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Italian states to 1861  P-V


Noble titles: signore/signora = lord/lady; conte/contessa = count/countess; marchese/marchesa = marquess/marchioness; principe/principessa = prince/princess; duca/duchessa = duke/duchess;  granduca/granduchessa = grand duke/duchess; re/regina = king/queen.

Ecclesiastical titles: arcivescovo = archbishop; cardinale = cardinal; vescovo = bishop


Papal State
 
[Papal State to
                          1803]
          17th cent. - 15 Feb 1798;
              23 Jul 1800 - 1803 
 
[Papal State
                          1803-1825]
              1803 - 17 May 1809; 
         24 Mar 1814 - 17 Sep 1825
 
[Roman Republic,
                          1798-1799]
           15 Feb 1798 - 27 Nov 1798;
           12 Dec 1798 - 29 Sep 1799
                   Roman Republic
[Papal State]
    17 Sep 1825 - 9 Oct 1870
 

[Roman Republic, 1849]
          12 Feb 1849 - 6 May 1849
                    Roman Republic


Map of Papal State
Hear National Anthem
"Gran Marcia Trionfale"
(Great Triumphal March)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1857
 Roman Republic 
Constitutions (1798-99; 1849)
Papal: 1848-49 (in Italian)
Capital: Rome (Roma)
(Avignon 9 Mar 1309 -
17 Jan 1377)
Currency: 1700-1870 Italian
States Scudo Romano
(XITS) 
National Holiday: N/A
Population: N/A

14 Apr 754                 Donation of Pepin creates a temporal Papal State for the Popes
                             of the Roman Catholic Church (also called the Papal States 
                             or the States of the Church; in Latin Status Pontificius; in
                             Italian: Stato della Chiesa)(confirmed 756 and 774, codified in
                             781).

28 Aug 846                 Arab Muslim (Saracen) raiders sack Rome.
13 Feb 962                 Privilegium Ottonianum, signed by Emperor Otto I and Pope John XII,
                             confirming the Donation of Pepin
28 May - Jun 1084          Normans sack Rome.
24 Jul 1177                By the Treaty of Venice Emperor Frederick I recognized the temporal
                             rights of the Pope over the city of Rome.
1198                       Duchy of Spoleto annexed (briefly under imperial rule 1222-1228).
 9 Mar 1309 - 17 Jan 1377  Popes rule from Avignon in modern day France, this era has been 

                             referred to as the "Babylonian captivity of the Church" 
                             by some historians.
20 May 1347 - 15 Dec 1347  Cola di Rienzo (b. c.1313 - d. 1354) becomes tribune and attempts
                             to restore the Roman Republic.
20 Sep 1378 - 12 Mar 1403  During the "Great Schism" rival (anti-)Popes rule from Avignon.
29 May 1434 - Oct 1434     Roman Republic declared in rebellion under the Banderesi.
25 Sep 1463                Fano Lordship annexed (confirmed 3 Feb 1520).
20 Nov 1465                Cesena annexed.
31 Dec 1494 - 28 Jan 1495  French occupation of Rome.

1504                       Pentapoli marittima re-annexed (Imola on 26 Dec 1504; Forlì on
                             7 Apr 1504; Ravenna on 21 May 1509; and Faenza in May 1509).
 3 Feb 1520
                Fermo Lordship annexed.
 6 May 1527                Imperial forces sack Rome.

17 Jun 1528                Rimini
re-incorporated.
1554                       Perugia re-incorporated.
22 Jun 1692                Nepotism is outlawed
in Papal Bull Romanum decet Pontificem.
10 Feb 1798 - 27 Nov 1798  Rome occupied by France.

15 Feb 1798 - 30 Sep 1799  In rebellion: Roman Republic.
27 Nov 1798 - 12 Dec 1798  Rome occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
11 Jul 1799 - 28 Sep 1799  Rome occupied France.
30 Sep 1799 -  3 Jul 1800  Rome occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 
3 Jul 1800                Papal State (restored).
 2 Feb 1808 - 17 May 1809  French occupation.
17 May 1809                Papal State (Rome and Latium) annexed to France; divided
                             into départements of Tibre (from 1810 Rome) and Trasimène.
17 Feb 1810                Rome is declared to be the second capital of the French Empire.
20 Mar 1811                Title "King of Rome" given to Napoléon I's infant son.
14 Mar 1814                Papal State (restored).
22 Mar 1815                Rome occupied by Naples (under Murat).
22 May 1815 -  7 Jun 1815  Austrian occupation.
 7 Jun 1815                Papal State (restored).
26 Feb 1831 - 26 Apr 1831  In rebellion: United Italian Provinces.
 9 Feb 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  In rebellion: Roman Republic.
 3 Jul 1849 -  3 Aug 1849  Rome occupied by France.
1849 - 1859                Austrian troops garrison the Legations of Romagna and the Marches.

1859 - Aug 1870            French troops garrison Rome.
18 Mar 1860                Sardinia annexes Romagna (part of Central Italy from 3 Dec 1859).
17 Dec 1860                Sardinia annexes Umbria, the Marches, Benevento (25 Oct 1860)
                             and Pontecorvo (26 Dec 1860).
20 Sep 1870                Rome occupied by Kingdom of Italy.
 9 Oct 1870                Annexation of remainder of the Papal State (Latium [Lazio] and Rome)
 
                            by Italy.
19 Oct 1870                Incorporation into the Kingdom of Italy.
 7 Jun 1929                State of Vatican City, independence from Italy.

Popes (as Sovereigns of the Papal State)¹
- in Avignon -
30 Dec 1370 - 17 Jan 1377  Gregorius XI (= Gregory XI)           (b. 1329 - d. 1378)
                             (Pierre Roger de Beaufort)

                             (in Avignon to 13 Sep 1376, then Rome from 17 Jan 1377)
20 Sep 1378 - 16 Sep 1394  Clemens VII (= Clement VII)           (b. 1342 - d. 1394)
                             (Robert de Genève)
16 Sep 1394 - 28 Sep 1394 
Pietro Cardinale Corsini              (b. c.1335 - d. 1405)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
28 Sep 1394 -  4 Jul 1415  Benedictus XIII  (= Benedict XIII)    (b. c.1328 - d. 1423)
                             (Pedro Martínez de Luna)
                             (anti-Pope from 5 Jun 1409)
- in Rome -

17 Jan 1377 - 27 Mar 1378  Gregorius XI                          (s.a.)
27 Mar 1378 -  8 Apr 1378  Pietro Cardinale Corsini              (b. c.1335 - d. 1405)
 
                          (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 8 Apr 1378 - 15 Oct 1389  Urbanus VI (= Urban VI)               (b. c.1318 - d. 1389)
                             (Bartolomeo Prignano)  
15 Oct 1389 -  2 Nov 1389  Francesco Moricotti Prignani          (b. 131. - d. 1394)

                             Cardinale Butillo

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 2 Nov 1389 -  1 Oct 1404  Bonifacius IX (= Boniface IX)         (b. c.1359 - d. 1404)
                             (Pietro Tomacelli)  
 1 Oct 1404 - 17 Oct 1404  Angelo Cardinale Acciajuoli           (b. 1340 - d. 1408)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
17 Oct 1404 -  6 Nov 1406  Innocentius VII (= Innocent VII)      (b. 1336 - d. 1406)
                             (Cosimo de' Migliorati) 
 6 Nov 1406 - 30 Nov 1406  Angelo Cardinale Acciajuoli           (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
30 Nov 1406 -  4 Jul 1415  Gregorius XII (= Gregory XII)         (b. c.1327 - d. 1417)

                            (Angelo Correr)
                            (anti-Pope from 5 Jun 1409)
- in Pisa -
 5 Jun 1409 - 26 Jun 1409  Enrico Cardinale Minutoli             (b. 133. - d. 1412)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)

26 Jun 1409 -  3 May 1410  Alexander V                           (b. c.1339 - d. 1410)
                             (Pietro Philargi) 
 3 May 1410 - 17 May 1410  Enrico Cardinale Minutoli             (s.a.)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)

17 May 1410 - 29 May 1415  Ioannes XXIII
(= John XXIII)          (b. c.1370 - d. 1419)
                             (Baldassarre Cossa) (anti-Pope)
- in Rome -
 4 Jul 1415 - 11 Nov 1417  Jean Cardinal Allarmet de Brogny      (b. 1342 - d. 1426)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
11 Nov 1417 - 20 Feb 1431  Martinus V (= Martin V)               (b. 1368 - d. 1431)
                             (Oddone Colonna)   
20 Feb 1431 -  3 Mar 1431  Antonio Cardinale Correr              (b. 1359 - d. 1445)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 3 Mar 1431 - 23 Feb 1447  Eugenius IV
(= Eugene IV)             (b. 1383? - d. 1447)
                            (Gabriele Condulmer)
 5 Nov 1439 -  7 Apr 1449  Felix V  (anti-Pope) (in Basel)       (b. 1383 - d. 1451)
                             (
Amadeo VIII, duca di Savoia)
23 Feb 1447 -  6 Mar 1447  Giovanni Cardinale Berardi            (b. c.1380 - d. 1449)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 6 Mar 1447 - 24 Mar 1455  Nicolaus V (= Nicholas V)             (b. 1397 - d. 1455)
                             (Tommaso Parentucelli)
24 Mar 1455 -  8 Apr 1455  Giorgio Cardinale Fieschi (1st time)  (b. 140. - d. 1461)
 
                          (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 8 Apr 1455 -  6 Aug 1458  Calixtus III                          (b. 1378 - d. 1458)
                             (Alfonso Borja)
 6 Aug 1458 - 19 Aug 1458  Giorgio Cardinale Fieschi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
19 Aug 1458 - 14 Aug 1464  Pius II                               (b. 1405 - d. 1464)
                            (Enea Silvio Piccolomini) 
14 Aug 1464 - 30 Aug 1464  Guillaume Cardinal d'Estouteville     (b. 1403 - d. 1483)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
30 Aug 1464 - 26 Jul 1471  Paulus II (= Paul II)                 (b. 1417 - d. 1471)
                             (Pietro Barbo)   
26 Jul 1471 -  9 Aug 1471  Guillaume Cardinal d'Estouteville     (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
 9 Aug 1471 - 12 Aug 1484 
Xystus IV (= Sixtus IV)               (b. 1414 - d. 1484)

                             (
Francesco della Rovere)
12 Aug 1484 - 29 Aug 1484  Rodrigo Lanzol Cardinale de Borja     (b. 1431 - d. 1503)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
29 Aug 1484 - 25 Jul 1492  Innocentius VIII (= Innocent VIII)    (b. 1432 - d. 1492)
                             (Giovanni Battista Cybo)
25 Jul 1492 - 11 Aug 1492  Rodrigo Lanzol Cardinale de Borja     (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
11 Aug 1492 - 18 Aug 1503  Alexander VI                          (s.a.)
                             (= de Borja)  
18 Aug 1503 - 22 Sep 1503  Giuliano Cardinale della Rovere       (b. 1443 - d. 1513)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
22 Sep 1503 - 18 Oct 1503  Pius III                              (b. 1439 - d. 1503)
                             (Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini)  
18 Oct 1503 -  1 Nov 1503  Giuliano Cardinale della Rovere       (s.a.)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
 1 Nov 1503 - 21 Feb 1513  Iulius II (= Julius II)               (s.a.)
                             (= della Rovere)   
21 Feb 1513 -  9 Mar 1513  Raffaele Sansoni Cardinale Riario     (b. 1461 - d. 1521)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 9 Mar 1513 -  1 Dec 1521  Leo X                                 (b. 1475 - d. 1521)
                             (Giovanni de' Medici)
 1 Dec 1521 - 25 Aug 1522 
Bernardino Cardenal López de Carvajal (b. 1455 - d. 1523)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)

 9 Jan 1522 - 14 Sep 1523  Adrianus VI (= Hadrian V)             (b. 1459 - d. 1523)
                             (Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens) 
14 Sep 1523 - 19 Nov 1523  Bernardino C
ardenal López de Carvajal (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
19 Nov 1523 - 25 Sep 1534  Clemens VII (= Clement VII)           (b. 1478 - d. 1534)
                             (Giulio de' Medici)
25 Sep 1534 - 13 Oct 1534  Alessandro Cardinale Farnese          (b. 1468 - d. 1549)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
13 Oct 1534 - 10 Nov 1549  Paulus III (= Paul III)               (s.a.)
                             (= Farnese)  
10 Nov 1549 -  7 Feb 1550  Giovanni Domenico Cardinale De Cupis  (b. 1493 - d. 1553) 

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 7 Feb 1550 - 23 Mar 1555  Iulius III (= Julius III)             (b. 1487 - d. 1555)
                             (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte) 
23 Mar 1555 -  9 Apr 1555  Giovanni Pietro Cardinale Caraffa     (b. 1476 - d. 1559)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
 9 Apr 1555 - 30 Apr 1555  Marcellus II                          (b. 1501 - d. 1555)
                             (Marcello Cervini)  
30 Apr 1555 - 23 May 1555  Giovanni Pietro Cardinale Caraffa     (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
23 May 1555 - 18 Aug 1559  Paulus IV (= Paul IV)                 (s.a.)
                             (= Caraffa)
18 Aug 1559 - 25 Dec 1559  Jean Cardinal du Bellay               (b. 1492 - d. 1560)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
25 Dec 1559 -  9 Dec 1565  Pius IV                               (b. 1499 - d. 1565)
                             (Giovan Angelo de' Medici)
 9 Dec 1565 -  7 Jan 1566  Francesco Cardinale Pisani            (b. 1494 - d. 1570)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 7 Jan 1566 -  1 May 1572  Pius V                                (b. 1504 - d. 1572)
                             (Antonio Michele Ghislieri)      
 1 May 1572 - 13 May 1572  Giovanni Girolamo Cardinale Morone    (b. 1509 - d. 1580)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
13 May 1572 - 10 Apr 1585  Gregorius XIII (= Gregor XIII)        (b. 1502 - d. 1585)
                             (Ugo Boncompagni)
10 Apr 1585 - 24 Apr 1585  Alessandro Cardinale Farnese          (b. 1520 - d. 1589)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
24 Apr 1585 - 27 Aug 1590 
Xystus V (= Sixtus V)                 (b. 1521 - d. 1590)
                             (Felice Peretti de Montalto)    
27 Aug 1590 - 15 Sep 1590  Giovanni Battista Cardinale Serbelloni(b. 1519 - d. 1591)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
15 Sep 1590 - 27 Sep 1590  Urbanus VII (= Urban VII)             (b. 1521 - d. 1590)
                             (Giovanni Battista Castagni)   
27 Sep 1590 -  5 Dec 1590  Giovanni Battista Cardinale Serbelloni(s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
 5 Dec 1590 - 16 Oct 1591  Gregorius XIV (= Gregory XIV)         (b. 1535 - d. 1591)
                             (Niccolò Sfondrati)
16 Oct 1591 - 29 Oct 1591  Alfonso Cardinale Gesualdo di Conza   (b. 1540 - d. 1603)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
29 Oct 1591 - 30 Dec 1591  Innocentius IX (= Innocent IX)        (b. 1519 - d. 1591)
                             (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti)
30 Dec 1591 - 30 Jan 1592  Alfonso Cardinale Gesualdo di Conza   (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
30 Jan 1592 -  3 Mar 1605  Clemens VIII (= Clement VIII)         (b. 1536 - d. 1605)
                             (Ippolito Aldobrandini) 
 3 Mar 1605 -  1 Apr 1605  Tolomeo Cardinale Gallio (1st time)   (b. 1526 - d. 1607)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 1 Apr 1605 - 27 Apr 1605  Leo XI                                (b. 1535 - d. 1605)
                             (Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici)
27 Apr 1605 - 16 May 1605  Tolomeo Cardinale Gallio (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
16 May 1605 - 28 Jan 1621  Paulus V (= Paul V)                   (b. 1552 - d. 1621)
                             (Camillo Borghese)
28 Jan 1621 -  9 Feb 1621  Antonio Maria Cardinale Sauli         (b. 1541 - d. 1623)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
 9 Feb 1621 -  8 Jul 1623  Gregorius XV (= Gregory XV)           (b. 1554 - d. 1623)
                             (Alessandro Ludovisi)
 8 Jul 1623 -  6 Aug 1623  Antonio Maria Cardinale Sauli         (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
 6 Aug 1623 - 29 Jul 1644  Urbanus VIII (= Urban VIII)           (b. 1568 - d. 1644)
                             (Maffeo Barberini)
29 Jul 1644 - 15 Sep 1644  Marcello Cardinale Lante              (b. 1561 - d. 1652)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
15 Sep 1644 -  7 Jan 1655  Innocentius X (= Innocent X)          (b. 1574 - d. 1655)
                             (Giovanni Battista Pamphilj)
 7 Jan 1655 -  7 Apr 1655  Carlo Cardinale de' Medici            (b. 1595 - d. 1666)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 7 Apr 1655 - 22 May 1667  Alexander VII                         (b. 1599 - d. 1667)
                             (
Fabio Chigi)
22 May 1667 - 20 Jun 1667  Francesco Cardinale Barberini         (b. 1597 - d. 1679)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
20 Jun 1667 -  9 Dec 1669  Clemens IX (= Clement IX)             (b. 1600 - d. 1669)
                             (Giulio Rospigliosi) 
 9 Dec 1669 - 29 Apr 1670  Francesco Cardinale Barberini         (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
29 Apr 1670 - 22 Jul 1676  Clemens X (= Clement X)               (b. 1590 - d. 1676)
                             (Emilio Bonaventura Altieri)   
22 Jul 1676 - 21 Sep 1676  Francesco Cardinale Barberini         (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (3rd time)
21 Sep 1676 - 12 Aug 1689  Innocentius XI (= Innocent XI)       
(b. 1611 - d. 1689)
                             (Benedetto Odescalchi)   
12 Aug 1689 -  6 Oct 1689 
Alderano Cardinale Cybo Malaspina     (b. 1613 - d. 1700)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
 6 Oct 1689 -  1 Feb 1691  Alexander VIII                        (b. 1610 - d. 1691)
                             (Pietro Vito Ottoboni)   
 
1 Feb 1691 - 12 Jul 1691  Alderano Cardinale Cybo Malaspina     (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
12 Jul 1691 - 27 Sep 1700  Innocentius XII (= Innocent XII)      (b. 1615 - d. 1700)
                            (Antonio Pignatelli)
27 Sep 1700 - 23 Nov 1700  Emmanuel-Théodose Cardinal de La Tour (b. 1643 - d. 1715)
 
                            d'Auvergne                 
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
23 Nov 1700 - 19 Mar 1721  Clemens XI (= Clement XI)             (b. 1649 - d. 1721)
                             (Giovanni Francesco Albani)
19 Mar 1721 -  8 May 1721  Sebastiano Antonio Cardinale
Tanara   (b. 1650 - d. 1724)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
 8 May 1721 -  7 Mar 1724  Innocentius XIII (= Innocent XIII)    (b. 1655 - d. 1724)
                             (Michelangelo dei Conti)
 
7 Mar 1724 -  5 May 1724 
Sebastiano Antonio Cardinale Tanara   (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
 5 May 1724 - 29 May 1724  Pier Francesco Cardinale Orsini       (b. 1649 - d. 1730)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
29 May 1724 - 21 Feb 1730  Benedictus XIII (= Benedict XIII)     (s.a.)
                             (
= Orsini)
21 Feb 1730 - 12 Jul 1730  Francesco Cardinale Barberini         (b. 1662 - d. 1738)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
12 Jul 1730 -  6 Feb 1740  Clemens XII (= Clement XII)           (b. 1652 - d. 1740)
                             (Lorenzo Corsini dei Sismano)
 
6 Feb 1740 - 25 Feb 1740  Pietro Cardinale Ottoboni             (b. 1667 - d. 1740)

                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
25 Feb 1740 - 17 Aug 1740  Tommaso Cardianle Ruffo               (b. 1663 - d. 1753)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
17 Aug 1740 -  3 May 1758  Benedictus XIV (= Benedict XIV)       (b. 1675 - d. 1758)
                             (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini)
 3 May 1758 -  6 Jul 1758  Rainiero Cardinale d'Elci             (b. 1670 - d. 1761)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 
6 Jul 1758 -  2 Feb 1769 
Clemens XIII (= Clement XIII)         (b. 1693 - d. 1769)
                             (Carlo Rezzonico)
 
2 Feb 1769 - 19 May 1769  Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cardinale     (b. 1683 - d. 1774)
                             Cavalchini
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
19 May 1769 - 22 Sep 1774 
Clemens XIV (= Clement XIV)           (b. 1705 - d. 1774)
                             (Giovanni Ganganelli)
22 Sep 1774 - 15 Feb 1775  Fabrizio Cardinale Serbelloni         (b. 1695 - d. 1775)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
15 Feb 1775 - 15 Feb 1798  Pius VI                               (b. 1717 - d. 1799)
                           (Giovanni Angelo Braschi)
                          
(in dissidence to 29 Aug 1799)
15 Feb 1798 -  3 Jul 1800  the Roman Republic
 3 Jul 1800 - 17 May 1809
  Pius VII (1st time)                   (b. 1742 - d. 1823)
                             (Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti)
                            
(in dissidence from 14 Mar 1800)
17 May 1809 - 14 Mar 1814  annexed to France
14 Mar 1814 - 20 Aug 1823  Pius VII (2nd time)                   (s.a.)

20 Aug 1823 - 28 Sep 1823  Giulio Maria Cardinale della Somaglia (b. 1744 - d. 1830)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (1st time)
28 Sep 1823 - 10 Feb 1829  Leo XII                               (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                             (Annibale della Genga)
10 Feb 1829 - 31 Mar 1829  Giulio Maria Cardinale della Somaglia (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           (2nd time)
31 Mar 1829 - 30 Nov 1830  Pius VIII                             (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
                             (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni)
30 Nov 1830 -  2 Feb 1831  Bartolomeo Cardinale Pacca            (b. 1756 - d. 1844)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
 
2 Feb 1831 -  1 Jun 1846  Gregorius XVI (= Gregory XVI)         (b. 1765 - d. 1846)
                             (Bartolomeo Alberto Capellari)
 
1 Jun 1846 - 16 Jun 1846  Ludovico Cardinale Micara             (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
16 Jun 1846 -  9 Feb 1849  Pius IX (1st time)                    (b. 1792 - d. 1878)
                             (Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti)
                             (in Gaeta, Naples exile to 12 May 1850)
 9 Feb 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  the Roman Republic
 4 Jul 1849 - 12 Apr 1850  Governing Commission
                           - Gabriele Cardinale della Genga      (b. 1801 - d. 1861)
                               Sermattei  
                           - Lodovico Cardinale Altieri          (b. 1805 - d. 1867)

                           - Luigi Cardinale Vannicelli Casoni   (b. 1801 - d. 1877)
12 May 1850 -  9 Oct 1870 
Pius IX (2nd time)                    (s.a.)
Italian Military Commander
20 Sep 1870 -  9 Oct 1870  Raffaele Alessandro Cadorna           (b. 1815 - d. 1897)
Lieutenant General of the King for Rome and the Roman Provinces

 9 Oct 1870 - 25 Jan 1871  Alfonso Ferrero Della Marmora         (b. 1804 - d. 1878)

 
Chamberlains
(Camerlengo [Camerarius])
- in Avignon -
24 Dec 1383 - 30 Oct 1414  François Cardinal de Conzié           (b. 1356 - d. 1432)
30 Oct 1414 -  4 Jul 1415  Pierre Cardinal de Foix, le vieux     (b. 1386 - d. 1464)
- in Rome -
24 Apr 1396 -  1 Dec 1406  Corrado Caraccioli                    (b. 135. - d. 1411) 
                            (from 12 Jun 1405, Corrado Cardinale Caraccioli)
                            (acting to May 1396) 
 1 Dec 1406 - 17 Jun 1412  Enrico Cardinale Minutoli             (s.a.)
17 Jun 1412 - Jul 1412     .... (acting)
Jul 1412 -  4 Jul 1415     Antonio Cardinale Correr              (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1415 - 21 Nov 1417  Amedeo Cardinale di Saluzzo (acting)  (b. c.1361 - d. 1419)
21 Nov 1417 - Mar 1431     François Cardinal de Conzié           (s.a.)
Jan 1428 - Mar 1431        Louis Cardinal Aleman (in Rome)       (b. c.1390 - d. 1450)
                            
(acting for de Conzié)
Mar 1431 - 24 Jan 1432     Niccolò Cardinale Albergati           (b. 1375 - d. 1443)

24 Jan 1432 - Jul 1440     Francesco Cardinale Condulmer         (b. c.1410 - d. 1453)
Jul 1440 - 22 Mar 1465     Ludovico Cardinale Trevisano          (b. 1401 - d. 1465)
22 Mar 1465 - 12 Aug 1471  Vianesio Albergati (acting)
12 Aug 1471 - 11 Aug 1477  Latino Cardinale Orsini               (b. c.1410 - d. 1477)
12 Aug 1477 - 22 Jan 1483  Guillaume Cardinal d'Estouteville     (s.a.)
24 Jan 1483 -  9 Jul 1521  Raffaele Sansoni Cardinale Riario     (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1521 - 13 Sep 1521  .... (acting)
13 Sep 1521 - Oct 1527     Francesco Armellini (Pantalassi)      (b. 1470 - d. 1527)
                             de' Medici
Oct 1527 -  8 Jun 1528     .... (acting)
 8 Jun 1528 - 18 Oct 1537  Agostino Cardinale Spinola            (b. c.1482 - d. 1537) Superintendent of the Ecclesiastical State (= Cardinalis-Nepos [Cardinal Nephew])
18 Dec 1534 - 10 Nov 1549  Alessandro Cardinale Farnese          (s.a.)
10 Nov 1549 - 30 May 1550  Guido Ascanio Cardinale Sforza di     (b. 1518 - d. 1564)
                             Santa Fiora (1st time) (acting)
30 May 1550 - 23 Mar 1555  Innocenzo Ciocchi del Monte           (b. 1532 - d. 1577)  
                             (from 2 Jun 1550, Innocenzo Cardinale Ciocchi del Monte)
23 Mar 1555 - 30 Aug 1555  Guido Ascanio Cardinale Sforza di     (s.a.)
                             Santa Fiora (2nd time)(acting)
30 Aug 1555 - 18 Aug 1559  Carlo Cardinale Caraffa               (b. 1517 - d. 1561)
18 Aug 1559 - 31 Jan 1560  Guido Ascanio Cardinale Sforza di     (s.a.)
                             Santa Fiora (3rdd time)(acting)
31 Jan 1560 -  9 Dec 1565  Carlo Borromeo                        (b. 1538 - d. 1584)
                             (from 14 Feb 1560, Carlo Cardinale Borromeo)
 9 Dec 1565 - 19 Nov 1568  Vitellozzo Cardinale Vitelli (acting) (b. 1531 - d. 1568)
19 Nov 1568 -  3 Dec 1568  Vacant 
 3 Dec 1568 -  1 May 1572  Michele Cardinale Bonelli             (b. 1541 - d. 1598)
                             (acting to 19 Jun 1571)
 1 May 1572 -  2 Jun 1572  Luigi Cardinale Cornaro della Regina  (b. 1517 - d. 1584)
                             (acting) 
 2 Jun 1572 - 10 Apr 1585  Filippo Boncompagni                   (b. 1548 - d. 1586)
                             (from 16 Jun 1572, Filippo Cardinale Boncompagni)
10 Apr 1585 - 13 May 1585  Filippo Cardinale Guastavillani       (b. 1541 - d. 1587) 
                             (acting)
13 May 1585 - 27 Aug 1590  Alessandro Damasceni Peretti          (b. 1571 - d. 1623)
                             (from 14 Jun 1585, Alessandro Damasceni Cardinale Peretti)
27 Aug 1590 - 19 Dec 1590  Enrico Cardinale Caetani (1st time)   (b. 1550 - d. 1599)
                             (acting) 
19 Dec 1590 - 15 Oct 1591  Paolo Emilio Sfondrati                (b. 1560 - d. 1618)
                             (from 1 Jan 1591, Paolo Emilio Cardianle Sfondrati) 
16 Oct 1591 - 18 Dec 1591  Enrico Cardinale Caetani (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
18 Dec 1591 - 30 Dec 1591  Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce  (b. 1575 - d. 1606)   
30 Dec 1591 - 17 Sep 1593  Enrico Cardinale Caetani (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
17 Sep 1593 -  3 Mar 1605  Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini           (b. 1551 - d. 1610)
                             (from 11 Oct 1593, Cinzio Passeri Cardinale Aldobrandini)
                           + Pietro Aldobrandini (1st time)      (b. 1571 - d. 1621) 
                             (from 3 Nov 1593, Pietro Cardinale Aldobrandini)
 3 Mar 1605 - 18 Jul 1605  Pietro Cardinale Aldobrandini         (s.a.)   
                             (acting to 1 Apr 1605 and from 27 Apr 1605)
                             (2nd time)
18 Jul 1605 - 28 Jan 1621  Scipione Caffarelli Borghese          (b. 1576 - d. 1633)  
                             (from 17 Aug 1605, Scipione Caffarelli Cardinale Borghese)
28 Jan 1621 - 10 Feb 1621  Pietro Cardinale Aldobrandini         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)
10 Feb 1621 - 15 Feb 1621  Vacant
15 Feb 1621 -  8 Jul 1623  Ludovico Ludovisi                     (b. 1595 - d. 1632)  
                             (from 17 Mar 1621, Ludovico Cardinale Ludovisi)
 8 Jul 1623 -  2 Oct 1623  Ippolito Cardinale Aldobrandini       (b. 1591 - d. 1638)
                             (acting)
 2 Oct 1623 - 29 Jul 1644  Francisco Barberini, seniore          (s.a.)
                             (from 20 Nov 1623, Francisco Cardinale Barberini)
29 Jul 1644 - 15 Sep 1644  Antonio Cardinale Barberini (1st time)(b. 1607 - d. 1671)
                             (acting)
15 Sep 1644 - 14 Nov 1644  Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli (1st time) (b. 1587 - d. 1651)
                             (acting)
14 Nov 1644 - 21 Jan 1647  Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj      (b. 1622 - d. 1666)
                             (from 12 Dec 1644, Camillo Francesco Maria Cardinale Pamphilj) 
21 Jan 1647 - 19 Sep 1650  Giovanni Giacomo Cardinale Panciroli  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
19 Sep 1650 -  7 Jan 1655  Camillo Cardinale Astalli Pamphilj    (b. 1618 - d. 1663)
 7 Jan 1655 - Apr 1655     Antonio Cardinale Barberini (2nd time)(b. 1607 - d. 1671)
                             (acting)
Secretary of State
 
