party

Western Greece

President of the Senate of Western Greece (in Mesolóngi [Missolonghi])
21
Nov 1821 - 27 Jan 1822  Aléxandros Nikoláou Mavrokordátos  (b. 1791 - d. 1865)  Mod

North Aegean

- Psara (Psará) - see under Psara
- Samos (Samós) - see under Samos 

South Aegean

- Santoríni (Thíra) -
 5 May 1821 - 18..         Evángelos Matzarákis
                           + epískopos Zacharías Kyriákos

Thessaly

- Parliament of Thessaly-Magnesia (Pílio [(Pelion), mountain of Magnisía (Magnesia)]) -
May 1821                   Ánthimos Gazís                     (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
 7 May 1821 -  9 May 1821  Kyriákos Vasdékis 
 9 May 1821 - May 1821     Kontoníkos
May 1821 (days)            Panagís Vasdékis
May 1821 - May 1821        Anagnóstis Papagiannópoulos        (b. 1771 - d. 1857)
                             (=
Anagnóstis Deligiánnis [Diligiánnis])
May 1821                   Ioánnis Anastasíou


Communist "Mountain Governments" (1944, 1947-1949)
[Alternative Flag of
                  Greece, 1832-1924, 1935-41, 1944-70, 1975-78]
10 Mar 1944                Government established by the Political Committee of National
                             Liberation (Politikí Epitropí Ethnikís Apelefthérosis)(PEEA)
                             in liberated areas of Greece.
 2 Sep 1944                Absorbed into government of national unity headed by
                             Geórgios Andréou Papandréou (s.a.).
24 Dec 1947                Communist Party of Greece (KKE) declares Provisional Democratic
                             Government in the areas of Northern Greece under its control.
28 Aug 1949                Last remnants of the Communist provisional government driven
                             out of Greece.

General Secretary of the Greek Communist Party (KKE)
24 Dec 1947 - 28 Aug 1949  Nikólaos "Níkos" Zachariádis       (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
                             (continues in exile to Mar 1956)

Chairmen of the Political Committee of National Liberation (Prime ministers)
10 Mar 1944 - 18 Apr 1944  Evripídis Bakirtzís                (b. 1895 - d. 1947)  KKE
18 Apr 1944 -  2 Sep 1944  Aléxandros Svólos                  (b. 1892 - d. 1956)  SKE
Premiers
24 Dec 1947 -  7 Feb 1949  Márkos Vafeiádis (Vafiádis)        (b. 1906 - d. 1992)  KKE
 7 Feb 1949 -  3 Apr 1949  Nikólaos "Níkos" Zachariádis       (s.a.)               KKE
 3 Apr 1949 - 28 Aug 1949  Dimítris "Mítsos" Partsalídis      (b. 1905 - d. 1980)  KKE
                             (continues in exile to Oct 1950)

Party abbreviations: KKE = Kommounistikó Kómma Elládas (Communist Party of Greece, communist, Marxist-Leninist, est.17 Nov 1918, banned 4 Aug 1936-1944 and 27 Dec 1947-23 Sep 1974); PEEA = Politikí Epitropí Ethnikís Apelefthérosis (Political Committee of National Liberation, republican, anti-fascist, anti-Revisionism, left-wing nationalist, 10 Mar 1944 - 9 Oct 1944); SKE = Sosialistikó Kómma Elládas (Socialist Party of Greece, socialist, republican, Svolism, anti-Comintern, split from KKE, 1920-Sep 1953, merged into Ellinikí Sosialistikí Énosi [Greek Socialist Union])


Athos (Áthos)

[Flag of (Greek
                  Orthodox) Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople
                  (de facto flag of Mount Athos)]
     De facto Flag of Mount Athos
Map of Mount Athos
Capital: Karyes
(Karyés)
Charter  of 
Ho
ly Mount Athos
(23 May 1924; effective
22 Sep 1926; in Greek)
Population: 2,416 (2011)
1,145 (1971)
1,8623 (1956)
7,432 (1903)

395 - 1204                 Part of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
883                        Athos receives first imperial privileges from Emperor Vasíleios I
                             "Makedón" (Basil I "the Macedonian").

908                        Athos becomes independent of the monasteries outside the peninsula.
                             The existence of a Prótos, leader and representative of all the
                             monks, is attested to for the first time.
963                       
Great Laura (Lavra) monastery founded, others are slowly founded
                             (surviving modern monestaries): Vatopede
in 972; Iveron c.976;
                             Philotheo (St. Chrysostom) 992;
Caracalla and Xenophontos 1070;
                             Docheirou, Sphigmenou, St. Paul and Xeropotamos c.11th cent.;
                            
Castamoneta 1086; St. Panteleimon (Russico) 1169; Hilandar
                             (Kiliantari) 1197; Coutloumoussi 12th cent.; St. George the
                             Zograf (Zographou) c.980;
Simon Rock (Simonos Petra) 13th cent.;
                             Pantocratoras 1363; St. Dionysius 1375; St. Gregory mid-14th
                            
cent.; and St. Nicholas in 1541.
972                        Emperor Ioánnis I "Tzimiskís
" (John I "Tzimiskes") grants autonomy
                             to the monasteries of Mount Athos in the first charter (typikón).
1045                       A chrysobull (chrysóvoulo) of Emperor Konstantínos IX Monomákhos
                             (Constantine IX Monomachos) confirms the title Ágion Óros (old
                             Greek: Hágios Hóros)("Holy Mountain")
, later also styled
                             Agiónymon Óros tou Átho ("Our
Holy Mountain of Athos").
16 May 1204 - 1222         Part of Latin Empire (within the Kingdom of Thessalonica).
1205                       Mount Athos is briefly occupied by the members of "Fourth" Crusade.
17 Jan 1213                Pope Innocent III confirms rights and privileges of Athos, placing
                             it under direct Papal protection by Papal Bull (until 1312).

1222 - 1224                Despot of Epirus, Theódoros Doúkas (Teodoro Ducas), liberates
                             Macedonia and Athos; part of Despotate of Epirus.
1224                       Part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (restored).

1274 - 11 Dec 1282         Emperor Mikhaíl VIII Palaiológos (Michael VIII Palaeologus) and
                             Patriarch Ioánnis XI Vékkos (John XI Bekkos) attempt to enforce
                             the Union of Lyons (union of Latin and
Eastern Orthodox Churches)
                             on monasteries of Mount Athos, which is rejected by the monks.

1307 - 1309                Monasteries are repeatedly sacked by Catalan Company mercenaries.
Nov 1312                   Emperor Andrónikos II Palaiológos (Andronicus II Palaeologus)
                             issued a chrysobull by which he transferred jurisdiction over
                             the monasteries, including the appointment of the Prótos, to
                             the Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople.
1343 - 1371                Part of the Serbian Empire.

1371                       Part of Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire (restored).
1383 - Jan/Feb 1403        Ottoman occupation of the peninsula.

1392                       Patriarch Antónios IV (Anthony IV) confirmed the traditional rights
                             and privileges of Athos, and of the Prótos, and confirms Athos is
                             not under the authority of the Bishop of Ieriss
ós.
1406                       Manouíl II Palaiológos (Manuel II Palaeologos) issues the third
                            
charter (typikón) of Mount Athos.
1424                      
Monks of Mount Athos pay homage and declared their submission to
                             Ottoman Sultan Murad II, but maintain close relations with
                             Constantinpole as long as a Christian emperor reigned.
1424 - 15 Nov 1912         Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1568 - 1569                Monks manage to survive empire-wide confiscations of Christian
                             Church property by buying back the confiscated property with help
                             from leaders of Moldavia and Wallachia and moneylenders in
                             Thessaloníki.
Sep 1574                   Patriarch Ieremías II (Jeremiah II) approves a new typikón for
                            
Mount Athos restoring holy vows and strengthening monasticism.
1575                       Ottoman Sultan appoints a representative to be resident in Mount
                             Athos at Karyés.
1593                       The last reference to the institution of the Prótos as the
                             Athonites' supreme administrative and spiritual authority. The
                             Great Council (Megáli Sýnaxis) at Karyés is established as the
                             supreme authority in charge of Athonite affairs.
1783                       Patriarch Gavriíl IV (Gregory IV) establishes a (6th) typik
ón for
                             Mount Athos reorganizing its central administration.
17 May 1821                Emmanouíl Pappás (b. 1772 - d. 1821) calls together the abbots of
                             the monasteries of Mount Athos in Karyes and declared the Greek
                             revolution in Chalkidike (Chalkidikí) peninsula.
28 Dec 1821                Ottomans suppress pro-Greek independence rebellion in Chalkidike
                             peninsula area and garrison Athos.
1863                       Rumania confiscates the income of the dependencies of Mount Athos
                             in Rumania.
1873                       Russia seizes the income of the dependencies of Mount Athos in
                             Bessarabia (Moldova) and the Caucasus.
27 Dec 1877                Patriarch Ioakeím II (Joachim II) publishes the Regulations of the
                            
Monasteries of Mount Athos.
13 Jul 1878                Article 62 of Treaty of Berlin (between U.K., Austria-Hungary,
                             France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire) states
                             that the monks of Mount Athos, "of whatever country they may be
                             natives, shall be maintained in their former possessions and
                             advantages, and shall enjoy, without any exception, complete
                             equality of rights and prerogatives" (ratified 28 Aug 1878).
                             Russia continues to press for the internationalization of Mount
                             Athos (under its protection or the six Orthodox states [Russia,
                             Greece, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, and Bulgaria]) until 1917.
1911                       New General Regulations for Mount Athos, drawn up by Patriarch
                             Ioakeím III (Joachim III) and the Athonite monks, ratified.
15 Nov 1912                Greece takes possession of the Mount Athos peninsula during the
                             First Balkan War
.
26 Nov 1912 - 21 Jun 1913  Bulgaria lands 70 troops at Athos to take up positions at Zographou
                             and Hilandar monasteries, until they are ejected by Greece
                             following start of the Second Balkan War.
30 May 1913                Ottoman Empire "entrusts to Germany, Austria, France, U.K., Italy,
                             and Russia the task of determining the title to all of the
                             Ottoman islands in the Aegean Sea (except Crete) and to the
                             peninsula of Mount Athos" by the Treaty of London (not ratified)
.
 4 Nov 1913                Ottoman Empire confirms, by
Treaty of Athens, that Mount Athos
                             ('Thessaloniki and surrounding territory') is part of Greece
                             - not mentioning any autonomous status (effective 29 Nov 1913).
Jan 1917 - Apr 1919        Allied (Russia, U.K. and France) troops garrison Mount Athos during
                             World War I.
26 Mar 1917                Mount Athos recognizes Greek provisional government of Venizélos.

10 Aug 1920                Treaty of Sèvres (not ratified) confirms Greece's sovereignty over
                             the territory of Mount Athos and 'the persons therein' (formally
                             confirmed by the Treaty of Lausanne 24 Jul 1923, effective 6 Aug
                             1924).
 1 Mar 1923                Greece adopts the New Style (Gregorian) Calendar, Mount Athos
                             refuses, continuing to use the Old Style (Julian) Calendar.
23 May 1924                Constitutional Charter of Holy Mount Athos (Katastatikós Chártis
                             toú
Agíou Órous Átho)(O.S. 10 May 1924) signed on Mount Athos
                             by representatives of the 20 monasteries.
22 Sep 1926               
Formal autonomy granted within Greece; Constitutional Charter of
                             Holy Mount Athos
is
ratified by Greece (10 Sep 1926) effective
                             with Constitution of Greece on 22 Sep 1926 (Administration of the
                             Holy Mountain
[Agíou Órous]); sometimes colloquially referred to
                             simply a "Mount Athos", or "
autonomous monastic state of Mount
                             Athos", or as the "Athonian republic").

22
Apr 1941 - 29 May 1944  During the German occupation Greece the area of Mount Athos is
                             also occupied
. On 26 Apr 1941, the monks formally submitted
                             themselves to the personal protection of Hitler by letter (a
                             small German garrison is present Jun 1943 - 29 May 1944).
19 Sep 1944 - Feb 1945     A National People's Liberation Army
(ELAS) unit of the National
                             Liberation Front (EAM) occupies Athos, installing an
                             administrator and requesting tribute from the monasteries.
 1 Jan 1981                Treaty of Accession of Greece to European Communities recognizes
                             the special status guaranteed to Mount Athos by the Greek
                             Constitution.
 8/9 Dec 1988              Inscribed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Spiritual Leaders
972 - 16 May 1204          the Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople
Nov 1312 -                 the Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople
Greek Administrators
of the Holy Mountain
(title dioikitikós/dioikitikí)(secular administrators)

Dec 1926 - 10 Jun 1927     Nikólaos P. Batestátos              (d. 1927)
15 Jun 1927 - 26 Feb 1929  Nikólaos Lélis (acting to 192.)
 8 Jan 1930 - Nov 1931     Zísis Nikoláou Chatzivasileíou      (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
1931                       Ioánnis Kokotákis
 1 Dec 1931 -  2 Apr 1932  Ioánnis Petrídis
24 May 1932 - 20 Apr 1933  Nikólaos Dámtsas
 9 May 1933 - 24 Aug 1933  Aléxandros Tsormpatzís
24 Aug 1933 - 15 May 1937  Periklís Noúlis
20 May 1937 - 26 Jun 1937  Konstantínos Valtís
1937                       G. Paraskevópoulos (acting)  
11 Jul 1937 -  8 Dec 1938  Andréas Panourgiás
 8 Dec 1938 -  6 Mar 1941  Aristeídis Fokás
 9 Jul 1941 - 26 Jan 1944  Vasíleios Panagiótou Korfiotákis   (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
19 Sep 1944 - Feb 1945     .... (appointed by ELAS)
17 Mar 1945 - Nov 1947     Dimítrios Papadimitríou

Jan 1948 - 1948            Rénos Pýrgos 
16 Sep 1948 - 15 Jun 1950  Panagiótis Ioánnou Panagiotákos    (b. 1911 - d. 1966)
15 Jun 1950 - Aug 1950     Konstantínos Papakyriakoú
                             (did not take office)
Aug 1950 - Dec 1951        Nikólaos Kourásis
Dec 1951 - 1964            Konstantínos Spyrídonos            (b. 1905 - d. ....)
                             Konstantópoulos
Jul 1964 - 1967            Emmanouíl Thrasývoulou Roúnis
14 Aug 1967 - Aug 1971     Stávros Iosif Papadátos
Aug 1971 - 15 Sep 1973     Konstantínos Karadimitrópoulos
28 Sep 1973 - May 1975     Dimítrios Athanásiou Krekoúkias
Jun 1975 - Sep 1981        Dimítrios Tsámis
Sep 1981 - Nov 1982        Vasíleios Psevtógkas (Pseftónkas)          
May 1983 - 18 Jul 1985     Vasílis Stogiánnos                 (b. 1939 - d. 1985)
Jul 1985 - 198.            Apóstolos Glavínas  
1989 - 1991                Konstantínos Nikoláou Loúlis       (b. 1955)
1991 - 1993                Nikólaos-Ioánnis Papadimitríou     (b. 1949)
                             Doúkas

