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Roman Catholic Church



[Papal Flag
                              to 1803]
                       to 1803
[Papal
                              flag 1803-1825]
              1803 - 17 Sep 1825
[Papal Flag since
                              1825]
       Adopted 17 Sep 1825

c.60                       Church of Rome founded by the Apostle Peter (St. Peter).
19 Jun 325 - 25 Aug 325    First Council of Nicaea.
May 381 -  8 Jul 381       First Council of Constantinople.
22 Jun 431 - 31 Jul 431    Council of Ephesus.
 8 Oct 451 -  1 Nov 451    Council of Chalcedon.
 5 May 553 -  2 Jun 553    Second Council of Constantinople. 
 7 Nov 680 - 16 Sep 681    Third Council of Constantinople.
754                        Donation of Pepin creates temporal Papal State for the Popes.
24 Sep 787 - 23 Oct 787    Second Council of Nicaea. 
 5 Oct 869 - 28 Feb 870    Fourth Council of Constantinople.
16 Jul 1054                The "Great Schism" between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western
                             (Catholic) Churches.
18 Mar 1123 -  6 Apr 1123  First Lateran Council.
 2 Apr 1139 - 17 Apr 1139  Second Lateran Council.
 5 Mar 1179 - 19 Mar 1179  Third Lateran Council.
11 Nov 1215 - 30 Nov 1215  Fourth Lateran Council.
28 Jun 1245 - 17 Jul 1245  First Council of Lyons.
 7 May 1274 - 17 Jul 1274  Second Council of Lyons.
 9 Mar 1309 - 13 Jan 1377  Popes rule from Avignon, France (often referred to as
                             the "Babylonian Captivity" of the Church).
16 Oct 1311 -  6 May 1313  Council of Vienne in France.
30 Sep 1378 - 11 Nov 1417  The Great Schism in the Western Church.
 5 Nov 1414 - 22 Apr 1418  Council of Constance.
23 Jul 1431 - 25 Apr 1449  Council of Basle-Ferrara-Florence.
 3 May 1512 - 16 Mar 1517  Fifth Lateran Council.
13 Dec 1545 -  4 Dec 1563  Council of Trent.
10 Jun 1809 - 24 Mar 1814  Papal State annexed to France.
 8 Dec 1869 - 20 Oct 1870  First Vatican Council.
19 Oct 1870                Incorporation of Rome and the Patrimony of St. Peter
                             into Kingdom of Italy.
19 Oct 1870 -  7 Jun 1929  Pope's rule as "Prisoners in the Vatican" in seclusion in 
                             the Vatican Palace in Rome.
 7 Jun 1929                Independence of Vatican City State from Italy.
11 Oct 1962 -  8 Dec 1965  Second Vatican Council.
 

Popes¹ (Latin names with English and personal names in parentheses)
c.60 - 29 Jun 67           Petrus (= Peter "the Apostle")     (d. 67)
                             (Simon Peter)
67 - 23 Sep 76             Linus                              (d. 76)
76 - 26 Apr 88             Anacletus (Cletus)                 (d. 88)
88 - 97                    Clemens I (= Clement I)            (d. 97)
                             (Clemens Romanus)  
97 - 27 Oct 105            Evaristus (= Aristus)              (d. 105)
105 -  3 May 115           Alexander I                        (d. 115)
115 -  3 Apr 125           Xystus I (= Sixtus I)              (b. 42 - d. 125)
125 -  5 Jan 136           Telesphorus                        (d. 136)
136 - 11 Jan 140           Hyginus                            (d. 140)
140 - 11 Jul 155           Pius I                             (d. 155)
155 - 20 Apr 166           Anicetus                           (d. 166)
166 - 22 Apr 775           Soterius (= Soter)                 (d. 175)
175 - 26 May 189           Eleutherius (= Eleuterus)          (d. 189)
189 - 199                  Victor I                           (d. 199)
199 - 20 Dec 217           Zephyrinus (= Zepheniah)           (d. 217)
217 - 222                  Callistus I (= Callixtus I)        (d. 222)
217 - 235                  Hippolytus (anti-pope)             (b. c.170 - d. 235)
222 - May 230              Urbanus I (= Urban I)              (d. 230)
21 Jul 230 - 28 Sep 235    Pontianus (= Pontian)              (d. 235)
21 Dec 235 -  3 Jan 236    Anterus                            (d. 236)
10 Jan 236 - 20 Jan 250    Fabianus (= Fabian)                (b. c.200 - d. 250)
 6 Mar 251 - Jun 253       Cornelius                          (d. 253)
251 - 258                  Novitian (anti-pope)               (b. c.220 - d. 258) 
25 Jun 253 -  5 Mar 254    Lucius I                           (b. c.200 - d. 254)
12 May 254 -  2 Aug 257    Stephanus I (= Stephen I)          (d. 257)
30 Aug 257 -  6 Aug 258    Xystus II (= Sixtus II)            (d. 258)