Apr 1655 - 22 May 1667     Giulio Rospigliosi                    (s.a.)
                             (from 23 Apr 1657, Giulio Cardinale Rospigliosi)   
                             (from 20 Jun 1667, Pope Clemens IX)
Superintendents general of the Affairs of the Apostolic See
16 Apr 1657 - 22 May 1667  Flavio Chigi, seniore                 (b. 1631 - d. 1693)
                             (from 23 Apr 1657, Flavio Cardinale Chigi)
22 May 1667 - 25 Jun 1667  Antonio Cardinale Barberini (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
Secretary of State

25 Jun 1667 -  9 Dec 1669  Decio Cardinale Azzolini, iuniore     (b. 1623 - d. 1689)  
Superintendents general of the Affairs of the Apostolic See
16 Dec 1667 -  9 Dec 1669  Giacomo Rospigliosi                   (b. 1628 - d. 1684)
                             (from 30 Jan 1698, Giacomo Cardinale Rospigliosi)      
 9 Dec 1669 - 29 Apr 1670  Antonio Cardinale Barberini (4th time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
Superintendent of the Ecclesiastical State
(= Cardinalis-Nepos [Cardinal Nephew])
29 Apr 1670 - 23 Sep 1676  Paluzzo Cardinale Paluzzi Altieri     (b. 1623 - d. 1698)
                             (acting from 22 Jul 1676)
Secretaries of State

23 Sep 1676 - 12 Aug 1689  Alderano Cardinale Cybo Malaspina     (s.a.)
12 Aug 1689 -  7 Nov 1689  Paluzzo Cardinale Paluzzi Altieri     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Superintendent general of the Affairs of the Apostolic See
 8 Nov 1689 -  1 Feb 1691  Pietro Ottoboni                       (b. 1667 - d. 1740)                                   (from 14 Nov 1689, Pietro Cardinale Ottoboni)
 1 Feb 1691 - 14 Jul 1691  Paluzzo Cardinale Paluzzi Altieri     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Secretaries of State

14 Jul 1691 - 27 Sep 1700  Fabrizio Cardinale Spada              (b. 1643 - d. 1717)
27 Sep 1700 -  3 Dec 1700  Giovanni Battista Cardinale Spinola   (b. 1646 - d. 1719)
                             (acting)
 3 Dec 1700 - 19 Mar 1721  Fabrizio Cardinale Paolucci (1st time)(b. 1651 - d. 1726)
19 Mar 1721 - 10 May 1721  Annibale Cardinale Albani (1st time)  (b. 1682 - d. 1751)
                             (acting)
10 May 1721 -  7 Mar 1724  Giorgio Cardinale Spinola             (b. 1667 - d. 1739)
 7 Mar 1724 -  6 Jun 1724  Annibale Cardinale Albani (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 6 Jun 1724 - 12 Jun 1726  Fabrizio Cardinale Paolucci (2nd time)(s.a.)
12 Jun 1726 - 14 Jun 1726  Annibale Cardinale Albani (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
14 Jun 1726 - 21 Feb 1730  Niccolò Maria Lercari                 (b. 1675 - d. 1757)
                             (from 16 Dec 1726, Niccolò Maria Cardinale Lercari)
21 Feb 1730 - 15 Jul 1730  Annibale Cardinale Albani (4th time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Jul 1730 - 16 Sep 1733  Antonio Cardinale Banchieri           (b. 1667 - d. 1733)
16 Sep 1733 -  4 Oct 1733  Annibale Cardinale Albani (5th time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 4 Oct 1733 -  6 Feb 1740  Giuseppe Cardinale Firrao             (b. 1670 - d. 1744)
 6 Feb 1740 - 20 Aug 1740  Annibale Cardinale Albani (6th time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
20 Aug 1740 - 28 Aug 1756  Silvio Cardinale Valenti Gonzaga      (b. 1690 - d. 1756)
10 Sep 1756 -  3 May 1758  Alberico Cardinale Archinto (1st time)(b. 1698 - d. 1758)
 3 May 1758 -  6 Jul 1758  Girolamo Cardinale Colonna di Sciarra (b. 1708 - d. 1763)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 6 Jul 1758 - 30 Sep 1758  Alberico Cardinale Archinto (2nd time)(s.a.)
30 Sep 1758 -  8 Oct 1758  Girolamo Cardinale Colonna di Sciarra (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 8 Oct 1758 -  2 Feb 1769  Luigi Maria Cardinale Torriggiani     (b. 1697 - d. 1777)
 2 Feb 1769 - 19 May 1769  Carlo Cardinale Rezzonico (1st time)  (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
                             (acting)
19 May 1769 - 21 Sep 1774  Lazzaro Opizio Cardinale Pallavicini  (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
                             (1st time)
21 Sep 1774 - 15 Feb 1775  Carlo Cardinale Rezzonico (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
15 Feb 1775 - 23 Feb 1785  Lazzaro Opizio Cardinale Pallavicini  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Feb 1785 - 29 Jun 1775  Carlo Cardinale Rezzonico (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Jun 1785 - 14 Oct 1789  Ignazio Gaetano Cardinale Boncompagni (b. 1743 - d. 1790)
                             Ludovisi
14 Oct 1789 -  9 Aug 1796  Francesco Saverio Cardinale de Zelada (b. 1717 - d. 1801)
                             y Rodríguez
 9 Aug 1796 - 18 Mar 1797  Ignazio Cardinale Busca               (b. 1731 - d. 1803)
18 Mar 1797 - 15 Feb 1798  Giuseppe Cardinale Pamphilj Landi     (b. 1751 - d. 1816)
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 1800 - 21 Jun 1806  Ercole Consalvi (1st time)            (b. 1757 - d. 1824)
                             (from 20 Oct 1800, Ercole Cardinale Consalvi)
                             (acting to 11 Aug 1800)
 6 Jun 1801 - 31 Jul 1801  Giuseppe Cardinale Doria Pamphilj     (s.a.)
                             (acting for Consalvi)
21 Jun 1806 -  2 Feb 1808  Filippo Cardinale Casoni (acting)     (b. 1733 - d. 1811) 
 2 Feb 1808 - 26 Mar 1808  Giuseppe Cardinale Doria Pamphilj     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting) 
26 Mar 1808 - 16 Jun 1808  Giulio Cardinale Gabrielli (acting)   (b. 1748 - d. 1822)
18 Jun 1808 -  6 Jul 1809  Bartolomeo Cardinale Pacca (1st time) (b. 1756 - d. 1844)
                             (acting)
24 May 1814 - 20 Aug 1823  Ercole Cardinale Consalvi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
24 May 1814 -  5 Jul 1815  Bartolomeo Cardinale Pacca            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Consalvi)
20 Aug 1823 - 28 Sep 1823  Bartolomeo Cardinale Pacca (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
28 Sep 1823 - 17 Jun 1828  Giulio Maria Cardinale della Somaglia (s.a.)
17 Jun 1828 - 10 Feb 1829  Tommaso Cardinale Bernetti (1st time) (b. 1779 - d. 1852)
10 Feb 1879 - 31 Mar 1829  Pier Francesco Cardinale Galeffi      (b. 1770 - d. 1837)
                             (1st time)(acting)
31 Mar 1829 - 30 Nov 1830  Giuseppe Cardinale Albani             (b. 1750 - d. 1834)
30 Nov 1830 - 21 Feb 1831  Pier Francesco Cardinale Galeffi      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
21 Feb 1831 - 12 Jan 1836  Tommaso Cardinale Bernetti (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting to 10 Aug 1831)
12 Jan 1836 -  1 Jun 1846  Luigi Cardinale Lambruschini          (b. 1776 - d. 1854)
 1 Jun 1846 - 16 Jun 1846  Pietro Tommaso Cardinale Riario       (b. 1782 - d. 1857)
                             Sforza (acting)   
16 Jun 1846 -  1 Aug 1846  Vacant    
 1 Aug 1846 - 14 Jun 1847  Tommaso Pasquale Cardinale Gizzi      (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
Secretaries of State and Presidents of the Council of Ministers
14 Jun 1847 - 14 Jul 1847  Tommaso Pasquale Cardinale Gizzi      (s.a.)
17 Jul 1847 -  1 Feb 1848  Gabriele Cardinale Ferretti           (b. 1795 - d. 1860)
 1 Feb 1848 - 11 Mar 1848  Giuseppe Cardinale Bofondi            (b. 1795 - d. 1867)
11 Mar 1848 -  4 May 1848  Giacomo Cardinale Antonelli (1st time)(b. 1806 - d. 1876)
                            (president of Supreme Council of External Affairs with the States)
 4 May 1848 -  2 Jun 1848  Antonio Francesco Cardinale Orioli    (b. 1778 - d. 1852)
 4 May 1848 -  2 Jun 1848  Terenzio, conte Mamiani della Rovere  (b. 1799 - d. 1885)  Lib
                             (acting for Orioli)
 2 Jun 1848 - 29 Nov 1848  Giovanni Cardinale Soglia Ceroni      (b. 1779 - d. 1856)
 2 Jun 1848 -  2 Aug 1848  Terenzio, conte Mamiani della Rovere  (s.a.)               Lib
                             (acting for Soglia Ceroni)
 2 Aug 1848 - 16 Sep 1848  Edoardo, conte Fabbri                 (b. 1778 - d. 1853)  Lib
                             (acting for Soglia Ceroni)
16 Sep 1848 - 15 Nov 1848  Pellegrino Luigi Edoardo, conte Rossi (b. 1787 - d. 1848)  Lib
                             (acting for Soglia Ceroni)
16 Nov 1848 - 29 Nov 1848  Carlo Emanuele, conte Muzzarelli      (b. 1797 - d. 1856)
                             (acting for Soglia Ceroni)
President of the council of ministers (prime minister)
29 Nov 1848 -  9 Feb 1849  Carlo Emanuele, conte Muzzarelli      (s.a.)              Non-party
President of the Governing Commission
27 Nov 1848 - 11 Feb 1849  Castruccio Cardinale Castracane degli (b. 1779 - d. 1852)
                             Antelminelli
Secretary of State and President of the council of ministers
12 Apr 1850 - 19 Oct 1870  Giacomo Cardinale Antonelli (2nd time)(s.a.) 
Secretaries of State
19 Oct 1870 -  6 Nov 1876  Giacomo Cardinale Antonelli           (s.a.) 
18 Dec 1876 -  7 Feb 1878  Giovanni Cardinale Simeoni            (b. 1816 - d. 1892)
 7 Feb 1878 -  5 Mar 1878  Gioacchino Cardinale Pecci (acting)   (b. 1810 - d. 1903)
 5 Mar 1878 - 31 Jul 1878  Alessandro Cardinale Franchi          (b. 1819 - d. 1878)
 9 Aug 1878 - 16 Dec 1880  Lorenzo Cardinale Nina                (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
16 Dec 1880 - 28 Feb 1887  Lodovico Cardinale Jacobini           (b. 1832 - d. 1887)
28 Feb 1887 -  2 Jun 1887  Mario Mocenni (acting)                (b. 1823 - d. 1904)
 2 Jun 1887 - 20 Jul 1903  Mariano Cardinale Rampolla del Tindaro(b. 1843 - d. 1913)
20 Jul 1903 -  4 Aug 1903  Luigi Cardinale Oreglia di Santo      (b. 1828 - d. 1913)
                             Stefano (acting)
 4 Aug 1903 - 20 Aug 1914  Rafael Merry Cardinal del Val y       (b. 1865 - d. 1930)
                             Zulueta (acting to 12 Nov 1903)
20 Aug 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Francesco Cardinale Salesio Della     (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
                             Volpe (acting)
 4 Sep 1914 - 10 Oct 1914  Domenico Cardinale Ferrata            (b. 1847 - d. 1914)
10 Oct 1914 - 13 Oct 1914  Federico Tedeschini (acting)          (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
13 Oct 1914 - 10 Feb 1930  Pietro Cardinale Gasparri             (b. 1852 - d. 1934)
                             (acting 22 Jan - 6 Feb 1922)

 ¹Papal title (in Latin): Episcopus Romanus, Summus Pontifex Ecclesiae Catholicae; (in Italian) Vescovo di Roma, Sommo Pontefice della Chiesa Cattolica ("Bishop of Rome, Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church");
  Note: In several cases Popes continued to reign as heads of the Roman Catholic Church while in exile or captivity, exercising no temporal authority over the Papal State. In 1798-1799, 1800-1814, 1848-1849 and 1870-1929, the Popes continued as heads of the Roman Catholic Church, but without temporal sovereignty over the Papal State.


French Départements formed from the Papal State

French Governors of Rome
 9 Nov 1798 - 11 Jan 1799  Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre      (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
                             MacDonald
1808 - 1809                Sextius Alexandre François de Miollis (b. 1759 - d. 1828)
                             (from 16 Sep 1808) comte de Miollis
                             (1st time)
1809 - Feb 1811            Jean Léonard François, comte          (b. 1776 - d. 1836)  
                             Le Marois (Lemarrois)
19 Feb 1811 - 1814         Sextius Alexandre François, comte     (s.a.)
                             de Miollis (2nd time)

Rome (Roma)

15 Jul 1809                French département Tibre (Tiber).
17 Feb 1810                Renamed département Rome (Roma).
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefect
 6 Sep 1809 - Jan 1814     Camille Casimir Philippe Marcellin,   (b. 1778 - d. 1833) 
                             comte de Tournon-Simiane 


Trasimène

15 Jul 1809                French département Trasimène (prefecture Spoleto).
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefect
 6 Sep 1809 - 24 Feb 1814  Antoine Marie, baron Roederer        (b. 1782 - d. 1865)


Roman Republic
 
[Roman Republic,
                          1798-1799]
       15 Feb 1798 - 27 Nov 1798;
       12 Dec 1798 - 29 Sep 1799

[Roman Republic 1849]
        12 Feb 1849 - 6 May 1849

 

[Roman Republic,
                          Merchant or War flag 1849]
         12 Feb 1849 - 6 May 1849
             Merchant or War Flag
[Roman Republic,
                          May-July 1849]
         6 May 1849 - 4 Jul 1849
 

15 Feb 1798 - 23 Jun 1800  Roman Republic
27 Nov 1798 - 12 Dec 1798  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
11 Jul 1799 - 28 Sep 1799  Occupied by France.
30 Sep 1799 -  3 Jul 1800  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 9 Feb 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  Roman Republic
 3 Jul 1849 -  3 Aug 1849  Occupied by France.

Consuls
15 Feb 1798 - 20 Mar 1798  Provisional Consuls
                           - Briganti
                           - Carlo Luigi Costantini           (b. 1739 - d. 1799)
                           - Pio Camillo, duca Bonelli-       (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
                               Crescenzi
                           - Gioacchino Pessuti               (b. 1743 - d. 1814)
                           - Antonio Bassi
                           - Domenico Maggi
                           - Angelo Stampa
                           - Liborio Angelucci                (b. 1746 - d. 1811)
20 Mar 1798 - Sep 1798     Consuls
                           - Liborio Angelucci                (s.a.) 
                           - Giacomo De Mattheis
                           - Pietro Panazzi
                           - Pietro Reppi
                           - Ennio Quirino Visconti           (b. 1751 - d. 1818)
Sep 1798 - 27 Nov 1798     Consuls
                           - Brigi (1st time)
                           - Calisti (1st time)
                           - Francesco Pierelli (1st time)
                           - Giuseppe Rey (1st time)
                           - Federico Maria Domenico Michele  (b. 1760 - d. 18..)
                              Zaccaleoni (1st time) 
29 Nov 1798 - 12 Dec 1798  Provisional Government
                           - Giambattista principe Borghese
                           - Paolo-Maria principe Aldobrandini
                           - Principe Gibrielli
                           - Marchese Camillo Massimo         (b. 1730 - d. 1801)
                           - Giovanni Ricci
12 Dec 1798 - 24 Jul 1799  Consuls
                           - Brigi (2nd time)
                           - Calisti (2nd time)
                           - Francesco Pierelli (2nd time)
                           - Giuseppe Rey (2nd time)
                           - Federico Maria Domenico Michele  (s.a.)
                              Zaccaleoni (2nd time) 
President of the Provisional Committee
24 Jul 1799 - 30 Sep 1799  Périller
30 Sep 1799 -  3 Jul 1800  Diego Naselli -Naples Commander    (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
 3 Oct 1799 - 23 Jun 1800  Provisional Government
                           - Alessandro conte Bonaccorsi
                           - Marchese Angelo Massimi
                           - Girolamo Colonna
                           - Marchese Clemente Muti           (b. 1777 - d. 1821)
                           - Antonio Lippi
President of the Constituent Assembly
 9 Feb 1849 - 10 Feb 1849  Giuseppe Galletti                  (b. 1798 - d. 1873)  Lib
10 Feb 1849 - 29 Mar 1849  Executive Committee
                           - Carlo Armellini                  (b. 1777 - d. 1863)  Lib
                           - Aurelio Saliceti                 (b. 1804 - d. 1862)  Lib
                           - Mattia Montecchi                 (b. 1816 - d. 1871)  Lib
29 Mar 1849 -  1 Jul 1849  Triumvirate
                           - Carlo Armellini                  (s.a.)               Lib
                           - Giuseppe Mazzini                 (b. 1805 - d. 1872)  Lib
                           - Aurelio Saffi                    (b. 1819 - d. 1890)  Lib
 1 Jul 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  Triumvirate
                           - Aurelio Saliceti                 (s.a.)               Lib
                           - Alessandro Calandrelli           (b. 1805 - d. 1888)  Mil
                           - Livio Mariani                    (b. 1793 - d. 1855)  Lib
French military commander  
 3 Jul 1849 -  3 Aug 1849  Charles Nicolas Victor Oudinot,    (b. 1791 - d. 1863)

                             duc de Reggio 


Tiberina Republic

 4 Feb 1798                Republicans take control of Perugia and proclaim
                             it the Repubblica Tiberina (Tiberina Republic).
 7 Mar 1798                Merged into Roman Republic.

Consul
 4 Feb 1798 -  7 Mar 1798  Angelo Cocchi                      (b. 1753 - d. 1826)


Departments of the Roman Republic 1798

Cimino

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798 - 179.         Giovanni Bouchard
 
Circèo

Commissioners
c.May 1798                 Francesco Silvestri
25 Jul 1798 - 1798         
Federico Maria Domenico Michele  (b. 1760 - d. 18..)
                             Zaccaleoni
29 Sep 1798 - 179.         Leopoldo Setacci
 
Clitunno

Commissioner
 9 Sep 1798 - 179.         Benedetto Greco
 
Metauro

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798 -  179.        Pompeo Amici
 
Muscone

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798 - 179.         Costantino Polelli
 
Tevere

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798 -  179.        Giovan Pietro Paloni
 
Trasimeno

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798-bf.19 Mar 1799 S
cipione Breislak                  (b. 1748 - d. 1826)
 
Tronto

Commissioner
29 Sep 1798 - 179.         Urbano Lampredi                    (b. 1761 - d. 1838)


United Italian Provinces

[United Italian Provinces 1831]
       26 Feb - 26 Apr 1831

26 Feb 1831 - 26 Apr 1831  In rebellion: United Italian Provinces declared at Bologna.

President of the Assembly 

26 Feb 1831 -  4 Mar 1831  Giovanni Vicini                    (b. 1771 - d. 1845)
President of the Provisional Government
 4 Mar 1831 - 26 Apr 1831  Giovanni Vicini                    (s.a.) 


Anconine Republic

[Anconine Republic
                1797-1798]
             1797 - 7 Mar 1798

1093                       Part of March of Ancona (Marca di Ancona).
1...                       Commune of Ancona (Comunitas Anconae).
1137                       Part of Papal State.
23 Jul 1177                Autonomy confirmed.
25 Jan 1183                Autonomy re-confirmed.
1348 - 1383                Occupied by Rimini under the Malatesta.
1433 - 1443                Under rule of Francesco Sforza.
 2 Sep 1443                Republic of Ancona (Respublica Anconitana).
20 Sep 1532                Annexed to the Papal State.
19 Nov 1797                Anconine Republic (Repubblica Anconitana).
 7 Mar 1798                Incorporated into the Roman Republic.

Captains of the People (title Capitani del Popolo)
1383 - 1433                ....
1433 - 1443                Francesco Sforza                   (b. 1401 - d. 1466)
1443 - 1532                ....
Consul

19 Nov 1797 -  7 Mar 1798? Pietro Reppi


Bologna

28 Jul 1273                Bologna a free commune.
 5 Sep 1327 - 28 Mar 1334  Papal rule.
28 Oct 1350 - 15 Mar 1360  Sold to Milan.
15 Mar 1360 - 20 Mar 1376  Papal rule.
20 Mar 1376                Autonomous Comune di Bologna (by revolt).
1377                       Papal rule restored.
24 Feb 1401                Autonomy restored.
30 Jun 1402 - 17 Sep 1403  Occupied by Milan.
 3 Sep 1403 - 12 May 1411  Papal rule.
20 Mar 1411                Autonomy restored.
14 Aug 1412 -  6 Jan 1416  Papal rule.
 6 Jan 1416                Autonomy restored.
21 Jul 1420 -  6 Aug 1428  Papal rule.
 6 Aug 1428                Autonomy restored.
25 Sep 1429 - 22 May 1438  Papal rule.
22 May 1438                Autonomy restored.
11 Nov 1506 - 23 May 1511  Papal rule.
13 Jun 1512                Annexed to Papal State.
19 Jun 1796                Occupied by France; Senate receives all powers but delegates them
                             to the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia chosen for 2 months from among
                             the senators. Called the Bologna Republic (Repubblica Bolognese).
16 Oct 1796                Part of Cispadane Republic (see Modena).
 9 Jul 1797                Part of Cisalpine Republic (see Lombardy).
12 Aug 1799 - 28 Jun 1800  Austrian occupation.

Gonfalonieri di Giustizia (Standard-bearers of Justice)
19 Jun 1796 - 30 Jun 1796  Filippo Hercolani                  (b. 1736 - d. 1810)
 1 Jul 1796 - 31 Aug 1796  Vincenzo Grassi                    (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
 1 Sep 1796 - 31 Oct 1796  Giuseppe Carlo de Bianchi          (b. 17.. - d. 1811)
 1 Nov 1796 - 31 May 1797  Girolamo Legnani Ferri             (b. 1721 - d. 1805)
Regia Cesarea Provvisoria Reggenza in Bologna
12 Aug 1799 - 1800         Francesco Ghisilieri
                             (chairman)
                           - Giorgio Cospi
                           - Alamanno Isolani                 (b. 1746 - d. 1828)
                           - Pietro Bianchetti
                           - Giuseppe Malvizzi
                           - Vincenzo Salaroli
                           - Vincenzo Berni degli Antoni      (b. 1747 - d. 1828)


Benevento

[France]
           5 Jun 1806  - Mar 1814

571                        Duchy of Benevento
774                        Principality of Benevento
891 - 895                  Byzantine rule.
1077                       Part of the Papal State.
1418 - 1458                Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
1497 - 14 Jun 1497         Duchy under Giovanni Borgia, duca de Gandia (b. 1474 - d. 1497).
1761 - 1774                Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
19 Apr 1798 - Dec 1798     Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
Dec 1798 - 21 May 1799     Part of the Roman Republic.

1799 - 1802                Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 
9 Apr 1802                Restored to Papal State.
Feb 1806 - 1814            French occupation.
 5 Jun 1806                Principality of Bénévent (French rule).

Jan 1814 - 1815            Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples). 
 9 Jun 1815                Restored to the Papal State.
11 Jul 1820 - Mar 1821     Rebellion against Papal rule.
 3 Sep 1860 - 21 Sep 1860  Provisional Government in name of the King of Sardinia.