May 1994 - Oct 1996        Geórgios Dimitríou Martzélos       (b. 1948)
1996 - 2001                Stávros Panagiótou Psycháris       (b. 1945) 
2001 - 2004                Arístos Konstantínou Kasmíroglou   (b. 1944)
                             (1st time) (acting)
2004 - 2010                Geórgios Dimitríou Dalakoúras      (b. 1938)
26 Apr 2010 -              Arístos Konstantínou Kasmíroglou   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Chairmen of the Administration of the Holy Mountain (Protepistátis)¹
(with monastery in parenthesis
)
1895 - 1896                proigoúmenos Dorótheos
                             (of Megístis Lávras)
1896 - 1904                ....
1904 - 1905
                monachós Charálampos
                             (of Dionysíou)
1905 - 1910                ....
1910 - 1911
                proigoúmenos Kýrillos 
                             (of Megístis Lávras)
1911 - 1912                proigoúmenos Ioakeím
                             (of Vatopedíou)
1912 - 1915                ....
1915 - 1916                monachós Kyriakós (1st time)
                             (of Dionysíou)
1916 - 1917                ....
1917 - 1918                proigoúmenos Ánthimos
                             (of Ivíron)
1918 - 1926                ....
1926 - 1929                ....
14 Jun 1929 - 13 Jun 1930  monachós Kyriakós (2nd time)
                             (of Dionysíou)
14 Jun 1930 - 13 Jun 1931  ....
14 Jun 1931 - 13 Jun 1932  proigoúmenos Theodósios (1st time)
                             (of Vatopedíou)
14 Jun 1932 - 13 Jun 1933  ....
14 Jun 1933 - 13 Jun 1934  proigoúmenos Dosítheos
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
14 Jun 1934 - 13 Jun 1935  monachós Iákovos                   (b. 1849 - d. 1939)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 1935 - 13 Jun 1936  proigoúmenos Máximos
                             (of Megísti Lávra)
14 Jun 1936 - 13 Jun 1937  ....
14 Jun 1937 - 13 Jun 1938  proigoúmenos Paísios
                             (of Ivíron)
14 Jun 1938 - 13 Jun 1939  ....
14 Jun 1939 - 13 Jun 1940  monachós Davíd
                             (of Dionysíou) 
1940 - 1943                ....
14 Jun 1943 - 13 Jun 1944  proigoúmenos Arsénios
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
1944 - 1946                ....
14 Jun 1946 - 13 Jun 1947  proigoúmenos Theodósios (2nd time)
                             (of Vatopedíou)
1947 - 1954                ....
14 Jun 1954 - 13 Jun 1955  monachós Grigórios                 (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 1955 - 13 Jun 1956  ....
14 Jun 1956 - 13 Jun 1957  proigoúmenos Konstantínos
                             (of Vatopedíou)
14 Jun 1957 - 13 Jun 1958  monachós Agathángelos
                             (of Ivíron)
14 Jun 1958 - 13 Jun 1959  proigoúmenos Daniíl
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
1959 - 1962                ....
14 Jun 1962 - 13 Jun 1963  monachós Damianós
                             (of Ivíron)
1963 - 1969                ....
14 Jun 1969 - 13 Jun 1970  monachós Efstrátios
                             (of Dionysíou) 
1970 - 1974                ....
14 Jun 1974 - 13 Jun 1975  géron Theóklitos (1st time)        (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 1975 - 13 Jun 1976  proigoúmenos Konstantínos
                             (of Megístis Lávras)
1976 - 1979                ....
14 Jun 1979 - 13 Jun 1980  géron Theóklitos (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
1980 - 1984                ....
14 Jun 1984 - 13 Jun 1985  géron Ioanníkios (1st time)        (b. 1942 - d. 2006)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
1985 - 1989                ....
14 Jun 1989 - 13 Jun 1990  géron Theóklitos (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 1990 - 13 Jun 1991  ....
14 Jun 1991 - 13 Jun 1992 
ieromónachos Athanásios            (b. 1959)
                             (of Vatopedíou)
14 Jun 1992 - 13 Jun 1993  proigoúmenos Kallínikos (1st time)
                             (of Ivíron) 
14 Jun 1993 - 13 Jun 1994  ....
14 Jun 1994 - 13 Jun 1995  g
éron Ioanníkios (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (of Dionysíou) 
1995 - 1997                ....
14 Jun 1997 - 13 Jun 1998 
proigoúmenos Kallínikos (2nd time)
                             (of Ivíron)
14 Jun 1998 - 13 Jun 1999  ieromónachos Stéfanos (1st time)
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
14 Jun 1999 - 13 Jun 2000  géron Ioanníkios (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                            
(of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 2000 - 13 Jun 2003  ....
14 Jun 2003 - 13 Jun 2004  ieromónachos Stéfanos (2nd time)
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
14 Jun 2004 - 13 Jun 2005  géron Ioann
íkios (4th time)        (s.a.)
                            
(of Dionysíou) 
14 Jun 2005 - 13 Jun 2006  géron Pávlos (1st time)
                             (of Megístis Lávras)

14 Jun 2006 - 13 Jun 2007  géron Varnávas (1st time)
                             (of Vatopedíou)

14 Jun 2007 - 13 Jun 2008  proigoúmenos Kallínikos (3rd time)
                             (of Ivíron)
14 Jun 2008 - 13 Jun 2009  ieromónachos Stéfanos (3rd time)
                             (of Chiliandaríou)
14 Jun 2009 - 13 Jun 2010  géron Symeón (1st time)            (b. 1959)
                             (
of Dionysíou)
14 Jun 2010 - 13 Jun 2011  géron Pávlos (2nd time)
                             (of Megístis Lávras)
14 Jun 2011 - 13 Jun 2012  géron
Varnávas (2nd time)
                             (of Vatopedíou)
14 Jun 2012 - 13 Jun 2013  géron Maxímos (of Ivíron
)
14 Jun 2013 - 13 Jun 2014 
ieromónachos Stéfanos (4th time)
                             (of Chiliandaríou)

14 Jun 2014 - 13 Jun 2015  géron Symeón (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (of Dionysíou)
14 Jun 2015 - 13 Jun 2016  géron Pávlos (3rd time)
                             (of Megístis Lávras)
14 Jun 2016 - 13 Jun 2017  géron
Varnávas (3rd time)
                             (of Vatopedíou)
14 Jun 2017 -             
géron ieromónachos Gervásios
                             (of Ivíron)

 ¹since 1926, administration is composed of representatives of the modern 20 monasteries of Mount Athos. The 20 monasteries are grouped into five quartets (tetrás). Each year one qualified individual from the first monastery of each quartet is sent to represent his quartet in the central administration (called the Supervisory Committee of the Holy Community [Ierá Epistasía]) with the chair (protepistátis) rotating automatically among the five quartets for a term running for one year from 1 Jun (N.S. 14 Jun) to 31 May (N.S. 13 Jun).  The five quartets are as follows: (1.) Great Laura (Megísti Lávra), Docheirou (Docheiaríou), Xenophontos (Xenofóntos), and Sphigmenou (Esfigménou); (2.) Vatopede (Vatopaidíou), Coutloumoussi (Koutloumousíou), Caracalla (Karakállou), and St. Nicholas (Stavronikíta); (3.) Iveron (Ivíron), Pantocratoras (Pantokrátoros), Philotheo (Filothéou), and Simon Rock (Simonopétra); (4.) Hilandar (Kiliantari)(Chiliandaríou), Xeropotamo (Xiropotámou), St. Paul (Agíou Pávlou), and St. Gregory (Osíou Grigoríou); (5.) Dionysius (Dionysíou), St. George the Zograf (Zográfou), St. Panteleimon ('Russico')(Ágios Panteleímon ['Rossikón']), and Castamoneta (Konstamonítou).

Ecclesiastical Titles: Archimandrítis = Archimandrite (Superior Abbot); Géron = Elder; Igoúmenos = Abbot; Ieromónachos = Hieromonk (consecrated monk or priest-monk); Monachós = Monk; Proigoúmenos = Protohegumen (First Abbot).

Ottoman Morea (Peloponnese) 1661-1821

29 May 1460                Despotate of the Morea captured by the Ottoman Empire
                             (part of the
Eyalet of Rumelia).
1
661                       Ottoman administrated Morea (Peloponnese) separated from Rumelia
                            
as the Eyalet of Morea (Eyalet-i Mora). 
 7 Aug 1687 - 20 Jul 1715 
Morea (Peloponnese) and adjacent islands occupied by the
                             Republic of Venice (see below)
.

29 Mar 1821                Revolution launched in Mani (Máni) by "Petrobey",
                             Turkish forces soon limited to nine fortresses,
                             Greeks controlling countryside (17 Mar 1821 OS).

 5 Oct 1821                Greeks occupy Trabliçe (Tripolitsá [Trípoli]), the
                             then provincial capital (23 Sep 1821 OS).

22 Jan 1822                Part of independent Greece.
 
Walis (governors [Mora Valisi]) of the Morea

1661 - 166.                ...
166. - 1666                Durak Pasha
1666 - 1697                ....
1687 - 1715                Venetian occupation
.... - ....                Mashhinzade Mehmet Pasha
.... - ....                Mustafa Peranan Pasha
bf.1760                    Topal Osman Pasha
c.1760                     Hammudi Pasha 
bf.1765                    Mehmed Emin Pasha
 9 Mar 1770 - Jun 1770     Antónios Psarós                    (b. 1735 – d. 1811)
                            (= Anton Konstantinovich Psaro)
                            (head of local government of Mystrás, in rebellion)
1770 - Jun 1770            Nikólaos Fortoúnis
                            (head of local government of Gastoúni, in rebellion)
c.1780                     Gazi Hassan Tzezaralli
1807 - 1812                Veli Pasha
1812 - 1817                Siakir Pasha
1817 - 1820                ....
1820                       Mustafa Bey
Nov 1820 - 30 Nov 1822     Hurshid Ahmed Pasha                (d. 1822)


Venetian Kingdom of the Morea 1685-1715

[Most Serene Republic
                  of Venice flag 14th cent. - 1797]
            Jun/Aug 1685 - 7 Sep 1715
Jun 1685                   Invasion of the Morea (Peloponnese peninsula) by Venice.
17 Jun 1685                Navarino (Pýlos) occupied by Venice.
29 Aug 1686               
Nauplion (Náfplio) occupied by Venice.
 
7 Aug 1687                Corinth (Kórinthos) occupied by Venice.
Aug 1687                   Piraeus (Porto Leone) occupied.
29 Aug 1687                Venetians occupy the Acropolis in Athens.
1688                       Kingdom of Morea (Regno della Morea) organized.
26 Jan 1699                Morea confirmed under Venetian Republic rule by the Treaty
                             of Karlowitz.
18 Jul 1715                Nauplion (Náfplio) surrenders to Ottomans.
16 Aug 1715                Castle of the Morea (Rhíon) falls to Ottomans.
 7 Sep 1715                Malvasia (
Monemvasía) surrenders to Ottomans.
21 Jul 1718                Venice renounces the Morea by Treaty of Passarowitz.

Venetian Commanders

1685 - 1687                Francesco Morosini                 (b. 1619 - d. 1694)
                             "il Peloponnesiaco"
 4 Jun 1687 - Dec 1687     Nicolò Corner
Venetian General Superintendents of the Morea
(Provveditori Generali in Morea; in Nauplion)
23 Dec 1687 -  5 Jan 1689  Girolamo (Jacopo) Corner           (b. 1632 - d. 1690)
 5 Jan 1689 - 17 Feb 1693  Antonio Zeno
17 Feb 1693 - Dec 1694     Marino Michiel                     (b. 1642 - d. 1695)
 4 Dec 1694 - Apr 1695     Alessandro Molin
12 Apr 1695 - Dec 1696     Agostino Sagredo
29 Dec 1696 - Nov 1697     Paolo Nani
30 Nov 1697 - Jul 1700     Francesco Grimani
 8 Jul 1700 - Sep 1702     Giacomo (Jacopo) da Mosto
 2 Sep 1702 - Mar 1705     Antonio Nani
 7 Mar 1705 - Dec 1707     Angelo Emo                         (b. 1666 - d. 1750)
23 Dec 1707 - Dec 1710     Marco Loredano
 6 Dec 1710 - Dec 1713     Antonio Loredano                   (b. 1666 - d. 17..)
 9 Dec 1713 - 18 Jul 1715  Alessandro Bon                     (b. 1654 - d. 1715)


Superintendents of Province of Achaia
(Provveditori d'Acaja; in Patras)
1693 - 1695                Pietro Basadonna

1695 - 1698                Angelo Lazari
1698 - 1700                Luigi Foscari
1700 - 1702                Francesco Donato
1702 - 1705                Pellegrino Pasqualigo
1705 - 1707                Giovanandrea Pasqualigo
1707 - 1709                Marco Venier
1709 - 1711                Francesco Moro
1711 - 1714                Marco Barbarigo
1714 - 1715                Francesco Tiepolo
Superintendents of Province of Laconia (Provveditori di Laconia; in Malvasia)
1693 - 1695                Bartolommeo Moro
1695 - 1697                Luigi Querini
1697 - 1698                Michele Magno
1698 - 1701                Pietro Marcello
1701 - 1704                Antonio Minio
1704 - 1706                Girolamo Marcello
1706 - 1709                Antonio Foscarini
1709 - 1710                Nicolò Melli
1710 - 1713                Vincenzo Pasta
1713 - 1715                Federigo Badoer
1715                       Lodovico Diedo

Superintendents of Province of Messenia
(Provveditori di Messenia; in Navarino)

1693 - 1696                Giovanni Querini
1696 - 1698                Pellegrino Pasqualigo
1698 - 1701                Girolamo Marcello
1701 - 1703                Giovanni Pizzamano
1703 - 1705                Francesco Moro
1705 - 1707                Luigi Basadonna
1707 - 1710                Giovanni Badoer
1710 - 1712                Vincenzo Badoer
1712 - 1714                Nicolò Querini
1714 - 1715                Costantino Loredano
Superintendents of Province of Romania (Provveditori di Romania; in Nauplion)
1693 - 1693                Domenico Diedo
1693 - 1696                Marco Pisani
1696 - 1698                Stae Balbi
1698 - 1700                Imperiale Contarini
1700 - 1702                Giovannandrea Pasqualigo
1702 - 1704                Marco Venier
1704 - 1706                Vincenzo Pasta
1706 - 1709                Marcantonio Trevisano
1709 - 1711                Angelo Orio
1711 - 1712                Bartolommeo Moro
1712 - 1714                Leonardo Bondumier
1714 - 1715                Nicolò Melli

Mani (Máni)

[Mani (Greece) adopted by the
                local war chiefs during the Greek war of independance
                c.1821]
              Adopted c.1821

1467 - 1479                Venetian occupation.
1453                       Morea part of
Ottoman Empire.
1689                       Mani (Máni) Peninsula de facto autonomous (within Eyalet of Morea).
1697 - 1715                Venetian occupation.
1715                       Ottoman rule restored.
1776                       De facto autonomy (restored).