22 Jul 259 - 26 Dec 268    Dionysius                          (d. 268)
 5 Jan 269 - 30 Dec 274    Felix I                            (d. 274)
 4 Jan 275 -  7 Dec 283    Eutychianus (= Eutychian)          (b. 228 - d. 283)
17 Dec 283 - 22 Apr 296    Caius (= Gaius)                    (d. 296)
30 Jun 296 - 25 Oct 304    Marcellinus                        (d. 304)
25 Oct 304 - 27 May 308    Interregnum
27 May 308 - 16 Jan 309    Marcellus I                        (d. 309)
18 Apr 309-17 Aug 309/10   Eusebius                           (d. 309/10)
 2 Jul 311 - 11 Jan 314    Miltiades (Melchiades)             (d. 314)
31 Jan 314 - 31 Dec 335    Silvester I (= Sylvester I)        (d. 335)
18 Jan 336 -  7 Oct 336    Marcus (= Mark)                    (d. 336)
 6 Feb 337 - 12 Apr 352    Iulius I (= Julius I)              (d. 352)
17 May 352 - 24 Sep 366    Liberius                           (d. 366)
355 - 358                  Felix II (anti-pope)               (d. 365)
 1 Oct 366 - 11 Dec 384    Damasus I                          (b. c.305 - d. 384)
366 - 367                  Ursinus (anti-pope)                (d. 385)
15 Dec 384 - 26 Nov 399    Siricius                           (d. 399)
27 Nov 399 - 19 Dec 404    Anastasius I                       (d. 404)
22 Dec 401 - 12 Mar 417    Innocentius I (= Innocent I)       (d. 417)
18 Mar 417 - 26 Dec 418    Zosimus                            (d. 418)
27 Dec 418 -  3 Apr 419    Eulalius (anti-pope)               (d. 423)
28 Dec 418 -  4 Sep 422    Bonifatius I (= Boniface I)        (d. 422)
10 Sep 422 - 27 Jul 432    Coelestinus I (= Celestine I)      (d. 432)
31 Jul 432 - 19 Aug 440    Xystus III (= Sixtus III)          (d. 440)
29 Sep 440 - 10 Nov 461    Leo I Magnus (= Leo I "the Great") (b. c.391 - d. 461)
19 Nov 461 - 29 Feb 468    Hilarius                           (d. 468)
 3 Mar 468 - 10 Mar 483    Simplicius                         (d. 483)
13 Mar 483 - 25 Feb 492    Felix III (II)                     (d. 492)
 1 Mar 492 - 21 Nov 496    Gelasius I                         (d. 496)
24 Nov 496 - 19 Nov 498    Anastasius II                      (d. 498)
22 Nov 498 - 19 Jul 514    Symmachus                          (d. 514)
22 Nov 498 - 499           Laurentius (anti-pope)             (d. 507/08)
20 Jul 514 -  6 Aug 523    Hormisdas                          (d. 523)
13 Aug 523 - 18 May 526    Ioannes I (= John I)               (b. 470 - d. 526)
12 Jul 526 - 20 Sep 530    Felix IV (III)                     (d. 530)
20 Sep 530 - 17 Oct 532    Bonifatius II (= Boniface II)      (d. 532)
22 Sep 530 - 14 Oct 530    Dioscorus (anti-pope)              (d. 530)
 2 Jan 533 -  8 May 535    Ioannes II (= John II)             (b. c.470 - d. 535)
                             (Mercurius)  
13 May 535 - 22 Apr 536    Agapitus I (= Agapetus I)          (d. 536)
 8 Jun 536 - 11 Mar 537    Silverius                          (b. c.480 - d. 537)
29 Mar 537 -  7 Jun 555    Vigilius                           (d. 555)
16 Apr 556 -  4 Mar 561    Pelagius I                         (d. 561)
17 Jul 561 - 13 Jul 574    Ioannes III (= John III)           (d. 574)
                             (Catelinus)
 2 Jun 575 - 30 Jul 579    Benedictus I (= Benedict I)        (d. 579)
26 Nov 579 -  7 Feb 590    Pelagius II                        (b. 520 - d. 590)
 3 Sep 590 - 12 Mar 604    Gregorius I Magnus                 (b. c.540 - d. 604)
                             (= Gregory I "the Great")  
                            
(Gregorius Anicius)
Mar 604 - 22 Feb 606       Sabinianus (=
Sabinian)            (d. 606)
17 Feb 607 - 10 Nov 607    Bonifatius III (= Boniface III)    (d. 607)
25 Aug 608 -  8 May 615    Bonifatius IV (= Boniface IV)      (b. c.550 - d. 615)
19 Oct 615 -  8 Nov 618    Adeodatus I (Deusdedit)            (d. 618)
23 Dec 619 - 23 Oct 625    Bonifatius V (= Boniface V)        (d. 625)
27 Oct 625 - 12 Oct 638    Honorius I                         (d. 638) 
15 Oct 638 -  2 Aug 640    Severinus                          (d. 640)
24 Dec 640 - 12 Oct 642    Ioannes IV (= John IV)             (d. 642)
24 Nov 642 - 14 May 649    Theodorus I (= Theodore I)         (d. 649)
 5 Jul 649 - 16 Sep 655    Martinus I (= Martin I)            (d. 655)
                             (exiled to Crimea 18 Jun 653)
10 Aug 655 -  2 Jun 657    Eugenius I (= Eugene I)            (d. 657)
30 Jul 657 - 27 Jan 672    Vitalianus (= Vitalian)            (d. 672)