25 Oct 1860                Annexed by Kingdom of Sardinia.

Governors
30 May 1696 - 1701         Giovanni degli Effetti               (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
19 Feb 1701 - 1703         Valerio Rota
 2 Jan 1703 - 1705         Faustino Crispolti
16 Jan 1705 - 1707         Nicolo Maria Lercari                 (b. 1675 - d. 1757)
16 Dec 1707 - 1710         Lorenzo Vannicelli
29 Apr 1710 - 1712         Giuseppe Ascanio Cansacchi
Legates
26 Oct 1712 - 1717         Giovanni Batista Spinola
 1 Jun 1717 - 1719         Giuseppe Ercolani (acting)           (b. 1677 - d. 1759)
26 May 1719 - 1722         Giovanni Battista Vidoni
29 May 1722 - 1723         Domenico M. Corsi
 7 Apr 1723 - 1725         Pietro Carlo Petroni
28 Feb 1725 - 1726         Carlo Francesco Durini
12 Dec 1726 - 1728         Rizzardo Isolani
 5 Jun 1728 - 1729         Annibale Stelluti di Fabriano
 5 Feb 1729 - 1730         Ignazio Stelluti
1730                       Filippo Buondelmonti
                             (commissioner)
1730 - 1731                Stefano Mocci (acting)
 2 May 1731 - 1732         Dionisio Pieragostini di Camerino    (d. 1745)
11 Jul 1732 - 1733         Giuseppe M. Centini di Ascoli
1733 - 1736                Giuseppe Barcellini
1736                       Luigi Gualterio di Orvieto           (b. 1706 - d. 1761)
                             (commissioner)
29 May 1736 - 1737         Giovanni Battista Stella
13 Sep 1737 - 1739         Baldassarre Cenci                    (b. 1710 - d. 1763)
28 Jul 1739 - 1741         Ottavio Antonio Bayardi di Parma     (b. 1690 - d. 1765)
 7 Jan 1741 - 1744         Giovanni Ottavio Bufalini di         (b. 1702 - d. 1782)
                             Città di Castello
29 Apr 1744 - 1744         Giovanni Battista Anguisciola 
10 Nov 1744 - 1752         Filippo Ravizza
15 Mar 1752 - 1758         Giovanni Battista Bussi olim de      (b. 1721 - d. 1800)
                             Pretis di Urbino
 9 Dec 1758 - Sep 1764     Stefano Borgia                       (b. 1731 - d. 1804)
14 Dec 1764 - 1771         Antonio Lante Montefeltro Della
                             Rovere
1772 - 1774                Vacant
13 Apr 1774 - 1775         Angelo Altieri
13 Jul 1775 - 1776         Antonio Felice Zondadari             (b. 1740 - d. 1823)
 9 Apr 1776 - 1777         Francesco De Simone (provisional)
11 Mar 1777 - 1781         Stefano Riva
19 Jan 1781 - 1785         Giuseppe Paride Giustiniani
25 Feb 1785 - 1790         Settimio Onorati
13 Aug 1790 - 1793         Roberto Roberti
25 Jan 1793 - 13 Jan 1799  Giuseppe Zambelli
1799 -  7 Mar 1801         Marchese Giuseppe Pacca
19 Apr 1798 - Dec 1798     Alessandro Filangieri, principe      (b. 1740 - d. 1806)
                             di Cutò -Naples commander
Feb 1799 - 17 Apr 1799     Andrea Valiante -Commissioner
17 Apr 1799 - 1799         Charles Popp
-Commissioner
1801 - 1802                G.B. Pedicini
1799 - 1806                Giuseppe Zambelli (2nd time)
Prince
(title Prince de Bénévent)
 5 Jun 1806 - 24 Mar 1814  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                             Périgord                           (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
French governors
16 Apr 1806 - 28 Jun 1806  Louis-François Lanchantin            (b. 1756 - d. 1812)
28 Jun 1806 - 15 Aug 1806  Louis César Alexandre Dufresne       (b. 1751 - d. 1836)
                             Saint-Léon
15 Aug 1806 - Jan 1814     Louis de Beer                        (b. 1777 - d. 1823)
1814                       De Thomasis -Naples commissioner
Governor
1814 - 1815                Carlo Ungaro di Montejasi

Papal Legates
1815                       Fabrizio Turriozzi                   (b. 1755 - d. 1826)
1815 - 1816                Luigi Bottiglia Savoulx              (b. 1752 - d. 1836)
1816 - 1817                Giovanni Conversi
1817 - 1820                Domenico Cattani
1820 - 11 Jul 1820         Angelo Olivieri (1st time)
Mar 1821 - 1821            Angelo Olivieri (2nd time)

1821 - 1823                Paolo Mangelli Orsi                  (b. 1762 - d. 1846)
1823 - 1824                Luigi Amat di San Filippo            (b. 1796 - d. 1878)
1824 - 1826                Raffaele Marulli
1826 - 1827                Camillo Ranuzzi
1827 - 1828                Giovanni Folicaldi
1828 - 1830                Gioacchino Provenzali
1830 - 1834                Giuseppe Santucci Fibietti
1834 - 1838                Enrico Orfei                         (b. 1800 - d. 1870)
Mar 1838 - Jul 1841        Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele         (b. 1803 - d. 1903)
                             Aloisio Pecci
1841 - 1844                Giuseppe Arborio Mella
1844 - 1845                Carlo Belgrado                       (b. 1809 - d. 1866)
1845 - 1847                Biagio Bucciosanti di Orvieto
Aug 1847 - 1851            Pietro Gramiccia
1851 - 1854                Domenic Valentini
1854 - 1856                Crispino Gasparoli
1856 - 1860                Edoardo Agnelli                      (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
President of the Provisional Government
 3 Sep 1860 - 21 Sep 1860  Salvatore Rampone                    (b. 1828 - d. 1915)
Sardinian Governor
21 Sep 1860 - 16 Jul 1861  Carlo Torre                          (b. 1812 - d. 1889)

Comacchio
       
28 Apr 998                 Comacchio part of the Papal State.
1299                       Part of Ferrara.
Jan 1232                   Under Imperial protection.
1482 - 1484                Occupied by Republic of Venice.
16 Jan 1598                Annexed, with Ferrara, to the Papal State.
14 May 1708                Austrian occupation.
16 Sep 1724                Partially restored to Papal State.
20 Feb 1725                Austrian forces withdrawn.


Pontecorvo

[France]
                5 Jun 1806 - Mar 1814
 
[Pontecorvo/Nola rebellion flag
                          1820-1821]
      Aug 1820 - 17 Mar 1821 in  revolt

881                        Governorship becomes hereditary.
888                        Part of County of Capua.
...                        County of Pontecorvo
1065                       Norman rule, part of "Sicily" (Naples).
1105 - 1463                Possession of the Abbey of Monte Cassino.
1463                       Pontecorvo part of the Papal State
25 Jun 1725                Bishop of Aquino transfers his seat to Pontecorvo
                             which is raised to a bishopric.
 6 Jun 1768 - 1774         Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
1798                       Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
1798 - 1799                Part of the Roman Republic.

1799 - 1802                Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
1806 - 1814                French occupation.
 5 Jun 1806                Principality of Ponte-Corvo (French rule).

21 Aug 1810 -  5 Dec 1812  Annexed by France.
 5 Dec 1812                Incorporated into "Sicily" (Naples).
1814 - 1815                Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 9 Jun 1815                Restored to the Papal State.
 
5 Jul 1820                Rebellion ousts Papal governor.
 4 Aug 1820 - 17 Mar 1821 
In rebellion: "Republic of Pontecorvo"
12 Dec 1860 - 26 Dec 1860  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
26 Dec 1860                Annexed by Kingdom of Sardinia.

Papal Legates (of Campagna e Marittima)
1697 - 1701                Filippo Leti
27 Jan 1701 - 1701         Giovanni Salviati
23 Dec 1701 - 1703         Marcellino Albergotti
16 Feb 1703 - 1706         Camillo Cellesi
 5 Jan 1705 - 1706         Francesco Foscari
21 Oct 1706 - 1709         Abbondio Rezzonico
 2 Sep 1709 - 1714         Valeria Rota
 5 May 1714 - 1717         Giacinto Pilastri
19 Apr 1717 - 1721         Francesco Leonini
12 Jul 1721 - 1722         Ludovico Anguisciola
19 Aug 1722 - 1730         Flavio Ravizza
 9 Feb 1730 - 1732         Cosimo Imperiali
 1 Jul 1732 - 1734         C.F. Durini
23 Dec 1734 - 1738         Enrico Enriquez
30 Apr 1738 - 1743         Flavio Ravizza
 3 Apr 1743 - 1744         Angelo Locatelli Martorelli Orsini
 4 May 1744 - 1749         Carlo Gonzaga
13 Sep 1749 - 1751         Francesco Saverio Dattilo
19 Jun 1751 - 1753         Paolo Girolamo Massei
17 Dec 1753 - 1755         Ippolito Rasponi
26 Feb 1755 - 1758         Raniero Finocchietti                 (b. 1710 - d. 1793)
28 Jan 1758 - 1760         Emerico Bolognini
19 Feb 1760 - 1764         Giovanni Vitellio Vitelleschi
28 Nov 1764 - 1765         Benedetto de Lo Presti
 5 Oct 1765 - 1766         Muzio Gallo da Osimo
15 Nov 1766 - 1775         Giovanni Battista Bussi olim de      (b. 1721 - d. 1800)
                             Pretis di Urbino
 6 Jun 1768 - 17..         Tobia Longi -Neapolitan governor
20 May 1775 - 1778         Giovanni Battista Baldassini
1778 - 1783                Antonio Rusconi
 7 Jan 1783 - 1785         Giovanni Battista Mirelli
25 Feb 1785 - 1790         F.M. Cacherano
13 Aug 1790 - 1794         Gaudenzio Antonini
 7 Mar 1794 - 1794         Giuseppi Morozzo
 3 Jun 1794 - 1800         Giacomo C. Borromeo
1800 - 1802                Luigi Lancellotti
                             (provisional governor)
14 May 1802 - 1806         Francesco Brivio
Princes
(title Prince de Ponte-Corvo)
 5 Jun 1806 - 21 Aug 1810  Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte             (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
                            (Giovanni Battista Bernadotte)
21 Aug 1810 -  5 Dec 1812  annexed to France
 5 Dec 1812 - 25 May 1815 
Napoléon Lucien Charles Murat        (b. 1803 - d. 1878)
                            (Napoleone Luciano Carlo Murat)
French Governor

1806? - 1814               Giulio Cesare Nota
Papal Legates
(of Frosinone)
 5 May 1807 - 1808         Cesare Nembrini                      (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
 6 Aug 1808 - 1816         Fabrizio Turriozzi                   (b. 1755 - d. 1826)

23 Mar 1816 - Dec 1817     Onorato Bres

1817                       Tiberio Pacca (special delegate)     (b. 1786 - d. 1837)
 9 Dec 1817 - Jan 1819     Giuseppe Ugolini                     (b. 1783 - d. 1867)
10 Jan 1819 -  5 Jul 1820  Vincenzo Brenciaglia (1st time)  
Head of the Republic
 4 Aug 1820 - 17 Mar 1821  .... (in rebellion)
Legates (from 1827, Apostolic Delegates)(of Frosinone)
Mar 1821 - May 1823        Vincenzo Brenciaglia (2nd time)  
17 May 1823 - Jul 1824     Angelo Olivieri

 3 Jul 1824 - Sep 1826     Gian (Giovanni) Antonio Benvenuti
12 Sep 1826 - Jul 1827     Giuseppe Cherubini
 2 Jul 1827 - 1829         Luigi Ciacchi                        (b. 1755 - d. 1865)
1829 - 1830                Giovanni Serafini                    (b. 1786 - d. 1855)
1830 - 1834                Gioacchino Provenzali
1834 - 1838                Domenico Savelli                     (b. 1792 - d. 1864)
1838 - 1843                Marcello Orlandini
Feb 1843 - 1848            Andrea Pila
1848 - 1852                Pasquale Badia
1852 - 1858                Lorenzo Dialti
Mar 1858 -  8 Sep 1860     Ferdinando Scapitta
17 Sep 1860 - 10 Dec 1860  Michele Vecchiotti (Papal governor)
Governors
10 Dec 1860 - 12 Dec 1860  Angelini -Commissioner
12 Dec 1860 - 26 Dec 1860  Antonio Vitaliani

Duchy of Romagna

25 Nov 1499 - 22 Oct 1503  Imola taken by Cesare Borgia.
19 Dec 1499 - 22 Oct 1503  Forlì taken by Cesare Borgia.
 2 Aug 1500 - 1503         Cesena taken by Cesare Borgia.
10 Oct 1500 -  6 Sep 1503  Rimini taken by Cesare Borgia.
1500 - 1503                Pesaro taken by Cesare Borgia.
29 Apr 1501 - 19 Nov 1503  Faenza taken by Cesare Borgia.
May 1501                   Pope Alexander VI names his son Cesare Borgia, Duke of Romagna.
 3 Sep 1501 - Sep 1503     Piombino taken by Cesare Borgia.
Apr 1502 - 18 Oct 1502     Urbino taken by Cesare Borgia.
21 Jul 1502 - Oct 1503     Camerino taken by Cesare Borgia.
Dec 1502 - 18 Aug 1503     San Marino taken by Cesare Borgia.
Oct 1503                   Pope Julius III confiscates Romagna.

Duke (title Duca di Romagna e del Piceno)
May 1501 - Oct 1503        Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino    (b. 1476 - d. 1507)


Parma and Piacenza
 
[Parma and Piacenza
                        1545-1547, 1549-1731]
     1545 - 1547, 1549 - 29 Dec 1731 
 
[Austrian flag]
             29 Dec 1731 - 1 Nov 1802
 
[France]
           1 Nov 1802 - Mar/Apr  1814
 
[Parma and
                          Piacenza, 1815-1848]
           1815 - 29 Jan 1848  State flag
 
[Parma and
                          Piacenza, 1815-1848]
        1815 - 17 Dec 1847 Merchant flag
 
[Italy]
            10 Apr 1848 - 25 May 1848
 
[Parma, Piacenza
                          and Guastalla 1848-1849]
 29 Jan 1848 - 10 Apr 1848/14 Mar 1849
 
Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla
                          1850-1851]
            Sep 1850 - 15 Aug 1851
 
[Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla
                          1851-1859 (Civil Flag)]
     15 Aug 1851 - 9 Jun 1859 State flag
 
[Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla
                          1851-1859 (Royal Flag)]
     15 Aug 1851 - 9 Jun 1859 Royal Flag



Map of Parma and Piacenza
Hear National Anthem
Text of National Anthem
 Constitution
(1848; in Italian)
Capital: Parma
(Piacenza 1545-1547)
Currency: 1815-1860 Italian
States Lira  (XITL);
1592-1805 Italian States 
Ducat (XITD)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: 490,000 (1850) 

1115                       Parma a free commune.
1126                       Piacenza a free commune.
1271 - 16 Jun 1281         Piacenza occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 5 Mar 1331 - 18 Oct 1333  Parma under Imperial rule.

18 Oct 1333                Parma autonomy restored under Matteo da Sommo.
21 Jun 1335 - 22 May 1341  Parma occupied by Verona.

25 Jul 1335 - 15 Dec 1336  Piacenza briefly independent from Milan.
15 Dec 1336                Piacenza part of Milan.
22 May 1341                Parma independent under Azzo da Correggio.
11 Nov 1344                Parma part of Modena.
 6 Dec 1346                Parma part of Milan.
16 Aug 1447 - 15 Sep 1447  Piacenza briefly independent, then under Venetian rule.
 8 Mar 1404                Parma independent under Ottobono Terzi.
27 Jun 1409                Part of Modena.
25 Sep 1420                Part of Milan.
15 Aug 1447                Parma independent.
16 Nov 1447                Piacenza part of Milan.
27 Feb 1449 -  9 Apr 1500  Occupied by Milan.
 9 Apr 1500 - 15 Jun 1512  French occupation.
15 Jun 1512                Part of Papal States.
13 Oct 1515 - Nov 1521     French occupation.
 5 Jun 1527 - 16 Sep 1545  Imperial administration.
16 Sep 1545                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza created.
10 Sep 1547                Parma is annexed by the Papal State, Piacenza by Milan.
10 Nov 1549                Duchy of Parma re-established.
1549 - 1731                Under the Farnese dynasty.
15 Sep 1556                Duchy of Piacenza re-established.
25 Jan 1731 - 29 Dec 1731  Austrian occupation.
29 Dec 1731 -  3 Oct 1735  Under Spanish Bourbon dynasty rule.
 3 Oct 1735 - 18 Oct 1748  Under Austrian rule.
18 Oct 1748                Under Spanish Bourbon dynasty rule.
 7 May 1796 - 30 Apr 1799  Piacenza occupied by France.
 1 Nov 1802                Under French administration.
24 Apr 1808                Former second and third consuls of France made nominal dukes.
24 May 1808                Annexed by
France as the département Taro.
14 Feb 1814 -  2 Mar 1814  Austrian occupation.

 2 Mar 1814 -  9 Mar 1814  French re-occupation (in Piacenza to 27 Apr 1814).
 9 Mar 1814 - 11 Apr 1814  Austrian occupation.
11 Apr 1814                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza (restored).
17 Dec 1847                Pontremoli annexed.
11 Apr 1848                Separate provisional governments in Parma and in Piacenza.
10 May 1848                Parma annexation to Kingdom of Sardinia decreed.
25 May 1848                Piacenza annexation to Kingdom of Sardinia decreed.
12 May 1848 - 12 Aug 1849  Pontremoli annexed by Tuscany.
Aug 1848 - 1848            Austrian occupation.
14 Aug 1848                Annexation rescinded by Sardinia.
18 Aug 1848                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza (restored).
Mar 1849                   Sardinian occupation.
1849 - 25 Aug 1849         Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia.
Mar 1849 - 1849            Austrian occupation.
17 Jun 1859 - 18 Aug 1859  Administered by Kingdom of Sardinia.
18 Aug 1859                Parma and Piacenza (dictatorship) united with Modena.
12 Sep 1859                Administered by Kingdom of Sardinia.
 3 Dec 1859                Part of the United Provinces of Central Italy
                             (see Tuscany).
25 Dec 1859                Part of Emilian Provinces (see Modena).
18 Mar 1860                Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia.

Dukes (title Duca di Parma e Piacenza)
16 Sep 1545 - 10 Sep 1547  Pier Luigi                         (b. 1503 - d. 1547)
10 Sep 1547 -  9 Nov 1549  interregnum
 9 Nov 1549 - 15 Sep 1586  Ottavio                            (b. 1524 - d. 1586)

                            (until 15 Sep 1556, duke of Parma only)
15 Sep 1586 -  3 Dec 1592  Alessandro "il Gran Capitano"      (b. 1545 - d. 1592)
 3 Dec 1592 -  5 Mar 1622  Ranuccio I                         (b. 1569 - d. 1622)
 5 Mar 1622 - 11 Sep 1646  Odoardo                            (b. 1612 - d. 1646)
11 Sep 1646 - 11 Dec 1694  Ranuccio II                        (b. 1630 - d. 1694)
11 Dec 1694 - 26 Feb 1727  Francesco Maria                    (b. 1678 - d. 1727)
26 Feb 1727 - 20 Jan 1731  Antonio Francesco                  (b. 1679 - d. 1731)
20 Jan 1731 - 29 Dec 1731  Regency
                           - Enrichetta Maria d'Este (f)      (b. 1702 - d. 1777)
                           - Camillo Marazzani, vescovo       (b. 1680 - d. 1760)
                               di Parma                    
                           - Conte Federigo Dal Verme
                           - Conte Artaserse Bajardi          (b. 1676 - d. 1767)
                           - Conte Giacomo Sanvitale 
                           - Conte Odoardo Anvidi
29 Dec 1731 -  3 Oct 1735  Carlo I                            (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
 3 Oct 1735 - 20 Oct 1740  Carlo                              (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (Holy Roman Emperor Karl VI)
20 Oct 1740 - 18 Oct 1748  Maria Teresa (f) -Duchess          (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
                            (Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria)
18 Oct 1748 - 18 Jul 1765  Filippo (arrives 9 Mar 1749)       (b. 1720 - d. 1765)
18 Jul 1765 -  9 Oct 1802  Ferdinando                         (b. 1751 - d. 1802)

 7 May 1796 - 30 Apr 1799  Dionigi Crescini Malaspina         (b. 1750 - d. 1845)
                             (governor in Piacenza)
 9 Oct 1802 -  1 Nov 1802  Regency
                           - Maria Amalia, arciduchessa       (b. 1746 - d. 1804)
                               d'Austria (f) 
                           - Cesare Ventura, marchese di      (b. 1741 - d. 1826)
                               Gallinella
                           - Conte Francesco Schizzati
Commissioner of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla
28 Oct 1802 - 19 Jan 1806  Louis Élie Moreau de Saint-Méry    (b. 1750 - d. 1819)
Governors-general
19 Jan 1806 - Sep 1806     Jean Andoche Junot                 (b. 1771 - d. 1813)
1806 - 1808                Hugues Eugène Nardon               (b. 1768 - d. 1812)
                             (Prefect of Parma)
18 Sep 1806 - Aug 1808     Catherine Dominique de Pérignon    (b. 1754 - d. 1818)
(Nominal) Duke of Parma (title Duc de Parme)
24 Apr 1808 - Apr 1814     Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès   (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
(Nominal) Duke of Piacenza
(title Duc du Plaisance)
24 Apr 1808 - Apr 1814     Charles-François Lebrun            (b. 1739 - d. 1824)
Prefects of Taro
département
24 May 1808 - Aug 1810     Hugues Eugène Nardon               (s.a.)
 7 Aug 1810 - 1814         Henri-Jean-Pierre-Antoine,         (b. 1783 - d. 1854)
                             baron Dupont-Delporte
1814 - Apr 1814            Charles Nicolas, comte de          (b. 1773 - d. 1852)
                             d'Anthouard de Vraincourt
Duchess¹
Apr 1814 - 10/11 Apr 1814  Provisional Government
                           - Cesare Ventura, marchese di      (s.a.)
                               Gallinella
                           - Filippo Francesco, conte Magawly (b. 1787 - d. 1835)
                               Cerati de Carly
                           - Casimiro Meli-Lupi, marchese     (b. 1773 - d. 1865)
                               di Soragna
                            - Conte Alberto Douglas Scotti
                               da Vigoleno (in Piacenza)
                            - Conte Giovanni Anguissola
                              
(in Piacenza)
10/11 Apr 1814-17 Dec 1847 Maria Luigia (f)                   (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
                            (Mary Louise Empress of France 1809-1814)
15 Feb 1831 - 13 Mar 1831  Conte Filippo Linati               (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
                            (president of Provisional Government,
                             in rebellion; in Parma)

Duke¹
17 Dec 1847 - 11 Apr 1848  Carlo II (1st time)                (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
President of the Regency
20 Mar 1848 - 11 Apr 1848  Luigi Sanvitale, conte di          (b. 1799 - d. 1876)
                             Fontanellato
President of the Provisional Government
11 Apr 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Girolamo Cantelli, conte di        (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                             Rubbiano 
(in Parma)(1st time)
11 Apr 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Provisional Government (in Piacenza)
                           - Pietro Giòia (president)         (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
                           - Antonio Anguissola
                           - Camillo Piatti
                           - Corrado Marazzani
                           - Antonio Emmanueli
Sardinian Administrators
30 Jun 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Federico Colla                     (b. 1790 - d. 1879)
11 Jul 1848 - 18? Aug 1848 Barone Giuseppe Sappa
(in Piacenza)(b. 1803 - d. 1873)
Dukes¹
18 Aug 1848 - 16 Mar 1849  Carlo II (2nd time)                (s.a.)
                            (in exile 19 Apr 1848 - 17 May 1849)
16 Mar 1849 - 22 Mar 1849  Provisional Government
                           - Salvatore Riva (president)       (b. 1802 - d. 1875)
                           - Guido Dalla Rosa                 (b. 1821 - d. 1888)
                           - Alessandro Cavagnari             (b. 1804 - d. 1892)
Sardinian Administrator
22 Mar 1849 -  4 Apr 1849  Giacomo Plezza                     (b. 1806 - d. 1893) 
Governor-general in Parma
 8 Apr 1849 - 23 Aug 1849  Vincenzo Cornacchia                (b. 1796 - d. 1855)  
 6 Apr 1849 -  9 May 1849  Central Government Junta
(in Piacenza)
                           - Giulio Baratieri
                           - Luigi Guarnaschelli  
                           - Gaetano Petrucci

Extraordinary Commissioner in Piacenza 
 9 May 1849 -
23 Aug 1849  Gian Francesco Pallavicino         (b. 1800 - d. 1884)
Dukes
¹

23 Aug 1849 - 27 Mar 1854  Carlo III                          (b. 1823 - d. 1854)
27 Mar 1854 -  9 Jun 1859  Roberto I                          (b. 1848 - d. 1907)
27 Mar 1854 -  9 Jun 1859  Duchess Luigia di                  (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
                             Borbone -Regent (in exile 1-4 May 1859)
Extraordinary Commissioner
 9 Jun 1859 - 10 Jun 1859  Luigi Draghi
President of the Provisional Government Commission
 9 Jun 1859 - 17 Jun 1859  Girolamo Cantelli, conte di        (s.a.)
                             Rubbiano (2nd time)(in Parma) 
10 Jun 1859 - 17 Jun 1859  Giuseppe Manfredi
(in Piacenza)    (b. 1828 - d. 1918)
Sardinian Royal Commissioners
17 Jun 1859 -  9 Aug 1859  Diodato, conte Pallieri            (b. 1833 - d. 1892)
 9 Aug 1859 - 18 Aug 1859  Giuseppe Manfredi                  (s.a.)
Dictator
18 Aug 1859 - 12 Sep 1859  Luigi Carlo Farini                 (b. 1812 - d. 1866)


Commissioner of States of Parma and Piacenza for Austria

30 Jun 1814 -  6 Aug 1814  Ferdinando Marescalchi             (b. 1764 - d. 1816)
Chief ministers

 6 Aug 1814 - 1816         Filippo Francesco, conte Magawly   (s.a.)
                             Cerati de Carly
1834 - 20 Mar 1848         Charles Renè, comte de Bombelles   (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
 6 Apr 1849 - 17 May 1849  Antonio Lombardi                   (b. 1794 - d. 1869)
17 May 1849 -  3 May 1859  Enrico Salati

Austrian commanders
Aug 1848 - Aug 1848        Georg Graf von Thurn und           (b. 1788 - d. 1866)
                             Valsassina Como-Vercelli

18 Aug 1848 - 15 Mar 1849
 August Graf von Degenfeld-         (b. 1798 - d. 1876)
                             Schonburg (military governor)
 5 Apr 1849 - 27 Apr 1849  Konstantin Freiherr d'Aspre von    (b. 1798 - d. 1850)
                             Hoobreuck
27 Apr 1849 - 27 Aug 1849  Karl Freiherr Stürmer              (b. 1792 - d. 1853)


French Commanders in Piacenza
 7 May 1796 - Apr 1799     ....
Apr 1799 - May 1799
       Michel-Marie Claparède             (b. 1770 - d. 1842)

 ¹full style of the rulers:
(a) 1814 - 17 Dec 1847: Principessa Imperiale ed Arciduchessa d'Austria, per la grazia di Dio Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla etc. etc. ("Imperial Princess and Archduchess of Austria, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Parma, Placentia and Guastalla");
(b) 17 Dec 1847 - 19 Jan 1848: Infante di Spagna, per la grazia di Dio Duca di Parma, Piacenza ecc. ecc. ("Infant of Spain, by the Grace of God, Duke of Parma, Placentia, etc., etc.");
(c) 19 Jan 1848 - 1849: Infante di Spagna, per la Grazia di Dio Duca di Parma e Piacenza, Conte di Pontremoli, Marchese di Villafranca, Mulazzo, Bagnone ecc. ecc. ecc. ("Infant of Sapin, by the Grace of God, Duke of Parma and Placentia; Count of Pontremoli; Marquess of Villafranca, Mulazzo, Bagnone, etc., etc., etc.");
(d) 1849 - 9 Jun 1859: Infante di Spagna, per la grazia di Dio Duca di Parma, Piacenza e Stati annessi ecc. ecc. ("Infant of Spain, by the Grace of God, Duke of Parma, Placentia and annexed States, etc., etc.")