1814                       Formal autonomy granted.
29 Mar 1821                Revolution launched by Petróbey, Ottoman forces soon are
                             limited to 9 fortresses, Greeks controlling the countryside.
22 Jan 1822                Part of independent Greece.

Beys of Mani
1689 - 1697                Limperákis Gerakáris
1697 - 1715                Venetian rule
1715 - 1776                direct Ottoman rule
1776 - 1779               
Tzanétos Koutífaris                (d. 1779)
1779 - 1782                Michális Troupákis-Moúrtzinos      (d. 1782)
1782 - 1798                Tzanétos Grigorákis                (b. 1742 - d. 1813)
1798 - 1803                Panagiótis Koumoundourákis 
1803 - 1808                Antónis Grigorákis                 (b. 1757 - d. 1821)
1808 - 1810                Konstantínos Zervákos "Zervobeis"
                             ("Zervobey")
1810 - 1815                Theódoros Grigorákis               (d. 1819)
1815 - 1821                Petrómpeis (Pétros) Ilíou          (b. 1765 - d. 1848) 
                             Mavromichális ("Petróbey")

                           (in rebellion
from 29 Mar 1821)



Ottoman Thessaly (Thessalía)

1387                       Ottomans begin conquest of Thessaly (Trikala falls 1395/96)
                             completed 1470 (part of Rumelia Eyalet).
1788 - 1822                Sanjak of Tirhala (Trikala) as part of Yanya
Eyalet (see Epirus).
1839                       Ottoman Eyalet of
Tirhala (Trikala), split from Rumelia Eyalet.
1856 - c.1863              Re-merged into Yanya (Janina).
Jun 1867
                  Re-merged into Yanya (Janina).
 2 Jul 1881                Thessaly incorporated into Greece (from 8 Jul 1899, divided into
                             the prefectures
[nomós] of Kardítsas, Larísis, Magnisías [with
                             Northern Sporades Islands], and Trikálon; from 2011, part of
                             Thessalía region [
periféreia]).  

Walis (governors) of Terhala (Thessaly)
1839 - 1840                Seyid Osman Pasha
Feb 1840 - Jul 1840       
Mehmed Emin Pasha (2nd time)
Jul 1840 - Nov 1845        Namik Pasha
Nov 1845 - Feb 1846        Kirimli Musa Safveti Pasha
Feb 1846 - Jan 1847        Mezarcizade Mehmed Ziyaeddin
                             Pasha (1st time)
Jan 1847 - Sep 1848        Kibrisli Mehmed Emin Pasha         (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
Sep 1848 - Feb 1849        Mezarcizade Mehmed Ziyaeddin
                             Pasha (2nd time)
Feb 1849 - Feb 1851        Abdurrahman Sami Pasha
Feb 1851 - Feb 1854        Mehmed Celaleddin Pasha
Feb 1854 - May 1854        Ali Riza Mehmed Pasha
May 1854 - Mar 1855        Ramazanoglu Mehmed Ismet Pasha
Mar 1855 - Nov 1857        Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha
May 1858 - Aug 1858        Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha                (d. 1877)
Aug 1858 - May 1859        Aziz Pasha
May 1859 - 1861            Taib Pasha
Jun 1861 - Jun 1866        Tepdenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
1863 – 1866                Hasan Tahsin Pasha
Sep 1866 - Jun 1867        Tunuslu Ibrahim Edhem Pasha        (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
Jun 1867                   incorporated into
Yanya


Ottoman Thessalonica (Saloníki)

 9 Apr 1387-Jan/Feb 1403   Thessalonica (Saloníki) part of Ottoman Empire (part of
                             the Eyalet of Rumelia)
.

Sep 1423 - 29 May 1430     Venetian occupation of
Thessalonica.
29 May 1430                Thessalonica reconquered by the Ottoman Empire
.
1839                       Eyalet of Selanik (Salonica)(Eyalet-i Selanik), split from
Rumelia.
1867                       Selanik Vilayet.
 
8 Nov 1912                Thessalonika occupied by Greece.
30 May 1913                Part of Greece by the Treaty of London (not ratified).
 4 Nov 1913                Ottoman Empire confirms, by
Treaty of Athens, that Thessaloniki
                             and surrounding territory is part of Greece (effective 29 Nov
                             1913)
(part of Thessaloníkis prefecture
[nomós], and prefectures
                             of Péllas
from 1930, Kilkís from 1937, Imathías and Pierías from
                             1947; from 2011 part of Kentrikí Makedonía region [
periféreia]).

Walis (governors) of Selanik (Thessalonika)
Sep 1839 - Feb 1840        Mehmed Hasib Pasha                 (d. 1870)
Feb 1840 - Jul 1840        Mehmed Emin Pasha                  (b. 1815 - d. 1871)
Jul 1840 - Jul 1843        Kizilhisarli Ömer Pasha
Jul 1843 - Oct 1843        Sirozlu Ibrahim Pasha              (d. 1843)
Oct 1843 - Sep 1845        Gürcü Mehmed Vasif Pasha           (d. 1865)
Sep 1845 - Apr 1846        Gümrükcü Mehmed Salih Pasha
Apr 1846 - May 1847        Kara Osmanzade Yaqub Pasha
May 1847 - Sep 1848        Dede Mustafa Hifzi Pasha           (d. 1860)
Sep 1848 - Aug 1849        Egribozlu Ebubekir Sami Pasha      (d. 1849)
Aug 1849 - Jul 1850        Cihan Seraskeri Hasan Riza Pasha
Jul 1850 - Nov 1851        Kara Osmanzade Yakub Pasha
Nov 1851 - May 1853        Celalatzade (Evrenoszade) Yusuf
                           Siddiq Mehmed Pasha
May 1853 - Jul 1853        Gümrükcü Mehmed Salih Pasha
Aug 1853 - Feb 1854        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha
Feb 1854 - Jul 1854        Bosnakzade Mehmed Reshid Pasha     (b. 1812 - d. 1877)
Jul 1854 - Sep 1855        Arnavud Mazhar Osman Pasha
Sep 1855 - May 1856        Sirkatibi Mustafa Nuri Pasha       (b. 1798 - d. 1879)
May 1856 - May 1857        Ahmed Nazir Pasha
May 1857 - Oct 1857        Abdulkerim Nadir Pasha             (b. 1807 - d. 1883)
Oct 1857 - Sep 1858        Yozgatli Mehmed Vecihi Pasha
Nov 1858 - Aug 1859        Mirza/Tatar Mehmed Said Pasha
Aug 1859 - Jan 1860        Tepedelenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
Jan 1860 - Jan 1865        Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha          (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
                             (1st time)
Jan 1865 - Dec 1866        Huseyin Hüsnü Pasha
1867                       Ahmed Ala Bey?
Jun 1867 - Feb 1869        Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Feb 1869 - Sep 1871        Mehmed Sabri Pasha                 (d. 1879)
Sep 1871 - May 1872        Kekimbashi Ismail Pasha
May 1872 - Aug 1872        Hurshid Pasha
Aug 1872 - May 1873        Kücük Ömer Fevzi Pasha (1st time)
May 1873 - Sep 1873        Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha
                             (3rd time)
Oct 1873 - Feb 1874        Ahmed Midhat Sefik Pasha
Feb 1874 - Sep 1875        Kücük ömer Fevzi Pasha (2nd time)
Dec 1875 - Jun 1876        Baytar Mehmed Refet Pasha 
Jun 1876 - Apr 1877        Mustafa Esref Pasha                (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
Jun 1877 - Dec 1877        Cerkez Nusret Pasha
Dec 1877 - Jul 1878        Ibrahim Halil Pasha                (d. 1878)
Jul 1878 - Mar 1880        Halil Rifat Pasha                  (b. 1820 - d. 1901)
18 Feb 1878 - 1878         I
oánnis Gkoventáros (Goventáros)
                            (president
of Temporary Government of
                             Province of Elimeia in Macedonia
,
at Vourino)
                            
(in rebellion)
19 Feb 1878 - 1878         Evángelos Korovángos
(in rebellion)
                            (president
of Temporary Government of
                             Macedonia, at Litohoro
)
Mar 1880 - Jun 1880        Abidin Pasha
Aug 1880 - Jan 1882        Lofçali Ibrahim Dervish Pasha
Mar 1882 - Sep 1885        Ismail Hakki Pasha
Sep 1885 - Aug 1886        Hasan Hakki Pasha
Aug 1886 - Aug 1891        Abdullah Galib Pasha   
Oct 1891 - Nov 1895        Mustafa Zihni Pasha                (b. 1838 - d. 1911)
1895                       Hasan Fehmi Pasha (1st time)
Jan 1896 - Jan 1899        Ramazanoglu Hüseyin Riza Pasha
Jan 1899 - May 1901        Haci Hasan Refik Pasha
May 1901 - May 1902        Biren Mahmud Tevfik Beg            (b. 1867 - d. 1956)
May 1902 - Sep 1904        Hasan Fehmi Pasha (2nd time)
Sep 1904 - Aug 1908        Mehmed Sherif Ra'uf Pasha
Aug 1908 - Sep 1909        Ali Danis Beg
Sep 1909 - Jan 1912        Pirizade Ibrahim Hayrullah Bey     (b. 1859 - d. 1934)
Jan 1912 -  8 Aug 1912     Kadri Huseyin Kazim Bey
Aug 1912 - Sep 1912        Ali Ferid Pasha                    (b. 1860 - d. 1937)
Sep 1912                   Mehmed Nazim Pasha

Note: included in Selanik (Thessaloníki) was Thásos Island (Turkish: Taşöz). This island had become a sanjak (district) of the Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid (see Dodecanese) in 1556, before being transferred to Selanik in 1902. In 1841, the island was granted to Muhammad Ali, the Wali of Egypt and his successors as a tributary possession; in 1908 direct Ottoman rule was restored until 20 Oct 1912. Included within Selanik Elayet was Mount Athos.


Epirus (Ípeiros)

17 Jan 395 AD              Part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
Fall 1204                  Despotate of Epirus (Ípeiros)(under Byzantine, then Serb,

                             and later Bulgarian influence)(subsumed in Empire of
                             temporary Nicaean conquest 1259–60).
Dec 1224 - 1230            Epirus annexes Thessalonica.
1241 - 1268               
Epirus annexes Thessaly.
1279 - 1282                Vassal of the Kingdom of Naples "Sicily"
1282 - 1291               
Vassal of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.
1291 - c.1307              Vassal of the Kingdom of Naples "Sicily"
c.1307 - 1318             
Vassal of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.
1318 - 1324                Vassal of the Kingdom of Naples "Sicily"
1324 - 1338               
Vassal of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire.
1338 - 1348                Part of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
1348 - 1355                Annexed by Serbia.

1356                       Despotate of Epirus (restored).
1367 -  1 Oct 1416         Rival Albanian lordship at Arta (Despotati i Artës), under
                             Serbian suzerainty (submits to despot of Epirus 1 Oct 1416).
1385 - 1430                Under Ottoman suzerainty.

26 Feb 1411                Title of Despot of Epirus passes to the Counts Palatine of
                             Cephalonia and Zante of
the Tocco family.
 
9 Oct 1430                Yanya (
Janina [Ioánnina]), in central Epirus, part of the
                             Ottoman Empire.
24 Mar 1449                Ottomans occupy Arta, finishing the Ottoman conquest of Epirus.
1460                      
Ottomans occupy Angelokastron (Angelόkastro).
Aug 1479                   Ottomans occupy Vonitsa, final end of Despotate of Epirus.
1670                       Eyalet of Yanyna (Eyālet-i Yānyâ), spit from Rumelia
Eyalet.
1788 - 24 Jan 1822         Pashalik of
Yanya (Janina), autonomous under Ali Pasha.
1822                       Eyalet of Yanyna (restored).
25 Mar 1854 - 1854         Local Greek rebellion.
end 1854                   Revolt ended by Ottoman forces.
1867                       Yanya (Janina) Vilayet
16 Sep 1912                Ottoman Empire grants autonomy by the Agreement of Skopje
                            
(Old style date 4 Sep 1912).
15 Nov 1912                Southern part of the vilayet incorporated into Greece (as
                             prefectures [
nomós] of Árta, Ioánnina, Préveza and Thesprotía;
                             from 1 Jan 2011,
Epirus region [Ípiros periféreia]).
21 Feb 1913                Ioannina incorporated into Greece (recognized by Treaty of
                             London 30 May 1913).
13 Mar 1913 - 28 Apr 1914 
Greek administration in Northern Epirus.
17 Dec 1913                Northern Epirus assigned to Albania (by protocol to 30 May 1913
                             peace treaty).
 1 Mar 1914 - 27 Oct 1914  Revolutionary government in Northern Epirus (see
Albania).
27 Oct 1914 - 15 Nov 1916  Greek administration in Northern Epirus (s.a.)
28 Oct 1940                Italian invasion of Greece (from Italian annexed Albania).
22 Nov 1940 - 22 Apr 1941  Greek occupation of Northern Epirus.
20 Apr 1941 - 24 Apr 1941  German forces occupy Ioánnina.
24 Apr 1941 - Oct 1944     Greek Epirus (Io
ánnina) occupied by Italy (from 9 Sep 1943 Germany)
                             Plans by Italy to annex the area to Albania fail due to local
                             resistance.
Apr 1941 - Sep 1943        Alkiviádis Diamántis (Alcibiadi Diamandi)(b. 1893 - d. 1948) and
                             Nikólaos Matoúsis (
Nicola Matushi)(b. 1899 - d. 1991) form the
                             Vlach "Roman Legion" in attempt to obtain, without official
                             support, autonomy for the local Vlach
(Aromanian) communities in
                             Axis occupied northern Greece. This unsuccessful episode is
                             sometimes retrospectively referred to as the "Autonomous State
                             (or Principality) of Pindus."
1945                       Expulsion of the Cham Albanians from Greece for collaboration with
                             the German and Italian occupation.