11 Apr 672 - 16 Jun 676    Adeodatus II (Deusdedit)           (d. 676)
 2 Nov 676 - 11 Apr 678    Donus                              (d. 678)
27 Jun 678 - 10 Jan 681    Agatho                             (d. 681)
17 Aug 682 -  3 Jul 683    Leo II (Leo Maneius)               (b. 611 - d. 683)
                             (elected Jan 681)
26 Jun 684 -  8 May 685    Benedictus II (= Benedict II)      (b. 635 - d. 685)
                             (Benedictus Sabellus)
23 Jul 685 -  2 Aug 686    Ioannes V (= John V)               (b. 635 - d. 686)
686 - 21 Oct 686           Theodorus II (= Theodore II)
                             (1st time)(anti-pope)

21 Oct 686 - 21 Sep 687    Conon                              (b. c.630 - d. 687)
687                        Paschalis (= Paschal) (anti-pope)  (d. 692)
687 - 15 Dec 687           Theodorus II (anti-pope)(2nd time)
15 Dec 687 -  8 Sep 701    Sergius I                          (b. c.650 - d. 701)
30 Oct 701 - 11 Jan 705    Ioannes VI (= John VI)             (b. 655 - d. 705)
 1 Mar 705 - 18 Oct 707    Ioannes VII (= John VII)           (b. c.650 - d. 707)
15 Jan 708 -  4 Feb 708    Sisinnius                          (b. c.650 - d. 708)
25 Mar 708 -  9 Apr 715    Constantinus (= Constantine)       (b. 664 - d. 715)
19 May 715 - 11 Feb 731    Gregorius II (= Gregory II)        (b. 669 - d. 731)
                             (Gregorius Sabellus)
18 Mar 731 - 28 Nov 741    Gregorius III (= Gregory III)      (d. 741)
 3 Dec 741 - 15 Mar 752    Zacharias (= Zachary)              (b. 679 - d. 752)
22 Mar 725 - 26 Mar 752    Stephanus (II) (= Stephen [II])    (d. 752)
                             (elected, but not consecrated)    
26 Mar 752 - 26 Apr 757    Stephanus II (III) (= Stephen II)  (b. 715 - d. 757)
Apr 757 - May 757          Theophilus (anti-pope)
29 May 757 - 28 Jun 767    Paulus I (= Paul I)                (b. c.700 - d. 767)
 5 Jul 767 -  7 Aug 768    Constantinus II (= Constantine II)
                             (anti-pope)
31 Jul 768                 Philip (anti-pope)
 7 Aug 768 - 24 Jan 772    Stephanus III (IV) (= Stephen III) (b. c.720 - d. 772)
 9 Feb 772 - 25 Dec 795    Hadrianus I (= Adrian I)           (b. c.700 - d. 795)
27 Dec 795 - 12 Jun 816    Leo III                            (b. c.750 - d. 816)
22 Jun 816 - 24 Jan 817    Stephanus IV (V) (= Stephen IV)    (b. c.770 - d. 817)
25 Jan 817 - 11 Feb 824    Paschalis I (= Paschal I           (d. 824)
                             (Pascale Massimi)
 8 May 824 - 27 Aug 827    Eugenius II (= Eugene II)          (d. 827)
Aug 827 - 6/7 Oct 827      Valentinus (= Valentine)           (b. c.800 - d. 827)
Dec 827 - 25 Jan 844       Gregorius IV (= Gregory IV)        (b. c.795 - d. 844)
25 Jan 844 - 27 Jan 847    Sergius II                         (d. 847)
844                        Ioannes VIII (= John VIII)
                             (anti-pope)
10 Apr 847 - 17 Jul 855    Leo IV                             (b. 790 - d. 855)
29 Sep 855 - 17 Apr 858    Benedictus III (= Benedict III)    (d. 858)
29 Sep 855 -  2 Oct 855    Anastasius III (anti-pope)         (b. c.810 - d. 879)
                             (Anastasio il Bibliotecario
24 Apr 858 - 13 Nov 867    Nicolaus I Magnus                  (b. c.800 - d. 867)
                             (= Nicholas I "the Great")           
14 Dec 867 - 14 Dec 872    Hadrianus II (= Adrian II)         (b. 792 - d. 872)
14 Dec 872 - 16 Dec 882    Ioannes VIII (= John VIII)         (d. 882)
16 Dec 882 - 15 May 884    Marinus I                          (d. 884)
15 May 884 - Jul 885       Hadrianus III (= Adrian III)       (d. 885)
Sep 885 - 14 Sep 891       Stephanus V (VI) (= Stephen V)     (d. 891)
 6 Oct 891 -  4 Apr 896    Formosus                           (b. c.805 - d. 896)
11 Apr 896 - 26 Apr 896    Bonifatius VI (= Boniface VI)      (d. 896)
22 May 896 - 14 Aug 897    Stephanus VI (VII) (= Stephen VI)  (d. 897)
Aug 897 - Nov 897          Romanus                            (d. 897)
Dec 897 - 20 Dec 897       Theodorus II (= Theodore II)       (b. 840 - d. 897)
Apr 898 - 26 Mar 900       Ioannes IX (= John IX)             (d. 900)
Jun 900 - Jul 903          Benedictus IV (= Benedict IV)      (d. 903)
Aug 903 - Sep/Oct 903      Leo V                              (d. 903/04)
Sep/Oct 903 - Jan 904      Christophorus (= Christopher)      (d. 904/05)
                             (anti-pope)
29 Jan 904 - 14 Apr 911    Sergius III                        (b. c.860 - d. 911)