Piedmont: see under Sardinia (Piedmont-Sardinia)


Piombino
 
[Principality
                          of Piombino 1701-1801]
                  1701 - 28 Mar 1801
 
 
[France]
            17 Apr 1803 - 18 Mar 1805,
                3 Mar 1809 - Mar 1814
 
[Piombino and
                          Lucca 1805-1809]
             18 Mar 1805 - 3 Mar 1809
 
 
Map of Piombino
Capital: Piombino
 Population: N/A

1051 - 1399                Part of Pisa.
18 Feb 1399                Lordship of Piombino created when Gherardo d'Appiano sells Pisa
                             to Milan, but retains Piombino and islands of Elba, Montecristo
                             and Pianosa.
1404 - 1463                Under the suzerainty of Florence.
1463 - 1799                Under the suzerainty of "Sicily" (Naples).
 3 Sep 1501 - Sep 1503     Papal rule under Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino.
 8 Nov 1509                Piombino an immediate fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire, under
                             the suzerainty of Spain (from 1735, "Sicily" Naples).
22 Jun 1548                Sold to Florence.
24 Jul 1548 - 12 Aug 1552  Occupied by Spain.
15 Aug 1552                Capitulation between Tuscany and Piombino, Tuscany promises to
                             restore Piombino in due time.
 1 Aug 1559                Lordship of Piombino (restored); Elba is partitioned between
                             Florence, Piombino and Spain (from 1735 Naples)(by treaty
                             dated 29 May 1557).
 7 Feb 1594                Principality of Piombino
20 Feb 1603 - 31 Oct 1611  Occupied by Spain.
10 Apr 1628 - 20 May 1634  Occupied by Spain.
20 Mar 1631                Given to Niccolò Ludovisi, imperial diploma effective 20 May 1634.
 8 Oct 1646 - 18 Jul 1650  French occupation, prince continues reign.
 3 Oct 1735                Under the suzerainty of "Sicily" (Naples).
 7 Sep 1796 - 15 Apr 1797  British occupation, prince continues reign.
27 Mar 1799 -  9 Jul 1799  French occupation.
28 Mar 1801                "Sicily" (Naples) renounces all rights to Piombino and Elba.
24 Sep 1803                Annexed to France by decree (dated 15 Jul 1803).
18 Mar 1805                Principality of Piombino (French rule under Elisa Bonaparte
                             Baciocchi).
 3 Mar 1809                Attached to, but not annexed to, Tuscany (which is part of France).
12 May 1814 - Apr 1815     Austrian occupation (administered from Lucca).
Apr 1815                   Annexed to Tuscany .
22 Mar 1860                Part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Lords (title Signore/Signora di Piombino, dell'Isola dell'Elba, Montecristo e Pianosa)
18 Feb 1399 - May 1405     Gherardo Leonardo d'Appiani          (b. 135. - d. 1405)
May 1405 – 27 Dec 1441     Jacomo II d'Appiani                  (b. 1400? – d. 1441)
                           - jointly with -
May 1405 – Nov 1445        Paola Colonna (f)                    (b. 1378? – d. 1445)
30 Nov 1445 – 19 Feb 1451  Caterina d'Appiani-Orsini (f)        (b. c.1398 – d. 1451)
                          
- jointly with -
30 Nov 1445 - 13 Jul 1450  Rinaldo Orsini                       (b. 138. - d. 1450)
19 Feb 1451 – 15 Feb 1457  Emanuele d'Appiani                   (b. c.1380 – d. 1457)

15 Feb 1457 – 22 Mar 1474  Jacomo III d'Appiani                 (b. 1422? - d. 1474)
22 Mar 1474 –  3 Sep 1501  Jacomo IV d'Appiani (1st time)       (b. 1459? – d. 1510) 
                            
(exiled 16 aug 1501)
16 Aug 1501 -  3 Sep 1501  Gherardo d'Appiani, conte di         (b. c.1461 - d. 1502)
                             Montagnano -Regent 
 
3 Sep 1501 - Sep 1503     Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino     (b. 1475 – d. 1507)
Sep 1503 – 10 Apr 1510     Jacomo IV d'Appiani (2nd time)       (s.a.)
10 Apr 1510 – 20 Oct 1545  Jacomo V Aragona-Appiano             (b. c.1480 – d. 1545)
20 Oct 1545 - 22 Jun 1548  Jacomo VI Aragona-Appiano (1st time) (b. 1529 – d. 1585)
20 Oct 1545 - 22 Jun 1548  Elena Salviati (f) -Regent           (b. 1495 - d. 1552)
22 Jun 1548 -
24 Jul 1548  Girolamo di Luca degli Albizzi       (b. 1486 - d. 1556)
                             (
Florentine governor-general)
24 Jul 1548 - 12 Aug 1552  Spanish occupation
12 Aug 1552 - 
1 Aug 1559  Florentine rule 
 
1 Aug 1559 - 15 May 1585  Jacomo VI Aragona-Appiano (2nd time) (s.a.)
20 Jun 1576 - 15 May 1585  Alessandro Aragona-Appiano -Regent   (b. 1555 - d. 1590)
15 May 1585 – 28 Sep 1590  Alessandro I Aragona-Appiano         (s.a.)

28 Sep 1590 –  7 Feb 1594  Jacomo VII Aragona-Appiano           (b. 1581 – d. 1603)
28 Sep 1590 -  7 Feb 1594  Isabella Mendoza (f) -Regent         (b. 1558 - d. 1607)
Prince
s¹(title Principe/Principessa di Piombino)
 
7 Feb 1594 – 20 Feb 1603  Jacomo VII                           (s.a.)
20 Feb 1603 - 31 Oct 1611  Spanish occupation
31 Oct 1611 – 10 Apr 1628  Isabella I (f)                       (b. 1577 - d. 1661)
10 Apr 1628 - 20 May 1634  Spanish occupation
20 May 1634 - 25 Dec 1664  Niccolò I                            (b. 1613 - d. 1664)
10 Jul 1658 - 25 Dec 1664  Costanza Pamphili (f) -Regent        (b. 1627 - d. 1665)   
25 Dec 1664 - 24 Aug 1699  Giovanni Battista I                  (b. 1647 - d. 1699)

24 Aug 1699 -  1 Jan 1700  Niccolò II                           (b. 1698 - d. 1700)
24 Aug 1699 -  1 Jan 1700  Anna Maria Arduino (f) -Regent       (b. 1672 - d. 1700)
 
1 Jan 1700 - 27 Nov 1700  Olimpia (f)                          (b. 1656 - d. 1700)
27 Nov 1700 - 29 Dec 1733  Ippolita (f)                         (b. 1663 - d. 1733)
27 Nov 1700 -  1 Feb 1707  Gregorio -Co-ruler                   (b. 1642 - d. 1707)
29 Dec 1733 -  5 Jan 1745  Maria Eleonora (f)                   (b. 1686 - d. 1745)
 5 Jan 1745 - 24 May 1777  Gaetano                              (b. 1706 - d. 1777)
24 May 1777 - 27 Mar 1799  Antonio (1st time)                   (b. 1735 - d. 1805)
27 Mar 1799 -  9 Jul 1799  French occupation
 9 Jul 1799 - 24 Sep 1803  Antonio (2nd time)                   (s.a.)

Administrator
24 Sep 1803 -  9 Sep 1804  Joseph, vicomte de Cambis            (b. 1748 - d. 1825)
Commandant of State
 9
Sep 1804 - 31 May 1805  Jean-François Carteaux               (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
Princess (title Principessa di Piombino)
18 Mar 1805 - 12 May 1814  Maria Anna Elisa (Elisa Bonaparte)   (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
French Governor-general 
May 1806 - 1811            Adolphe Beauvais                     (b. 17.. - d. 1811)
Austrian Governor
-general
12 May 1814 -  1 Mar 1815  Anton von Starhemberg                (b. 1776 - d. 1842) 
 

 
¹rulers full style:
(a) 7 Feb 1594 - 1634: Principe/Principessa di Piombino ("Prince of Piombino");
(b) 1634 - 1 Feb 1707: Principe/Principessa di Piombino, Marchese/Marchesa di Populonia, Signore/Signora di Scarlino, Signore/Signora dell'Isola dell'Elba, Montecristo e Pianosa ecc. ecc. ("Prince/Princess of Piombino, Lord/Lady of the Isle of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa, etc., etc.");
(c) 1 Feb 1707 - 29 Dec 1733: Duca/Duchessa di Sora e Arce, [from 16 May 1656] Principe/Principessa di Venosa, Marchese/Marchesa di Populonia, [from 16 May 1656] Conte/Contessa di Conza, Signore/Signora di Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbadia del Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isola d'Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola, [from 16 May 1656] e di Castelvetere, [from 1 Feb 1707] Marchese/Marchesa di Vignola ("Duke/Duchess of Sora and Arce; [from 16 May 1656] Prince/Princess of Venosa; Marquess/Marchioness of Populonia; [from 16 May 1656] Count/Countess of Conza; Lord/Lady of Scarlino, Populonia, Vignale, Abbey of Fango, Suvereto, Buriano, Isle of Elba, Montecristo, Pianosa, Cerboli, Palmaiola, [from 16 May 1656] and Castelvetere; [from February 1, 1707] Marquess/Marchioness of Vignola");
(d) 29 Dec 1733 - 24 Sep 1803: Principe/Principessa di Piombino, Duca/Duchessa di Sora ec. ec. ec. ("Prince/Princess of Piombino, Duke/Duchess of Sora, etc., etc., etc.")

Pontecorvo: see under Papal State

Ragusa: see under Croatia
Reggio: see Modena and Reggio


Rimini

13 Dec 1295                Lordship of Rimini
Apr 1331 - 22 Sep 1333     Papal rule.
 1 Jan 1315 -  1 Jan 1334  Cesena annexed.
22 Oct 1378 - 20 Nov 1465  Cesena annexed.
10 Oct 1500 -  6 Sep 1503  Papal rule under Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino.
16 Dec 1503 - Jun 1509     Occupied by Venice.
Jun 1509 - 24 May 1522     Papal rule.
Mar 1523 - 14 Jun 1527     Ruled by Urbino.   
17 Jun 1528                Annexed to Papal State.

Lords
(title Signore di Rimini)
21 Jan 1385 - 14 Sep 1429  Carlo I Malatesta                    (b. 1368 - d. 1429)
14 Sep 1429 - 10 Oct 1432  Galeotto Roberto Malatesta           (b. 1412 - d. 1432)
10 Oct 1432 -  9 Oct 1468  Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta        (b. 1417 - d. 1468)        
 9 Oct 1468 - 10 Sep 1482  Roberto Malatesta                    (b. 1441? - d. 1482)
10 Sep 1482 - 10 Oct 1500  Pandolfo IV "Pandolfaccio" Malatesta (b. 1475 - d. 1534)
                             (1st time)
10 Oct 1500 -  6 Sep 1503  Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino     (b. 1475 – d. 1507)
 6 Sep 1503 - 16 Dec 1503  Pandolfo IV "Pandolfaccio" Malatesta (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  
16 Dec 1503 - Jun 1509     Venetian occupation
24 May 1522 - Mar 1523     Pandolfo IV "Pandolfaccio" Malatesta (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)     
Mar 1523 - 14 Jun 1527     the Duke of Urbino         
14 Jun 1527 - 17 Jun 1528  Pandolfo IV "Pandolfaccio" Malatesta (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

Sabbioneta


[Duchy of Sabbioneta from
              1578-1702]
                     1578 - 1702
 
Map of Sabbioneta
Capital: Sabbioneta
 Population: N/A

 3 Feb 1479                County of Rodigo separated from Mantua.
 5 May 1565                Marquisate of Sabbioneta, independence from Mantua.
23 Jul 1574                Principality of Sabbioneta
18 Nov 1577                Duchy of Sabbioneta
1629                       Sold to Spain.
1702                       Annexed to Duchy of Mantua.
1707                       Ceded to Duchy of Guastalla.
1747                       Annexed to Duchy of Milan (see Lombardy). 

Counts (title Conte di Rodigo)
 3 Feb 1479 - 28 Aug 1496  Gianfrancesco                        (b. 1443 - d. 1496)
28 Aug 1496 - Jun 1540     Ludovico                             (b. 1480 - d. 1540)
Jun 1540 -  5 May 1565     Vespasiano                           (b. 1531 - d. 1591)
Marquess (title Marchese di Sabbioneta e conte di Bozzolo)
 
5 May 1565 - 23 Jul 1574  Vespasiano                           (s.a.) 
Prince (title Principe di Sabbioneta)
23 Jul 1574 - 18 Nov 1577  Vespasiano                           (s.a.) 
Dukes
(title Duca/Duchessa di Sabbioneta)
18 Nov 1577 - 26 Feb 1591  Vespasiano                           (s.a.)
26 Feb 1591 - 1629         Isabella -Duchess                    (b. 1565 - d. 1637)



Saluzzo

[Margraviate of Saluzzo
              (Saluces)]

Map of Saluzzo
Capital: Saluzzo
 Population: N/A

22 Dec 1142                Margraviate of Saluzzo (Saluces)
 7 Apr 1487 - 20 Aug 1490  Occupied by Piedmont.
28 Mar 1537 -  3 Nov 1537  French occupation.
23 Feb 1548 - 29 Jul 1548  French occupation.
29 Jul 1548                Annexed by France.
28 Sep 1588                Annexed by Savoy.
17 Jan 1601                Formally ceded to Savoy by France in Treaty of Lyon.
16.. - 30 May 1631         Occupied by France.


Margraves (title Marchione Salutiarum/Marchese di Saluzzo)
22 Dec 1142 - 1175         Manfredo I del Vasto                  (b. 109. - d. 1175)
1175 -  2 Feb 1215         Manfredo II                           (b. 1140 - d. 1215)
 2 Feb 1215 - 29 Oct 1244  Manfredo III                          (b. 120. - d. 1244)
29 Oct 1244 -  3 Dec 1296  Tommaso I                             (b. 1236 - d. 1296)
 3 Dec 1296 - 29 Dec 1334  Manfredo IV                           (b. 1262 - d. 1340)
29 Dec 1334 - 29 Jun 1336  Federico I                            (b. c.1287 - d. 1336)
29 Jun 1336 - 15 Aug 1357  Tommaso II                            (b. c.1304 - d. 1357)
                             (prisoner of Manfredo V 1341-1344)
Apr 1341 - 27 Mar 1344     Manfredo V (pretender)                (b. c.1311 - d. 1392)
15 Aug 1357 - 1396         Federico II                           (b. c.1332 - d. 1396)
1396 - Oct 1416            Tommaso III                           (b. 1356 - d. 1416)
Oct 1416 -  8 Apr 1475     Lodovico I                            (b. 1406 - d. 1475)
Oct 1416 - 142.            Margherita di Roucy (f) -Regent       (b. 138. - d. 142.)  
                             (governatrice
 8 Apr 1475 -  7 Apr 1487  Lodovico II (1st time)                (b. 1438 - d. 1504)
 7 Apr 1487 - 20 Aug 1490  occupied by Piedmont
20 Aug 1490 - 27 Jan 1504  Lodovico II (2nd time)                (s.a.)
27 Jan 1504 - 18 Oct 1528  Michele Antonio                       (b. 1495 - d. 1528)
27 Jan 1504 - 18 Oct 1528  Margherita di Foix-Candale (f)-Regent (b. 1473 - d. 1536)
                            (tutrix to 26 Oct 1521, then governatrice i amministratrice)
18 Oct 1528 - 29 Jun 1529  Giovanni Lodovico (Gianlodovico)      (b. 1496 - d. 1536)
29 Jun 1529 - 28 Mar 1537  Francesco Lodovico                    (b. 1498 - d. 1537)
French Commissioner-general 
28 Mar 1537 -  3 Nov 1537  Giovanni Giacomo de Barba Novarese,
                             signore di Sanfronte 
Margraves (title Marchese di Saluzzo)
 3 Nov 1537 - 29 Jun 1543  Gabriele (1st time)                   (b. 1501 - d. 1548)
29 Jun 1543 - 24 Mar 1544  Giovanni Lodovico                     (b. 1496 - d. 1563)
24 Mar 1544 - 23 Feb 1548  Gabriele (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
23 Feb 1548 - 29 Jul 1548  French occupation
29 Jul 1548 - 28 Sep 1588  the kings of France


San Marino: see separate entry for San Marino



Sardinia (from 1720, Sardinia-Piedmont)
 
[Piedmont
                          (Savoy) c.1571 - c.1782]
                   c.1571 - c.1782
 
[Sardinia-Piedmont c.1782 - c.1802]
                 c.1782 - c.1802 
 
[Kingdom of
                          Sardinia c.1802-1814]
                c.1802 - 30 Dec 1814
 
[Sardinia-Piedmont 1814-1816]
            30 Dec 1814 - 1 Jun 1816
 
[Kingdom of
                          Sardinia State flag 1816]
     1 Jun 1816 - 27 Mar 1848 State flag
 
[Kingdom of
                          Sardinia, 1848-1851]
   27 Mar 1848 - 2 May 1851
 
[Kingdom of
                          Italy]
            2 May 1851 - 15 Apr 1948
   

Map of Sardinia-Piedmont
Hear National Anthem
"Inno Sardo"
(Sardinian Hymn)
Text of National Anthem
(1843-1861)
 Constitution
("Statuto")
(4 Mar 1848 - 2  Jun 1946)
Capital: Turin (Torino)
(1563-1798, 1814-1861;

Cagliari 1798-1814)
Sardinia Island - Cagliari
(Bonaria 1324-1326))
Currency: 1815-1860 Lira
Sarda (XITL);
1730-1805 Italian States 
Scudo (XITS)
National Holiday:
Birthday of the King
Population: N/A

Sardinia

687                        Four giuducati (rennu in Sardinian) are founded, each
                             governed by at Giudice/Giudichessa di Logu: Cagliari, Torres,
                             Gallura and Arborea.
687 - 807                  The Giudice of Cagliari is usually styled "King."
1038 - 1054                Barisone, giudice of all four giuducati, is styled King of Sardinia.
1164 - 1191                Barisone, giudice Arborea, and later Guelfo (a "Guelph" is
                             prince), is styled King.
1243 - 1272                Enzo (Henry)(b. c.1218 - d. 1272), an illegitimate son of Emperor
                             Frederick II, and giudice of Torres and Gallura, is styled
                             "King of Sardinia."
1284                       Torres is annexed by Genoa.
1297                       Pope Boniface VIII formally established "the Kingdom Corsica and
                             Sardinia" as a fief of the Papacy, and offers it to King Jaime II
                             of Aragón, he accepts the offer in 1303.
1298                       One-third of Cagliari is annexed by Pisa.
1308                       One-third of Cagliari, and Gallura are annexed by Genoa.
1323                       Jaime II of Aragón occupies Cagliari, Gallura and Sassari
24 Apr 1326                Kingdom founded by Jaime II of Aragón; the kings of Aragón,
                             from 1516 as part of the Spanish Monarchy, remain kings of
                             Sardinia (Regno di Sardegna).
1355                       The remaining third of the Giuducato of Cagliari becomes extinct.
1478                       The Giuducato of Arborea becomes extinct. 
13 Aug 1708 - 30 Sep 1717  Austrian Habsburg rule under Carlo (VII) Giuseppe Francesco.
30 Sep 1717 - 17 Feb 1720  Spanish occupation.
17 Feb 1720                The House of Savoy acquires the island of Sardinia with
                             the (hitherto nominal) style of Kingdom of Sardinia
                             (although the core of the possessions of the House is
                             Piedmont, the royal style of Sardinia leads to the entire
                             monarchy being styled Kingdom of Sardinia, it includes
                             the island, the Principality of Piedmont and the Counties
                             of Savoy and Nice).
27 Nov 1792 - 25 Apr 1814  Savoy and Nice (from 4 Jan 1793) annexed by France.
28 Apr 1796 - 28 May 1799  Piedmont occupied by France.
28 May 1799                Piedmont re-incorporated into Savoy monarchy.
23 Jun 1800 - 25 Apr 1814  Piedmont occupied by France (annexed from 11 Sep 1802).
25 Apr 1814                Restoration of the Piedmontese core to the monarchy,
                             following the Napoleonic wars.
20 Dec 1814                Genoa annexed to Sardinia-Piedmont.
10 Nov 1859                Lombardy annexed by Kingdom of Sardinia
18 Mar 1860                Annexation of Guastalla, Parma, Modena, Tuscany and Romagna.
Nov 1860                   Annexation of Umbria, the Marches and the Two Sicilies.
 2 Aug 1860                Counties of Savoy and Nice ceded to France.
17 Mar 1861                After having annexed all the Italian states with the exceptions
                             of the Papal State, San Marino and Venetia, the monarchy becomes
                             the Kingdom of Italy.

Judges of Arborea (title iudex Arborensis/Giudici d'Arborea)
c.1015 - c.1038            Gonnario I Comita de Lacon-Gunale 
c.1038 - c.1060            Torchitorio Barisone I de          (d. c.1073)
                             Lacon-Gunale 
c.1060 - c.1070            Mariano I de Lacon-Zori            (d. c.1070)
c.1070 - c.110O            Orzocco I de Lacon-Zori            (d. c.1100)
c.1100 - c.1120            Torbeno di Arborea                 (d. c.1120)
c.1120 - c.1122            Orzocco II de Lacon-Zori           (d. c.1122)
c.1122                     Torbeno II de Lacon
11.. - 11..                Comita I
11.. - 11..                Gonario II
11.. - c.1131              Costantino I de Lacon
c.1131 - c.1146            Comita II de Lacon                 (d. c.1146)
                           - jointly with -
11.. - 11..                Orzocco III di Arborea
11.. - 11..                Costantino II de Lacon
11.. - 11..                Comita III de Lacon
1146 - 1185                Barisone II de Lacon-Serra         (d. 1185)
                            
(from 1164, styled Re di Sardegna)
1185 - 1214                Pietro I de Lacon-Serra            (d. 1214)

                           - jointly with -
1185 - 1211                Ugone I de Serra-Bas               (b. 1178 - d. 1211)
                             (in oppositon to 1192)
1195 - 1214                Guglielmo Salusio IV di Cagliari
                             (in opposition)
1214 - 1217                Barisone III de Serra

1211 - 1241                Pietro II de Serra-Bas             (d. 1241)
1241 - 1297                Mariano II                         (d. 1297)
                           - jointly with the following -
1241 - 1264                Guglielmo I di Capraia -Regent     (d. 1264)
1264 - 1274                Niccolò I di Capraia               (d. 1274)
1274 - 1287                Anselmo I di Capraia (in rebellion)(d. 1287)
1297 - 23 Mar 1304         Giovanni I de Bas-Serra "Chiano"   (d. 1304)
23 Mar 1304 -  3 Apr 1308  Andreotto I de Bas-Serra           (d. 1308)
1308 - 1321                Mariano III                        (d. 1321)
1321 - 1335                Ugone II                           (d. 1335)
1335 - 1347                Pietro III                         (d. 1347)
1347 - 1376                Mariano IV                         (b. 1313 - d. 1376)
1376 -  3 Mar 1383         Ugone III                          (b. c.1335 - d. 1383)
1383 - 1387                Federico                           (b. 1377 - d. 1387)
1383 - 1387                Eleonora d'Arborea (f) -Regent     (b. 1347 - d. 1402)
                            
(1st time)
1387 - 1407                Mariano V                          (d. 1407)
1387 - 1402                Eleonora d'Arborea (f) -Regent     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1407 - 1410                Guglielmo III di Narbona           (d. 1424)
1408 - 1409                Brancaleone Doria -Regent
1427 - 1455                Antonio I de Serra-Cubello
1455 - 1470                Salvatore I de Serra-Cubello
1470 - 1478                Leonardo Alagon (II) de Serra-     (b. 1436 - d. 1494)
                             Cubello-Alagon
Judges of Cagliari (title iudex Caralitanus/Giudici di Cagliari)
c.1000 - 1058              Mariano I Salusio I                (d. 1058)
1058 - 1089                Orzocco Torchitorio I              (d. c.1089)
1089 - 1103                Costantino I Salusio II
1103 - 1130                Mariano II Torchitorio II          (d. 1130)
1130 - 1163                Costantino II Salusio III          (b. c.1100 - d. 1163)
Oct 1163 - 1188            Pietro Torchitorio III             (d. af.1188)
1188 - Jan/Feb 1214        Guglielmo I Salusio IV,            (b. c.1160 - d. 1214)
                             marchese di Massa
Jan/Feb 1214 - 1232        Benedetta di Massa (f)             (b. c.1194 - d. 1232/33)
                           - jointly with following four -
1214 - 1217                Barisone II Torchitorio IV         (d. 1217)
1220 – 1225                Lamberto Visconti
1227 – 1229                Enzio Capraia
1230 – 1232                Rinaldo Glandi
1232 - 1250                Guglielmo II Salusio V             (b. c.1214 - d. 1254)
1232 - 1235                Ranieri della Gherardesca di       (d. 1245)
                             Bolgheri -Regent
1250 - 1256                Giovanni Torchitorio V "Chiano"    (d. 1256)

1256 - 1258                Guglielmo III Salusio VI "Cipola"  (d. 1258)
Judges of Gallura
(title iudex Gallurensis/Giudici di Gallura)
c.1020 - c.1040            Manfredi di Gallura
                             (Manfredus Pisanus)
c.1040 - c.1065            Ubaldo I di Gallura
c.1065 - c.1080            Costantino I di Gallura
                             (Costantinus Gallurensis)
c.1080                     Saltaro de Zori-Gunale
c.1080 - c.1100            Torchitorio di Zori
c.1100 - 1116              Ittocorre de Gunale
1116 - c.1133              Costantino II Spanu
c.1133 - 1146              Comita Spanu
1146 - 1173                Costantino III de Lacon-Gunale     (d. 1173)
1173 - 1203                Barisone I de Lacon-Gunale         (d. 1203)
1203 - 1218                Elena de Lacon (f)                 (b. c.1190 - d. 1218)
                           - jointly with -
1207 - 1223                Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio       (d. 1223)
1224 - 1238                Ubaldo II Visconti                 (b. c.1212 - d. 1238)
1238 - 1275                Giovanni Visconti                  (d. 1275)
1276 - 1298                Ugolino "Nino" Visconti            (b. c.1265 - d. 1298)
1298 - 1308                Giovanna Visconti (f)              (d. 1339)
Judges of Logudoro (or Torres)
(title iudex Turritanus/Giudici di Logudoro)
1... - 1...                Comita I di Torres
c.1015 - c.1038            Gonario I (Gunnarius, Gunter)
c.1038 - c.1060            Comita II
c.1060 - c.1073            Barisone I di Torres               (d. c.1073)
c.1065 - c.1073            Andrea Tanca
c.1073 - c.1082            Mariano I
c.1082 - c.1127            Costantino I di Torres             (b. c.1064 - d. 1128)
1127 - 1147                Gonario II                         (b. 1113 - d. 1182)
1127 - c.1140              Ittocorre Gambella -Regent
1127                       Saltaro de Gunale (pretender)
1147 - 1191                Barisone II                        (d. 1191)
1191 - Dec 1198            Costantino II di Torres            (d. 1198)
Dec 1198 - 1218            Comita III di Torres               (b. c.1160 - d. 1218)
1218 - 1232                Mariano II                         (d. 1232)
1232 - 1238                Barisone III                       (b. 1221 - d. 1238)
1238 - 1259                Aelasia di Torres (f)              (b. 1207 - d. 1259)
                           - jointly with following two -
1236 - 1238                Ubaldo II Visconti                 (d. 1238)
1238 - 1259                Enzo di Hohenstaufen               (b. c.1218 - d. 1272)
                           
(Guelph prisoner from 1239)
Kings
¹
1323 - 23 Jan 1516         the kings of Aragón
23 Jan 1516 - 
1 Nov 1700  the kings of Spain
 1 Nov 1700 - 17 Feb 1720  Filippo (IV)                       (b. 1683 - d. 1746)

13 Aug 1708 - 30 Sep 1717  Carlo (III) Giuseppe Francesco     (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (in opposition)
17 Feb 1720 -  3 Sep 1730  Vittorio Amedeo II                 (b. 1666 - d. 1732)
 3 Sep 1730 - 20 Feb 1773  Carlo Emanuele III                 (b. 1701 - d. 1773)
20 Feb 1773 - 16 Oct 1796  Vittorio Amedeo III                (b. 1726 - d. 1796)
16 Oct 1796 -  4 Jun 1802  Carlo Emanuele IV                  (b. 1751 - d. 1819)
                            (12 Dec 1798 - 4 Jun 1802, 28 May 1799 - 23 Jun 1800
                             in refuge in Sardinia)
 4 Jun 1802 - 12 Mar 1821  Vittorio Emanuele I                (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
                            (to 25 Apr 1814, in refuge in Sardinia)
12 Mar 1821 - 25 Apr 1821  Carlo Alberto -Regent              (b. 1798 - d. 1849)
25 Apr 1821 - 27 Apr 1831  Carlo Felice                       (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
27 Apr 1831 - 23 Mar 1849  Carlo Alberto                      (s.a.)
23 Mar 1849 - 17 Mar 1861  Vittorio Emanuele II               (b. 1820 - d. 1878)

Chief ministers 
11 May 1814 - 1821         Filippo Antonio Asinari,           (b. 1767 - d. 1828)
                             marchese di San Marzano    
1822 - 21 Mar 1835         Vittorio Sallier della Torre       (b. 1774 - d. 1858)
21 Mar 1835 - 16 Mar 1848  Clemente Solaro, conte della       (b. 1792 - d. 1869)
                             Margherita               
Prime ministers
16 Mar 1848 - 27 Jul 1848  Conte Cesare Balbo                 (b. 1789 - d. 1853)  Lib
27 Jul 1848 - 15 Aug 1848  Conte Gabrio Casati                (b. 1798 - d. 1873)  Lib
15 Aug 1848 - 11 Oct 1848  Cesare Alfieri, marchese di        (b. 1799 - d. 1869)  Lib
                             Sostegno                
11 Oct 1848 - 16 Dec 1848  Ettore Perrone, conte di           (b. 1789 - d. 1849)  Lib
                             San Martino             
16 Dec 1848 - 21 Feb 1849  Vincenzo Gioberti                  (b. 1801 - d. 1852)  Lib
21 Feb 1849 - 27 Mar 1849  Barone Agostino Chiodo             (b. 1791 - d. 1861)  Lib
27 Mar 1849 -  7 May 1849  Claudio Gabriele Delaunay          (b. 1786 - d. 1850)  Lib
 7 May 1849 -  4 Nov 1852  Massimo Taparelli, marchese        (b. 1798 - d. 1866)  Lib
                             d'Azeglio               
 4 Nov 1852 - 19 Jul 1859  Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour     (b. 1810 - d. 1861)  Des
                             (1st time)                  
19 Jul 1859 - 21 Jan 1860  Alfonso Ferrero, marchese di       (b. 1804 - d. 1878)  Des
                             La Marmora                
21 Jan 1860 - 17 Mar 1861  Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour     (s.a.)               Des
                             (2nd time)                  