Despots of Epirus
1204 - 1215                Michaíl I "Komninós Doúkas"        (d. 1215)
1215 - 1230                Theódoros "Komninós Doúkas"        (d. c.1253)
                             (Emperor from 1225)
1230 - 1268                Michaíl II "Komninós Doúkas"       (d. 1268)
1268 - 1297                Nikifóros I "Komninós Doúkas"      (b. c.1240 – d. 1297)
1297 - 1318                Thomás I "Komninós Doúkas"         (b. c.1285 – d. 1318)
1296 - 1313                Ánna Kantakouziní (f) -Regent      (d. 1320)
1318 - 1323                Nikólaos Orsíni (= Niccolò Orsini) (d. 1323)
                             (also count palatine of Cephalonia and Zante)
1323 - 1335                Ioánnis "Komninós Doúkas"          (b. 1285 - d. 1335)
                             (= Giovanni Orsini)
1335 - 1338                Nikifóros V "Doúkas" (1st time)    (b. 1328 - d. 1359)
                             (= Nicéphore Orsini)
                             (also count palatine of Cephalonia and Zante)
1335 - 1338               
Ánna "Palaiologína" (f) -Regent    (d. af.1363)
1338 - 1345                part of Byzantine Empire
1345 - 1355                part of Serbia
1355 - 1359                Nikifóros V "Doúkas" (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1359 - 1366                Symeón Oúresis (= Simeon Uroš)     (b. 1326 - d. 1370)
1367 - 23 Dec 1384         Thomás II "Komninós Palaiológos"   (d. 1384)
                             (= Toma Preljubović)
23 Dec 1384 - 1385         María Angelína "Doúkaina           (b. c.1350 - d. 1394)
                             P
alaiologína" (f)
                             (= Marija Angelina Nemanjić)
1385 -  6 Feb 1411         Isáf Bouontelmónt                  (d. 1411)
                             (= Esau de' Buondelmonti)
 6 Feb 1411 - 26 Feb 1411  Geórgios Bouontelmónt              (d. af.1453)
                             (= Giorgio de' Buondelmonti)
 6 Feb 1411 - 26 Feb 1411  Eudokia Balšić (f) -Regent
Despots and Counts
Palatine of Cephalonia and Zante
26 Feb 1411 -  4 Jul 1429  Carlo I Tocco                      (d. 1429)
 4 Jul 1429 - 30 Sep 1448  Carlo II Tocco                     (d. 1448)
30 Sep 1448 - Aug 1479     Leonardo III Tocco                 (b. 14.. - d. 1499)

Lords of Arta   
1367 – 1374                Pjetër Losha (= Pétros Léosas)     (d. 1374)
1374 – 29 Oct 1399         Gjin Bua Shpata                    (d. 1399)
1400 – 1401                Sguro Bua Shpata
1401 – 1415                Muriq Shpata (= Mouríkis Spátas)   (d. 1415)
1415 –  1 Oct 1416         Jakob Bua Shpata                   (d. 1416)
Walis
(governors) of
Yanya (Janina) 
1670 - 1675                Abdullah Pasha

1675 - 1702                Mustafa Pasha
1702 - 1720                Aslan Pasha
1720 - 1736                Haci Ahmed Pasha
1736 - 1739                Ibrahim
1739 - 1740                Hüseyin Molus
1740 - 1748                Ahmed Pasha
1748 - 1759                Mustafa Pasha
1759 - 1762                Süleyman Pasha
1762 - 1775                Mehmed Pasha
1775 - 1778                Ali Pasha
1778 - 1780                Vekir Pasha
1780 - 1786                Süleyman Pasha
1786 - 1787                Kurd Ahmad Pasha of Derven         (d. 1787)
1787 - 1788                Alisot Pasha
Pashas of Yanya
1788 - 1802      
         Ali Pasha bin Vuli (1st time)      (b. 1741 - d. 1822)
                             "Tepedelenli" ("the Lion of Janina")
1802 - 1803                Mustafa Pasha
1803 - 24 Jan 1822         Ali Pasha bin Vuli (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             "Tepedelenli" ("the Lion of Janina")
Walis (governors) of Yanya (Janina) 
1822 - 1825                Beratli Ömer Vryonis Pasha
1825 - 1831                Mehmet Ruşit
1832 - 1833                Selim Pasha
1833 - 1836                Mahmut Pasha
1837                       Emin Pasha
1837 - May 1840            Sirkatibi Mustafa Nuri Pasha
May 1840 - Nov 1840        Mirza Tatar Mehmed Said Pasha
Nov 1840 - Mar 1844        Osman Nuri Pasha
Mar 1844 - Oct 1845        Samakuli Hüsrev Pasha
Oct 1845 - Feb 1846        Mezanizade Mehmed Ziyaeddin Pasha
Feb 1846 - Apr 1847        Mühendis Hafiz Ahmed Pasha
Apr 1847 - Mar 1848        Çerkes Hafiz Mehmed Pasha
Mar 1848 - Sep 1848        Ahmed Izzet Pasha
Sep 1848 - Feb 1850        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha (1st time)
Feb 1850 - Nov 1851        Tepdenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
Nov 1851 - Feb 1853        Ali Reza Mehmed Pasha
Mar 1853 - Jul 1853        Ebubekir Rüstem Pasha (2nd time)
Jul 1853 - Feb 1854        Gümrükcu Mehmed Salih Pasha
25 Mar 1854 - end 1854     Committee of Administration
                           of Epirus (in rebellion)

                           - 
Geórgios Tisamenós
                           - Theódoros Kolokotrónis
                           - Ioánnis Typáldos
                           - Negrís
Feb 1854 - Jan 1855        Mehmed Besim Pasha                 (d. 1858)
Jan 1855 - Jan 1856        Ahmed Izzet Pasha                  (b. 1798 - d. 1876)
Jan 1856 - Sep 1857        Pepe Mehmed Emin Pasha
Sep 1857 - May 1858        Özdemiroglu Mehmed Rifat Pasha     (d. 1859)
Jul 1858 - Oct 1858        Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha (1st time)     (d. 1877)
Oct 1858 - Jan 1863        Lofçali Ibrahim Dervish Pasha

Jan 1863 - Jan 1864        H
üseyin Hüsnü Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Feb 1864 - Jun 1867        Kayserli Ahmed Pasha
Jun 1867 - Mar 1868        Ibrahim Edhem Pasha                (b. 1818 - d. 1893)
Mar 1868 - Oct 1871        Ahmed Rasim Pasha
Nov 1871 - Sep 1872        Safvet Pasha
Sep 1872 - May 1873        Bursali Mehmed Redif Pasha
May 1873 - Dec 1873        Divitçi Ismail Hakki Pasha         (d. 1873)
Dec 1873 - Nov 1874        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
Nov 1874 - Jun 1875        Ahmed Cevdet Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1822 - d. 1895)
Jul 1875 - Nov 1875        Arnavut Mehmed Akif Pasha
Nov 1875 - Apr 1877        H
üseyin Hüsnü Pasha (3rd time)     (s.a.)
Apr 1877 - Jul 1877        Abdi Pasha
Jul 1877 - Jun 1878        Manastirli Mehmed Nazif Pasha
Jun 1878 - Jan 1879        Ahmed Rasim Pasha
Apr 1879 - Sep 1883        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
Sep 1883 - Oct 1884        Söylemezoglu Ali Kemali Pasha
Oct 1884 - Jun 1889        Ahmed Eyyub Pasha                  (b. 1832 - d. 1900)
Jun 1889 - Aug 1889        Ramazanoglu Huseyin Reza Pasha
Oct 1889 - Oct 1897        Ahmed Eyyub Pasha
Oct 1897 - Feb 1906        Osman Favzi Pasha
Feb 1906 - Dec 1907        Dagistanli Seyfullah Pasha         (b. 1852 - d. 1909)
Dec 1907 - Feb 1909        Hilmi Pasha
Feb 1909 - Nov 1909        Ali Riza Bey
Nov 1909 - Dec 1911        Husammeddin Bey                    (b. 18.. - d. 1911)
Jan 1912 - Aug 1912        Ayni Mehmed Ali Bey
Aug 1912 - 1912            Arnavut Hasan Tahsin Pasha

High Commissioner of Albania for Çamërija (Chameria)(in Gumenicë [Igoumenítsa])
15 Jul 1941 - 1944         Xhemil Bej Dino                    (b. 1894 - d. 1972)

Military governor
1944 - Oct 1944            M. Hatzi


Northern Epirus (1914, 1940-41): see under Albania

Western Thrace 1913 - 1920
[Autonomous Government
                  of Western Thrace, 1913 (Greece)]
        31 Aug 1913 - 16 Sep 1913
1361                       Part of Ottoman Empire (as part of Rumelia Eyalet).
1878                       Sanjak of Gümülcine (within Edirne Vilayet).
18 Oct 1912                Occupied by Bulgaria.

30 May 1913                Ceded to Bulgaria (as Gyumyurdzhina) by Treaty of London (not
                             ratified)
.

14 Jul 1913 - 1913         Gümülcine occupied by Greece.
10 Aug 1913                Ceded to Bulgaria by Treaty of Bucharest (ratified 12 Aug 1913).
31 Aug 1913                Gümülcine liberated by
an insurgent pro-Ottoman volunteer army.
25 Sep 1913                Independence declared as "Provisional Government of Western Thrace"
                             later renamed "Autonomous Government of Western Thrace" (also
                             referred to as the Turkish Republic of Western Thrace or the
                             Republic of Gümülcine), sponsored by the Ottoman Empire.
29 Sep 1913                Ottoman-Bulgarian Treaty of Constantinople recognized the area
                             as Bulgarian.
25 Oct 1913                Re-occupied by
Bulgaria.
22 Oct 1919 - 23 May 1920  Allied administration.
23 May 1920                Incorporated into Greece (as nomós of Rodópi, Évros, and Xánthi;
                             from 1 Jan 2011 part of Anatolikí Makedonía kai Thráki region
                             [periféreia]
)
.
 2 May 1941 - 17 Sep 1944  Occupied by Bulgaria (see under 1941-45 occupations).

Commander-in-chief of the Provisional Government of Western Thrace
31 Aug 1913 - 16 Sep 1913  Eşref Sencer Kuşçubaşi             (b. 1873 - d. 1964)  Mil
Governor-in-chief of the Inter-Allied Administration
(subordinated to Commanders-in-chief of Allied Forces in Constantinople)
22 Oct 1919 - 23 May 1920  Charles Antoine Charpy (France)    (b. 1869 - d. 1941)  Mil



Crete (Kríti)
 
[Ottoman flag]
          27 Sep 1669 - 21 Dec 1898 
[Crete, State
                          and Merchant flag 1898-1908 (1913) (Greece)]
  21 Dec 1898 - 1913 State/Merchant Flag
[Crete flag on
                          Land 1898-1908 (1913) (Greece)]
     21 Dec 1898 - 30 May 1913 On Land
Map of Crete
Hear National Anthem
"Kritikós Ýmnos"
(Cretan Anthem)

Text of National Anthem
(1898-1913)
Constitutions
(12 Feb 1907-1913, in Greek;
28 Apr 1899-1907,
in Greek;
15 Feb 1868 - 1899)
Capital: Irákleio (Heraklion)
(Chándax 824-1204,
Candia 1204-1669, 
Kandiye 1699-1898,

Chaniá 1898-1913)
Currency: 1898-1913
Cretan Drachma (GKD)
National Holiday
1898-1913: N/A
Population: 310,000 (1907)
342,151 (1911)
GDP: N/A
Exports: 11 million
Drachmas (1903)

Imports: 14.5 million
 Drachmas (1903)

Ethnic groups: Greek 97.5%, others 2.5% (1900)
Cretan Gendarmerie: 1,466 (1912)
Cretan Militia 1,040 (1907)

Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Christian 89%, Muslim 10.4%,
others
0.6% (1900)
International Organizations/Treaties 1898-1913: ITU, UPU
Orthodox Church of Crete

c.2200 BC - c.1200 BC      Minoan civilization.
67 BC - 36 BC              Part of the Roman Republic (provincia Creta et Cyrene [Cyrenaica]).
36 BC - 30 BC              Part of the Kingdom of Egypt under Cleopatra VII (nominally
                             a vassal of Rome).
30 BC - 395 AD             Part of the Roman (Republic to 27 BC) Empire.
17 Jan 395 AD              Part of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.

824 - 7 Mar 961            Emirate of Crete, Muslim Arab rule under (nominal) suzerainty of
                             the Abbasid Caliphate.
 7 Mar 961 - 1204          Byzantine rule restored.
12 Aug 1204 - 1669         Venetian possession (Regno di Candia [Kingdom of Candia]).
1205 - 1211                Genoese occupation of nearly all of eastern and central Crete.
Aug 1363 - 1364            Revolt of St. Titus ("Republic of Saint Titus").

1646                       Ottomans conquer western Crete, establishing Girit [Crete] Eyalet.
27 Sep 1669                All of Crete part of the
Ottoman Empire (as Girit Eyaleti).
1715                       Last Venetian fortresses (Souda, Gramvousa and Spinalonga) finally
                             taken by Ottoman forces.
 4 Apr 1770 - 17 Jun 1771  Sfakía uprising in Crete under Russian protection.

21 May 1821                Revolution begins in support of Greek independence.
Nov 1821 - 12 Apr 1824     Independence rebellion, seeking to join Greece (Provisional State
                             of the Island of Crete).

1822 - 1825           
    Egyptian invasion (on behalf of Ottomans) and occupation.
 9 Aug 1825 - Feb 1830     Rebellion (Revolutionary Council of Crete).

 3 Feb 1830                The Great Powers (France, U.K. and Russia) agree to recognize
                             independence of Greece, but without Crete,
in London Protocol.

