World Statesmen.org HOME > to Roman Catholic Church >>

 
 
 






 

Vatican City (Holy See)
 
[Vatican Flag]
        Adopted 8 Jun 1929
     

Map of Vatican City
Hear National Anthem
"Inno e Marcia Pontificale"
(Pontifical Anthem and March)
Adopted 24 Dec 1949
Former Unofficial Anthem
"Gran Marcia Trionfale"
(Great Triumphal March)
(1929-24 Dec 1949)
Fundamental Law
(22 Feb 2001; in Italian)
Holy See Website
Lateran Treaty
(11 Feb 1929)
Apostolic Constitution of 1967
(1 Mar 1968)
Apostolic Constitutions
(18 Dec 1854; Ineffabilis Deus -
The Immaculate Conception)
Capital: Vatican City
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1929 - 28 Feb 2002
Vatican City Lira (VAL)
and Italian Lira (ITL)
National Holiday: 13 Mar (2013)
Election Day of 
Pope Francis
Population: 839 (2013)
note: 2,832 lay workers reside
outside the Vatican (2011)
GDP: N/A
Revenues: $308 million (2011)
Expenditures: $326 million (2011)
Ethnic groups: Italian, Swiss, Argentine, others
Total Active Armed Forces: 110 Swiss Guard Corps (2011)
Total Police: Gendarmes: 130 (2012)
Defense is the Responsibility of Italy
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 100% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties Holy See: AL (delegate), APM, AU (observer), BTWC, CCM, CE (observer), CTBT, CWC, ENMOD (signatory), FAO (observer), IAEA, ICAO (observer), IFAD (observer), ILO (observer), IMO (observer), IOM, ISA (observer), ITUC, LU (permanent observer), NAM (guest), NPT, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PAM (observer), SICA (observer), UN (observer), UNCLOS (observer), UNCTAD, UNEP (observer), UNESCO (observer), UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO (observer), UNWTO (permanent observer), WFP (observer), WHO (observer), WIPO, WMO (observer), WTO (observer); Vatican City: Eutelsat, Interpol, ITSO, ITU, UPU
Vatican City
Index
Chronology

c.60                       Church of Rome founded by the Apostle Peter.
14 Apr 754                 Donation of the Frankish ruler Pepin creates
                             a temporal Papal State for the Popes of the
                             Roman Catholic Church (also called the Papal
                             State or the States of the Church)
                             (see Papal State under Italian states).
 9 Mar 1309 - 17 Jan 1377  Popes rule from Avignon in France, era is
                             referred to as the "Babylonian Captivity
                             of the Church" by some historians.
15 Feb 1798 - 23 Nov 1798  In rebellion: Roman Republic.
10 Jun 1809 - 24 Mar 1814  Papal State annexed to France
26 Feb 1831 - 26 Mar 1831  In rebellion: United Italian Provinces.
 9 Feb 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  In rebellion: Roman Republic.
 9 Oct 1870                Papal State annexed by Italy.
 9 Oct 1870 -  7 Jun 1929  Popes rule in seclusion in the Vatican Palace 
                             as "Prisoners in the Vatican."
 7 Jun 1929                State of Vatican City established (Stato della
                             Città del Vaticano); independence from Italy.
22 Dec 1947                Italian Constitution enshrines the Lateran Treaty.
 6 Apr 1964                Becomes a permanent observer at the United Nations.

List of Popes
of the
Roman
Catholic
Church

Papal State
(to 1870)