                             (continues to 12 Jun 1861 as prime minister of Italy)

Viceroys of Sardinia
1687 - 1690                Nicolás Pignatelli Aragón,
                             duque de Monteleón
1690                       Carlos Homo Dei Moura y Pacheco,   (b. 1654 - d. 1725)
                             marqués de Castel Rodrigo
1690 - 1696                Luis Moscoso Osorio, conde de      (b. 1657 - d. 1705)
                             Altamira
1696 - 1699                José de Solís y Valderrábano
       (b. 1643 - d. 1713)
                             D
ávila, conde de Montellano
1699 - 1703                Fernando de Moncada y Aragón,      (b. 1646 - d. 1712) 
                             duque de  San Juan
1703 - 1704                Francisco Ginés Ruiz de Castro,    (b. 1666 - d. 1741)
                             conde de Lemos
1704 - 1706                Baltasar de Zúñiga y Guzmán,       (b. 1658 - d. 1727)
                             marqués de Valero
1706 - 1708                Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal,
                             marqués de Ayamonte
13 Aug 1708 - 1710         Fernando de Silva y Menesses,  
                             conde de Cifuentes
1710 - 1711                Jorge de Heredia, conde de Fuentes
1711 - 1713                Andrés Roger de Eril, conde de Eril

Dec 1713 - 1715            Pedro Manuel, conde de Ayala
1715 - 18 Jun 1717         Francesco d'Eril, conte d'Eril
18 Jun 1717 - 30 Sep 1717  José Antonio de Rubí y Boxadors,    (b. 1672 - d. 1745)
                            
marqués de Rubí
22 Aug 1717 - 1718         Juan Francisco de Bette, marqués    (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
                             de Bette
1718 - 1720                Gonzalo Chacón de Orellana
May 1720 - 1723            Filippo Pallavicini, barone di 
                             St. Rémy (1st time)
Sep 1723 - 1726            Carlo Alessandro Doria di Cirié e   (b. 1678 - d. 1726)
                             del Maro, abate San Maria di

                             Vezzolano

Apr 1726 - 1727            Filippo Pallavicini, barone di 
                             St. Rémy (2nd time)
Sep 1727 - 1731            Ercole Tomaso Roèro, marchese di    (b. 1661 - d. 1747)
                             Cortanze

Sep 1731 - 1735            Girolamo Falletti, marchese         (b. 1669 - d. 1735)
                             di Castagnole e di Barolo
Aug 1735 - 1738            Carlo Amedeo di San Martino
                             d'Agliè, marchese di Rivarolo
Aug 1738 - 1741            Louis François d'Aligne, comte      (b. 1717 - d. 1776)
                             d'Apremont

Sep 1741 - 1745            Louis, baron de Blonay              (b. 1675 - d. 1755)
Apr 1745 - 1748            Giuseppe Maria del Carretto,   
                             marchese di Santa Giulia
Aug 1748 - 1751            Emanuele, principe di Valguarnera
Sep 1751 - 1755            Giambattista Cacherano, conte       (b. 1706 - d. 1782) 
                             di Brischerasio
Apr 1755 - 1758            Vittorio Amedeo Costa, conte della  (b. 1698 - d. 1777)
                             Trinitá
May 1758 - 1762            Francesco Tana, conte di Santena
May 1762 - Apr 1763        Giovanni Battista
Pellegrino        (b. 1697 - d. 1763)
                            
Alfieri di Cortemilia
Apr 1763 - 1763            Carlo Giuseppe Solaro de Govone
Sep 1763 - 1767            Ludovico Costa, conte della Trinitá (b. 1699 - d. 1772)
May 1767 - 1771            Vittorio Lodovico d'Hallot, 

                             conte di Dorzano
Jul 1771 - 1773            Antonio Francesco Gaetano Caissotti,
                             conti di Robbione

Nov 1773 - 1777            Filippo Francesco Ferrero, marchese (b. 1719 - d. 1789)
                             della Marmora
Sep 1777 - 1780            Giuseppe Lascaris di Ventimiglia,   (b. 1729 - d. 1793)
                             conte di Castellar
Dec 1780 - 1783            Carlo Francesco Valperga, marchese, (b. 17.. - d. 1811)
                             di Caluso e conte di Masino
Jul 1783 - 1787            Angelo Maria Solaro della Moretta
May 1787 - 1790            Carlo Thaon di Revel e Sant'Andrea, (b. 1725 - d. 1807)
                             conti Thaon di Sant 'Andrea

Aug 1790 - 28 Apr 1794     Vincenzo Balbiano                   (b. 1729 - d. 1799)
May 1794 - 1799            Filippo Vivalda, marchese di        (b. 1732 - d. 1808)
                             Castillino e di Pogliano

Mar 1799 - 1816            Carlo Felice di Savoia, duca        (s.a.)
                             di Genevois                       (s.a.)
1816 - 1818                Giacomo Pes di Villamarina (interim)(b. 1750 - d. 1820)
Sep 1818 - 1820            Ignazio Thaon di Revel, 
            (b. 1760 - d. 1835)
                             conte di Pratolungo (interim)
Sep 1820 - 1822            Ettore Veuillet, marchese           (b. 1758 - d. 1830) 
                             d'Yenne (interim)
May 1822 - 1823            Giuseppe Maria Galleani, conte      (b. 1762 - d. 1838) 
                             d'Agliano
Apr 1823 - 1825            Francesco Gennaro Roero, conte di   (b. 1758 - d. 18..)
                             Monticelli
Jul 1825 - 1829            Giuseppe Benedetto Tornielli, conte  
                             di Vergano
Jul 1829 - 1831            Giuseppe Maria Roberti, conte di    (b. 1775 - d. 1844) 
                             Castelvero
Jul 1831 - 1840            Giuseppe Maria Montiglio d'Ottiglio 
                             e Villanova
Jul 1840 - 1843            Giacomo, conte d'Asarta
May 1843 - 1848            Claudio Gabriele de Launay          (s.a.)

 ¹full style of rulers 1815 - 1860: Per la grazia di Dio Re di Sardegna, di Cipro e di Gerusalemme, Duca di Savoia, di Genova, di Monferrato, d'Aosta, del Chiablese, del Genevese e di Piacenza; Principe di Piemonte e d'Oneglia; Marchese d'Italia, di Saluzzo, d'Ivrea, di Susa, di Ceva, del Maro, d'Oristano et di Sezana; Conte di Moriena, di Ginevra, di Nizza, di Tenda, di Romonte, d'Asti, d'Alessandria, di Goceano, di Novara, di Tortona, di Vigevano e di Bobbio; Barone di Vaud e di Faussigny; Signore di Vercelli, di Pinerolo, di Tarantasia, della Lomellina e della Valle di Sesia, ec. ("By the grace of God, King of Sardinia, of Cyprus, and of Jerusalem, Duke of Savoy, of Genoa, of Montferrat, of Aoste, Chablais, Genevois, and of Piacenza; Prince of Piedmont and Oneglia; Margrave in Italy, of Saluzzo, Ivrea, of Susa, of Ceva, of the Maro, of Oristano, of Cesana, and of Savona; Count of Maurienne, of Genève, of Nice, of Tenda, of Romonte, of Asti, of Alessandria, of Goceano, of Novara, of Tortona, of Vigevano and of Bobbio; Baron of Vaud and of Faucigny; Lord of Vercelli, of Pinerolo, of Tarentaise, of the Lomellina, and of the Valley of Sesia, etc.").

Party abbreviations: Des = Destra (Right, later referred to as Destra Storica [Historic Right], Italian nationalist, classical liberal, conservative, monarchist, 1849-1921); Lib = Liberale (Liberal, predecessor of Des, 1848-1849); Sin = Sinistra (Left, later referred to as Sinistra Storica [Historic Left], center-left, liberal, progressive, monarchist, 1849-1921); Mil = Military


Piedmont

[Republic of Alba 1796,
                  Piedmontese Republic 1798-1802]
              26 Apr - 28 Apr 1796;
           12 Dec 1798 - 28 May 1799; 
           9 Jul 1801 - 11 Sep 1802

942                        Marca Arduinica (retrospectively called the March of Susa or
                             March of Turin [Marcha di Torino]) founded.
1045                       Othon (Oddone) of Savoy marries Adelaide of Turin, daughter of
                             Margrave Ulric Manfred II of Turin, and thereby acquires the
                             adjacent Piedmontese lands of the Turin March (ratified 1046,
                             union fully effected upon the death of Adelaide on 19 Dec 1091).
1092 - 1130                Bishop of Turin holds title of count of Turin.
1136 - 1191                Bishop of Turin holds title of count of Turin.
18 Feb 1245 - 21 Jun 1280  Piedmont granted to a junior branch of the Savoy dynasty (remaining
                             under the suzerainty of Savoy)(Contea di Piemonte).
1252                       City of Turin definitely incorporated into the Savoyan domains
                            (occupied by Montferrat 1266-1270 & 1271-1280 and Naples 1270-1271)

 1 Feb 1295                Piedmont restored to the junior branch of the Savoy dynasty
                             (remaining under the suzerainty of Savoy).
12 Feb 1301                Ruler adopts the style of princeps Achaye ("prince of Achaea")
                             upon marriage (effected by charter 23 Feb 1301).
27 Jan 1360 -  2 Jul 1363  Confiscated by Savoy.
11 Dec 1418                Extinction of the the junior ruling line, Piedmont reverts to
                             the main line of the house of Savoy.
15 Aug 1424                Principality of Piedmont (Principato de Piemonte); although
                             this may originally have been intended as a territorial
                             designation, it was generally regarded as a nominal component
                             of the polity of the house of Savoy (usually called Duchy of
                             Savoy [Ducato di Savoia]; from 1720 Kingdom of Sardinia, or,
                             even in official use, Stati Sabaudi); the territory of Piedmont
                             was, with its capital Turin, however, the core of this monarchy;
                             this arrangement is interrupted from 1798 to 1814, as indicated
                             below.
 1 Apr 1536 -  7 Feb 1563  Piedmont occupied by France (largely annexed to France Jun 1538).
 7 Feb 1563                Piedmont is restored to the Duke of Savoy, with Torino (Turin)
                             becoming the seat of government.
28 May 1576 - 27 Mar 1801  Port enclave of Oneglia purchased from Genoa (occupied 1614-1649, 
                             1744-45 by Spain; 1649-1672 by Genoa; from 4 Apr 1796 by France).
1676                       County of Desana annexed to Piedmont.
1707                       Alessandria annexed to Piedmont.
 
8 Aug 1720                The House of Savoy acquires the island of Sardinia with
                             the (hitherto nominal) style of Kingdom of Sardinia
                             (although the core of the possessions of the House is
                             Piedmont, the royal style of Sardinia leads to the entire
                             monarchy being styled Kingdom of Sardinia, it includes
                             the island, the Principality of Piedmont and the Counties
                             of Savoy and Nice).
 4 Feb 1793                French département Alpes-Maritimes formed from the Sardinian
                             county of Nice and the county of Tenda.
12 Apr 1796 - 28 Apr 1796  Piedmont occupied by France.
26 Apr 1796 - 28 Apr 1796  Piedmontese revolutionaries in the municipality of Alba attempt to
                             seize power and proclaim
the Republic of Alba (Repubblica di Alba)
28 Jul 1797 - 30 Jul 1797  Revolutionaries in the municipality of Asti declare a republic.
12 Dec 1798                Piedmontese Republic (
Repubblica Piemontese).
28 May 1799 - 23 Jun 1800  Re-incorporated into Savoy monarchy (Kingdom of Sardinia, etc.).
27 Jun 1800                Piedmontese Republic re-proclaimed.
1800                       Renamed Subalpine Republic (Repubblica Subalpina).
19 Apr 1801                Occupied by France.
11 Sep 1802                Incorporated into France; divided into French départements of
                             Alpes-Maritimes, Doire, Marengo, Éridan (from 1802 Pô),
                             Sésia, Stura, and (to 1805) Tanaro (see below).
25 Apr 1814                Re-incorporated into Savoy monarchy (Kingdom of Sardinia, etc.)


Lords of Piedmont (title Dominus Pedemontium)
(French names with Italian in parenthesis)
1189 –  1 Mar 1233         Thomas I (= Tommaso I)             (b. 1178 - d. 1233)
 1 Mar 1233 – 18 Feb 1245  Thomas II (= Tommaso II)           (b. c.1199 - d. 1259)
Counts of Piedmont (title Comes Pedemontium)
18 Feb 1245 -  7 Feb 1259  Thomas II (= Tommaso II)           (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1259 – 16 May 1282  Thomas III (= Tommaso III)         (b. c.1246 - d. 1282)
16 May 1282 – 25 Sep 1334  Philippe I (= Filippo I)           (b. 1278 - d. 1334)
25 Sep 1334 – 17 May 1367  Jacques (= Giacomo)                (b. 1315 - d. 1367)
17 May 1367 – 20 Jan 1368  Philippe II (= Filippo II)         (b. 1340 - d. 1368)
20 Jan 1368 –  7 May 1402  Amadeus (= Amedeo)                 (b. 1363 - d. 1402)
 7 May 1402 – 11 Dec 1418  Louis (= Luigi)                    (b. 1364 - d. 1418)
11 Dec 1418 - 15 Aug 1424  the duke of Savoy
Princes of Piedmont
15 Aug 1424 -  1 Apr 1536  the dukes of Savoy
 
1 Apr 1536 -  7 Feb 156the kings of France
French governors in Piedmont

18 Feb 1537 - Nov 1537     Jean d'Humières (also in Saluzzo)  (b. 1496 - d. 1550)
29 Nov 1537 - 1539         René, baron de Montjean            (b. c.1495 - d. 1539)
Apr 1539 - 1539            Guillaume Du Bellay, seigneur      (b. 1491 - d. 1543)
                             de Langey 
                            (possibly acting for de Montjean)
28 Sep 1539 - 1543         Claude d'Annebault                 (b. 1495 - d. 1552)
 6 Dec 1543 - 1545         François de Bourbon, comte         (b. 1519 - d. 1546)
                             d'Enghien
 4 Oct 1545 - 1550         Giovanni Caràcciolo, principe di   (b. 1487 - d. 1550)
                             Melfi
10 Jul 1550 - 1559         Charles de Cossé, comte de Brissac (b. 1506 - d. 1563)
Princes of Piedmont
 7 Feb 1563 - 12 Dec 1798  the dukes of Savoy; from 8 Aug 1720,
                           also the kings of Sardinia-Piedmont

26 Apr 1796 - 28 Apr 1796  Giovanni Antonio Ranza             (b. 1741 - d. 1801)
                           + Ignazio Bonafous                 (b. 1758 - d. 1836)
                           (delegate commissioners of Executive
                            Power of 'Republic of Alba'; in dissidence)
12 Dec 1798 -  2 Apr 1799  Provisional Government
                           (chair rotates for 10-day terms)
                           - Innocenzo Maurizio Baudisson     (b. 1737 - d. 1805)
                           - Giovanni Battista Bertolotti     (b. 1745 - d. 1814)
                           - Giovanni Battista Agostino Bono  (b. 1731/38 - d. 1799)
                              (to 14 Mar 1799)
                           - Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio di       
                               Sant'Angelo
                           - Ugo Bottone, conte di            (b. 1753 - d. 1828)
                               Castellamonte
                           - Francesco Brayda                 (b. 1756 - d. 1839)
                           - Giuseppe Cavalli, conte di       (b. 1761 - d. 1828)
                               Olivola
                           - Luigi Colla                      (b. 1766 - d. 1848)
                           - Felice Clemente Fasella          (b. 1751 - d. 1837)
                           - Giuseppe Fava
                           - Francesco Favrat, barone di      (b. 1738 - d. 1817)
                               Bellevaux
                           - Pietro Gaetano Galli, conte      (b. 1732 - d. 1813)
                               della Loggia
                           - Stefano Giovanni Rocci           (b. 1770 - d. 1847)
                           - Felice Giovanni San Martino,     (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
                               conte della Motta
                           - Giuseppe Felice Sartoris         (b. 17.. - d. 1799)
                           Members added 19 Dec 1798:
                           - Pietro Avogadro, conte di        (b. 1760 - d. 1800)
                               Valdengo e Formigliana
                           - Giovanni Battista Balbis         (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
                           - Antonio Bellini
                           - Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta   (b. 1766 - d. 1837)
                           - Filippo Benedetto Bunico
                           - Domenico Capriata di Sardigliano (b. 17.. - d. 1821)
                           - Guglielmo Michele Cerise         (b. 1769 - d. 1820)
                           - Secondo Enrico Chiabrera         (b. 1765 - d. 1801)
                           - Pietro Geymet                    (b. 1753 - d. 1822)
                           - Alessio Antonio Simian           (b. 1762 - d. 1802)
Plenipotentiary Civil Commissioners
Dec 1798 -  2 Apr 1799     Ange-Marie d'Eymar                 (b. 1747 - d. 1803)
 
2 Apr 1799 - 3 May 1799   Joseph-Mathurin Musset             (b. 1749 - d. 1831)
President of the General Administration
 3 May 1799 - 28 May 1799  Pietro Geymet                      (s.a.)
President of the Supreme Interim Council
10 Jun 1799 - 27 Jun 1800  Carlo Francesco Marchese Thaon di  (b. 1725 - d. 1807)
                             Revel, Conte di Sant'Andrea
President of the General Administration
27 Jun 1800 - 24 Dec 1800  Commission of Government
                           - Filippo Avogardo, conte di       (b. 1734 - d. 1812)  
                               Quarenga e Cerreto 
                               (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Innocenzo Maurizio Baudisson     (s.a.)
                               (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Ugo Bottone, conte di
                               Castellamonte                  (s.a.)
                               (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Francesco Brayda                 (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Cavalli, conte di       (s.a.)
                               Olivola (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Pietro Gaetano Galli, conte      (s.a.)
                               della Loggia
                           - Stefano Giovanni Rocci           (s.a.)
                               (to 4 Oct 1800)
24 Dec 1800 - 19 Apr 1801  Executive Commission
                           - Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio di      
                               Sant'Angelo
                           - Carlo Stefano Giulio             (b. 1757 - d. 1815)
                           - Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta   (s.a.)
Provisional Executive
20 Apr 1801 - 11 Sep 1802  Jean-Baptiste Jourdan              (b. 1762 - d. 1833) 
                             (Plenipotentiary minister since 13 Aug 1800)
Administrators-general
Dec 1802 - Mar 1803        de Charbonnière                    (b. 1764 - d. 1819)
Mar 1803 - 1805            Jacques-François de Menou          (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
                             baron de Menou 
1805 - 1807                César Berthier                     (b. 1765 - d. 1819)
1807 - 27 Apr 1814         Camillo, Prince Borghese           (b. 1775 - d. 1832)
27 Apr 1814 - 1814         François Marie Clément de La       (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
                             Roncière


Republic of Asti

[ Republic of
                  Asti flag 1797]

24 Jul 1797
                Revolutionaries take control of the municipal government of Asti.
28 Jul 1797                Revolutionaries proclaim independence of the Republic of Asti
                             (Repubblica Astese or Repubblica di Asti).
30 Jul 1797                Forcefully dissolved by Piedmont-Sardinia.

Municipal government

24 Jul 1797 - 30 Jul 1797  Provisional government
                           - Conte Gabuti di Bestagno
                             (chairman)
                           - Secondo Arò                      (b. 1769 - d. 1797)
                           - Gioachino Testa                  (b. 1771 - d. 1797)
                           - Michele Peracchio                (b. 1768 - d. ....)
                           - Felice Berruti                   (b. 1771 - d. 1797)
                           - Giacinto Paglieri
                           - Giovan Battista Testa            (d. 1797)
                           - Giovanni Secondo Berruti         (b. 1767 - d. 1797)
                           - Vincenzo Aimassi
                           - Giuseppe Maria Poncini
                           - Giacomo Gardini
                           - Francesco Morando
                           - Filippo Massa
                           - Ludovico Riccardi

French Départements formed from Piedmont

Doire

26 Aug 1802                French département Doire (Forêts la Doire).
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefects
26 Aug 1802 - 1805         Ange Gandolfo                       (b. 1755 - d. 18..)
 4 May 1805 - 1808         Adrien Godard d'Aucour de Plancy    (b. 1778 - d. 1855)
30 May 1808 - 12 Mar 1813  Augustin Jubé de La Perelle         (b. 1765 - d. 1824)
                             (from 14 Apr 1810, Augustin Jubé, 
                             baron de La Perelle)
12 Mar 1813 - 1814         Scipion Cyprien Jules Louis Martin  (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
                             Marie Elisabeth, marquis de Nicolaï  


Marengo

26 Aug 1802                French département Marengo.
 6 Jun 1805                Bobbio, Tortona and Voghera annexed by the new 
                             département Gênes (see Genoa); Asti attached to Marengo.
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefects
 3 Jun 1801 - 1801         Braida
 7 Aug 1801 - 1805         François Frédéric Campana           (b. 1771 - d. 1807)
 4 May 1805 -  8 Feb 1806  Luc Jacques Édouard Dauchy          (b. 1757 - d. 1812)
 7 Mar 1806 - 1809         Jacques Robert                      (b. 17.. - d. 1809)
13 Apr 1809 -  1 May 1812  Augustin Marie Timoléon de Cossé-   (b. 1775 - d. 1848)
                             Brissac (from 9 Sep 1810, Augustin
                             Marie Timoléon, baron de Cossé-
                             Brissac [from 20 Feb 1812,
                             Augustin Marie Timoléon, 
                             comte de Cossé-Brissac])
 1 May 1812 - 1814         Jean-Pierre Grégoire du Colombier,  (b. 1769 -d. 1819)
                             baron du Colombier


26 Aug 1802                French département Éridan.
20 Sep 1802                Renamed département Pô.
1813                       End of French rule.

Prefects
26 Aug 1802 - 1805         Victor Hercule Joseph Ferdinand     (b. 1753 - d. 1826)
                             Laville de Villa-Stellone
 4 May 1805 - 1808         Pierre Loysel                       (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
15 Jan 1808 - 1809         Étienne Vincent-Marniola            (b. 1781 - d. 1809)  
19 Feb 1809 - 1813         Alexandre Théodore Victor, comte    (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                             de Lameth (from 14 Feb 1810,
                             Alexandre Théodore Victor, 
                             baron de Lameth)


Sésia

26 Aug 1802                French département Sésia.
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefects
26 Aug 1802 - 21 Apr 1804  Jean-François Félix Saint-Martin   (b. 1762 - d. 1818) 
                             la Motte
14 May 1804 - 1814         Carlo Stefano Giulio               (b. 1757 - d. 1815)
                             (from 15 Aug 1809, Carlo Sefano, baron Giulio)


Stura

26 Aug 1802                French département Stura.
 6 Jun 1805                Annexation of Alba from Tanaro.
1814                       End of French rule.

Prefects
26 Aug 1802 - 1803         Jean Laurent de Grégory            (b. 1746 - d. 1817)
24 Sep 1803 - 1810         Pierre Amédée Vincent Joseph Marie (b. 1767 - d. 1811) 
                             Arborio-Biamino
30 Nov 1811 - 12 Mar 1813  Auguste Joseph Baude de la         (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                             Vieuville (from 12 Feb 1812,
                             Auguste Joseph Baude, comte
                             de la Vieuville)
12 Mar 1813 - Mar 1813     Antoine Louis Campan               (b. 1784 - d. 1821)
25 Mar 1813 - 1813         Louis Honoré Félix, baron          (b. 1782 - d. 1855)
                             Le Peletier d'Aunay


Tanaro

24 Apr 1801                Tanaro département established.
26 Aug 1802                Annexed to France.
 6 Jun 1805                Abolished and divided between départements
                             of Marengo, Stura and Montenotte (see Genoa).

Prefects
26 Aug 1802 - 1803         Jules Robert
26 Feb 1803 - 1805         Jean André Louis Rolland de        (b. 1764 - d. 1849) 
                             Villarceaux


Savoy

[Savoy Duchy flag]

1003                       County of Aosta (Contea d'Aosta) is given to Umberto "Biancamano"
                             by Heinrich II King of Germany.
1032                       County of Maurienne in Burgundy is given to Umberto "Biancamano",
                             as a reward for helping Holy Roman Emperor Konrad II to make good
                             his claims on the Kingdom of Burgundy. He later acquires Savoy,
                             Chablais, Piedmont and other possessions in the northern Italy.
1045                       Othon (Oddone) of Savoy marries Adelaide of Turin, daughter of
                             Margrave Ulric Manfred II of Turin, and thereby acquires the
                             adjacent Piedmontese lands of the Turin March (ratified 1046).
1310                       Aosta and Chablais elevated to duchies by Emperor Heinrich VII.
24 Nov 1310                Counts of Savoy are made Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
                             (confirmed by diploma 11 Jun 1313).

17 May 1361                Territory is formally separated from Kingdom of Arelat (Burgundy)
                             and is made immediate within the Holy Roman Empire.
1387                       Marquisate of Clavesana part of domains of the Count of Savoy.
28 Sep 1388 - 29 Sep 1792  Nice area, at first called New Lands of Provence and from 1526 the
                             County of Nice (Contea di Nizza), incorporated into Savoy
                             (for Nice see France provinces).
1401                       After the male line of Counts of Genevois had died out, Count
                             Amadeus VIII purchased all rights to Genevois from their heirs and
                             from the Bishopric of Geneva, the sale is contested by the heirs
                             until 1424. Genevois was promoted to a duchy in 1564 and joined
                             to the House of Savoy, although
at times it was granted to cadet
                             branches until 1659.

19 Feb 1416                Savoy is elevated to a Duchy by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund
                             (Ducato di Savoia).
11 Dec 1418                Duke Amadeo VIII of Savoy succeeds Louis, the last male of
                             the Piedmont branch of the House of Savoy, in Piedmont which is 
                             raised to a principality on 15 Aug 1424.

 3 Apr 1531 - 1536         County of Asti and Marquisate of Ceva are added to the possessions
                             of the Duke of Savoy.
27 Mar 1536 -  3 Jul 1559  Savoy occupied by France (largely annexed to France Jun 1538),
                             it is returned by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.
25 Sep 1575                Asti and Ceva are re-incorporated into domains of Savoy
                             (Asti is occupied by Spain 1637-1643 and France 1703-1707).
28 Sep 1588                Marquisate of Saluzzo annexed by Savoy (by treaty on 17 Jan 1601).
 6 Apr 1631                One-third of the Duchy of Montferrat is assigned to the Duke of
                             Savoy by the Treaty of Cherasco.
23 Dec 1632                The ruler assumes the nominal styles Re di Cipro e (from 1713)
                             di Gerusalemme ("King of Cyprus, and [from 1713] of Jerusalem").
 5 Jul 1708                The remainder of Montferrat passes to Savoy.
21 Dec 1713                Vittorio Amedeo II, Duke of Savoy, becomes king of Sicily by the
                             Peace of Utrecht, polity is the known as the Kingdom of Sicily,
                             as agreed by treaty on 13 Aug 1713.
 8 Aug 1720                The House of Savoy acquires the island of Sardinia with
                             the (hitherto nominal) style of Kingdom of Sardinia
                             (although the core of the possessions of the House is
                             Piedmont, the royal style of Sardinia leads to the entire
                             monarchy being styled Kingdom of Sardinia, it includes
                             the island, the Principality of Piedmont and the Counties
                             of Savoy and Nice).
21 Sep 1792                Savoy occupied by France.
27 Nov 1792                Savoy annexed by France.
20 Oct 1793                Savoy incorporated into France as the département of Mont-Blanc.
25 Apr 1814                Re-incorporated into Savoy monarchy (Kingdom of Sardinia, etc.).
30 Nov 1847                Duchy of Savoy is fully incorporated into Kingdom of Sardinia.
 2 Aug 1860                County of Savoy ceded to France.