Oct 1830 - 1831            Egyptian invasion (on behalf of Ottomans) and occupation.
1831 - 1841                Egyptian rule
(nominally under Ottoman sovereignty).
22 Feb 1841 - 1841         Rebellion.
21 Aug 1866 - Jan 1869     Rebellion. 

15 Feb 1868                Ottoman Sultan grants Crete a local organic law (by firman).
Jan 1878 - Oct 1878       
Cretan rebellion seeking autonomy.
25 Oct 1878                Semi-autonomous by Khalépa Convention.

 3 Sep 1895 -  3 Feb 1897  Cretan rebellion seeking autonomy. 
15 Feb 1897                Greek forces land on Crete.
17 Feb 1897                Vice Admiral Felice Napoleone Canevaro, commanding the Italian
                             warships in Cretan waters, is chosen to command the combined
                             naval forces of the Great Powers. He warns Greece and Cretan
                             insurgents to cease all hostilities.

20 Mar 1898                Cretan State (under Ottoman suzerainty).
 6 Oct 1908                Independence declared.
30 May 1913                Incorporation into Greece (effective 1 Dec 1913; divided into
                             prefectures [
nomós] of Iráklio, Réthymno, Chaniá, and Lassíthi;
                             from 1 Jan 2011,
Kríti periféreia).
20May/1Jun 1941-8 May 1945 Occupied by Germany, eastern Crete (Lasíthi) is occupied
                             by Italy (from 9 Sep 1943 by Germany).

Walis (governors) of Girit (Crete)
1699/1700                  Hasan Pasha

1701 - 1704                Kalaylikoz Ahmed Pasha             (b. 1645 - d. 1715)
1704                       Abdullah Pasha
1713                       Hüseyin Pasha
1713                       Kara Mehmet Pasha
1718 - 1719                Köprülü Numan Pasha                (d. 1719)
                            
(= Numan Pashë Kypriljoti)
1719 - 1720               
Morali Ali Pasha (1st time)        (d. 1735)
1720                       Çerkes Osman Pasha
1723 - 1724                Osman Pasha
1724 - 1725                Hüseyin Pasha
1725                       Morali Ali Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1725 - 1726                Koca Mehmet Pasha

1726                       Morali Ali Pasha (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1726                       Osman Pasha

1728 - 1729                Haci Halil Pasha (1st time)        (b. 1655 - d. 1733)
1730 - 1731                Mehmet Pasha
1731                       Shahin Mehmet Pasha
1731 - 1732                Azimzade Ismail Pasha
1732 – 1733                Haci Halil Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1733 – 1734                Morali Ali Pasha (4th time)        (s.a.)
1734 - 1735                Hafiz Ahmet Pasha
1735 - 1736                Haci Huseyin Pasha
1736 - 1737                Ismail Pasha
1737 - 1740                Haci Ivazade Mehmed Pasha          (b. 1675 - d. 1743)
                             (1st time)
1740 - 1741                Hüseyin Pasha
1742                       Sari Mehmet Pasha
1742 - 1743                Haci Ivazade Mehmed Pasha          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1743 - 1745                Numan Pasha
1745 - 1746                Hekimoğlu Ali Pasha                (b. 1689 – d. 1758)
1746 - 1747                Köprülüzade Ahmed Pasha
1747 - 1750                Elçi Mustafa Pasha
1750                       Mustafa Pasha
1750 - 1751                Ibrahim Pasha
1751 - 1754                Numan Pasha
1754 - 1755                Melek Mehmet Pasha                 (b. 1719 - d. 1802)
1755                       Mehmed Said Pasha
1755 - 1757                Naili Abdullah Pasha               (d. 1758)
1757 - 1758                Mehmed Pasha
1758 - 1764                Kiamil Ahmet Pasha
1764 – 1766                Tosun Mehmet Pasha
1766 - 1768                Hüsnü Pasha
1768 – 1769                Feyzullah Pasha
1769 - 1770                Tokmakzade Hasan Pasha
Rebel Leader in Sfakía
 4 Apr 1770 - 17 Jun 1771  Ioánnis Vláchos "Daskalogiánnis"   (b. 1725 - d. 1771)
Walis (governors) of Girit (Crete)
1771 - 1773                Ampra Süleyman Pasha
1773 - 1774                Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha         (b. 1713 - d. 1790)
1774                       Ibrahim Pasha (1st time)
1774 - 1776                Dervish Ali Pasha
1776 - 1778                Kara Ahmed Pasha
1778                       Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time)
1778 – 1779                Hacizade Mustafa Pasha (1st time)
1779                       Mirahor Mustafa Pasha
1779 - 1780                Mehmet Emin Pasha
1780                       Hacizade Mustafa Pasha (2nd time)
1781 - 1782                Raif Ismail Pasha                  (d. 1785)
1782 - 1783                Aslan Pasha

1783                       Kassupis Seyit Ali Pasha
1783 - 1784                Abdullah Pasha
1784 - 1786                Ekmezi Mehmet Pasha (1st time)
1786 – 1787                Zorlu Süleyman Pasha
1787                       Mehmed Pasha
1787                       Hacizade Mustafa Pasha (3rd time)
1787 – 1788                Mehmed Izzet Pasha
1788 - 1789                Ekmezi Mehmet Pasha (2nd time)
1789                       Azamzade Abdullah Pasha
1789 - 1790                Yusuf Pasha
1790 - 1793                Hüseyin Pasha
1793 - 1797                Hasan Pasha
1797                       Ferhat Pasha
1797 – 1798                Sait Hafiz Pasha (1st time)
1798 - 1799                Mehmet Hakki Pasha
1799 - 1801                Tahir Pasha
1801 - 1802                Sami Pasha
1802 - 1803                Ardinli Mehmed Pasha
1803                       Abdullah Dervis Pasha
1803 – 1804                Mustafa Hasip Pasha
1804 – 1805                Mehmet Hüsrev Pasha
1805                       Vani Mehmed Pasha
1805 – 1806                Osman Pasha
1806 – 1807                Sait Hafiz Pasha (2nd time)
1807 - 1808                Kadri Pasha (1st time)
1808 – 1809                Marashli Ali Pasha
1809 – 1810                Kadri Pasha (2nd time)
1810 - 1811                Hafiz Pasha
1811 – 1812                Sami Bekir Pasha
1812 - 1815                Kürt Haci Osman Pasha
1815 - 1816                Ibrahim Pasha
1816 - 1819                Vahit Fazil Pasha
1819 - 1820                Ibrahim Hilmi Pasha                (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
1820                       Serif Pasha
1820 - 1826                Said Lütfullah Pasha
1826 - 1829                Kara Süleyman Pasha
1829 - 1830                Mehmet Zehrap Pasha
Head of the Council of Sfakiá
(in rebellion)
21 May 1821 - 11 Nov 1821  Dimítrios Flampouriáris (Flambouriáris)
Heads of Provisional State of the Island of Crete (in rebellion)
Nov 1821 - 22 Nov 1822     Michaíl Komninós Afentoúlis        (b. 1769 - d. 1855)
                             (
Afentoúlief)
Commissioners (Prefects) of
Crete for
the Greek Government (in rebellion)
22 Nov 1822 - 21 May 1823  Neófytos Oikonómou
                             (acting to Feb 1823)
22 May 1823 - 12 Apr 1824  
Emmanouíl Tompázis                 (b. 1784 - d. 1831)
Heads of the Revolutionary Council of Crete
(in rebellion)
 9 Aug 1825 -  5 Jan 1828  Ioánnis Chális
 5 Jan 1828 - 18 May 1828  Chatzimichális Ntaliánis           (b. 1775 - d. 1828)
                            
(Daliánis)
Commissioners of the Greek Government in Crete (in rebellion)
Jun 1828 - Sep 1829       
Fríntrich Éntouarnt Ráinek         (b. 1796 - d. 1854)
                            
(= Friedrich Eduard von Rheineck)
Sep 1829 - Oct 1829        ... Hahn

Oct 1829 - Feb 1830        Nikólaos Reniéris                  (b. 1758? - d. 1847)

Walis (governors) of Girit (Crete)
1830 - 1851                Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
1851 - 1852                Salih Vamik Pasha
1852 - 1855                Mehmed Emin Pasha
1855 - 1857                Veliüddin Pasha
1857 – 1858                Abdurrahman Sami Pasha             (b. 1794 - d. 1882)
1858 – 1859                Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha                (d. 1877)
1859 - 1861                Ismail Rahmi Pasha
1861 - 1866                Hekim Ismail Pasha                 (b. 1807 - d. 1880)
Leaders (in rebellion)
21 Aug 1866 - Sep 1866     Dimítrios Kallérgis                (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
1866 - 1869                Triumvirate
                           - Ioánnis Zymvrakákis (in Chaniá)  (b. 1818 - d. 1913)
                           - Pános Koronaíos (in Rethýmnou)   (b. 1809 - d. 1899)
                           - Michális Kórakas (in Lasíthi)    (b. 1797 - d. 1882)
Walis (governors) of Girit (Crete)
1866 – 1867                Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1867                       Hüseyin Avni Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1819 - d. 1876)
1867                       Ömer Lütfi Pasha                   (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
1867 – 1868                Hüseyin Avni Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1868                       Arif Efendi (acting)
1868 - 1870                Kücük Ömer Fevzi Pasha (1st time)  (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
1870 - 1871                Rauf Pasha (1st time)
1871 - 1872                Kücük Ömer Fevzi Pasha (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1872                       Redif Pasha (1st time)
1872 - 1873                Mehmed Esat Safvet Pasha           (b. 1814 - d. 1883)
1873 – 1874                Rauf Pasha (2nd time)
1874 - 1875                Hasan Sami (1st time)
1875                       Redif Pasha (2nd time)
1875 - 1876                Ahmed Muhtar Pasha                 (b. 1839 - d. 1919)
1876 - 1877                Hasan Sami (2nd time)
1877 – 1878                Kostaki Adosidis Pasha             (b. 1822 – d. 1895)
                            
(= Kostákis Adosídis)
1878                       Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha (2nd time)    
(s.a.)
27 Nov 1878 - 14 Dec 1878  Aleksandros Karatodori Pasha       (b. 1833 – d. 1906)
                             (= Aléxandros Karatheodorís)
                            
(1st time)
Dec 1878 - Jun 1885        Yanko Fotiyadis (Photiades) Pasha  (d. 1892)
                            
(= Ioánnis Fotiádis)
Jun 1885 – Jan 1887       
Yannis Sava Pasha                  (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
                             (= Ioánnis Savvás)
Jan 1887 – 1888            Kostaki Antopulos Pasha
           (b. 1835 - d. 1902)
                             (= Kostákis Anthópoulos)
1888 – 1889                Nikolaki Sartinki Pasha

                             (=
Nikólaos Saríkni)
1889                       Hasan Riza Pasha                  
(b. 1809 - d. 1877)
1889 – 1890                Mehmed Shakir Pasha                (b. 1855 - d. 1914)
1890 – 1891                Ahmed Cevad Pasha (1st time)       (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
1891 - 1894                Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha            (b. 1839 - d. 1899)
1894 – 1895                Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1st time)    (b. 1839 - d. 1927)
1895 – 1896                Iskender Pasha 

Feb 1896 - Mar 1896        Aleksandros Karatodori Pasha       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

12 Mar 1896 - May 1896     Turhan Pasha Përmeti (2nd time)    (s.a.)
May 1896 - Jun 1896        Abdullah Pasha
28 Jun 1896 – 14 Feb 1897  Berovich Pasha                     (b. 1845 – d. 1897)
                             (= Geórgios Vérovits) 
15 Feb 1897 -  9 May 1897  Timoléon Vássos                    (b. 1836 - d. 1929)
                             (commander of Greek expeditionary force)
1897                       Fotyadi Karatodori
                             (= Fotiadi Karatheodorís)
1897 -  4 Nov 1898         Muşavir Ismail Pasha (acting)
24 Jul 1897 - 10 Oct 1898  Ahmed Cevad Pasha (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Oct 1898 - Nov 1898        Ethem Pasha                        (b. 1844 - d. 1909)
President of the Central Political Committee of Crete

 3 Sep 1895 - 1896         Manoúsos Koúndouros (in rebellion) (b. 1860 - d. 1933)
Chairman of the General Revolutionary Assembly of the Cretans'
26 Jul 1896 - 17 Oct 1896  Kostarós "Kóstas" Voloudákis       (b. 1806 - d. 1900)
                             (in rebellion)

President of the Revolutionary Committee
17 Aug 1896 - 1897         Manoúsos Koúndouros                (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
Head of the Provisional Government of Chaniá
24 Jan 1897 -  3 Feb 1897  Antónios Sífakas (in rebellion)
Chairmen of the International Council of Admirals of the Great Powers
17 Feb 1897 -  5 Jun 1898  Felice Napoleone Canevaro,         (b. 1838 - d. 1926)
                             conte di Santandero (Italy)
 5 Jun 1898 - 21 Dec 1898  Édouard Pottier (France)           (b. 1839 - d. 1903)
President of the Executive Commission of the Cretan Assembly

20 Mar 1898 - 21 Dec 1898  Ioánnis Konstantínou Sfakianákis   (b. 1848 - d. 1924)
                            
(Sphakianákis)
Supreme Plenipotentiary Commissioners of the Powers

21 Dec 1898 - 30 Sep 1906  prínkipas Geórgios                 (b. 1869 - d. 1959)
 1 Oct 1906 - 30 Sep 1911  Aléxandros Thrasývoulou Zaïmis     (b. 1855 - d. 1936) 
                             (left Crete on 24 Sep 1908)
 1 Oct 1908 - Aug 1909     Antónios Michelidákis              (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             (president of executive committee; in dissidence)
30 Sep 1911 - 30 May 1913  Vacant
 2 Mar 1912 - 11 Oct 1912  Antónios Michelidákis              (s.a.)   
                             (president of general committee; in dissidence)
Governor-general

11 Oct 1912 - 30 May 1913  Stéfanos Dragoúmis                 (b. 1842 - d. 1923)


Chairmen of the Cretan Assembly

26 Jun 1897 - Aug 1897     Ioánnis Konstantínou Sfakianákis   (s.a.)
                             (Sphakianákis) (1st time)
Aug 1897 - 16 Oct 1897     Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (b. 1864 - d. 1936)
16 Oct 1897 - 20 Mar 1898  Ioánnis Konstantínou Sfakianákis   (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
Chief ministers

23 Mar 1905 - 25 Nov 1905  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)
                             (in dissidence, at Theríso)
                             (1st time)
26 Apr 1910 - 30 Aug 1910  Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos     (s.a.)
                             (president of Executive Committee to 2 May 1910)
                             (2nd time)

German Military Commandants (Festung Kreta)
20 May 1941 - 31 May 1941  Kurt Arthur Bruno Student          (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
 9 Jun 1941 - 30 Aug 1942  Alexander Andrae                   (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
30 Aug 1942 - 31 Jun 1944  Bruno Bräuer                       (b. 1893 - d. 1947)
 1 Jul 1944 - 13 Sep 1944  Friedrich Wilhelm Müller           (b. 1897 - d. 1947)
13 Sep 1944 -  8 May 1945  Georg Benthack                     (b. 1894 - d. 1973)
Italian Military Commander (of 51st Infantry Division) in Lasíthi
(subordinated to the Commander of Italian forces in Greece)
Jun 1941 -  9 Sep 1943     Angelico (Angelo) Carta            (b. 1886 - d. 19..)