Apr 911 - Jun 913          Anastasius III                     (d. 913)
Jul/Aug 913 - Feb/Mar 914  Landus (= Lando)                   (d. 914)
Mar 914 - May 928          Ioannes X (= John X)               (d. 928)
May/Jun 928 - Dec 928      Leo VI (Leo Sanguini)              (d. 928)
Dec 928 - 15 Mar 931       Stephanus VII (VIII)(= Stephen VII)(d. 931)
                             (Stephanus)           
Mar 931 - Dec 935          Ioannes XI (= John XI)             (b. 910? - d. 935)
                            
(Octavianus)
 3 Jan 936 - 13 Jul 939    Leo VII                            (d. 939)

14 Jul 939 - Oct 942       Stephanus VIII (IX)(= Stephen VIII)(d. 942)
30 Oct 942 - May 946       Marinus II                         (d. 946)
10 May 946 -  8 Nov 955    Agapitus II (= Agapetus II)        (d. 956)
16 Dec 955 -  6 Nov 963    Ioannes XII (= John XII)           (b. c.937 - d. 964)
                             (Ottaviano dei conti di Tuscolo) 
 6 Dec 963 - 26 Feb 964    Leo VIII (anti-pope)               (d. 965)
22 May 964 - 23 Jun 964    Benedictus V (= Benedict V)        (d. 966)
23 Jun 964 -  1 Mar 965    Leo VIII                           (s.a.)
 1 Oct 965 -  6 Sep 972    Ioannes XIII (= John XIII)         (d. 972)
                             (Giovanni Crescenzi)
19 Jan 973 - Jun 974       Benedictus VI (= Benedict VI)      (d. 974)
                             (elected Sep 972)
Jun 974 - Jul 974          Bonifatius VII (= Boniface VII)    (d. 985)
                             (1st time)(anti-pope)
                             (Francone di Ferruccio)
Oct 974 - 10 Jul 983       Benedictus VII (= Benedict VII)    (d. 983)
Dec 983 - 20 Aug 984       Ioannes XIV (= John XIV)           (d. 984)
                             (Pietro Campanora)  
Aug 984 - Jul 985          Bonifatius VII (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (anti-pope)
Aug 985 -  1 Apr 996       Ioannes XV (= John XV)             (d. 996)
                             (Giovanni di Gallina Alba)
                           [sometimes called XVI because of legendary predecessor]
 3 May 996 - 18 Feb 999    Gregorius V (= Gregory V)          (b. c.972 - d. 999)
                             (Bruno von Kärnten)
Mar 997 - Feb 998          Ioannes XVI (= John XVI)(anti-pope)(d. 1001)
                             (Giovanni Filagato)
 2 Apr 999 - 12 May 1003   Silvester II (= Sylvester II)      (b. c.946 - d. 1003)
                             (Gerbert d'Aurillac)
16 May 1003 -  6 Nov 1003  Ioannes XVII (= John XVII)         (d. 1003)
                             (Giovanni Sicco)
                           [He took the number XVI, but some historians corrected
                             his number to XVII, despite XVI having been an anti-pope]
25 Dec 1003 - 18 Jul 1009  Ioannes XVIII (= John XVIII)       (d. 1009)
                             (Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus)
                           [He took the number XVII, but some historians
                            corrected his number to include anti-pope John XVI]
31 Jul 1009 - 12 May 1012  Sergius IV                         (d. 1012)
                             (Pietro Boccapecora)
18 May 1012 -  9 Apr 1024  Benedictus VIII (= Benedict VIII)  (b. c.980 - d. 1024)
                             (Teofilatto dei conti di Tuscolo)
1012                       Gregorius VI (= Gregory VI)
                             (anti-pope)
24 Jun 1024 -  9 Nov 1032  Ioannes XIX (= John XIX)           (d. 1032)
                             (Romano dei conti di Tuscolo)
                           [He took the number XVIII, but some historians
                            corrected his number to include anti-pope John XVI]
 1 Jan 1033 - 13 Jan 1045  Benedictus IX (= Benedict IX)      (b. c.1012 - d. 1055)
                             (Teofilatto, conti di Tuscolo)
                             (1st time)
13 Jan 1045 - 10 Mar 1045  Silvester III (anti-pope)          (b. c.1000 - d. 1062/63)
                             (Giovanni de' Crescenzi Ottaviani)
10 Mar 1045 -  1 May 1045  Benedictus IX (2nd time)           (s.a.) 
                             (Teofilatto, conti di Tuscolo)
 5 May 1045 - 20 Dec 1046  Gregorius VI (= Gregory VI)        (d. 1048)
                             (Giovanni Graziano; Johannes Gratianus)
24 Dec 1046 -  9 Oct 1047  Clemens II (= Clement II)          (d. 1047)
                             (Suidger von Morsleben)