Counts¹
(Fr
ench names with Italian in parenthesis)
1003 - 19 Jul 1047         Humbert I "aux blanches-mains"     (b. 970/75 - d. 1047)
                             (= Umberto I "Biancamano")      
19 Jul 1047 - 1051         Amadeus I "le Queue" (= Amedeo I)  (b. 1016 - d. 1051)
1051 -  1 Mar 1060         Othon (= Oddone)                   (b. 1023 - d. 1060)
 1 Mar 1060 -  9 Jul 1078  Pierre I (= Pietro I)              (b. 1048 - d. 1078)
 9 Jul 1078 - 26 Jan 1080  Amadeus II (= Amedeo II)           (b. 1046 - d. 1080)
26 Jan 1080 - 19 Oct 1103  Humbert II "le Renforcé"           (b. 1065 - d. 1103)
                             (= Umberto II) 
26 Jan 1080 - 19 Dec 1091  Adélaïde, marquise de Turin-Regent (b. c.1016 - d. 1091)
                             (= Adaleida [Adelaide], marchesa di Torino)  
19 Oct 1103 - 30 Aug 1148  Amadeus III (= Amedeo III)          (b. 1087 - d. 1148)
30 Aug 1148 -  4 Mar 1189  Humbert III "le Saint"             (b. 1136 - d. 1189)
                             (= Umberto III)      
30 Aug 1148 - 11..         Amadeus évêque de Lausanne -Regent (b. 1110 - d. 1159)
                             (= Amedeo, vescovo di Losanna)
 4 Mar 1189 -  1 Mar 1233  Thomas I "l'Ami des communes"      (b. 1177 - d. 1233)
                             (= Tommaso I)
 1 Mar 1233 - 13 Jul 1253  Amadeus IV (= Amedeo IV)           (b. 1197 - d. 1253)
13 Jul 1253 -  7 Jun 1263  Boniface "le Roland" (= Bonifacio) (b. 1244 - d. 1263)
13 Jul 1253 -  7 Feb 1259  Thomas II, comte de Savoie -Regent (b. 1199 - d. 1259)
                             (= Tommaso II, conte di Savoia)
 7 Jun 1263 - 16 May 1268  Pierre II "Petit Charlemagne"      (b. 1203 - d. 1268)
                             (= Pietro II)          
16 May 1268 - 15 Aug 1285  Philippe I (= Filippo I)           (b. 1207 - d. 1285)
15 Aug 1285 - 16 Oct 1323  Amadeus V "le Grand" (= Amedeo V)  (b. 1249 - d. 1323)
16 Oct 1323 -  4 Nov 1329  Édouard "le Libéral" (= Edoardo)   (b. 1284 - d. 1329)
 4 Nov 1329 - 22 Jun 1343  Aymon "le Pacifique" (= Aimone)    (b. 1291 - d. 1343)
22 Jun 1343 -  1 Mar 1383  Amadeus VI "le Comte vert"         (b. 1334 - d. 1383)
                             (= Amedeo VI)          
22 Jun 1343 -  3 Jan 1348  Louis de Savoie, baron de Vaud     (b. c.1290 - d. 1350)
                             (= Luigi di Savoia, barone di Vaud)
22 Jun 1343 -  3 Jan 1348  Amadeus, comte du Genevois -Regent (b. c.1311 - d. 1367)
                             (= Amedeo, conte di Ginebra)   
 3 Jan 1366 - Nov? 1367    Bonne de Bourbon (f) -Regent       (b. c.1341 - d. 1402)
                             (1st time)(acting)
                             (= Bona di Borbone)
 1 Mar 1383 -  1 Nov 1391 
Amadeus VII "le Comte rouge"       (b. 1360 - d. 1391)
                             (= Amedeo VII)        
 1 Nov 1391 - 19 Feb 1416 
Amadeus VIII "le Pacifique"        (b. 1383 - d. 1451)
                             (= Amedeo VIII)     
 1 Nov 1391 -  3 Sep 1397  Bonne de Bourbon (f) -Regent       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Dukes of Savo
y¹
(French names with Italian in parenthesis)
19 Feb 1416 -  6 Jan 1451 
Amadeus VIII "le Pacifique"        (s.a.)
16 Oct 1434 -  6 Jan 1440  Louis (= Lodovico) -Regent         (b. 1402 - d. 1465) 
                             (locumtenens generalis)
 6 Jan 1451 - 29 Jan 1465  Louis (= Ludovico)                 (s.a.)
29 Jan 1465 - 30 Mar 1472  Amadeus IX "le Bienheureux"        (b. 1435 - d. 1472)
                             (= Amedeo IX)        
 5 Sep 1471 - 30 Mar 1472  Yolande de France (f) -Regent      (b. 1434 - d. 1478)
                             (= Iolanda di Francia)(1st time)
30 Mar 1472 - 22 Sep 1482  Philibert I "le Chasseur"          (b. 1465 - d. 1482)
                             (= Filiberto I)  
30 Mar 1472 - 29 Aug 1478  Yolande de France (f) -Regent      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
22 Sep 1482 - 13 Mar 1490  Charles I "le Guerrier" (= Carlo I)(b. 1468 - d. 1490)
13 Mar 1490 - 16 Apr 1496  Charles II (= Carlo II)            (b. 1488 - d. 1496)
13 Mar 1490 - 16 Apr 1496  Blanche de Montferrat (f) -Regent  (b. 1472 - d. 1519)
                             (= Bianca dei Paleologi di Monferrato)
16 Apr 1496 -  7 Nov 1497  Philippe II "sans Terre"           (b. 1443 - d. 1497)
                             (= Filippo II)    
 7 Nov 1497 - 10 Sep 1504  Philibert II "le Beau"             (b. 1480 - d. 1504)
                             (= Filiberto II)   
10 Sep 1504 - 27 Mar 1536  Charles IIII (= Carlo III)         (b. 1486 - d. 1553)
                             (continues in dissidence to 17 Aug 1553) 
27 Mar 1536 -  3 Jul 1559  the kings of France
French governors in Savoy

 8 Mar 1537 - 15..         Jean d'Humières                    (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1540 - 154.         Jean de La Baume, comte de         (b. c.1504 - d. 1552)
                             Montrevel
14 Aug 1544 - 154.         François de Bourbon, duc           (b. 1491 - d. 1545)
                             d'Estouteville, comte de Saint Pol
14 May 1547 - 15..         François de Lorraine, comte de     (b. 1519 - d. 1563)
                             d'Aumale, duc de Guise
Dukes of Savoy
¹ (Italian names with French in parenthesis)
 3 Jul 1559 - 30 Aug 1580  Emanuele Filiberto                 (b. 1528 - d. 1580)
                             (= Emmanuel Philibert "Tête de Fer")
                             (in dissidence from 17 Aug 1553)
30 Aug 1580 - 20 Jul 1630  Carlo Emanuele I                   (b. 1562 - d. 1630)
                             (= Charles Emmanuel I "le Grand")
20 Jul 1630 -  7 Oct 1637  Vittorio Amedeo I                  (b. 1587 - d. 1637)
                             (= Victor
Amadeus I)
 7 Oct 1637 -  4 Oct 1638  Francesco Giacinto                 (b. 1632 - d. 1638) 
                             (= François Hyacinthe)
 7 Oct 1637 -  4 Oct 1638  Maria Cristina di Borbone-         (b. 1606 - d. 1663)
                             Francia (f) -Regent (1st time)
                            
(= Chrestienne de France)
 4 Oct 1638 - 12 Jun 1675  Carlo Emanuele II                  (b. 1634 - d. 1675)
                             (= Charles Emmanuel II)
 4 Oct 1638 - 20 Jun 1638  Maria Cristina di Borbone-         (s.a.)
                             Francia (f) -Regent (2nd time)
27 Aug 1639 - 20 Sep 1640  Tommaso di Savoia, principe di     (b. 1596 - d. 1656)
                             Carignano -Regent (in rebellion)
                             (= Thomas de Savoie, prince de Carignan)
12 Jun 1675 -  8 Aug 1720  Vittorio Amedeo II                 (b. 1666 - d. 1732)
                             (= Victor
Amadeus II)
12 Jun 1675 – 30 Nov 1684  Maria Giovanna Battista di         (b. 1644 - d. 1724)
                             Savoia (f) -Regent
                             (= Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie)
 8 Aug 1720 - 12 Dec 1798  the kings of Sardinia-Piedmont
28 May 1799 - 23 Jun 1800  the kings of Sardinia-Piedmont
25 Apr 1814 - 17 Mar 1861  the kings of Sardinia-Piedmont

  ¹full style of the rulers:
- of the COUNTS -
(a) c.10.. - 120. (in Latin): Comes Maurianensis (Mauriennae), et Marchio in Italiae
("Count of Maurienne and Margrave in Italy");
(b) 120. - 24 Nov 1310: Comes Sabaudiae (Sabaldie) et Marchio in Ytalia ("Count of Savoy and Margrave in Italy");
(c) 24 Nov 1310 - 19 Feb 1416: Comes Sabaudiae, dux Chablaysii et Augustae, in Italia marchio [et princeps] ("Count of Savoy, Duke of Chablais and Aosta, Margrave in Italy [and prince]");
- of the DUKES -
(d) 19 Feb 1416 - 6 Jan 1440 (in Latin): Dux Sabaudiae, Chablaysii et Augustae, princeps, marchio in Italia, [from 1418] comes Pedemontium ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais and Aosta, Prince, Margarve in Italy, [from 1418] Count of Piedmont");
(e) 6 Jan 1440 - 1448: Dux Sabaudiae, Chablaysii et Augustae, sacri Romani Imperii princeps vicariusque perpetuus, marchio in Italia, comes Pedemontium, etc. ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais and Aosta, Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire, Margarve in Italy, Count of Piedmont, etc.");
(f) 1448 - 7 Feb 1563: Dux Sabaudiae, Chablaysii et Augustae, sacri Romani Imperii princeps vicariusque perpetuus, marchio in Italia, princeps Pedemontium, etc. ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais and Aosta; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Margarve in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, etc.");
(g) 7 Feb 1563 - 31 Dec 1564 (in Italian): Duca di Savoja, Ciablese et Auosta, Principe e vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Imperia, Marchese in Italia, Principe di Piemonte, ...;
(in French): Duc de Savoye, Chablais et Aouste, prince et vicaire perpétuel du Sainct Empire Romain, marquis en Italie, prince de Piedmont, ... ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais and Aosta; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Margarve in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, ...");
(h) 31 Dec 1564 - 28 Sep 1588: Duca di Savoja, Ciablese, Auosta et Genevese, Principe e Vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Imperia, Marchese in Italia, Principe di Piemonte, ...; (in French): Duc de Savoye, Chablais, Aouste et Genevoys, prince et vicaire perpétuel du Sainct Empire Romain, marquis en Italie, prince de Piedmont, ... ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais, Aosta, and Genevois; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Margarve in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, ...");
(i) 28 Sep 1588 - 19 Jun 1631: Duca di Savoja, Chiables, Agosta et Genevese, Principe et vicario perpetuo del sacro romano imperio, Marchese in Italia, Principe di Piemonte, Marchese di Saluzzo, ... ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais, Aosta and Genevois; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Margrave in Italy; Prince of Piedmont; Margrave of Saluzzo, ...");
(j) 19 Jun 1631 - 21 Dec 1713: Duca di Savoja, Chiables, Agosta, del Genevese e Monferrato, Principe di Piemonte, Marchese di Saluzzo, ... ("Duke of Savoy, Chablais, Aosta, of Genevois and Montferrat; Prince of Piedmont; Margrave of Saluzzo, ...");
(k) 21 Dec 1713 - 8 Aug 1720: Re di Sicilia, di Gerusalemme, e di Cipro, Duca di Savoja, di Monferrato, Aosta, Ciablese e Genevese, Principe di Piemonte, e d'Oneglia ("King of Sicily, of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus; Duke of Savoy, of Montferrat, Aosta, Chablais and Genevois; Prince of Piedmont and Oneglia");
(l) 8 Aug 1720 - 1815: Re di Sardegna, di Cipro e di Gerusalemme, Duca di Savoia, ecc. ecc. ecc. Principe di Piemonte ecc. ecc. ecc. ("King of Sardinia, of Cyprus, and of Jerusalem; Duke of Savoy, etc., etc., etc.; Prince of Piedmont, etc, etc., etc.")

Mont-Blanc

21 Sep 1792                Chambéry, the main city, is occupied by French troops.
27 Nov 1792                French département Mont-Blanc formed from Savoy.
25 Aug 1798                Faucigny and Chablais attached to new département Léman
                            (Geneva).
30 May 1814                Eastern Savoy is restored to Sardinia; the western area 
                             remains part of France.
30 Apr 1815                Western Savoy is restored to Sardinia.

Commissioners of the Convention
21 Sep 1795 - Sep 1792     Anne Pierre de Montesquiou           (b. 1739 - d. 1798)
                             (French commander)
Sep 1792 - Oct 1792        Edouard Louis Alexis Dubois de       (b. 1746 - d. 1814)
                             Crancé (1st time)
                           + Thomas Augustin de Gasparin        (b. 1754 - d. 1793)
                           + Jean-Pierre Lacombe de Saint-Michel(b. 1753 - d. 1812)
14 Dec 1792 - 18 May 1793  Henri Grégoire (to 18 Feb 1793)      (b. 1750 - d. 1831)
                           + Jean Hérault de Séchelles          (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
                           + Philibert Simond (1st time)        (b. 1755 - d. 1794)
                           + Grégoire Jagot (to 18 Feb 1793)    (b. 1750 - d. 1838)
May 1793 - Aug 1793?       Edouard Louis Alexis Dubois de       (s.a.)
                             Crancé (2nd time)
                           + Antoine François Gauthier des      (b. 1752 - d. 1838)
                             Orcières (1st time)
31 Aug 1793 - Dec 1793     Philibert Simond (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           + Jacques Dumaz (1st time)           (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
29 Dec 1793 - Feb 1794     Benoît Louis Gouly                   (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
Feb 1794 - 21 Aug 1794     Antoine Louis Albitte                (b. 1761 - d. 1812)
 3 Sep 1794 - 18 Mar 1795  Antoine François Gauthier des        (s.a.)
                             Orcières (2nd time)(to Jan 1795)
                           + Joseph François Cassanyès          (b. 1758 - d. 1843)
                             (1st time)
                           (acting)
Apr 1795 - Aug 1795        Jacques Dumaz (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                           + Guillaume André Réal               (b. 1755 - d. 1832)
                           + Jean-Marie Bion (from 11 Jun 1795) (b. 1730 - d. 1798)
30 Aug 1795 - Nov 1795     Joseph François Cassanyès (2nd time) (s.a.)
Commissioners of the Executive Directory
Nov 1795 -  4 Jun 1796     François Jean Baptiste Carelli de    (b. 1759 - d. 1818)
                             Bassy, comte de Cevins
 4 Jun 1796 -  8 Oct 1796  ... Grand
 8 Oct 1796 - 18 Aug 1799  Hyacinthe-François Garin
18 Aug 1799 - 1800         Humbert Ducoudray
Prefects
21 Feb 1800 - 27 Mar 1802  Antoine de Sauzay                    (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
28 Apr 1802 - Feb 1804     Joseph Verneilh-Puyrasseau           (b. 1756 - d. 1839)
 9 Mar 1804 - 1810         Charles Poitevin de Maissemy         (b. 1742 - d. 1830)
30 Nov 1810 - 1815         Antoine Bernard Finot                (b. 1780 - d. 1844)
                             (from 2 Aug 1811, Antoine Bernard, baron Finot)
1815                       Jean Louis Rieul, baron Viefville    (b. 1744 - d. 1820)
                             des Essarts


Stato dei Presidi: see under Tuscany

Savoy: above under Sardinia-Piedmont

Seborga

 
[Seborga to
                1729]
              12th cent. - 20 Jan 1729

954                        Seborga (French: Sabourg) ceded by Counts of Ventimiglia to the
                             Cistercian Abbey of Lerino (French: Abbaye de Lérins) near Cannes.
1079                       Abbots also made Princes of Holy Roman Empire
                             (Principality of Seborga).
1635 - 1637                Spanish occupy Lerino (Lérins).
20 Jan 1729                Sold by Abbey of Lérins to Piedmont-Sardinia.
10 Aug 1787                Lerino (Lérins) abbey is dis-established.
23 Apr 1995                Referendum votes in favor of "independence" from Italy
                             (see Self-Proclaimed Micronations).

Prince-Abbots (the Abbots of Lerino)
1394 - 1403                Giovanni Lascaris
1403 - 1424                Giovanni Pellizon
1424 - 1452                Giorgio Lascaris
1452 - 1469                Michele Lascaris
1469 - 1493                Nicola Lascaris
1493 - 1523                Raniero Lascaris
1523 - 14 Apr 1532         Agostino Grimaldi            (b. 1482 - d. 1532)
                             (also Lord of Monaco)
1532 - 1535                Jean-Baptiste de Tortone
1534 - 1536                Benoît de Venise
1536 - 1542                Laurent de Crémone
1542 - 1544                Jérôme du Pont
1544 - 1547                Denis Faucher
1547 - 1550                Césaire de Laude
(1st time)
1550 - 1552                Honoré de Saluces (1st time)
1552 - 1554                Placide de Gênes
1554 - 1555                Simplicien de Valteline
1555 - 1561                Césaire de Laude (2nd time)
1561 - 1566                Honoré de Saluces (2nd time)
1566 - 1570                Maxime de Colmars Rodolphe
1570 - 1575                Césaire de Laude (3d time)
1575 - 1577                Germain Bellon d'Aiglun (1st time)
1577 - 1582                Jérôme de Pérouse
1582 - 1585                Benoît de Venise
1585 - 1590                Germain Bellon d'Aiglun (2nd time)
1590 - 1593                Ange de Fréjus
1593 - 1601                Hilaire d'Antibes
1601 - 1602                Julien d'Azala
1602 - 1604                Pierre-Paul de Florence
1604 - 1608                César Barcillon de Saint-Paul
                             (1st time)
1608 - 1609                Zenobio de Pérouse
1609 - 1612                César Barcillon de Saint-Paul
                             (2nd time)
1612 - 1614                Antoine de Murs
1614 - 1615                Marc-Antoine Escarras de Cannes
1615 - 1621                Théodore Tardivi
(1st time)
1621 - 1623                Ange de Grasse
1623 - 1626                Ange de Reggio
1626 - 1632                Théodore Tardivi (2nd time)
1632 - 1638                Honoré d'Ubraye
1638                       Louis Meynier d'Aix (1st time)
1638 - 1645                Hyacinthe Fradet
1645                       Léandre
1645 - 1651                Louis Meynier d'Aix (2nd time)
1651 - 1654                Honoré d'Ubraye
1654 - 1656                César Barcillon de Saint-Paul
                             (1st time)
1656 - 1659                Benoît Tornon
1659 - 1666                Louis Meynier d'Aix
1666 - 1672                César Barcillon de Saint-Paul
                             (2nd time)
1672 - 1682                Maure de Guérin
1682 - 1699                Joseph de Meyronnet (1st time)
1699 - 1707                André Bernardi d'Antibes
1707 - 16 Nov 1710         Joseph de Meyronnet (2nd time)
16 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1729  Giuseppe Antonio Biancheri     (b. 1666 - d. 1746)


Sicily: see under Two Sicilies

Sora

1339                       County of Sora created as a fief of "Sicily" (Naples).
1443                       Duchy of Sora
1463 - 1472                Papal occupation.
1647 - 1648                Occupied by "Papone" Colessa Domenico (b. 1607 - d. 1648).
31 Aug 1796                Ceded by the Duke to the king of "Sicily" (Naples).

Dukes (title Sorae Dux/Duca di Sora)
1443 - 14..                Nicola Cantelmo
14.. - 1463?               Piergiampaolo Cantelmo
1463? - 1472               Giovanni Paolo Cantelmo
1472 - 1475                Leonardo Della Rovere        (b. 1445 - d. 1475)
1475 - Nov 1501            Giovanni Della Rovere        (b. 1457 - d. 1501)
1501 - 1516                Francesco Maria Della Rovere (b. 1490 - d. 1538)
                             (1st time)
1516 - 28 May 1521         Guglielmo di Croy            (b. 1458 - d. 1521)
1528 - 20 Oct 1538         Francesco Maria Della Rovere (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1538 -  3 Sep 1578         Giulio Maria Della Rovere    (b. 1533 - d. 1578)
1579 - 27 Jul 1617         Giacomo I                    (b. 1518 - d. 1617)
27 Jul 1617 - 1628         Gregorio I                   (b. 1590 - d. 1628) 
1628 - 1636                Giovan Giacomo II            (b. 1613 - d. 1636)
1636 - 1676                Ugo I                        (b. 1614 - d. 1676)
1676 - 1707                Gregorio II                  (b. 1642 - d. 1707) 
1707 - 1731                Antonio I                    (b. 1658 - d. 1731)
1731 - 24 May 1777         Gaetano Domenico             (b. 1704 - d. 1777)
24 May 1777 - 31 Aug 1796  Antonio II Maria             (b. 1735 - d. 1805)


Ticino: see Ticino under Swiss Cantons

Torriglia
 
[Torriglia 1547-1797]
                  1547 - 27 Jun 1797
 
Map of Torriglia
Capital: Torriglia
 Population: N/A
         
1252                       Lordship of Torriglia, under the Fieschi dynasty.
12 Jun 1548                Marquisate of Torriglia, under the Doria (later
                             Doria-Pamphilii-Landi) dynasty.
13 May 1760                Principality of Torriglia.
27 Jun 1797                Annexed to Ligurian Republic (see Genoa).
 
Marquesses (title Marchese di Torriglia)
1560 – 13 Sep 1574         Pagano d'Oria                (b. 1545 - d. 1574)
13 Sep 1574 –  2 Feb 1606  Giovanni Andrea I Doria      (b. 1539 – d. 1606)
 2 Feb 1606 – 11 Jul 1612  Andrea II                    (b. 1570 - d. 1612)
11 Jul 1612 - 18 Jan 1640  Giovanni Andrea II           (b. 1607 - d. 1640)
                             (Giò Andrea)
1612 – 1620                Giovanna Colonna (f) -Regent (b. 1579/80 - d. 1620)
31 Jan 1641 – 1654         Andrea III                   (b. 1628 - d. 1654)
1641 – 1648                Polissena Landi (f) -Regent  (b. 1608 - d. 1679)
19 Oct 1654 – 1679         Violante Lomellini (f)–Regent(b. 1632 - d. 1708)
27 Feb 1679 - 17 Dec 1737  Giovanni Andrea III          (b. 1653 - d. 1737)
17 Dec 1737 - 13 May 1760  Giovanni Andrea IV           (b. 1705 - d. 1764)
Princes (title Principe di Torriglia)
13 May 1760 - 18 Dec 1764  Giovanni Andrea IV           (s.a.)
18 Dec 1764 - 27 Jun 1797  Giorgio Andrea IV            (b. 1744 - d. 1807)

Trent (Trento/Trient)
 
[Bishopric of
                          Trent state flag to 1796]
                         to 1796
[Trent State
                          Flag 1801-1802]
            24 Jun 1801 -  6 Nov 1802 
Map of Bishopric of Trent
Capital: Trent (Trient/Trento)
 Population: N/A

c.300                      Bishopric of Trent (Ger. Trient; It. Trento)(subject to the
                             patriarchate of Aquileia to 6 Jul 1751)(Hochstift Trient).
1027                       Bishops made princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
 5 Sep 1796 - 12 Nov 1796  Occupied by France.
12 Nov 1796 - 30 Jan 1797  Occupied by Austria.
30 Jan 1797 - 10 Apr 1797  Occupied by France.
10 Apr 1797 -  7 Jan 1801  Occupied by Austria.
 7 Jan 1801 -  9 Mar 1801  Occupied by France.
 9 Mar 1801                Bishopric secularized and annexed to Austria.
 4 Feb 1803                Incorporated into Austrian Tyrol.
26 Dec 1805                Annexed to Bavaria.
28 Feb 1810                Annexed to the Kingdom of Italy (see Lombardy) as
                             the département Haut-Adige (Alto Adige).
10 Oct 1813                Annexed to Austria.
 3 Nov 1918                Annexed to Italy.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Trient/Principe vescovo di Trento)
 
7 Mar 1696 - 22 Apr 1725  Johann Michael Graf von Spaur und      (b. 1638 - d. 1725)
                             Valör 
 9 Sep 1725 - 20 Sep 1725  Giovanni Benedetto Gentilotti          (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
26 Nov 1725 -  5 Apr 1730  Anton Dominik Graf von Wolkenstein-    (b. 1662 - d. 1730)
                             Trostburg
19 Jun 1730 -  7 Sep 1758  Dominik Anton Graf von Thun            (b. 1685 - d. 1758)
1748 -  7 Sep 1758         Leopold Ernest Graf von Firmian        (b. 1708 - d. 1783) 
                             (administrator)
 7 Sep 1758 - 31 Dec 1762  Francesco Felice Alberti d'Enno        (b. 1701 - d. 1762)
 2 Jul 1763 - 13 Jun 1776  Cristoforo Francesco Sizzo de          (b. 1706 - d. 1776)
                             Norris
16 Sep 1776 - 17 Jan 1800  Peter Michael Vigil Graf von Thun und  (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
                             Hohenstein (fled Trent 20 May 1796)
 2 Apr 1800 -  9 Mar 1801  Emmanuel Maria Graf von Thun           (b. 1763 - d. 1818)
                             und Hohenstein
                             (continues as secular prince to 6 Nov 1802)


Trieste: see under Italy


Tuscany
 
[Republic of
                        Florence c.1251-1562]
                    c.1251 - 1562

[Grand Duchy of
                          Tuscany 1586-1749]
                      1562 - 1586
[Grand Duchy of
                          Tuscany 1586-1737]
                      1586 - 1737
[Grand Duchy of
                          Tuscany c.1737-1765]
                   c.1737 - 1765
[Grand Duchy of
                          Tuscany 1765-1799, 1800-1801]
                1765 - 27 Mar 1799; 
            7 Jul 1799 - 15 Oct 1800
[Kingdom of
                          Etruria 1801-1807]
           2 Aug 1801 - 10 Dec 1807
 
 
[France]
          10 Dec 1807 - 1 Feb 1814
 
[Grand Duchy of
                          Tuscany 1814-1859]
            27 Apr 1814 - 17 Apr 1848; 
            27 Jan 1849 - 11 May 1859
[Tuscany
                          1848-1849]
            17 Apr 1848 - 27 Jan 1849

[Tuscany flag
                          1859-60]
           11 May 1859 - 29 Sep 1859

[Tuscany
                          provisional merchant flag 1859-60]
            29 Sep 1859 - 22 Mar 1860

Map of Tuscany
Hear National Anthem
"La Leopolda"
Text of National Anthem
(to 1859)
 Constitution
(1848-1859; in Italian)
Capital: Florence
 (Firenze)
Currency: 1737-1801 Italian
States Ducat (XITD);
1814-1859 Italian States
Lira (XITL)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: 1,740,000 (1850)

576                        Lombard Duchy of Tuscia
797                        March of Tuscia (Margraviate of Tuscany [Margraviato di Toscana]).
1115                       Republic of Florence (Repubblica di Firenze)(unofficially
                             called the Florentine Republic - Respublica Florentina).
 6 Sep 1260 - 11 Nov 1266  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 5 Nov 1301 - 12 Apr 1302  Occupied by France.
Jul 1313 - 28 Dec 1327     Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 9 Oct 1404 -  9 Nov 1494  Pisa occupied.
18 Jan 1411                Cortona lordship acquired.
 6 Mar 1477 -  5 Oct 1847  Fivizzano exclave annexed.
26 Sep 1484 -  5 Oct 1847  Pietrasanta exclave annexed (except 1496-1516).
28 Nov 1494 –  7 Apr 1498  Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola (b. 1452 – d. 1498) and
                             his followers institute a puritanical campaign.
 8 Jun 1509                Pisa annexed.
11 May 1527 - 1531         The Medici are exiled.
 4 Aug 1530 -  6 Jul 1531  Imperial occupation.
27 Oct 1530                Medici made heads of state (imperial decree proclaimed 6 Jul 1531).
27 Apr 1532                Signoria and Gonfalionierat are replaced by hereditary duke
                             (effective 1 May 1532).
 1 May 1532                Duchy of Florence
 1 May 1532 -  9 Jul 1737  Under the Medici dynasty.
 3 Jul 1557                Siena ceded to Tuscany (effective 19 Jul 1557).
27 Aug 1569                Grand Duchy of Tuscany
 9 Jun 1604                Pitigliano county annexed.
18 Sep 1650 - 17 Dec 1847  Pontremoli exclave annexed.
25 Mar 1799 -  5 Jul 1799  Occupied by France.
27 Mar 1799                Etruscan Republic
 7 Jul 1799                Grand Duchy of Tuscany (restored).
 2 Aug 1801                Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria)
10 Dec 1807                Annexed to France.
24 May 1808                Divided into the départements of Arno, Méditerranée,
 
                            and Ombrone.
 1 Feb 1814 - 27 Apr 1814  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
27 Apr 1814                Grand Duchy of Tuscany (restored).
 5 Oct 1847                Lucca annexed.
 8 Feb 1849                Provisional government formed, it is proclaimed to be a 
                             republic on 18 Feb 1849.
12 Apr 1849                Grand Duchy of Tuscany (restored).
28 Apr 1859                Provisional Government offers dictatorship over Tuscany
                             to the King of Sardinia.
11 May 1859                Administered by Kingdom of Sardinia.
 3 Dec 1859                Part of the United Provinces of Central Italy
                             (Modena, Tuscany, Parma and Piacenza).
12 Mar 1860                Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia, but keeping 
                             large degree of internal autonomy.
23 Oct 1861                Autonomy abolished. 