Ionian Islands (Iónioi Nísoi)

[Most Serene
                          Republic of Venice flag 14th cent -1797]
                   20 May 1386 - 29 Jun 1797 
 
[France]
           29 Jun 1797 -  4 Mar 1799,
           31 Aug 1807 - 21 Jun 1814
[Septinsular Republic or State of the
                          Seven United Islands, 1800-1807 (Greece)]
            6 Nov 1800 - 31 Aug 1807 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
                     16 Oct 1809 - 5 Nov 1815
[Septinsular Republic or State of the
                          Seven United Islands, 1800-1807 (Greece)]
            5 Nov 1815 - 1 Jan 1818
[United States of the Ionian Islands,
                          1818-1864 (Greece)]
                  1 Jan 1818 - 1 Jul 1864
Map of the Ionian Islands
Capital: Corfu (Kérkyra)
(1799-1807,
1815-1864)
Constitutions
(6 Nov 1800-1803,
27 Dec 1803-1807,
[in Italian]
& 1 Jan 1818-1864
)

Population: 236,000 (1864)
([1836] Corfu: 65,107;
Cephalonia 63,197; Zante
35,348; Santa Maura 17,175;
Ithaca 9,644; Cerigo 8,707;
and Paxos 5,064)
200,000 (1807)
Currency: 1815-1864
British Pound (GBP);
and Obol (1819-1863);
Gazeta (1801-1819)
Exports: 1,315,000 GBP (1862)
Imports: 1,273,000 GBP (1862)
Ethnic groups: Ionian Greek 93.6%, foreign (mainland
Greek, British, Italian, Turkish) 6.1% (1836)
Total British Armed Forces: 2,982 (1834);
11,000 Russian, 2,000 Ionian (Jan 1806)
Merchant marine: circa 400 (1860)
Religions: Greek Orthodox 97.3%, other Christian (mostly
Roman Catholic) 1.4%, other (Jewish, Muslim) 1.3% (1879)

Dependencies



28 May 1386                Ionian Islands become possessions of Venetian Republic.
21 Jul 1718                Greek mainland ports of Butrinto, Parga, Preveza, and Vonitsa
                             formally
ceded by Ottoman Empire to Venice by Treaty of
                             Passarowitz
.
28 Jun 1797                Occupied by France.
17 Oct 1797                Ceded to France by the Treaty of Campio Formio.
 7 Nov 1797                Organized as départements of Corcyre (Corfu), Ithaque (Ithaca)
                             and Mer Égée (Aegean Sea).
Oct 1798                   Russo-Ottoman occupation begins - Zante occupied on 23 Oct 1798,
                             Ithaca on 25 Oct 1798, Cephalonia on 9 Nov 1798, and on 27 Nov
                             1798 Santa Maura.

 3 Mar 1799                End of French rule (on Corfu).
 
2 Apr 1800                Butrinto, Parga, Preveza and Vonitsa ceded to the Ottoman Empire
                             by Russia.
 2 Apr 1800                Septinsular State ("Eptanesian State"), Italian version: Republic
                             of United Seven Islands, from 1803 also Septinsular Republic;
                             a joint Russian-Ottoman protectorate.

20 Jul 1807                Ceded to France by Russia by the Treaty of Tilsit, transferred
                             on 20 Aug 1807.
31 Aug 1807                Septinsular State accepts the French rule.
13 Sep 1807                Annexed by
France.
16 Oct 1809                British occupy Zante, a few days later Cephalonia, Ithaca,
                             and Cerigo.
 6 Apr 1810                British occupy Santa Maura.
Mar 1814                   British occupy the Paxos Islands.
26 Jun 1814                British occupy Corfu.
 5 Nov 1815                United States of the Ionian Islands (Inoménon-Krátos ton Ioníon
                             Níson/Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie)(a federal republic
of
                             seven islands - Corfu [Kérkyra], Cephalonia [Kefaloniá],
                             Zante [Zákynthos], Santa Maura [Lefkáda], Ithaca [Itháki],
                             Cerigo [Kýthira] and Paxos [Paxoí]), protectorate of the U.K.
                             in accordance with a treaty between the U.K., Austria, Russia,
                             and Prussia concluded at Paris 5 Nov 1815.

 
1 Jan 1818                Constitution (of 2 May 1817) effective.
29 Mar 1864                U.K. consents to relinquish protectorate over the Ionian Islands;
                             U.K., France and Russia recognize the union of the Ionian Islands
                             with Greece in accordance with a treaty between U.K., France,
                             Russia, and Greece concluded at London 29 Mar 1864.
 
2 Jun 1864                Incorporation into Greece (from 8 Dec 1864 as nomós [prefectures]
                             of
Kérkyra [with
Paxoí], Kefallinía, Lefkáda [with Itháki], and
                             Zákynthos
[with Kýthira until separated 1868]; from 1 Jan
                             2011, part of Iónioi Nísoi
periféreia [Ionian Islands region]).
31 Aug 1923 - 17 Sep 1923  Corfu occupied by Italy during the "Corfu Incident."
28 Mar 1941 -  8 Sep 1943  Ionian Islands (Isole Jonie) occupied by Italy (in Cephalonia from
                             1 May 1941)
, except Kythira which is occupied by Germany.
 8 Sep 1943 - 12 Oct 1944  All Islands occupied by Germany (Corfu 25 Sep 1943 - 10 Oct 1944).

Venetian General Superintendents of the Sea (for Islands of the Levant)
(Provveditori generali da Mar)
1701 - 1705                Daniele IV Dolfin (1st time)

1705 - 1708                Francesco Grimani
1708 - 1711                Alvise Mocenigo III                  (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
1711 - 1714                Agostino Sagredo
1714 - fall 1715           Daniele IV Dolfin (2nd time)
1715 - 1718                Andrea Pisani
1718 - 1721                Zorzi Pasqualigo
1721 - 1724                Andrea Corner
1724 - 1727                Francesco Correr
1717 - 1730                Marcantonio Diedo
1730 - 1733                Nicolò Erizzo
1733 - 1736                Pietro Vendramin
1736 - 1739/40             Zorzi Grimani
1740 - 1743                Antonio Loredan
1743 - 1746                Daniele IV Dolfin (3rd time)
1746 - 1749                Marin Antonio Cavalli
1749 - 1752                Giovan Battista Vitturi
1752 - 1755                Agostino Sagredo
1755 - 1758                Gerolamo Querini
1758 - 1761                Francesco Grimani
1761 - 1764                Alvise Contarini
1764 - 1767                Antonio Marino Priuli
1767 - 1770                Andrea Donà
1770 - 1773                Pier Antonio Querini
1773 - 1776                Antonio Renier
1776 - 1779                Giacomo Nani
1779 - 1782?               Giacomo Gradenigo
1782 - 1784                Alvise Foscari
1784 - 1785                Foscarino Gradenigo
1785 - Dec 1787            Nicolò Erizzo                        (d. 1787)
1788 - 1791                Francesco Falier
1791 - 1794                Angelo Memmo
Nov 1794 - Jun 1797        Carlo Aurelio Widmann                (b. 1750 - d. 1799)
                            
(= Graf Carl Aurelius Widmar)
French Military Commanders

28 Jun 1797 - Nov 1797     Antoine Bonavinta Gentili            (b. 1743 - d. 1798)
Nov 1797 - 29 Dec 1797     Jean Jacques Bernardin Colaud de     (b. 1759 - d. 1834)
                             La Salcette (acting)
29 Dec 1797 - Dec 1798     Louis François Jean Chabot           (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
Commissioners-general of the Départements Français de Grèce
28 Jun 1797 - Nov 1797     Antoine Vincent Arnault              (b. 1766 - d. 1834)
Nov 1797 - 29 Dec 1797     Jean Jacques Bernardin Colaud de     (s.a.)
                             La Salcette (acting)
29 Dec 1797 - 17 Jul 1798  Louis François Jean Chabot (acting)  (s.a.)

17 Jul 1798 - Sep 1798     Pierre-Jacques Bonhomme de Comeyras  (b. c.17
50 - d. 1798)
11 Oct 1798 -  3 Mar 1799  François Louis Esprit Dubois         (b. 1758 - d. 1828)
Russian Military Commanders
23 Oct 1798 – 17 Jun 1800  Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov           (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
                             (commander-in-chief in Mediterranean Sea 1798-1800)
Aug 1799 – Jan 1800        Nikolay Aleksandrovich
Tizengauzen   (d. af.1818)
                             (
Tiesenhausen)(acting for absent Ushakov)
Russian Commissioners
Jun 1800 - Aug 1802        Liberan Panayotovich Benaki          (b. 1751 - d. 1820)
                             (Russian consul-general 1783-1810;
                             de facto Commissioner)
20 Aug 1802 - 20 Aug 1807  Graf Georgiy Dmitriyevich Mochenigo  (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
                             (= Geórgios kómis Motsenígos)                                 
Governors-general
31 Aug 1807 -  1 Oct 1809  Louis César Gabriel Berthier         (b. 1765 - d. 1819)
 1 Oct 1809 -  5 Nov 1815  François Xavier, comte de Donzelot   (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
Imperial Commissioners (for civil affairs)
13 Nov 1807 -  1 May 1810  Henri Géraud Julien Bessières        (b. 1777 – d. 1840)
May 1810 - Jun 1814        Mathieu Maximilien Prosper de Lesseps(b. 1771 – d. 1832)
British Civil Commissioners

16 Oct 1809 - Feb 1811     John Oswald (commander to 1810)      (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
Feb 1811 - Dec 1811        Richard Church                       (b. 1784 - d. 1873)
Dec 1811 - 1813            George Airey                         (b. 1761 - d. 1833)
30 Apr 1813 - 17 Feb 1816  Sir James Campbell                   (b. 1763 - d. 1819)
17 Feb 1816 - 31 Mar 1816  Sir Thomas Maitland                  (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
Lord High Commissioners

31 Mar 1816 - 17 Jan 1824  Sir Thomas Maitland                  (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1824 -  2 Jun 1832  Sir Frederick Adam                   (b. 1781 - d. 1853)
                             (acting to 10 Apr 1824 [for absent Maitland to 17 Jan 1824])
28 Apr 1832 -  1 Dec 1832  Sir Alexander George Woodford        (b. 1782 - d. 1870)
                             (1st time)(acting [for absent Adam to 2 Jun 1832])
 1 Dec 1832 - 23 Feb 1835  George Nugent Grenville, Baron       (b. 1788 - d. 1850)
                             Nugent of Carlanstown, in the
                             County of Westmeath

23 Feb 1835 - 29 Apr 1835  Sir Alexander George Woodford        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
29 Apr 1835 -  8 Jun 1841  Sir Howard Douglas                   (b. 1776 - d. 1861)
 8 Jun 1841 - 17 Feb 1843  James Alexander Stewart Mackenzie    (b. 1784 - d. 1843)
15 Sep 1842 -  1 Apr 1843  Sir George Henry Frederick Berkeley  (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                             (acting [for absent Mackenzie to 17 Feb 1843])
 1 Apr 1843 -  2 Jun 1849  John Colborne, Baron Seaton of       (b. 1778 - d. 1863)
                            
Seaton, in the County of Devon  
 2 Jun 1849 - 13 Apr 1855  Sir Henry George Ward                (b. 1797 - d. 1860)

13 Apr 1855 - 25 Jan 1859  Sir John Young                       (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
25 Jan 1859 - 17 Feb 1859  William Ewart Gladstone              (b. 1809 - d. 1898)
17 Feb 1859 -  2 Jun 1864  Sir Henry Knight Storks              (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
Head of Civil Affairs
 
1 Jun 1941 - 11 Sep 1943  Piero Parini (Italy)                 (b. 1894 - d. 1993)

President
1797 - 1798                Carlo Aurelio Widmann                (s.a.)
Presidents of the Senate
(also heads of state from 2 Apr 1800)
(Greek with Italian 
names in parentheses)
 
6 May 1799 -  2 Apr 1800  Ángelos Órios (Angelo Orio)          (d. 1829)
 2 Apr 1800 - 24 Nov 1803  Spyrídon Geórgiou Theotókis          (b. 1722 - d. 1803)
                             (Spiridione Giorgio Teotochi)
                             (acting for absent Orios from Oct/Nov 1799)

24 Nov 1803 - 19 Dec 1803  .... (acting)
19 Dec 1803 - 31 Aug 1807 
Antónios Dimitríou kómis Komoútos    (b. 1748 - d. 1833)
                             (Antonio, conte Comuto)
Presidents of the Senate of Corfu
1807 - 1815               
Emmanouíl Efstathíou Theotókis       (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
                             (from 1812, varónos Emmanouíl Efstathíou Theotókis)
                             (Emmanuele, barone Teotochi)
                             (1st time)
1815 - 1816                Andréas Sordínas (acting)
                             (
Andrea Sordina)
1816 -  1 Jan 1818        
varónos Emmanouíl Efstathíou         (s.a.)
                            