 8 Nov 1047 - 17 Jul 1048  Benedictus IX (3rd time)           (s.a.) 
                             (Teofilatto, conti di Tuscolo) 
17 Jul 1048 -  9 Aug 1048  Damasus II  (elected 25 Dec 1047)  (d. 1048)
                             (Poppone de' Curagnoni di Bressanone)
12 Feb 1049 - 19 Apr 1054  Leo IX  (elected Dec 1048)         (b. 1002 - d. 1054)
                             (Bruno, graf von Egisheim-Dagsburg)
13 Apr 1055 - 28 Jul 1057  Victor II                          (b. c.1018 - d. 1057)
                             (Gebhard, graf von Calw, Tollenstein und Hirschberg)
 2 Aug 1057 - 29 Mar 1058  Stephanus IX (X) (= Stephen IX)    (d. 1058)
                             (Frédéric de Lorraine)
 5 Apr 1058 - 24 Jan 1059  Benedictus X (= Benedict X)        (d. 1074)
                             (Giovanni Mincio dei conti di Tuscolo)
                             (anti-pope)
 6 Dec 1058 - 27 Jul 1061  Nicolaus II (= Nicholas II)        (b. c.980 - d. 1061)
                             (Gérard de Bourgogne)
 1 Oct 1061 - 21 Apr 1073  Alexander II                       (b. c.1015 - d. 1073)
                             (Anselmo da Bàggio
28 Oct 1061 - 31 May 1064  Honorius II (anti-pope)            (b. c.1010 - d. 1072)
                             (Pietro Cadalo)
22 Apr 1073 - 25 May 1085  Gregorius VII (= Gregory VII)      (b. 1015/28 - d. 1085)
                             (Ildebrando di Sovana)
25 Jun 1080 -  8 Sep 1100  Clement III (anti-pope)            (b. c.1025 - d. 1100)
                             (Guiberto di Ravenna)
24 May 1086 - 16 Sep 1087  Victor III                         (b. c.1026 - d. 1087) 
                             (Desiderio da Montecassino; Dauferio Epifani)
12 Mar 1088 - 29 Jul 1099  Urbanus II (= Urban II)            (b. c.1042 - d. 1099)
                             (Otho de Lagery)
13 Aug 1099 - 21 Jan 1118  Paschalis II (= Paschal II)        (b. c.1050 - d. 1118)
                             (Rainero Raineri di Bleda)
 8 Sep 1100 - Jan 1101     Theodericus (anti-pope)            (d. 1102)
                             (Teodorico)
Feb 1101 - Mar? 1101       Albertus (anti-pope)
                             (Alberto; Adalberto)
18 Nov 1105 - 12 Apr 1111  Silvester IV (anti-pope)
                             (Maginulfo)
24 Jan 1118 - 29 Jan 1119  Gelasius II                        (b. 1060/64 - d. 1119)
                             (Giovanni Coniulo)
10 Mar 1118 - 22 Apr 1121  Gregorius VIII (= Gregory VIII)    (d. 1137)
                             (Maurice Bourdin)
                             (anti-pope)
 2 Feb 1119 - 13 Dec 1124  Callistus II (= Calixtus II)       (b. c.1065 - d. 1124)
                             (Guy de Vienne)
15 Dec 1124 - 13 Feb 1130  Honorius II                        (b. 1060 - d. 1130)
                             (Lamberto Scannabecchi)
15 Dec 1124 - 16 Dec 1124  Coelestinus II (= Celestine II)    (d. 1125/26)
                             (Teobaldo Boccapecci)
                             (anti-pope)
14 Feb 1130 - 24 Sep 1143  Innocentius II (= Innocent II)     (b. 1089 - d. 1143)
                             (Gregorio Papareschi)
14 Feb 1130 - 25 Jan 1138  Anacletus II (anti-pope)           (b. c.1090 - d. 1138)
                             (Pietro Pierleoni)
15 Mar 1138 - 29 May 1138  Victor IV (anti-pope)              (d. 1139)
                             (Gregorio de Ceccano)
26 Sep 1143 -  8 Mar 1144  Coelestinus II (= Celestine II)    (b. c.1100 - d. 1144)
                             (Guido Guelfucci)
12 Mar 1144 - 15 Feb 1145  Lucius II                          (d. 1145)
                             (Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso)
18 Feb 1145 -  8 Jul 1153  Eugenius III (= Eugene III)        (b. c.1080 - d. 1153)
                             (Bernardo da Pisa)
 9 Jul 1153 -  3 Dec 1154  Anastasius IV                      (b. c.1073 - d. 1154)
                             (Corrado Demetri della Suburra)
 4 Dec 1154 -  1 Sep 1159  Hadrianus IV (= Adrian IV)         (b. c.1100 - d. 1159)
                             (Nicholas Breakspear)
 7 Sep 1159 - 30 Aug 1181  Alexander III                      (b. c.1105 - d. 1181)
                             (Orlando Bandinelli)
 7 Sep 1159 - 20 Apr 1164  Victor IV (anti-pope)              (b. 1095 - d. 1164)
                             (Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani)
26 Apr 1164 - 20 Sep 1168  Paschalis III (= Paschal III)      (b. 1110 - d. 1168)