Captains of the People (title Capitano del popolo)
1421 - 20 Feb 1429         Giovanni de' Medici                (b. c.1360 - d. 1429)
20 Feb 1429 -  3 Oct 1433  Cosimo de' Medici "il Vecchio"     (b. 1389 – d. 1464)
                             (1st time)
 3 Oct 1433 -  1 Oct 1434  the Gonfalonieri di giustizia
 1 Oct 1434 –  1 Aug 1464  Cosimo de' Medici "il Vecchio"     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1464 –  3 Dec 1469  Piero I de' Medici "il Gottoso"    (b. 1416 – d. 1469)
 3 Dec 1469 –  8 Apr 1492  Lorenzo I de' Medici "il Magnifico"(b. 1449 - d. 1492)
 8 Apr 1492 –  8 Nov 1494  Piero II de' Medici "il Fatuo"     (b. 1469 – d. 1503)
 9 Nov 1494 -  1 Nov 1502  the Gonfalonieri di giustizia
Gonfaloniere a vita (Standard-bearer for Life)
 1 Nov 1502 – 31 Aug 1512  Piero di Tommaso Soderino          (b. 1452 – d. 1522)
Gonfaloniere
 1 Sep 1512 - 14 Sep 1512  Giovanni Battista di Luigi Ridolfi (b. 1448 - d. 1514)
Governors of Florence (title Governatore di Firenze)
14 Sep 1512 – 10 Aug 1513  Giuliano II de' Medici, duca       (b. 1479 - d. 1516)
                             di Nemours                
10 Aug 1513 –  4 May 1519  Lorenzo II de' Medici, (from       (b. 1492 – d. 1519)
                             1 Jun 1516) duca di Urbino
 4 May 1519 – 19 Nov 1523  Giuliano Cardinale de' Medici,     (b. 1478 – d. 1534)
                             arcivescovo di Firenze
                             (elected 19 Nov 1523, Pope Clement VII)
19 Nov 1523 - 30 Jul 1524  Silvio Cardinale di Passerini      (b. 1469 - d. 1529)
                             (acting)
30 Jul 1524 – 11 May 1527  Ippolito de' Medici                (b. 1511 – d. 1535)
30 Jul 1524 - 11 May 1527  Silvio Cardinale di                (s.a.)
                             Passerini -Regent
Gonfalonieri di giustizia (Standard-bearers of Justice)
11 May 1527 -  1 Jul 1527  Francesco Antonio di Nori          (b. 1478 - d. 1551)  
                             (1st time)
 1 Jul 1527 - 17 Apr 1529  Niccolò di Capponi                 (b. 1472 - d. 1529)   
17 Apr 1529 -  1 Jan 1530  Francesco di Carducci              (b. 1465 - d. 1530)   
 1 Jan 1530 -  1 Sep 1530  Raffaello Girolami                     
 1 Sep 1530 -  1 Nov 1530  Giovanni di Corsi                  (b. 1472 - d. 1547)         
 1 Nov 1530 -  1 Jan 1531  Simone di Tornabuoni               (b. 1472 - d. 1543)           
 1 Jan 1531 -  1 Mar 1531  Raffaele de' Medici                (b. 1477 - d. 1555)         
 1 Mar 1531 -  1 May 1531  Filippo di Machiavelli             (b. 1461 - d. 1547)          
 1 May 1531 -  1 Jul 1531  Lodovico di Morelli                (b. 1456 - d. 1539)         
 1 Jul 1531 -  1 Sep 1531  Benedetto di Buondelmonti          (b. 1481 - d. 1533) 
 1 Sep 1531 -  1 Nov 1531  Ottaviano de' Medici               (b. 1482 - d. 1546)        
 1 Nov 1531 -  1 Jan 1532  Antonio Gualterotti                (b. 1459 - d. 1532)   
 1 Jan 1532 -  1 Mar 1532  Francesco Antonio di Nori          (s.a.)            
                             (2nd time)
 1 Mar 1532 -  1 May 1532  Giovanni Francesco de Nobili       (b. 1480 - d. 1541)     
Imperial Commandant

 4 Aug 1530 -  6 Jul 1531  Ferrante Gonzaga                   (b. 1507 - d. 1557)
Dukes
(title Duca della Repubblica Fiorentina; 20 Sep 1537 - 19 Jul 1557
Duca di Firenze; from 19 Jul 1557, Duca di Firenze e di Siena)
 1 May 1532 –  6 Jan 1537  Alessandro "il Moro"               (b. 1510 – d. 1537)
 6 Jan 1537 -  9 Jan 1537  Innocenzo Cardinale di Cybo,       (b. 1491 - d. 1550)   
                             arcivescovo di Genova (acting)
 9 Jan 1537 - 27 Aug 1569  Cosimo I "il Grande"               (b. 1519 - d. 1574)
11 Jun 1564 - 27 Aug 1569  Francesco de' Medici -Regent       (b. 1541 - d. 1587)
Grand Dukes
(title Gran-Duca di Toscana, di Fiorenza et di Siena Duca;
from 7 Feb 1609, Gran-Duca di Toscana)
27 Aug 1569 – 21 Apr 1574  Cosimo I "il Grande"               (s.a.)
                             (coronation 18 Feb 1570)
27 Aug 1569 - 21 Apr 1574  Francesco de' Medici -Regent       (s.a.)
21 Apr 1574 – 20 Oct 1587  Francesco I                        (s.a.)
20 Oct 1587 –  7 Feb 1609  Ferdinando I                       (b. 1549 – d. 1609)
 7 Feb 1609 – 28 Feb 1621  Cosimo II                          (b. 1590 – d. 1621)
28 Feb 1621 – 24 May 1670  Ferdinando II                      (b. 1610 – d. 1670)
28 Feb 1621 - 14 Jul 1628  Regents
                           - Cristina di Lorena (f)           (b. 1565 - d. 1637)
                           - Maria Magdalena d'Austria (f)    (b. 1589 - d. 1631)
24 May 1670 - 31 Oct 1723  Cosimo III                         (b. 1642 - d. 1723)
31 Oct 1723 -  9 Jul 1737  Giovanni Gastone                   (b. 1671 - d. 1737)
 9 Jul 1737 - 18 Aug 1765  Francesco II                       (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
                           
(Franz I Holy Roman Emperor 13 Sep 1745 - 18 Aug 1765)
 9 Jul 1737 -
18 Aug 1765  Regency Council
                           - Marc de Beauvau, principe de     (b. 1679 - d. 1754)
                              Craon (chairman 1737 - 1749)
                           - Déodat-Emmanuel de Nay-Richecourt(b. 1694 - d. 1768)
                             (chairman 1749 - Apr 1757) 
                           - Antonio Botta-Adorno             (b. 1688 - d. 1774)
                             (chairman Sep 1757 - 1765)
18 Aug 1765 - 27 Jul 1790  Pietro Leopoldo I                  (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
                            
(Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor 30 Sep 1790 - 1 Mar 1792)
18 Aug 1765
- 28 Dec 1770  Franz Xaver von Orsini-Rosenberg   (b. 1723 - d. 1796)
                             (chairman of Regency council)
20 Feb 1790 - Mar 1791     Regency Council
27 Jul 1790 - 27 Mar 1799  Ferdinando III (1st time)          (b. 1769 - d. 1824)
Organizing Commissioner of the Provisional Government
27 Mar 1799 - Jul 1799     Charles Frédéric Reinhardt         (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
President of the Provisional Government
27 Mar 1799 -  5 Jul 1799  Rivani
Chairman of the Supreme Delegation of Arezzo
 6 May 1799 - 1799         Benedetto Mancinetti         
                             (in opposition to French rule)
President of the Senate
 5 Jul 1799 -  7 Jul 1799  Cesare Gori
Grand Dukes
 7 Jul 1799 - 15 Oct 1800  Ferdinando III (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                            (deposed by international treaty 9 Feb 1801)
                           
(Elector of Salzburg 1803-1805, Grand Duke of Wurzburg 1805-1814)
15 Oct 1800 - 27 Nov 1800 
Grand-Ducal Commission
                           - Giuseppe Francesco Pierallini    (b. 1721 - d. 1805) 
                              (1st time)
                           - Antonio Cercignani (1st time)
                           - Bernardo Lessi (1st time)
                           - Giulio Piombanti (1st time)
27 Nov 1800 - 27 Mar 1801  Provisional Government
                           - Francesco Chiarenti              (b. 1766 - d. 1828)
                           - Enrico Pontelli
                           - Giovanni De Ghores
27 Mar 1801 -  3 Aug 1801  Grand-Ducal Commission
                           - Giuseppe Francesco Pierallini    (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
                           - Antonio Cercignani (2nd time)
                           - Bernardo Lessi (2nd time)
                           - Giulio Piombanti (2nd time)
Governor-general of the Tuscan Provinces
1800 - 1801                Annibale, marchese di Sommariva    (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
King
s¹
 2 Aug 1801 - 27 May 1803  Ludovico I                         (b. 1773 - d. 1803)
 2 Aug 1801 - 12 Aug 1801  Cesare Ignazio Giovanni, conte     (b. 1741 - d. 1826)
                             Ventura (acting for Ludovico)
27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807  Carlo Ludovico II                  (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807  Maria Luisa di Borbone (f) -Regent (b. 1782 - d. 1824)
Governors-general
May 1808 -  3 Mar 1809     Jacques François de Boussay,       (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
                             baron de Menou 
 3 Mar 1809 -  1 Feb 1814  Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (f)      (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
                            (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany)
Prefects of Arno département
25 Feb 1808 - Mar 1809     Jean Jacques Racault de Reuilly    (b. 1777 - d. 1810)
16 Mar 1809 - 1814         Jean Antoine Joseph Fauchet        (b. 1761 - d. 1834)
                             (from 4 Jun 1810, Jean Antoine
 
                            Joseph, baron Fauchet)
Prefects of Méditerranée département
25 Feb 1808 - 30 Nov 1810  Guillaume Antoine Benoît Capelle,  (b. 1775 - d. 1843)
                             (from 3 Dec 1809) baron Capelle 
30 Nov 1810 - 1814         Michel Augustin de Goyon,          (b. 1764 - d. 1851)
                             baron de Goyon
Prefect of Ombrone département
25 Feb 1808 - 1814         Ange Gandolfo                      (b. 1755 - d. 18..)
                            (from 30 Sep 1811, Baron Ange Gandolfo) 
Grand Dukes¹
27 Apr 1814 - 18 Jun 1824  Ferdinando III (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 
1 May 1814 - 25 Sep 1814  Giuseppe, principe Rospigliosi     (b. 1755 - d. 1833)
                            (commissioner of the Grand Duke)
18 Jun 1824 - 21 Feb 1849  Leopoldo II (1st time)             (b. 1797 - d. 1870)

                            (exiled 8 Feb 1849 - 28 Jul 1849)
 8 Feb 1849 - 18 Feb 1849  Provisional Government
                           - Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi     (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
                           - Giuseppe Montanelli              (b. 1813 - d. 1862)
                           - Giuseppe Mazzoni                 (b. 1808 - d. 1880)
18 Feb 1849 - 27 Mar 1849  Provisional Government (of the
                           Roman Republic in Tuscany)

                           - Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi     (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Montanelli              (s.a.)
                           - Ferdinando Zannetti              (b. 1801 - d. 1881)
27 Mar 1849 - 12 Apr 1849  Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi       (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
                            (Dictator) 
12 Apr 1849 - 21 Jul 1859  Leopoldo II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                            (exiled from 27 Apr 1859, though not formally
                             dispossessed, unrecognized by Provisional Government)
12 Apr 1849 -  4 May 1849  Government Commission
                           - Ubaldino Peruzzi                 (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
                           - Gino, marchese Capponi           (b. 1792 - d. 1876)
                           - Bettino barone Ricasoli          (b. 1809 - d. 1880)
                           - Luigi, conte Serristori          (b. 1793 - d. 1857)
                           - Cesare Capoquadri                (b. 1790 - d. 1871)
 4 May 1849 - 28 Jul 1849  Luigi, conte Serristori            (s.a.)
                            (Extraordinary Commissioner of the Grand Duke)
21 Jul 1859 - 16 Aug 1859  Ferdinando IV                      (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                            (though not formally dispossessed until 16 Aug 1859,
                             unrecognized by Provisional Government and by
                             Sardinian administration)
27 Apr 1859 - 11 May 1859  Provisional Government
                           - Ubaldino Peruzzi                 (s.a.)
                           - Alessandro Danzini               (b. 1825 - d. 1874)
                           - Vincenzo Malenchini              (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
Sardinian Extraordinary Commissioners
11 May 1859 -  1 Aug 1859  Carlo Bon-Compagni di Mombello     (b. 1804 - d. 1880)
 1 Aug 1859 - 22 Mar 1860  Bettino barone Ricasoli            (s.a.)
Governor-general of the United Provinces of Central Italy
(includes Modena, Tuscany, Parma and Piacenza)
 3 Dec 1859 - 22 Mar 1860  Carlo Bon-Compagni di Mombello     (s.a.)
Royal Lieutenant
22 Mar 1860 - 23 Oct 1861  Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia-        (b. 1816 - d. 1888)
                             Carignano, principe di Carignano
Governor-general
22 Mar 1860 - 23 Oct 1861  Bettino barone Ricasoli            (s.a.)
 

Chief ministers
1738 - 1744                Marc de Beauvau, principe de Craon (s.a.)
1744 - 1747                Déodat-Emmanuel de Nay-Richecourt  (s.a.)
1757 - 1765                Antonio Botta-Adorno               (s.a.)
1767 - 15 Sep 1775         Pompeo Neri                        (b. 1706 - d. 1775)
1777 - 1782                Angelo Tavanti                     (b. 1714 - d. 1782)
1789 - 1790                Francesco Maria Gianni             (b. 1728 - d. 1821)
1790 - 1791                Antonio Serristori                 (b. 1711 - d. 1796)
1791 - 1796                Federico, marchese Manfredini      (b. 1743 - d. 1829)
1796 - 1798                Francesco Seratti                  (b. 1730 - d. 1814)
1798 - 1799                Neri III, principe Corsi (1st time)(b. 1771 - d. 1845)
1799 - 1801                Vacant
1801 - 1807                Giulio Mozzi, conte del Garbo
     (b. 1730 - d. 1813)
 1 May 1814 - 25 Sep 1814  Giuseppe, principe Rospigliosi     (s.a.)
                             (commissioner of the Grand Duke)
1815 - 13 Apr 1844         Vittorio, conte Fossombroni        (b. 1754 - d. 1844)
Apr 1844 - 25 Oct 1845     Neri III, principe Corsi (2nd time)(s.a.)
25 Oct 1845 - Sep 1847     Vacant
Sep 1847 -  2 Jun 1848     Neri IV, principe Corsini,         (b. 1805 - d. 1859)
                             marchese di Lajatico
 2 Jun 1848 - 30 Jul 1848  Cosimo, marchese di Ridolfi        (b. 1794 - d. 1865)
Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime minister)
 1 Aug 1848 - 27 Oct 1848  Gino, marchese Capponi (1st time)  (s.a.)
27 Oct 1848 - 21 Feb 1849  Giuseppe Montanelli                (s.a.)
21 Feb 1849 - 11 Mar 1849  Vacant
11 Mar 1849 -  5 May 1849  Gino, marchese Capponi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 5 May 1849 - 27 Jul 1849  Vacant
27 Jul 1849 - 27 Apr 1859  Giovanni Baldasseroni              (b. 1790 - d. 1876)
27 Apr 1859 - 10 May 1859  Ubaldino Peruzzi                   (s.a.)
                             (president of Provisional Government)
 1 Aug 1859 - 22 Mar 1860  Bettino, barone Ricasoli           (s.a.)

Austrian Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
1849 - 1859                Karl Freiherr von Hugel            (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
                             (chargé d'affaires to 1850)

 ¹full style of the rulers:
(a) 2 Aug 1801 - 10 Dec 1807: per grazia di Dio Infante di Spagna, Re dell'Etruria e Principe Ereditario di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla ec. ("By the grace of God, Infant of Spain, King of Etruria and Hereditary Prince of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, etc.");
(b) 1814 - 16 Aug 1859: per grazia di Dio, Principe Imperiale d'Austria, Principe reale d'Ungheria e di Boemia, Arciduca d'Austria, Granduca di Toscana, ecc., ecc. ("By the grace of God, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany, etc., etc.").


Elba

[Elba state flag under Napoleon,
                          1814-1815]
            4 May 1814 - 1 Mar 1815
 
[Elba Tuscan
                          Merchant flag 1814-1815, 1841-1860]
           Merchant flag 1814 - 1815, 1841 - 1860
 
Map of Elba
Capital: Portoferraio
 Population: N/A
1016 - 1399                Part of Pisa.
1290 - 1311                Occupied by Genoa.
18 Feb 1399                Lordship of Piombino created when Gherardo d'Appiano sells Pisa
                             to Milan, but retains Piombino and islands of Elba, Montecristo
                             and Pianosa.
 3 Sep 1501 - Sep 1503     Papal rule under Cesare Borgia, duca di Valentino.
 8 Nov 1509                Piombino an immediate fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire, under
                             the suzerainty of Spain (from 1735, "Sicily" Naples).
Jun 1544                   Island is attacked and stormed by Turks under Barbarossa.
22 Jun 1548                Emperor Charles V sells Piombino and part of Elba which overlooks
                             the Gulf of Ferraia (Portoferraio) to Florence.
24 Jul 1548 - 12 Aug 1552  Occupied by Spain.
 1 Aug 1559                Lordship of Piombino restored and Elba is partitioned between
                             Florence, Piombino and Spain (from 1735 Naples)(from this point
                             Piombino rules only the interior part of the island)
                             (by treaty dated 29 May 1557).
 1 Aug 1559                Lordship of Piombino restored and Elba is partitioned into three
                             divisions: Florentine possession of Portoferraio is confirmed;
                             the Appiani dynasty confirmed as the Lords of Piombino and
                             and Elba in the interior; Spain (from 1735 Naples) is granted
                             rights to fortify 'other Elban ports' as part of the Stato dei
                             Presidi, which are subordinated to the Spanish viceroy
                             in "Sicily" (Naples)(by treaty dated 29 May 1557).
 8 May 1602                Spanish occupy Longone (Porto Azzuro) to establish a fort in
                             accordance with 1557 Treaty of London.
29 Oct 1646 - 15 Aug 1650  Porto Longone occupied by France.
 7 Mar 1714                Suzerainty over Spanish forts at Porto Longone granted to Naples.
 3 Oct 1735                Former Spanish forts ceded to Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples).
10 Jul 1796 - 15 Apr 1797  British occupation.
 4 Apr 1799 - 19 Jul 1799  French occupation; the Neapolitan and Grand Ducal forts resist.
28 Mar 1801                Elba and Neapolitan forts are ceded to France by "Sicily" (Naples).
 2 May 1801                French occupation Neapolitan forces evacuate Porto Longone. 
23 Jun 1801 - Oct 1801     British carry out frequent raids against the French.
25 Mar 1802                Remaining (Tuscan) fort on Elba is ceded to France
                             (the fort continues to resist until 4 Jun 1801). 
26 Aug 1802                Annexed to France, as département Île d'Elba.
 3 Mar 1809                Attached to the Government-general of Tuscany.
1811                       Part of département Méditerranée.
11 Apr 1814                Sovereign Principality of Elba, under French ex-emperor Napoléon I
                             (including Capraja, Gorgona, and Montecristo islands).
 4 May 1815                Napoléon takes possession.
26 Feb 1815                Napoléon abandons Elba for France beginning the "100 days.".
25 Mar 1815                The Allies declare Napoleon's sovereignty over Elba ended.
 9 Jun 1815                Ceded to Tuscany by Congress of Vienna.
30 Jul 1815                Tuscany takes possession.
13 Oct 1815                Formally incorporation into Tuscany.
22 Mar 1860                Part of the Kingdom of Sardinia
16 Sep 1943 - 17 Jun 1944  German occupation.


Lords

 
1 Aug 1559 - 28 Mar 1801  the Lords (from 1594 Princes) of Piombino
Governors of the Tuscan forts at Portoferraio
1550 - 1553                Francesco Da Montauto
1553 - 1537                Angiolo Guicciardini
1537 - 1539                Domenico Attavanti
1539 - 1563                Baldinaccio Martellini
1563 - 1564                Pandolfo Benvenuti
1564 - 1566                Gioovanni Battista Venturi
1566 - 1569                Giovanni Battista Medici
1569 - 1572                Lunetto Attavanti
1572 - 1575                Vincenzo Del Benino (1st time)
1575 - 1578                Bernardo Masi
1578 - 1581                Domenico Mellini
1581 - 1584                Paolo Sestini
1584 - 1587                Raimondo Mannelli
1587 - 1588                Simone Amidei
1588 - 1590                Simone Lippi
1590 - 1593                Galeazzo Taddei
1593 - 1594                Vincenzo Del Benino (2nd time)
1594 - 1597                Francisco Busini
1597 - 1600                Tommaso Barbadori
1600 - 1603                Antonio Buondelmonte
1603 - 1607                Carlo Fortunati
1607 - 1610                Baccio Frescobaldi
1610 - 1613                Giuliano Capponi
1613 - 1616                Fabio Guidi
1616 - 1619                Cosimo Medici
1619 - 1621                Orazio Barboni
1621 - 16..                Marzio dei Conti Montauto
1644 - 1645                Balidor Suarez
1645 - 1651                Paolo Cansacchi
1651 - 1653                Pietro Grifoni
1653 - 1655                Raffaello Conversini (1st time)
1655 - 1658                Tommaso Serristori
1658 - 1672                Raffaello Conversini (2nd time)
1672 - 1678                Dionisio Squarci
1678 - 1681                Agostino Borghesi
1681 - 1683                Pietro Paolo Nardi
1683 - 1684                Alfonso Bracciolini
1684 - 1688                Amerigo Attavanti
1688 - 1701                Mario Tornaquinci
1701 - 1702                Benedettto Guerrini
1702 - 1709                Barone Alessandro di           (b. 1652 - d. 1735)
                             Agostino Del Nero

1709 - 1721                Girolamo Niccolini
1721                       Gaetano Buonsollazzi
1721 - 1726                Carlo Vieri
1726 - 1730                Luigi De Bardi
1730 - 1735                Giovanni Vincenzo Coresi del
                             Bruno

1735                       Diego Mody
1735 - 1736                Giovanni D'Osea
1736 - 1737                Raimondo de Burk
1737 - 1740                Cristiano Holtrapo
1740 - 1746                Lorenzo Henart
1746 - 1749                ....
1749 -  9 Sep 1772         Leopoldo de Villeneuve         (d. 1772)
1773 - 1782                Carlo de Lauger
1782 - 1792                Paolo Brischieri
1792 - 1796                Georg Anton Freiherr Knesevich (b. 1733 - d. 1805)
 9 Jul 1796 - 20 Dec 1796  John Duncan -British commander
1796 - 29 Mar 1799         Francesco Solerino
29 Mar 1799 - 17 Jul 1799  Pierre François Mont Serraz    (b. 1758 - d. 1820)
                             (Montserrat) -French commander
Apr 1799 - Jul 1799        Luigi Lambardi (French governor)
1799 - 1800                Antonio de Fera
Sep 1800 -  4 Jun 1801     Carlo de Fisson                (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
                             (or Filsen/Fixon)
Castellanos of Spanish (from 3 Oct 1735, Neapolitan) forts at Porto Longone
(subordinated to the governors of Stato dei Presidi)
1602 - c.1606              José Ponce de Léon
c.1618                     Antonio de Parédes
c.1636                     José de España
16.. - 29 Oct 1646         Alfonso Covello de Ribera
Apr 1647 - c.1648          Godefroy, comte d'Estrades     (b. 1607 - d. 1686)
                            (for Piombino and Porto Longone)
1646? - 15 Jul 1650        Melchior de la Tour de
                             Noaillac -French governor
16.. - 16..                Alfonso de Monroy              (d. 1668)
c.1693 - 1696              Juan Manuel de Sotomayor
1697 - ....                Joseph Alava
c.1700 - 1710              Tomás Francisco Pinel y Monroy (b. 1650 - d. 17..)
1710 - Nov 1714            Juan Estebán Bellet
                             (or Billet/Velet/Villart)
Dec 1714 - Oct 1715        conde de Montemar (interim)
1715 - 1716                Juan Esteban Bellet
1716 - c.Oct 1718          de Pozobueno
                             (or Pozzobueno/Possobueno)
Apr/May 1721 - c.1722      Diego de Alarcón
172. - 17..                Diego Antonio Marriguez
c.1742 - 1743              Charles Thibaut, comte de      (d. 1746)
                             Dongelberg (or Dongelberghe)      
17.. - 13 Dec 1765         marquis de Turbilly (acting)   (d. 1765)
c.1766                     Claudio Amat Poulet  
c.1797 - May 1797          Vincenzo Dentice               (b. 1741 - d. 1818)
May 1797 - 179.            Marcello de Gregorio
179. - 1799                Amédée Willot, comte de        (b. 1755 - d. 1823)
                             Granprez
1799 -  2 May 1801         ....
Commissioners-general

29 Aug 1801 - Sep 1802     Pierre Joseph Briot (1st time) (b. 1771 - d. 1827)
Sep 1802 - 13 Apr 1803     Claude Hugues Lelièvre         (b. 1752 - d. 1835)
13 Apr 1803 - Jan 1804     Pierre Joseph Briot (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jan 1804 - Nov 1810        Giovanni Battista Galeazzini   (b. 1759 - d. 1833)
Nov 1810 - 1811            Jean-Baptiste Dominique Rusca  (b. 1759 - d. 1814)
Governor
1811 - 1814                Antoine Drouot                 (b. 1774 - d. 1847)
Commanders

Dec 1801 - 29 May 1805     Jean-Baptiste Dominique Rusca  (s.a.)
1805 - 1809                Pierre François Joseph Durutte (b. 1767 - d. 1827)
 8 Mar 1809 - 15 May 1810  Hubert Callier                 (b. 1764 - d. 1819)
15 May 1810 - Oct 1810     Jean Jacques Dazémar           (b. 1757 - d. 1816) 
24 Oct 1810 -  3 May 1814  Jean-Baptiste, baron Dalesme   (b. 1763 - d. 1832)
Sovereign¹
 4 May 1814 - 30 Jul 1815  Napoléon I (left 26 Feb 1815)  (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
Governors

 4 May 1814 - 30 Jul 1815  Antoine Drouot                 (s.a.)
                             (left 26 Feb 1815)
26 Feb 1815 - Apr 1815     Pietro Giuseppe Cristiano Lapi (b. 1766 - d. 1854)
                             (interim)
Apr 1815 - 30 Jul 1815     Jean-Baptiste, baron Dalesme   (s.a.)
Tuscan Extraordinary Commissioner

Aug 1815 - 1816            Agostino, conte Fantoni


Minister Secretary of State

 
4 May 1814 - 26 Feb 1815  Henri Gatien, comte Bertrand   (b. 1773 - d. 1844)

Allied Commissioners (did not come to Elba)
 
4 May 1814 - 26 Feb 1815  Neil Campbell (U.K.)           (b. 1776 - d. 1827)
                           + Franz Freiherr von Koller    (b. 1762 - d. 1826)
                              (Austria)
                           + Friedrich Ludwig Graf        (b. 1776 - d. 1844)
                              Truchsess von Waldburg 
                              (Prussia)
                           + Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov   (b. 1774 - d. 1823)
                              (Russia)

 ¹full style of the ruler 19 Apr 1814 - 26 Feb 1815 (in French): Souverain de l'Île d'Elbe; (in Italian): Signore dell'Elba ("Sovereign of Elba").