Cardinals of the
Catholic Church
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Sovereigns¹
 7 Jun 1929 - 10 Feb 1939  Pius XI (Pope from 6 Feb 1922)     (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
10 Feb 1939 -  2 Mar 1939  Gennaro Cardinal Granito           (b. 1851 - d. 1948)
                             Pignatelli di Belmonte
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli         (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
                             (chamberlain)
 2 Mar 1939 -  9 Oct 1958  Pius XII (= Pacelli)               (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1958 - 28 Oct 1958  Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent     (b. 1884 - d. 1972)
                             Cardinal Tisserant (1st time)
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi        (b. 1879 - d. 1970)
                              Masella (1st time) (chamberlain)
28 Oct 1958 -  3 Jun 1963  Ioannes XXIII (= John XXIII)       (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
 3 Jun 1963 - 21 Jun 1963  Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent     (s.a.)
                             Cardinal Tisserant (2nd time)
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi        (s.a.)
                              Masella (2nd time) (chamberlain)
21 Jun 1963 -  6 Aug 1978  Paulus VI (= Paul VI)              (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
 6 Aug 1978 - 26 Aug 1978  Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri        (b. 1893 - d. 1986)      
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                             (1st time)            
                           + Jean-Marie Cardinal Villot       (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
                             (chamberlain) (1st time)
26 Aug 1978 - 28 Sep 1978  Ioannes Paulus I (= John Paul I)   (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
28 Sep 1978 - 16 Oct 1978  Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri        (s.a.)      
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                             (2nd time)     
                           + Jean-Marie Cardinal Villot       (s.a.)
                             (chamberlain) (2nd time)
16 Oct 1978 -  2 Apr 2005  Ioannes Paulus II (= John Paul II) (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
 2 Apr 2005 - 19 Apr 2005  Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger          (b. 1927)
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Eduardo Cardinal Martínez Somalo (b. 1927)
                             (chamberlain)
19 Apr 2005 - 28 Feb 2013  Benedictus XVI (= Benedict XVI)    (s.a.)
                             (= Ratzinger)
28 Feb 2013 - 13 Mar 2013  Angelo Cardinal Sodano             (b. 1927)
                             (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone        (b. 1934)
                             (chamberlain)
13 Mar 2013 -              Franciscus (= Francis)             (b. 1936) 


Secretaries of State
13 Oct 1914 - 10 Feb 1930  Pietro Cardinal Gasparri           (b. 1852 - d. 1934)  Non-party
                            (acting 22 Jan - 6 Feb 1922)
10 Feb 1930 -  2 Mar 1939  Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli           (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (acting from 10 Feb 1939)
 2 Mar 1939 - 10 Mar 1939  Vacant
10 Mar 1939 - 22 Aug 1944  Luigi Cardinal Maglione            (b. 1877 - d. 1944)  Non-party
22 Aug 1944 - 29 Nov 1952  Vacant
29 Nov 1952 -  9 Oct 1958  Domenico Tardini (1st time)(acting)(b. 1888 - d. 1961)  Non-party
29 Nov 1952 -  1 Nov 1954  Giovanni Battista Montini          (b. 1897 - d. 1978)  Non-party
                            (acting for Tardini)
 9 Oct 1958 - 28 Oct 1958  Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi Masella  (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (1st time)(acting)
29 Oct 1958 - 30 Jul 1961  Domenico Tardini (2ndtime)(acting) (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (from 18 Dec 1958, Domenico Cardinal Tardini)
                            (acting to 17 Nov 1958)
30 Jul 1961 - 12 Aug 1961  Angelo Dell'Acqua (acting)         (b. 1903 - d. 1972)  Non-party
12 Aug 1961 -  3 Jun 1963  Amleto Giovanni Cardinal Cicognani (b. 1883 - d. 1973)  Non-party
                            (1st time)
 3 Jun 1963 - 21 Jun 1963  Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi Masella  (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (2nd time)(acting)
21 Jun 1963 -  2 May 1969  Amleto Giovanni Cardinal Cicognani (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (2nd time)
 2 May 1969 -  9 Mar 1979  Jean Cardinal Villot               (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (acting 6 - 26 Aug 1978 and 28 Sep - 16 Oct 1978)
 9 Mar 1979 - 28 Apr 1979  Giuseppe Caprio (acting)           (b. 1914 - d. 2005)  Non-party
28 Apr 1979 -  1 Dec 1990  Agostino Casaroli                  (b. 1914 - d. 1998)  Non-party
                            (from 30 Jun 1979, Agostino Cardinal Casaroli)
                            (acting to 1 Jul 1979)
 1 Dec 1990 -  2 Apr 2005  Angelo Sodano (1st time)           (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (from 28 Jun 1991, Angelo Cardinal Sodano)
                            (acting to 29 Jun 1991)
 2 Apr 2005 - 19 Apr 2005  Eduardo Martínez Cardinal Somalo   (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (acting)
19 Apr 2005 - 21 Apr 2005  Vacant
21 Apr 2005 - 15 Sep 2006  Angelo Cardinal Sodano (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Sep 2006 - 15 Oct 2013  Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone          (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Oct 2013 -              Pietro Parolin                     (b. 1955)            Non-party
                             (from 22 Feb 2014, Pietro Cardinal Parolin)
 