                             (Guido da Crema)
                             (anti-pope)
20 Sep 1168 - 29 Aug 1178  Callistus III (= Calixtus III)     (d. 1183)
                             (Giovanni di Struma)
                             (anti-pope)
29 Sep 1179 - Jan 1180     Innocentius III (= Innocent III)   (d. c.1183)
                             (Lando di Sezze)
                             (anti-pope)
 1 Sep 1181 - 25 Nov 1185  Lucius III                         (b. 1097 - d. 1185)
                             (Ubaldo Allucignoli)
25 Nov 1185 - 20 Oct 1187  Urbanus III (= Urban III)          (b. c.1120 - d. 1187)
                             (Uberto Crivelli)
21 Oct 1187 - 17 Dec 1187  Gregorius VIII (= Gregory VIII)    (b. c.1100 - d. 1187)
                             (Alberto di Morra)
19 Dec 1187 - 25 Mar 1191  Clemens III (= Clement III)        (d. 1191)
                             (Paolo Scolari)
10 Apr 1191 -  8 Jan 1198  Coelestinus III (= Celestine III)  (b. c.1106 - d. 1198)
                             (Giacinto Bobone Orsini)
 8 Jan 1198 - 16 Jul 1216  Innocentius III (= Innocent III)   (b. 1160 - d. 1216)
                             (Lotario dei conti dei Segni)
18 Jul 1216 - 18 Mar 1227  Honorius III                       (b. c.1150 - d. 1227)
                             (Cencio Savelli)
 8 Mar 1227 - 22 Aug 1241  Gregorius IX (= Gregory IX)        (b. c.1145 - d. 1241)
                             (Ugolino dei conti di Segni)
25 Oct 1241 - 10 Nov 1241  Coelestinus IV (= Celestine IV)    (d. 1241)
                             (Goffredo Castiglioni)
                             (not consecrated
25 Jun 1243 -  7 Dec 1254  Innocentius IV (= Innocent IV)     (b. c.1195 - d. 1254)
                             (Sinibaldo Fieschi)
12 Dec 1254 - 25 May 1261  Alexander IV                       (b. c.1199 - d. 1261)
                             (Rinaldo dei conti di Jenne)
29 Aug 1261 -  2 Oct 1264  Urbanus IV (= Urban IV)            (b. c.1195 - d. 1264)
                             (Jacques Pantaléon)
 5 Feb 1265 - 29 Nov 1268  Clemens IV (= Clement IV)          (b. c.1200 - d. 1268)
                             (Guido Foulques)
29 Nov 1268 -  1 Sep 1271  interregnum
 1 Sep 1271 - 10 Jan 1276  Gregorius X (= Gregory X)          (b. 1210 - d. 1276)
                             (Tebaldo Visconti)
                             (elected 1 Sep 1271)
21 Jan 1276 - 22 Jun 1276  Innocentius V (= Innocent V)       (b. 1224/25 - d. 1276)
                             (Pierre de Tarentaise)
11 Jul 1276 - 18 Aug 1276  Adrianus V (= Adrian V)            (b. c.1205 - d. 1276)
                             (Ottobuono Fieschi)
16 Sep 1276 - 20 May 1277  Ioannes XXI (= John XXI)           (b. c.1210 - d. 1277)
                             (Pedro Julião
                           [there was no Ioannes XX]
25 Nov 1277 - 22 Aug 1280  Nicolaus III (= Nicholas III)      (b. c.1216 - d. 1280)
                             (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini)
22 Feb 1281 - 28 Mar 1285  Martinus IV (= Martin IV)          (b. c.1210 - d. 1285)
                             (Simon de Brion)
                           [no Pope is named Martin II or Martin III, due 
                            to confusion of the names Marinus and Martinus]
 2 Apr 1285 -  3 Apr 1287  Honorius IV                        (b. c.1210 - d. 1287)
                             (Giacomo Savelli)
15 Feb 1288 -  4 Apr 1292  Nicolaus IV (= Nicholas IV)        (b. 1227 - d. 1292)
                             (Girolamo Masci)
 5 Jul 1294 - 13 Dec 1294  Coelestinus V (= Celestine V)      (b. c.1209 - d. 1296)
                             (Pietro da Morrone)
24 Dec 1294 - 11 Oct 1303  Bonifacius VIII (= Boniface VIII)  (b. c.1230 - d. 1303)
                             (Benedetto Caetani)
22 Oct 1303 -  7 Jul 1304  Benedictus XI (= Benedict XI)      (b. 1240 - d. 1304)
                             (Niccolò di Boccasini)
 5 Jun 1305 - 20 Apr 1314  Clemens V (= Clement V)            (b. 1264 - d. 1314)
                             (Bertrand de Got)
                            
(in Avignon from Mar 1309)
20 Apr 1314 -  7 Aug 1316  interregnum
 7 Aug 1316 -  4 Dec 1334  Ioannes XXII (= John XXII)         (b. 1249 - d. 1334)
                             (Jacques-Arnaud d'Euse)(in Avignon)
12 May 1328 - 25 Aug 1330  Nicolaus V (= Nicholas V)          (b. c.1260 - d. 1333)
                             (Pietro Rainalducci)
                            