Stato dei Presidi  (State of the Garrisons)

Map of Stato dei Presidi
Capital: Orbetello
 (to 1707); Porto Longone
 (from 1707)
 Population: N/A


29 May 1557                Spanish possession of Porto Santo Stefano, Orbetello, 
                             Talamone and Porto Ercole as Stato dei Reali Presidi di Spagna
                             confirmed by Treaty of London; subordinated to the Spanish
                             Viceroy of Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples).
 3 Jul 1557                Spanish possession confirmed.
 8 May 1602 -  9 Feb 1801  Porto Longone on Elba part of the Stato dei Presidi.
 9 May 1646 - 20 Jul 1650  French occupation of Porto Santo, Talamone and from
                             30 Oct 1646 Porto Longone.
24 Dec 1707 -  7 Mar 1714  Occupied by Imperial forces under Austria.
 7 Mar 1714                Austrian possession confirmed by Treaty of Rastatt.
 3 Oct 1735                Stato dei Presidi (Présides de la Toscane) subordinated to
                             Kingdom of "Sicily" (Naples). 

15 Oct 1800 - 22 Nov 1801  Occupied by France.
28 Mar 1801                Ceded to France by "Sicily" (Naples). 
 2 Aug
1801                Incorporated into Kingdom of Etruria (Tuscany),
22 Nov 1801                S
eparate administration terminated.

 
3 Feb 1814 - 15 Sep 1814  Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples). 
27 Apr 1814                Incorporated into Tuscany. 

Governors of Stato di Presidi
(subordinated to the Viceroy of Naples to 1707)
1557 - 1802                the Vicar generals of the Tuscan Presidios
Castellanos of Orbetello and Talamone
(subordinated to the governors of the Stato dei Presidi)
1557 - 1574                Blas de Vargas                         (d. 1574)
28 Sep 1574 - 1584         Cristóbal de Ezpeleta y Aguerre        (d. 1584)
1584 - 1593                Francisco de Montes de Oca y Meneses   (b. c.1526 - d. 1593)
1593 - 1601                Martin Fernández Ceron                 (d. c.1606)
1601 - 1608                Juan Chasco                            (d. c.1608)
1605 - 1617                Egidio Nuñez Orejón                    (d. 1618)
1618 - 1624                Mateo de Otáñez Mota                   (b. 1568 - d. 1628)
1625 - 1627                Martin de Arostegui Marañón de la Peña (d. 1627)
1628 - 1635                Sebastián de Culebro
1635 - 1646                Martin de Berrio y Angulo              (b. c.1603 - d. 1650?)
1646 - 1652                Pedro de la Puente y Hurtado de Ulloa, (b. c.1605 - d. 1667)
                             barón de Reiffenberg                
1652 - 1656                Pablo de Castelló y de Puig            (b. c.1614 - d. ....)
1656 — 1666                Cristóbal Velázquez de Carvajal,       (d. 1666)
                             señor de Almazquilla
1666 — 1674                Juan Flores de Quiñones
1674 — 1675                José Espluga y Juste                   (b. c.1618 - d. 1697)
1675 - 1688                ....
24 Nov 1688 - 1689         Juan Gomez de Enterría y Noriega       (b. 1636 - d. 1695)
Apr 1689 - 1698            Pedro de Meneses
1698 - 17..                Bartolomé Espejo y Vera (1st time)
17.. - 1714                António Luís de Sousa, conde de Prado, (b. 1644 - d. 1721)
                             marqués das Minas
17.. - 1734                Bartolomé Espejo y Vera (2nd time)
1734 - 28 Jun 1735         Johann Ernst Freiherr von Braitwiz
                             (acting for Espejo y Vera)
1741 - 17..                Placido de Sangro, duca di
                             Torremaggiore
c.1742                     Charles Ball
17.. - 13 Dec 1765         marquis de Turbilly                    (d. 1765)
1771 - 1775?               Josef Karl von Schorno                 (b. 1706 - d. 1775)
17.. - 17..                Francesco, marchese Masi
17.. - 17..                Salvatore Gomez Paloma, marchese       (b. 1715 - d. 1779)
                             dell'Olivera
1775? - 22 Nov 1801        ....     

Castellanos of Porto Longone (on Elba)
 8 May 1602 - 1707         see under Elba


Siena

[Republic of Siena
                  flag]

1125                       Republic of Siena (Repubblica di Siena).
1186                       Republic recognized by Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa.
1224                       Grosseto annexed.
15 Aug 1270 - 127.         Occupied by "Sicily" (Naples).
 6 Sep 1399 - 1404         Occupied by Milan.
22 Jul 1487                Lordship of Siena, under the Petrucci.
1525                       Republic of Siena (restored); the Petrucci are exiled.
1548 - 1552                Spanish occupation.
21 Apr 1555 -  3 Jul 1557  Occupied by Florence.
21 Apr 1555 -  3 Apr 1559  Republic of Siena continues in rebellion at Montalcino.
 
3 Jul 1557                Ceded to Tuscany by Spain (effective 19 Jul 1557), with Spain
                             retaining some coastal territories as Stato dei Presidi.

Lords (title Primus di Siena)
22 Jul 1487 - 21 May 1512  Pandolfo Petrucci                    (b. 1452 - d. 1512)
21 May 1512 - Mar 1516     Borghese Petrucci                    (b. 1490 - d. 1526)
Mar 1516 - 11 Dec 1522     Raffaello Petrucci                   (b. 1472 - d. 1522)
1522 - 1523                Francesco Petrucci                   (d. 1523)
1523 - 1525                Fabio Petrucci
Captains of the People (title Capitani del Popolo)
1525 - 1555                ....


Pisa

[Republic of Pisa]

 7 Apr 944                 Pisa (referred to as Pisanae reipublicae [Pisan Republic] in and
                             after 957, and headed by consuls) is granted Papal protection.

Jul 1081                   Pisa city autonomous.
1098 - 1284                Corsica annexed.
By 1150                    Consuls and
capitaneis et universo populo Pisano mentioned.
13 May 1289 - 12 Jul 1293  Ruled by Urbino.
1312 - 20 Sep 1313         Imperial administration.
20 Sep 1313                Republic of Pisa (restored).
1326 - 29 Apr 1328         Imperial administration.
29 Apr 1328 -  3 Sep 1328  Occupied by Lucca.
 3 Sep 1328 - 17 Jun 1329  Imperial administration.
17 Jun 1329                Republic of Pisa (restored).
1347 - 1355                Administered by a Signore di Pisa, under the Gambacorti.
20 May 1355 - Jul 1355     Imperial administration.
Jul 1355                   Republic of Pisa (restored).
29 Aug 1368 - 21 Sep 1369  Imperial administration.
21 Sep 1369                Republic of Pisa (restored).
18 Feb 1399                Sold to Milan.
 3 Sep 1402                Separated from Milan as a secundogenitura.
26 Jul 1405 - 30 Aug 1405  Occupied by France and Genoa.
30 Aug 1405                Sold to Florence by Milan.
Oct 1405                   Separated by uprising.
 9 Oct 1406                Ceded to Florence.
 9 Nov 1494                Republic of Pisa (restored).
 8 Jun 1509                Pisa submits to Florence.


Captains of the People
(title Capitano del Popolo)
23 Oct 1392 - 10 Sep 1398  Jacomo di Giovanni d'Appiani          (b. c.1322 - d. 1398)  
 5 Jan 1398 - 18 Feb 1399  Gherardo Leonardo d'Appiani           (b. c.1375 - d. 1405)
                             (co-ruler to 10 Sep 1398)
18 Feb 1399 -  3 Sep 1402  part of Milan     
Lord (title Signore di Pisa)            
 3 Sep 1402 - 26 Jul 1405  Gabriele Maria Visconti               (b. 1385 - d. 1407)
26 Jul 1405 - 30 Aug 1405  occupied by France
30 Aug 1405 - Oct 1405     part of Florence            
Defender of the People (title Difensore del Popolo)
Oct 1405 -  9 Oct 1406     Giovanni Gambacorta                   (b. 13.. - d. 1431)
 9 Oct 1406 -  9 Nov 1494  part of Florence
 9 Nov 1494 -  8 Jun 1509  ....    



Two Sicilies
 
[Kingdom of Two
                          Sicilies 1735-1829]
c.1738 - 3 Feb 1799, 23 Jun 1799 - 27 Dec 1805 
   (23 Jan 1799-22 May 1815 Sicily only)
 
[Parthenopean
                          Republic 1799]
            3 Feb 1799 - 23 Jun 1799
               Parthenopean Republic 
 
[Kingdom of
                          Naples 1806-1808]
               1806 - 1808: Naples 
 
 
[France (Naples
                          1805-1808)]
        2 Jul 1808 - 15 Feb 1811: Naples
 
[Kingdom of
                          Naples 1811-1815]
      15 Feb 1811 - 22 May 1815: Naples 
 
[Kingdom of Two
                          Sicilies 1735-1829]
               22 May 1815 - 1829
 
[Kingdom of Two
                        Sicilies 1829-1860]
 1829 - 3 Apr 1848, 19 May 1849 - 25 Jun 1860
 
[Naples
                          1848-1849]
            3 Apr 1848 - 19 May 1849
 
[Two Sicilies
                          1860]
             25 Jun 1860 - 7 Sep 1860
 
Map of the Two Sicilies
Hear National Anthem
"Inno del Re"
(King's Anthem)
(1787-1860)
Parthenopean Anthem
"Inno della Repubblica Napoletana"
(Hymn of the Neapolitan Republic) (1799)
 Constitutions
(1799; 1808-1815;10 Jul 1848;
in Italian)
Capital: Naples
(Naploi)
Currency: 1818-1860 Italian
States Ducat  (XITD)
National Holiday: N/A
Population: N/A

25 Dec 1130                Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the island of Sicily and
                             a large region, centered on Naples, on the mainland.
31 Mar 1282                Split into two kingdoms, sometimes in personal union:
                            (1) Kingdom of Sicily, informally Kingdom of Naples or
                             Kingdom of "Sicily this side of the Lighthouse"
                            (Sicilia al di qua del Faro), in Latin Sicilia citra Farum;
                            (2) Kingdom of Sicily, thus called informally, also
                             Kingdom of "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse."
                            (Sicilia al di là del Faro), in Latin Sicilia ultra Farum.
 8 Dec 1816                The two kingdoms merge as Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
11 May 1860 -  8 Nov 1860  Giuseppe Garibaldi conquers Sicily and Naples.
 8 Nov 1860                Administered by Kingdom of Sardinia.
17 Dec 1860                Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia.
 

Naples (Sicily this side of the Lighthouse)

1059                       Roberto "il Guiscardo" is created Duke of Apulia, Calabria and
                             Sicily (which still under Arab occupation) by Pope Nicholas II.
Apr 1071                   Norman conquest of Bari.
10 Jan 1072                Norman conquest of Palermo, Sicily under Ruggero I who becomes Count

                             of Sicily (County of Sicily).
13 Dec 1076                Conquest of Salerno.
25 Dec 1130                Part of Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the island of Sicily

                             and a large region, centered on Naples, on the mainland.
1137                       Duchy of Amalfi annexed.
1139                       Duchy of Naples annexed.
Sep 1140                   Duchy of Gaeta annexed.
26 Feb 1154 -  6 Jan 1266  United with
Sicily.
1156                       Principality of Capua annexed.
 6 Jan 1266                Kingdom of Sicily

31 Mar 1282                Split into two kingdoms, sometimes in personal union:
                            (1) Kingdom of Sicily, informally Kingdom of Naples or
                             Kingdom of "Sicily this side of the Lighthouse"
                            (Sicilia al di qua del Faro);
                            (2) Kingdom of Sicily, thus called informally, also
                             Kingdom of "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse"
                            (Sicilia al di là del Faro).
12 Jun 1442                Naples ruled by Aragón.
 2 Jun 1442 – 27 Jun 1458  Personal union with Sicily.
11 Aug 1480 - 10 Sep 1481  Otranto occupied by Ottoman Empire.
22 Feb 1495 -  7 Jul 1496  French occupation of Naples.

 1 Aug 1501 - 31 Mar 1504  French occupation of Naples (partition with Aragón agreed
                             by Treaty of Granada 11 Nov 1500).
31 Mar 1504                Naples under Aragón rule.
23 Jan 1516                Naples under Spanish rule.
11 Jul 1647 - Apr 1648     Commune of Naples in rebellion.
 7 Jul 1707                Naples under Austrian rule.
 2 Jun 1734                Spanish rule restored.
23 Jan 1799 - 23 Jun 1799  French occupation of Naples.
23 Jan 1799                Neapolitan Republic, unofficially styled
                             Parthenopean Republic.
23 Jun 1799                Kingdom of Sicily restored.
27 Dec 1805 - 1814         French occupation of Naples.
 1 Mar 1806                Annexed by France.
30 Mar 1806                Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (thus named, although its
                             authority does not extend to the island), under French rule.
 1 Aug 1808                Kingdom of Sicily restored.
 8 Dec 1816                The two kingdoms merge as Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
 8 Aug 1860 -  8 Nov 1860  Giuseppe Garibaldi conquers Naples.
 6 Sep 1860 - 14 Feb 1861  King Francesco II takes refuge in Gaeta.
 8 Nov 1860                Administered by Kingdom of Sardinia.
17 Dec 1860                Annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia; Naples keeping a
                             large degree of internal autonomy.
15 Feb 1861                Gaeta occupied by Sardinian troops.
20 Mar 1861                Last Neapolitan fortress, Civitella del Tronto, surrenders.
 5 May 1861                Abolition of Neapolitan autonomy.
 9 Oct 1861                Neapolitan provinces fully integrated into
                             the new Kingdom of Italy.

Dukes of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily (title Duca di Puglia, Calabria e Sicilia)
1059 - 17 Jul 1085         Roberto "il Guiscardo"             (b. 1025 - d. 1085)
17 Jul 1085 - 22 Feb 1111  Ruggero Borsa                      (b. 1060/61 – d. 1111)
22 Feb 1111 - 28 Jul 1127  Guglielmo II di Puglia             (b. 1095 – d. 1127)
Kings¹ of Sicily ("Naples")
(title Re di Sicilia Insulare e Peninsulare; from 26 Sep 1282, Re di Sicilia)
27 Sep 1130 - 31 Mar 1282  the kings of Sicily
31 Mar 1282 -  7 Jan 1285  Carlo I                            (b. 1226 - d. 1285)
 7 Jan 1285 -  6 May 1309  Carlo II "lo Zoppo"                (b. 1254 - d. 1309)
 6 May 1309 - 19 Jan 1343  Roberto I "il Saggio"              (b. 1277 – d. 1343)
19 Jan 1343 - 26 Aug 1381  Giovanna I (f) -Queen              (b. 1327 – d. 1382)
Dec 1347 - Dec 1349        Luigi "il Grande" (in dissidence)  (b. 1326 - d. 1382)
                             (Lajos I king of Hungary)
26 Aug 1381 - 24 Feb 1386  Carlo III "il Piccolo"             (b. 1345 - d. 1386)

12 May 1382 – 20 Sep 1384  Luigi I d'Anjou (in dissidence)    (b. 1339 – d. 1384)
20 Sep 1384 – 29 Apr 1417  Luigi II (in dissidence)           (b. 1377 – d. 1417)
24 Feb 1386 -  6 Aug 1414  Ladislao I "il Magnanimo"          (b. 1377 – d. 1414)

 6 Aug 1414 -  2 Feb 1435  Giovanna II (f) -Queen             (b. 1373 – d. 1435)
10 Oct 1415 - Oct 1416     Giacomo de Borbone (usurper)       (b. 1370 - d. 1438)
29 Apr 1417 – 1426         Luigi III (in dissidence)          (b. 1403 – d. 1434)
 2 Feb 1435 - 12 Jun 1442  Renato I "il Buono"                (b. 1409 – d. 1480)
18 Oct 1435 - 19 May 1438  Isabella di Lorena (f) -Regent     (b. 1400 - d. 1453)
12 Jun 1442 - 27 Jun 1458  Alfonso I "il Magnanimo"           (b. 1396 – d. 1458)

                            (Alfons V of Aragón, Alfonso I in Sicily)
27 Jun 1458 - 25 Jan 1494  Ferdinando I "il Bastardo"         (b. 1423 – d. 1494)
                           
(Ferrante)
25 Jan 1494 – 22 Feb 1495  Alfonso II (1st time)              (b. 1448 – d. 1495)

22 Feb 1495 -  7 Jul 1495  Carlo (VIII)                       (b. 1470 – d. 1498)
                            (Charles VIII of France)
 7 Jul 1495 – 18 Dec 1495  Alfonso II (2nd time)              (s.a.)
18 Dec 1495 -  7 Oct 1496  Ferdinando II (Ferrandino)         (b. 1469 – d. 1496)
 7 Oct 1496 –  1 Aug 1501  Federico I                         (b. 1452 – d. 1504)
 1 Aug 1501 - 31 Mar 1504  Luigi (XII) (Louis XII of France)  (b. 1462 – d. 1515)
31 Mar 1504 - 23 Jan 1516  Ferdinando III "il Cattolico"      (b. 1452 – d. 1516)
                            (Ferran II of Aragón, Fernando I of Spain)
23 Jan 1516 - 12 Apr 1555  Giovanna III (f) -Queen            (b. 1479 – d. 1555)
                            (Jaoana of Aragón, Juana of Spain)
                           - jointly with –
14 Mar 1516 – 16 Jan 1556  Carlo IV                           (b. 1500 – d. 1558)
                            (Carlos I of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor Karl V)
16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598  Filippo I                          (b. 1556 – d. 1598)  
                            (Felipe II of Spain)
13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Filippo II                         (b. 1578 – d. 1621)  
                            (Felipe III of Spain)
31 Mar 1621 – 17 Sep 1665  Filippo III                        (b. 1605 – d. 1665)
                            (Felipe IV of Spain)
17 Sep 1665 –  1 Nov 1700  Carlo V                            (b. 1661 – d. 1700)
                            (Carlos II of Spain)
16 Nov 1700 -  7 Jul 1707  Filippo IV                         (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                            (Felipe V of Spain)
 7 Jul 1707 -  2 Jun 1734  Carlo VI Giuseppe Francesco        (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (Holy Roman Empire Karl VI)
 2 Jun 1734 -  6 Oct 1759  Carlo VII Sebastiano               (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
                            (Carlos III of Spain)
 2 Jun 1734 - 1738         Regency
                           - Marqués de Montemar
                           - José Joaquin de Monte Alegre,    (b. 1698 - d. 1771)
                               marqués de Salas
 6 Oct 1759 - 23 Jan 1799  Ferdinando IV (1st time)           (b. 1751 - d. 1825)
                            (in Palermo, Sicily refuge 21 Dec 1798 - Aug 1801)
 6 Oct 1759 - 12 Jan 1767  Regency
                           - Bernardo marchese Tanucci        (b. 1698 - d. 1783)
                           - Domenico Cattaneo principi di    (b. 1698 - d. 1782) 
                               San Nicandro
Presidents of the Provisional Government
23 Jan 1799 - 19 Feb 1799  Carlo Lauberg                      (b. 1752? - d. 1834)
19 Feb 1799 - 23 Mar 1799  Ignazio Ciaja                      (b. 1766 - d. 1799)
23 Mar 1799 - 15 Apr 1799  Giuseppe Abbamonte                 (b. 1759 - d. 1818)
President of the Executive Commission²
15 Apr 1799 -  5 Jun 1799  Ercole D'Agnese                    (b. 1745 - d. 1799)
President of the Executive Directory³
 5 Jun 1799 - 23 Jun 1799  Ercole D'Agnese                    (s.a.)
King¹
23 Jun 1799 -  1 Mar 1806  Ferdinando IV (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                            (in Palermo, Sicily refuge from 8 Feb 1805)
President of the State Junta
(ruling in name of the absent king)
23 Jun 1799 - 1799         Felice Damiani
Lieutenant General
27 Dec 1805 - 30 Mar 1806  Giuseppe Napoleone                 (b. 1768 - d. 1844) 
                             (Joseph Bonaparte)
Kings4
30 Mar 1806 -  8 Jul 1808  Giuseppe Napoleone                 (s.a.)
 8 Jul 1808 -  1 Aug 1808  Regency
                           - Antonio Cristoforo Saliceti      (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
                           - Michelangelo Cianciulli          (b. 1734 - d. 1819)
                           - Nicola Luigi Pignatelli di       (b. 1753 - d. 1833)
                              Cerchiara

 1 Aug 1808 - 22 May 1815  Gioacchino Napoleone               (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
                             (Joachim Murat)
King¹
22 May 1815 -  8 Dec 1816  Ferdinando IV (3rd time)           (s.a.)
Administrator (for Ferdinando IV)
22 May 1815 -  2 Jun 1815  Prince Leopoldo di Borbone         (b. 1790 - d. 1850) 
 

First Secretaries
Jan 1768 - 1776            Bernardo marchese Tanucci          (s.a.)
                            (de facto since 6 Oct 1759)
1779 - 1798                Sir John Francis Acton             (b. 1736 - d. 1811)
                            (in Palermo refuge 21 Dec 1798 - 19 Jun 1799)
Chief minister (in Naples)
1806 - 1808                Ferri Pisani de San Anastasio      (b. 1770 - d. 1846) 

French Viceroys
May 1495 - Oct 1495        Gilbert de Bourbon, comte de       (b. 1443 - d. 1496)
                             Montpensier               
Aug 1501 - 28 Apr 1503     Louis d'Armagnac, duc de Nemours   (b. 1472 - d. 1503)
1503 - 27 Jan 1504         Ludovico II del Vasto              (b. 1438 - d. 1504)
Viceroys in Naples

14 Feb 1672 -  9 Sep 1675  Antonio Pedro Sancho Dávila y      (b. c.1615 - d. 1689)
                             Osorio, marqués de Astorga

 9 Sep 1675 -  9 Jan 1683  Fernando Joaquín Fajardo de        (b. 1635 - d. 1693)
                             Requesens y Toledo, marqués de
                             los Vélez

16 Jan 1683 - 16 Nov 1687  Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, marqués   (b. 1629 - d. 1687)
                             del Carpio

31 Jan 1687 -  5 Feb 1696  Francisco de Benavides, marqués de (b. 1645 - d. 1716)
                             Santisteban

27 Mar 1696 - Feb 1702     Luis Francisco de la Cerda, duque

                             de Medinaceli                    (b. 1660 - d. 1711)
Feb 1702 -  6 Jul 1707     Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco y    (b. 1650 - d. 1725) 
                             Zúñiga, duque d'Escalona, 
                             marques de Villena
 7 Jul 1707 - 31 Oct 1707  Georg Adam Graf von Martinitz      (b. 1645 - d. 1714)
 1 Nov 1707 - 30 Jun 1708  Wirich Philipp Lorenz Graf
                             von Daun (1st time)              (b. 1669 - d. 1741)
 1 Jul 1708 - 27 Sep 1710  Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani          (b. 1652 - d. 1710)
27 Sep 1710 - 20 May 1713  Carlo Borromeo conte d'Arese       (b. 1657 - d. 1734)
20 May 1713 -  4 Jul 1719  Wirich Philipp Lorenz Graf 
                             von Daun (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1719 - 25 Jul 1719  Johann Wenzel von Gallas           (b. 1669 - d. 1719)
25 Jul 1719 - Mar 1721     Wolfgang Hannibal Graf von         (b. 1660 - d. 1738)
                             Schrattenbach, Cardinal-Erzbischof
                             von Olmütz             

1721 - 1722                Marcantonio Borghese, principe di  (b. 1660 - d. 1729)
                             Sulmona    
19 May 1722 - 31 Jul 1728  Cardinal Michael Friedrich von     (b. 1682 - d. 1734)
                             Althann
31 Jul 1728 -  9 Dec 1728  Joaquín Fernández Portocarrero,    (b. 1681 - d. 1760) 
                             marques de Almahara (acting)
 9 Dec 1728 - 12 Jun 1733  Aloys Thomas Raimund von Harrach   (b. 1669 - d. 1742)
12 Jun 1733 -  1 Jun 1734  Giulio Borromeo, conte Visconti    (b. 1664 - d. 1751)
 3 Jan 1735 - 12 Jul 1735  Manuel d'Orléans                   (b. 1677 - d. 1740)
25 Mar 1744 - 13 Nov 1744  Michele Reggio
Vicars-general
(in opposition to French rule)

21 Dec 1798 - 17 Jan 1799  Principe Francesco Pignatelli      (b. 1734 - d. 1812)
25 Jan 1799 - 22 May 1815  Fabrizio Cardinal Ruffo            (b. 1744 - d. 1827)
                            (from 31 Jul 1799, Lieutenant-general of the Realm)
French Commissioners
 7 Jan 1799 -  6 Feb 1799  Guillaume Charles de Faipoult      (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
19 Feb 1799 - 1799         André Joseph, comte Abrial         (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
                             (arrived 28 Mar 1799)
French Governors
17 Mar 1806 - Jul 1808     Jean-Baptiste Jourdan,             (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
                             comte Jourdan 
23 Jul 1808 - 27 Mar 1813  Dominique Catherine Pérignon,      (b. 1754 - d. 1818)
                             comte Pérignon

French Commanders of the Armée de Naples 
24 Jan 1799 - 27 Feb 1799  Jean Etienne Championnet           (b. 1762 - d. 1800)
27 Feb 1799 -  3 Aug 1799  Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre
                             MacDonald                        (b. 1765 - d. 1840)


Sicily (Sicily beyond the Lighthouse) 
 
[Kingdom of Siciliy to c.1800]
            17th cent. - c.1800 Sicily

[Kingdom of Sicily Local
                                  Flag to 1817]
            c.1800 - 2 Oct 1817 Sicily  

[Sicily
                                  1848-1849]
      28 Mar 1848 - 15 May 1849: Sicily

Map of Sicily
Capital: Palermo
(Naples 1266-1282;
Catania 1282-1401;
Messinia 1130-1266)
Constitution
(1812-1815; in Italian)
Population: N/A

831 - 1070                 Sicily under Arab Muslim rule.
1059                       Roberto "il Guiscardo" is created Duke of Apulia, Calabria and
                             Sicily (which still under Arab occupation) by Pope Nicholas II.
1061                       Norman invasion of Sicily begins with fall of Messina.
10 Jan 1072                Conquest of Palermo under Ruggero I, who becomes Count of

                             Sicily (County of Sicily).
Feb 1091                   Last Saracen stronghold at Noto surrenders.
1123                       Pantelleria annexed.
25 Dec 1130                Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the island of Sicily and

                             a large region, centered on Naples, on the mainland.
20 Oct 1194 - 25 May 1254  Part of Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
31 Mar 1282                Communi of Palermo and Messina independent.
31 Mar 1282                Split into two kingdoms, sometimes in personal union:
                            (1) Kingdom of Sicily, informally Kingdom of Naples or
                             Kingdom of "Sicily this side of the Lighthouse";
                            (2) Kingdom of Sicily, thus called informally, also
                             Kingdom of "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse" 
                            (Sicilia al di là del Faro).
 4 Sep 1282                Kingdom of Sicily restricted to the island, restored.
26 Sep 1282 – 11 Dec 1295  Personal union with Aragón.
31 Aug 1302                Renamed Kingdom of Trinacria.
1314                       Name Kingdom of Sicily restored.
1372                       Name Kingdom of Trinacria restored.
21 May 1392                Name Kingdom of Sicily restored.
25 Jul 1409                Under Aragón rule.
 2 Jun 1442 – 27 Jun 1458  Personal union with Sicily "Naples."
23 Jan 1516                Under Spanish rule.
28 Apr 1675 - 1678         French occupation in Messina.
21 Dec 1713 -  8 Aug 1720  Duke of Savoy is king of Sicily.
Jul 1718 - 29 Oct 1719     Spanish occupation.
29 Oct 1719 -  8 Aug 1720  Austrian occupation.
 8 Aug 1720                Under Austrian rule.
 2 Jun 1734                Spanish rule restored.