Governor of the State of Vatican City
 7 Jun 1929 - 21 Mar 1952  Camillo, marchese Serafini         (b. 1864 - d. 1952)  Non-party
Presidents of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City
20 Mar 1939 -  3 Aug 1961  Nicola Cardinal Canali             (b. 1874 - d. 1961)  Non-party
12 Aug 1961 -  2 May 1969  Amleto Giovanni Cardinal Cicognani (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Aug 1961 -  6 Nov 1968  Alberto Cardinal di Jorio          (b. 1884 - d. 1979)  Non-party
                            (acting for Cicognani)
 6 Nov 1968 - 30 Apr 1969  Sergio Guerri                      (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  Non-party
                            (from 30 Apr 1969, Sergio Cardinal Guerri)
                            (acting for Cicognani)
 2 May 1969 -  9 Mar 1979  Jean-Marie Cardinal Villot         (s.a.)               Non-party
 1 Jul 1979 -  8 Apr 1984  Agostino Casaroli                  (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (from 30 Jun 1979, Agostino Cardinal Casaroli)
 2 May 1969 - 26 Sep 1981  Sergio Cardinal Guerri             (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (acting [for Casaroli from 1 Jul 1979])
 8 Apr 1984 - 31 Oct 1990  Sebastiano Cardinal Baggio         (b. 1913 - d. 1993)  Non-party
31 Oct 1990 - 14 Oct 1997  Rosalio José Cardinal Castillo Lara(b. 1922 - d. 2007)  Non-party
14 Oct 1997 - 21 Feb 2001  Edmund Casimir Cardinal Szoka      (b. 1927)            Non-party
Presidents of the Governorate of the Vatican City State
22 Feb 2001 - 15 Sep 2006  Edmund Kasimir Cardinal Szoka      (s.a.)               Non-party
15 Sep 2006 -  1 Oct 2011  Giovanni Lajolo                    (b. 1935)            Non-party
                            (from 24 Nov 2007, Giovanni Cardinal Lajolo)
 1 Oct 2011 -              Giuseppe Bertello                  (b. 1942)            Non-party
                            (from 18 Feb 2012, Giuseppe Cardinal Bertello)

No Political Parties Exist (exclusive of influence exercised by officers of the church).
Note: Under the terms of the 1929 Lateran Treaty, the Holy See has extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome, including the Palace of the Holy Office and the Lateran Palace (in 1979, Palazzo della Datarìa near the Quirinal Palace was exchanged for the Palazzo Pio), and five Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo.

 ¹full style of ruler:
(a) from 7 Jun 1929: Sommo Pontefice, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano ("Supreme Pontiff, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City");
(i) 7 Jun 1929 - 1 Mar 2006 (Long form): Vescovo di Roma, Vicario di Gesù Cristo, Successore del principe degli apostoli, Sommo Pontefice della chiesa universale, Patriarca di Occidente, Primate d'Italia, Arcivescovo e Metropolita della Provincia Romana, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, Servo dei Servi di Dio ("Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God");
(ii) from 1 Mar 2006 (Long form): Vescovo di Roma, Vicario di Gesù Cristo, Successore del principe degli apostoli, Sommo Pontefice della chiesa universale, Primate d'Italia, Arcivescovo e Metropolita della Provincia Romana, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, Servo dei Servi di Dio ("Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of
the Servants of God").





© Ben Cahoon