Theotókis (2nd time) 
Presidents of the Senate
(Greek with Italian names in parentheses)
 1 Jan 1818 -  3 Mar 1823  varónos Emmanouíl Efstathíou        
(s.a.)
                             Theotókis (2nd time)
                             (from 18 Nov 1818, Sir
Emmanuele Teotochi)
 
3 Mar 1823 -  4 Mar 1828  Marínos Végias (Marino Veja)         (b. 1770 - d. 18..)
 
                            (from 15 Oct 1825, Sir Marino Veja)
 4 Mar 1828 - 30 Dec 1832 
Dimítrios Nikoláou kómis Foskárdis   (b. 1771 - d. 1832)
                             (Demetrio, conte Foscardi)
28 Aug 1830 -  4 Mar 1833  varónos Emmanouíl Efstathíou         (s.a.)
                             Theotókis (3rd time)
                            
(acting [for Foskárdis to 30 Dec 1832] to 2 Jan 1833)
 
4 Mar 1833 -  1 Mar 1839  Spyrídon Víktor Georgíou kómis       (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                             Voúlgaris
                             (Spiridione Vittore, conte Bulgari
)
 1 Mar 1839 - 24 Aug 1842  Pétros-Pávlos Dimitríou              (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
                             Petritsópoulos (1st time)
                            
(Sir Pietro Petrizzopulo
)
24 Aug 1842 - 21 Feb 1843  Dimítrios Gerasímou kómis            (b. 1783 - d. 1844)
                             Dalladétsimas
                            
(Demetrio, conte Dalla Decima
)
21 Feb 1843 -  3 Mar 1845  Pétros-Pávlos Dimitríou              (s.a.)
                             Petritsópoulos (2nd time)
 3 Mar 1845 - 20 Mar 1850  S
pyrídon Fokás Stefános              (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
                             (Spiridione Focca Stefano)
                            
(from 31 May 1847, Sir Spiridione Focca Stefano)
20 Mar 1850 - 26 Feb 1852 
Dimítrios Nikoláou kómis Salamón     (b. 1785 - d. 1883)
                             (Demetrio, conte Salamon)
                            
(from 7 Sep 1850, Sir Demetrio, conte Salamon)
26 Feb 1852 - 16 Feb 1857  Geórgios-Kandianós Dionysíou kómis  
(b. 1796 - d. 1867)
                             Rómas (Sir Giorgio-Candiano, conte Roma)
16 Feb 1857 -  3 Mar 1862  Aléxandros Damaskinós
                             (Sir Alessandro Damaschinò)
 
3 Mar 1862 -  2 Jun 1864  Dimítrios Nikoláou kómis Karoúsos    (b. 1799 - d. 1873)
                             (Sir Demetrio, conte Caruso)

Noble titles: former Venetian grants and are translated as follows Greek/Italian:
Kómis/Conte = Count; Varónos (Barónos)/Barone = Baron



Dodecanese Islands and Rhodes (Dodekánisa)
 
[Ottoman flag (to
                          1912)]
      21 Dec 1522 - 6 May 1912 
[Kingdom of
                          Italy flag]
            6 May 1912 - 11 Sep 1943 
[unofficial Aegean State Flag 1912
                          (reconstruction)]
 Jun 1912/1946-48 Aegean State Unofficial Flag
Map of the Dodecanese
Islands
Capital: Rodi (Ródos)
(Rhodes)
Currency: 1912-1945
Italian Lira (ITL)
Population: 132,289 (1938)
GDP: N/A
Exports: N/A
Imports: N/A
Ethnic groups: Greek 53%, Italian (1940)
Total Italian Armed Forces: 40,000 (1942)
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Greek Orthodox, Roman Catholic,
Muslim, Jewish

17 Jan 395                 Part of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
1082 - 1097                Joint Venetian and Genoese occupation.
1204 - 1256                Part of the (Latin) Lordship of the Cyclades under the Gabalas.
1256                       Byzantine Empire rule restored.
15 Aug 1309 - 21 Dec 1522  Rhodes taken by the Knights of St. John Hospitaller of Jerusalem.
21 Dec 1522                Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1533                       Part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid ("Islands of the
                             White Sea", but usually translated as "the Archipelago" or the 
                             "Islands" in western sources) the government-general of the
                             Archipelago was under directly under the Kapudan Pasha
                             ("Great Captain") and consisted of: some coastal provinces of 
                             Anatolia and Greece (Attica, Aetolia-Acarnania, Boeotia, Euboea),
                             nearly all of the Ottoman Mediterranean islands - except Crete -

                             and some regions in northern Africa like Algiers and Alexandria;
                             however by 1912 only
Limri (Límnos [Lemnos]), Midillu (Lésvos
                             [Lesbos]),
Rodos (Ródos [Rhodes]), Sakiz (Chíos), Kastellorizo,
                             and nominally
Kıbrıs (Kýpros [Cyprus]) & Sesam (Sámos) remained.
Jan 1849                   End of special status: Vilayet (province) of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i
                             Sefid.
27 Apr 1912                Italy begins occupation of the Dodecanese Islands.
 6 May 1912                Italian occupation of Rhodes.
19 May 1912                Italian occupation Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands completed
                             (Karpathos, Kalimnos, Leros, Nisiros, Patmos, Astipalaia,
                             Kasos, Khalki, Tilos, Lipsos, and from Oct 1912 Kastellorizo).
17 Jun 1912                "Aegean State" is proclaimed by delegates meeting on Patmos,
                             who favor union with Greece, Italian authorities reject it.
18 Oct 1912                Treaty of Lausanne allows the Italian occupation to continue
                             until all terms of the treaty are met, then islands are to
                             be restored to Ottoman rule.
26 Apr 1915                Italian control recognized by the Allies.
29 Apr 1919                Dodecanese Islands inhabitants vote for union with Greece in a
                             plebiscite which is not recognized by Italy. 
10 Aug 1920                Treaty of Sèvres with Ottoman Empire agrees recognize full Italian
                             sovereignty over the islands.
24 Jul 1923                Turkey formally recognizes Italian sovereignty in the Treaty of
                             Lausanne. Italy formally annexes the islands as Possedimenti
                             
Italiani delle isole dell'Egeo (Italian Aegean Islands
                             Possessions
).
 
8 Sep 1943 -  7 May 1945  British occupy Kastellorizo Island.
11 Sep 1943 -  7 May 1945  German occupation (from Sep 1943, [nominally] under Italian

                             Social Republic administration).
15 Sep 1943 -  4 Oct 1943  British occupation of Cos (Kós) Island.
 7 May 1945 - 15 Sep 1947  British administration.

10 Feb 1947                Formally ceded to Greece by Italy in Treaty of Paris.
15 Sep 1947                Greek administration.
 9 Jan 1948                Incorporated into Greece (retroactive to 28 Oct 1947; as
                             Dodecanese prefecture [Dodekánisa nomós]; from 2011, part 
                             of [North Aegean region [Nótio Aigaío periféreia]).

Walis (governors) of Djeza'ir-i (Cezair) Bahr-i-Sefid
Jan 1849 - Aug 1849        Kirimli Musa Safveti Pasha
Aug 1849 – Jul 1851        Sarayli Mehmed Ragib Pasha
Jul 1851 – Oct 1852        Gürcü Damad Halil Rifat Pasha
Oct 1852 - Jan 1855        Tepedenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
Jan 1855 - Dec 1856        Çürüksulu Mahmud Hamdi Pasha
Jun 1857 - May 1859        Serhaliezade Salih Vamiq Pasha 
May 1859 - Jun 1860        Kayserili Ahmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1796 - d. 1878)   
Jan 1860 – Feb 1863        Ahmed Ataullah Bey               (b. 1810 – d. 1877)
Feb 1863 - Jan 1864        Mektubizade Osman Rashid Pasha   (b. 1802 - d. 1880)
Jan 1864 - Dec 1866        Mehmed Çemaleddin Pasha
Dec 1866 - Jun 1867        Hüseyin Hüsnü Pasha              (d. 1877)
Jun 1867 - Jun 1873        Kayserili Ahmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jun 1873 - Dec 1873        Manastirli Mehmed Nazif Pasha
Dec 1873 - Feb 1874        Kücük ömer Fevzi Pasha
Feb 1874 - Feb 1877        Morali Ibrahim Halil Pasha       (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
Feb 1877 - May 1878        Ioánnis (Yanaki) Savas Pasha     (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
May 1878 - Jun 1881        Karavezir Mehmed Sadik Pasha     (b. 1825 - d. 1901)
Jun 1881 - Apr 1882        Kürt Mehmed Said Pasha           (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
Apr 1882 - Jun 1883        Rashid Nashid Pasha
Jun 1883 - Feb 1884        Manastirli Mehmed Nazif Pasha
Mar 1884 - Sep 1885        Ismail Hakki Pasha 
Sep 1885 – Feb 1886        Abdullah Galib Pasha
Feb 1886 - Dec 1893        Arnavud Mehmed Akif Pasha    
Dec 1893 - Mar 1906        Prevezeli Abidin Pasha Dino      (d. 1906)
Mar 1906 - Aug 1908        Huseyin Nazim Pasha
Sep 1908 - Nov 1910        Bolayir Ali Ekrem Pasha          (d. 1867 - d. 1937)
                             (1st time)
Dec 1910 - Oct 1911        Ibrahim Selim Susa Efendi
Oct 1911 -  6 May 1912     Ali Subhi Bey
Aug 1912                   Bolayir Ali Ekrem Pasha          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Italian Commanders
 5 May 1912 - 14 Oct 1913  Giovanni Battista Ameglio        (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
15 Oct 1913 -  8 Nov 1913  Ferruccio Trombi (provisional)   (b. 1858 - d. 1915)
 9 Nov 1913 - 26 Apr 1914  Francesco Marchi
27 Apr 1914 - 26 May 1917  Giovanni Croce 
                             (provisional to 3 Aug 1914)
27 May 1917 - 15 Dec 1919  Vittorio Elia                    (b. 1859 - d. 1944)
15 Dec 1919 -  6 Aug 1920  Achille Porta
 7 Aug 1920 - 16 Sep 1920  Conte Carlo Senni (provisional)  (b. 1879 - d. 1946)
17 Sep 1920 - 16 Aug 1921  Felice Maissa
17 Aug 1921 - 15 Nov 1922  Alessandro De Bosdari            (b. 1867 - d. 1929)
Governors
16 Nov 1922 - 27 Nov 1936  Mario Lago                       (b. 1878 - d. 1950)
 2 Dec 1936 -  9 Dec 1940  Cesare Maria De Vecchi, conte    (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
                             di Val Cismon 
10 Dec 1940 - 14 Jul 1941  Ettore Bastico                   (b. 1876 - d. 1972)
15 Jul 1941 - 18 Sep 1943  Inigo Campioni                   (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
18 Sep 1943 -  7 May 1945  Igino Ugo Faralli (vice governor)(b. 1889 - d. 1957)
German Military Commanders
 8 Sep 1943 - 20 Sep 1944  Ulrich Kleemann                  (b. 1892 - d. 1963)
20 Sep 1944 -  5 May 1945  Otto Wagener                     (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
British Chief Administrators
May 1945 - 1945            Peter Bevil Edward Acland        (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
1945 - 1946                Charles Henry Gormley            (b. 1904 - d. 1969)
1946 - 1947                Arthur Stanley Parker
Greek Military Governor
27 Mar 1947 - 19 Apr 1948  Periklís Ioannídis               (b. 1881 - d. 1965)


Kastellorizo (Megísti)

[Historical flag of
                Kastellórizo 1821]
                        1821

1306 - 1440                Possession of Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John
                             of Jerusalem (Knights of Saint John).

1440 - 1450                Egyptian occupation.
1450 - 1512                Possession of the Kingdom of Naples (Castelrosso).
1512                       Part of the Ottoman Empire (part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i
                             Bahr-i Sefid).
1570 - 1571                Venetian occupation.
22 Sep 1659 - 1660         Venetian occupation.
1828 - 1833                Under Greek control during the Greek War of Independence.

Oct 1912 - 14 Mar 1913     Italian occupation (see Dodecanese Islands).
14 Mar 1913 -  1 Aug 1913  Autonomous under local provisional government.
 1 Aug 1913 - 28 Dec 1915  Greek administration (subordinate to Samos).
28 Dec 1915 -  1 Mar 1921  Occupied by France (Castellorizo).
 1 Mar 1921                Italian administration (Castelrosso).
11 Jul 1922                Part of the Italian Dodecanese Islands.
24 Jul 1923                Turkey recognizes Italian possession of Kastellorizo.
25 Feb 1941 - 28 Feb 1941
  British occupation.
 
8 Sep 1943 - 15 Sep 1947  British occupation.
15 Sep 1947 -  9 Jan 1948  Greek administration.
 
9 Jan 1948                Incorporated into Greece (named Megísti, part of Dodekánisa nomós).

Council
1828 - 1833                Five member council (Demogerontia)
Administrator
14 Mar 1913 -  1 Aug 1913  Ioánnis Lakérdis
Greek Governors
 1 Aug 1913 - Feb 1914     Vasíleios Tzavéllas
1914 - Sep 1914            Kóstas Stavrákis
Feb 1915 - 28 Dec 1915     Odysseús Orologás (Horologás)
French Military Governor
28 Dec 1915 - 16 Jan 1916  Marie-Aymar-Guillaume d'Adhemar  (b. 1867 - d. 1945)
                             de Cransac
French Governors
17 Jan 1916 - 18 Jul 1917  Henri-Marie Bourdoncle de        (b. 1872 - d. 1960)
                             Saint-Salvy
18 Jul 1917 - 14 Jul 1919  Charles Auguste Joseph Le Camus  (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
11 Aug 1919 -  1 Mar 1921  Raymond Antoine Terme            (b. 1889 - d. 19..)
Italian Military Governor
 1 Mar 1921 -  1 Jul 1922  Francesco "Franco" Quentin-Terzo
                             (interim)

Other Aegean Sea Islands


Hydra (Ýdra)

[Historical flag of Hydra,
                1821]

1566                       Part of Ottoman Empire (part of Eyalet of Rumelia; from 1661                                    Eyalet of Morea).
1802                       Hydra (Ýdra) Island semi-autonomous (
within Eyalet of Morea).
16 Apr 1821                Rebellion beings during the Greek War of Independence.
15 Nov 1821                Subordinated to the Senate of East Greece (see above).
24 Jan 1822                Incorporated into Greece (1828-1833 part of Western Sporades
                             [Dytikón Sporádon] department; 1833-1929 prefecture of Argolídos
                             kaí Korinthías [1899-1909 Argolída]; 1929-1947 Attica prefecture;
                             1947-1994 Peiraiós; 1994-2011 Athinón-Peiraiós; from 2011,
                             part of Attikí region).
Dec 1829                   Local autonomy ended.
May 1831 - Feb 1832        Local rebellion supporting autonomy. 