(anti-pope)(in Rome, then Viterbo) 
30 Dec 1335 - 25 Apr 1342 
Benedictus XII (= Benedict XII)    (b. 1285 - d. 1342)
                             (Jacques Fournier)
 7 May 1342 -  6 Dec 1352  Clemens VI (= Clement VI)          (b. 1291 - d. 1352)
                             (Pierre Roger)
18 Dec 1352 - 12 Sep 1362  Innocentius VI (= Innocent VI)     (b. 1282 - d. 1362)
                             (Étienne Aubert)
28 Sep 1362 - 19 Dec 1370  Urbanus V (= Urban V)              (b. 1310 - d. 1370)
                             (Guillaume de Grimoard)
30 Dec 1370 - 26 Mar 1378  Gregorius XI (= Gregory XI)        (b. c.1330 - d. 1378)
                             (Pierre Roger de Beaufort)
                             (in Avignon to 13 Sep 1376, then Rome from 17 Jan 1377)
 
8 Apr 1378 - 15 Oct 1389  Urbanus VI (= Urban VI)            (b. c.1318 - d. 1389)
                             (Bartolomeo Prignano)
20 Sep 1378 - 16 Sep 1394  Clement VII (anti-Pope)(in Avignon)(b. 1342 - d. 1394)
                             (Robert de Genève)
 2 Nov 1389 -  1 Oct 1404  Bonifacius IX (= Boniface IX)      (b. c.1359 - d. 1404)
                             (Pietro Tomacelli)
28 Sep 1394 - 26 Jul 1417  Benedictus XIII (= Benedict XIII)  (b. c.1328 - d. 1423)
                             (Pedro Martínez de Luna)(in Avignon)
                             (anti-Pope from 5 Jun 1409)
17 Oct 1404 -  6 Nov 1406 
Innocentius VII (= Innocent VII)   (b. 1336 - d. 1406)
                             (Cosimo de' Migliorati)
30 Nov 1406 -  4 Jul 1415  Gregorius XII (= Gregory XII)      (b. c.1327 - d. 1417)
                             (Angelo Correr)
                            
(anti-Pope from 5 Jun 1409)
26 Jun 1409 -  3 May 1410  Alexander V (in Pisa)              (b. c.1339 - d. 1410)

                             (Pietro Filargo da Candia)
17 May 1410 - 29 May 1415  Ioannes XXIII (= John XXIII)       (b. c.1370 - d. 1418)
                             (Baldassarre Cossa)
                             (anti-Pope)(in Pisa)
29 May
1415 - 21 Nov 1417  interregnum
                           (no election considered valid due to the Great Schism) 
11 Nov 1417 - 20 Feb 1431  Martinus V (= Martin V)            (b. 1368 - d. 1431)
                             (Oddone Colonna
10 Jun 1423 - 26 Jul 1429  Clemens VIII (= Clement VIII)      (b. c.1369 - d. 1446)
                             (Gil Sánchez de Muñoz)
                             (anti-Pope)(in Aragon)
12 Nov 1425 - 1430         Benedictus XIV (= Benedict XIV)    (d. 1430)
                             (Jean Garnier)(anti-Pope)
1430 - c.1437              Benedictus XIV (= Benedict XIV)    (d. c.1437)
                             (Jean Carrier)  
                             (anti-Pope) (in France)
 3 Mar 1431 - 23 Feb 1447  Eugenius IV (= Eugene IV)          (b. 1383? - d. 1447)
                             (Gabriele Condulmer)
 5 Nov 1439 -  7 Apr 1449  Felix V (anti-Pope) (in Basel)     (b. 1383 - d. 1451)
                             (Amadeo VIII, duca di Savoia)
 6 Mar 1447 - 24 Mar 1455  Nicolaus V (= Nicholas V)          (b. 1397 - d. 1455)
                             (Tommaso Parentucelli)
 8 Apr 1455 -  6 Aug 1458  Callistus III (= Calixtus III)     (b. 1378 - d. 1458)
                             (Alfonso de Borja)
19 Aug 1458 - 14 Aug 1464  Pius II                            (b. 1405 - d. 1464)
                             (Enea Silvio Piccolomini)
30 Aug 1464 - 26 Jul 1471  Paulus II (= Paul II)              (b. 1417 - d. 1471)
                             (Pietro Barbo)
 9 Aug 1471 - 12 Aug 1484  Xystus IV (= Sixtus IV)            (b. 1414 - d. 1484)
                             (Francesco della Rovere)
29 Aug 1484 - 25 Jul 1492  Innocentius VIII (= Innocent VIII) (b. 1432 - d. 1492)
                             (Giovanni Battista Cybo)
11 Aug 1492 - 18 Aug 1503  Alexander VI                       (b. 1431 - d. 1503) 
                            (Rodrigo Lanzol de Borja)
                            [he took the name Alexander VI, since Alexander V
                            had been used by an anti-pope 1409-1410]
22 Sep 1503 - 18 Oct 1503  Pius III                           (b. 1439 - d. 1503)
                             (Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini)
 1 Nov 1503 - 21 Feb 1513  Iulius II (= Julius II)            (b. 1443 - d. 1513)
                             (Giuliano della Rovere)