Governors
27 Dec 1802 - 1807         Geórgios Voúlgaris (1st time)    (b. 1769 - d. 1812)
24 Jun 1807 - 1808         Andréas Vókos Miaoúlis           (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
12 Jun 1808 - 1811         Geórgios Voúlgaris (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1811 - 23 Aug 1812         Oligarchic Council (12 members)
                           - Geórgios Voúlgaris             (s.a.)
                           - Nikólaos Tompázis
                           - Lázaros Kountouriótis          (b. 1769 - d. 1852) 
                           - Dimítrios Kriezís  
                           - Dimítrios Tsamadós
                           - et al.
23 Aug 1812 - 30 Mar 1821  Nikólaos Kokovílas
30 Mar 1821 - 22 May 1821  Antónis Oikonómou                (b. 1775 - d. 1821)
22 May 1821 - Dec 1829     Lázaros Kountouriótis            (s.a.)
May 1831 - Feb 1832        "Constitutional Committee"
                           (in rebellion)
                           - Geórgios Andréa Kountouriótis  (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
                           - Andréas Vókos Miaoúlis         (s.a.)
                           - V. Bountoúris (Boudoúris)
                           - Antónios Kriezís               (b. 1796 - d. 1865)
                           - Nikólaos Oikonómou
                           - Dimítrios Voúlgaris            (b. 1802 - d. 1878)
                           - M. Tompázis 


Icaria (Ikaría)

[Flag of Free State of
                Ikaria, 1912]

Map of Ikaría Capital: Ágios Kírykos

1325 - 1481                Possession of Genoa.
1481 - 1522                Possession of the Knights of St. John Hospitaller of Jerusalem.
Dec 1522                   Part of the Ottoman Empire (from 1533, part of the Elayet
                             of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid).

May 1821 - Jul 1830        Administered by Greece (part of Eastern Sporades [Anatolikón
                             Sporádon] department).              
17 Jul 1912                Ottoman garrison expelled.
18 Jul 1912                Free State of Ikaria (Elévthera Politeía Ikarías) declared.
14 Aug 1912                Neighboring island of Foúrnoi also liberated by Ikaría.
 4 Nov 1912                Occupied by Greece.
24 Jun 1913                Formally annexed to Greece (part of Sámos prefecture [nomós]).

President
18 Jul 1912 -  4 Nov 1912  Ioánnis Malachías                (b. 1880 - d. 1958)

Naxos and Cyclades (Náxos)

Map of the Cyclades Capital: Náousa (on Páros)
(1770-1774)

Jun 1204                   Duchy of Naxos (Náxos, Thíra [Thera], Mílos [Melos], Dílos [Delos],
                             and the Cyclades),
a fief, first of the Kingdom of Thessaly,
                             then from 1207 of Venetian Republic.

1207 - Mar 1383            Under the Sanudo dynasty.
1383 - 1566                Under the Crispi dynasty.
1537 - 1566                Naxos tributary to Ottoman Empire.
1566                       Part of the Ottoman Empire (part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i
                             Sefid).

Oct 1770                   Russian occupation of the Cyclades (from Feb 1771, provisionally
                             and informally styled "Grand Principality of the Archipelago").
21 Jul 1774                Ottoman Empire rule restored by the Peace of Küçük Kaynarca
                             (Kuchuk Kainarji), Russians evacuate 3 Jun 1775.
24 Jan 1822                Incorporated into Greece (divided into Central Cyclades, Northern
                            
Cyclades, and Western [Southern] Cyclades departments 1828-1833;
                            
1833-2011 as Cyclades prefecture [nomós Kykládon]; from 2011,
                             part South Aegean [Voreío Aigaío] region
[periféreia]). 

Dukes of the Archipelago
1204 - 1227                Marco I                           (b. c.1153 - d. 1227?)
1224 - 1262                Angelo                            (d. 1262)
1262 - 1303                Marco II                          (d. c.1303)
1303 - 1323                Guglielmo I                       (d. c.1223)
1323 - 1341                Niccolò I                         (d. 1341)
1341 - 1362                Giovanni I                        (d. 1362)
1362 - 1371                Fiorenza I Sanudo (f) -Duchess    (d. 1371)
1364 - 1371                Niccolò II dalle Carceri          (d. af.1374)
                             (co-ruler)
1371 - Mar 1383            Niccolò III dalle Carceri         (d. 1383)
Mar 1383 - 1397            Francesco I                       (d. 1397)
1383 - 13..                Fiorenza II Sanudo (f) -Regent
1397 - 1418                Giacomo I                         (b. 1383 - d. 1418)
1418 - 1433                Giovanni II                       (b. 1388 - d. 1433)
1433 - 1447                Giacomo II                        (b. 1426 - d. 1447)
1433 - 1444                Francesca Morosini (f) -Regent    (d. af.1455)
1447 - 1453                Gian Giacomo                      (b. 1446 - d. 1453)
1447 - 1453                Niccol
ò di Syra -Regent
1453 - 1463                Guglielmo II                      (b. 1390 - d. 1463)
1463                       Francesco II                      (d. 1463)
1463 - 1480                Giacomo III                       (d. 1480)
1463 - 1464                Petronilla Bembo (f) -Regent
1480 - 1494                Giovanni III                      (d. 1494)
1494 - 1500                interregnum
1500 - 1511                Francesco III                     (d. 1511)
1511 - 1517                Antonio Loredano -Governor
1517 - 1564                Giovanni IV                       (b. 1500 - d. 1564)
1564 - 1566                Giacomo IV                        (d. 1576)
Russian Commanders of the Aegean Sea 

22 Jun 1770 - Nov 1770     Graf Aleksey Grigoryevich Orlov   (b. 1737 - d. 1808)
Nov 1770 - Feb 1774        Grigoriy Andreyevich Spiridov     (b. 1713 - d. 1790)
1773                       Graf Ivan Vasilyevich Voynovich   (b. 17.. - d. 1791)
                             (acting for Spiridov)
Feb 1774 -  3 Jun 1775     Andrey Vlas'yevich Yelmanov       (b. 1716 – d. 1778)    

General Deputy (heads of local government)
Mar 1771 - 1774            Anton Konstantinovich Psaro       (b. 1735 – d. 1811)
                             (= Antónios Psarós)
1772                       Pavel Matveyevich Nesterov        (d. af.1788)

                             (acting for Psaro)


Psara (Psará)

[Historical flag of Psara,
                1821]

1566                       Part of Ottoman Empire (part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i
                             Sefid
).
1816                      
Psara Island semi-autonomous (within Sanjak of Sakız, part
                             of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid).
10 Apr 1821                Rebellion beings during the Greek War of Independence.
15 Nov 1821                Subordinated to the Senate of East Greece (see above).

 4 Jul 1824                Ottomans end resistance on Psara.
11 Nov 1912                Incorporated into Greece (part of Chios prefecture [Kh
íos nomós]).

Governors (Elders)
18.. - 10 Apr 1821         Anagnóstis Monarchídis           (b. 1777 - d. af.1865)
10 Apr 1821 - 15 Jan 1822  Nikolís Apostolís                (b. 1770 - d. 1827)
                           + Dim
ítrios Mamounís


Samos (Sámos)
 
[Ottoman flag
                          1783 - 1808, 1826-67]
                    1475 - 1821
[Principality
                          of Samos 1834-1912]
                1834 - 24 Nov 1912
       
Map of Samos Capital: Vathí (Vathý)
(Chóra [H
óra] to 18..)
Organic Statute
(1834)
Population: 53,424 (1902)
Currency: 1832-1912
Ottoman Empire Piastre
 (XTOP)
Exports: 22.1 million
  Ottoman Piastres (1910)
Imports: 28.4 million
Ottoman Piastres (1910)
Ethnic groups: Samos Greek 97.5%, foreign (mostly
 mainland Greek) 2.5% (1902)
Samos Gendarmerie: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Greek Orthodox almost 100% (1902)

1304 - 1329                Genoese possession.
1346 - 1475                Genoese possession.
1475                       Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1533                       Part of Elayet of Djeza'ir-i Bahr-i Sefid (see Dodecanese).
18 Apr 1821                Rebellion beings during the Greek War of Independence.
May 1821                   Greek State of Samos declared.
Aug 1828 - Jul 1830        Incorporated into Greece (as part of Eastern Sporades [Anatolikón
                             Sporádon] department).

 3 Feb 1830                The Great Powers (France, U.K. and Russia) agree to recognize
                             independence of Greece, but without Samos,
in London Protocol.
22 Dec 1832                Samos Organic statute passed by the Ottoman Sultan.
22 Aug 1834                Principality of Samos, autonomy within the Ottoman Empire.

24 Nov 1912                Incorporation into Greece declared.
 2 Mar 1913                Formal union with Greece (as Sámos prefecture [nomós]; from
                             1 Jan 2011, part of South Aegean [Voreío Aigaío]
region
                             [periféreia])
.

30 May 1913                Formally ceded to Greece by the Ottoman Empire.

Director of the Military-Political System of Samos
18 Apr 1821 - May 1821     K
onstantínos Lachaná              (b. 1769 - d. 1842)
                            
(commander of Greek rebel forces)
May 1821 - Apr 1828        Lykoúrgos Logothétis (1st time)   (b. 1772 - d. 1850)
Extraordinary Commissioners of Greece
Apr 1828 - Feb 1829       
Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis         (b. 1774 - d. 1847)
                             (1st time)
Feb 1829 - Oct 1829        Dimítrios Christídis              (b. 1799 - d. 1877)
Oct 1829 - Jul 1830        Ioánnis Nikoláou Koléttis         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 

Director of Administrative Affairs Samos
Jul 1830 - 22 May 1834     Lykoúrgos Logothétis (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Governors, with the title Princes of Samos
1834 - 1850                Stéfanos Vogorídis                (b. 1774 - d. 1859)
                            
(= Ştefan Vogoride, Stoyko Conkov Stoykov)
1850 - 1854                Aléxandros Kallimáchis
           (b. 1807 - d. 1886)
                            
(= Alexandru Callimachi)
Apr 1854 - 1859            I
oánnis Dimitrou Ghíkas           (b. 1817 - d. 1897)
                            
(= Ion Dimitrie Ghica)  
Apr 1859 - Dec 1866        Miltiádis Stavráki Aristárchis    (b. 1809 - d. 1893)
Dec 1866 - Sep 1873        Pávlos Mousoúros                  (b. 1810 - d. 1876)
1873                       Geórgios Georgiádis (1st time)
                             (acting)
1873 - 1874                Konstantínos Adosídis (1st time)  (b. 1818 - d. 1895)
                            
("Adosidis Pasha")
27 May 1874 - Dec 1878     Konstantínos Fotiádis (Photi
ádis) (b. 1830 - d. 1897)
 4 Mar 1879 - 1885         Konstantínos Adosídis (2nd time)  (s.a.)
May 1885 - Dec 1894        Aléxandros Karatheodorís          (b. 1833 - d. 1906)
                            
("Karatheodoris Pasha")
1895 - 1896                G
eórgios Vérovits                 (b. 1845 - d. 1897)
                            
(= Đorđe Berović, "Berovich Pasha")
Jul 1896 - Feb 1899        Stéfanos Mousoúros                (b. 1841 - d. 1906)
 7 Mar 1899 - Aug 1900     Konstantínos Vagiánnis            (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
16 Aug 1900 - Mar 1902     Michaíl Grigoriádis               (b. 1841 - d. 19..)
12 Mar 1902 -  5 May 1904  Aléxandros Mavrogénis             (b. 1845 - d. 1929)
 5 May 1904 - Jul 1906     Ioánnis Vithynós                  (b. 1847 - d. 1912)
Jul 1906 - Sep 1906        Konstantínos Karatheodorís        (b. 1841 - d. 1922)
Aug 1907 - Jan 1908        Geórgios Georgiádis (2nd time)  
Jan 1908 - 22 Mar 1912     Andréas Kopásis                   (b. 1856 - d. 1912)
Apr 1912 - Aug 1912        Grigórios Vegléris                (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
President of the Revolutionary Assembly

Aug 1912 - 24 Nov 1912     Themistoklís Panagiotou Sofoúlis  (b. 1862 - d. 1949)
                             (Sopho
úlis)
Greek Commander 
1912 - 1913                Pávlos Theodórou Kountouriótis    (b. 1854 - d. 1935)


Commissioners for the (absent) Princes
14 May 1834 - 29 May 1837  Konstantínos Mousoúros            (b. 1807 - d. 1891)
29 May 1827 - 19 Jun 1838  Al. Fotiádis
19 Jun 1868 -  5 Jun 1840  I. Vogorídis
 5 Jun 1840 -  3 Jan 1841  M. Semelás
 3 Jan 1841 - 11 Mar 1841  I. Giatzóglou
11 Mar 1841 - 20 Feb 1842  L. Voudoúris
20 Feb 1842 - 19 Mar 1847  K. Krokidás
19 Mar 1847 - 12 Mar 1850  G. Krestídis
12 Mar 1850 - 24 Mar 1850  I. Adamantídis
1850 - 1854               
Geórgios Koneménos -Delegate



Spetses (Spétses)

[Historical
                          flag of Spetses, 1821 (Greece)]
                   Adopted 1821
[Historical
                          flag variant of Spetses, 1821 (Greece)]
                       Variant

1540                       Part of the Ottoman Empire.
1687 - 1715                Venetian occupation (Spezzia).
1770                       Turks destroy the only village on the island in response to
                             Spetses supporting the Russians in Naxos.
1774                       Island re-occupied
by settlers from Peloponnese.
c.1800                     Spetses Island semi-autonomous (within the Eyalet of Morea).

12 Jul 1821                Rebellion beings during the Greek War of Independence.
15 Nov 1821                Subordinated to the Senate of East Greece (see Greece above).
24 Jan 1822                Incorporated into Greece (1828-1833 part of Western Sporades
                             [Dytikón Sporádon] department; 1833-1929 prefecture of Argolídos
                             kaí Korinthías [1899-1909 Argolída]; 1929-1947 Attica prefecture;
                             1947-1994 Peiraiós; 1994-2011 Athinón-Peiraiós; from 2011,
                             part of Attikí region).
 

Governors (zampítes
c.1800 - 1814              Chatzigiánnis "Giánnis" Méxis    (b. 1754 – d. 1844)
1814                       Volokínis

1814 - 12 Jul 1821         Geórgios Pánou                   (b. 1770 - d. 1863)

                           + Geórgios Boúkouris
12 Jul 1821 - 15 Jan 1822  Panagiótis Bótasis               (b. 1784 - d. 1824)






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