 9 Mar 1513 -  1 Dec 1521  Leo X                              (b. 1475 - d. 1521)
                             (Giovanni de' Medici)
 9 Jan 1522 - 14 Sep 1523  Adrianus VI (= Adrian VI)          (b. 1459 - d. 1523)
                             (Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens)
19 Nov 1523 - 25 Sep 1534  Clemens VII (= Clement VII)        (b. 1478 - d. 1534)
                             (Giulio de' Medici)
13 Oct 1534 - 10 Nov 1549  Paulus III (= Paul III)            (b. 1468 - d. 1549)
                             (Alessandro Farnese)
27 Feb 1550 - 23 Mar 1555  Iulius III (= Julius III)          (b. 1487 - d. 1555)
                             (Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte)
 9 Apr 1555 -  1 May 1555  Marcellus II                       (b. 1501 - d. 1555)
                             (Marcello Cervini)
23 May 1555 - 18 Aug 1559  Paulus IV (= Paul IV)              (b. 1476 - d. 1559)
                             (Giovanni Pietro Carafa)
25 Dec 1559 -  9 Dec 1565  Pius IV                            (b. 1499 - d. 1565)
                             (Giovan Angelo de' Medici)
 7 Jan 1566 -  1 May 1572  Pius V                             (b. 1504 - d. 1572)
                             (Michele Ghislieri)
13 May 1572 - 10 Apr 1585  Gregorius XIII (= Gregory XIII)    (b. 1502 - d. 1585)
                             (Ugo Boncompagni)
28 Apr 1585 - 27 Aug 1590  Xystus V (= Sixtus V)              (b. 1520 - d. 1590)
                             (Felice Peretti de Montalto)
15 Sep 1590 - 27 Sep 1590  Urbanus VII (= Urban VII)          (b. 1521 - d. 1590)
                             (Giovanni Battista Castagna)
 5 Dec 1590 - 16 Oct 1591  Gregorius XIV (= Gregory XIV)      (b. 1535 - d. 1591)
                             (Niccolò Sfondrati)
29 Oct 1591 - 30 Dec 1591  Innocentius IX (= Innocent IX)     (b. 1519 - d. 1591)
                             (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti)
20 Jan 1592 -  3 Mar 1605  Clemens VIII (= Clement VIII)      (b. 1536 - d. 1605)
                             (Ippolito Aldobrandini)
10 Apr 1605 - 27 Apr 1605  Leo XI                             (b. 1535 - d. 1605)
                             (Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici)
 1 Apr 1605 - 28 Jan 1621  Paulus V (= Paul V)                (b. 1552 - d. 1621)
                             (Camillo Borghese)
 9 Feb 1621 -  8 Jul 1623  Gregorius XV (= Gregory XV)        (b. 1554 - d. 1623)
                             (Alessandro Ludovisi)
 6 Aug 1623 - 29 Jul 1644  Urbanus VIII (= Urban VIII)        (b. 1568 - d. 1644)
                             (Maffeo Barberini)
15 Sep 1644 -  7 Jan 1655  Innocentius X (= Innocent X)       (b. 1574 - d. 1655)
                             (Giovanni Battista Pamphilj)
 7 Apr 1655 - 22 May 1667  Alexander VII                      (b. 1559 - d. 1667)
                             (Fabio Chigi)
20 Jun 1667 -  9 Dec 1669  Clemens IX (= Clement IX)          (b. 1600 - d. 1669)
                             (Giulio Rospigliosi)
26 Apr 1670 - 22 Jul 1676  Clemens X (= Clement X)            (b. 1590 - d. 1676)
                             (Emilio Bonaventura Altieri)
21 Sep 1676 - 12 Aug 1689  Innocentius XI (= Innocent XI)     (b. 1611 - d. 1689)
                             (Benedetto Odescalchi)
 6 Oct 1689 -  1 Feb 1691  Alexander VIII                     (b. 1610 - d. 1691)
                             (Pietro Vito Ottoboni)
12 Jul 1691 - 27 Sep 1700  Innocentius XII (= Innocent XII)   (b. 1615 - d. 1700)
                             (Antonio Pignatelli)
23 Nov 1700 - 19 Mar 1721  Clemens XI (= Clement XI)          (b. 1649 - d. 1721)
                             (Giovanni Francesco Albani)
 8 May 1721 -  7 Mar 1724  Innocentius XIII (= Innocent XIII) (b. 1655 - d. 1724)
                             (Michelangelo dei Conti)
29 May 1724 - 21 Feb 1730  Benedictus XIII (= Benedict XIII)  (b. 1649 - d. 1730)
                             (Pier Francesco Orsini)
12 Jul 1730 -  6 Feb 1740  Clemens XII (= Clement XII)        (b. 1652 - d. 1740)
                             (Lorenzo Corsini dei Sismano)
17 Aug 1740 -  3 May 1758  Benedictus XIV (= Benedict XIV)    (b. 1675 - d. 1758)
                             (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini)
 6 Jul 1758 -  2 Feb 1769  Clemens XIII (= Clement XIII)      (b. 1693 - d. 1769)
                             (Carlo Rezzonico)
19 May 1769 - 22 Sep 1774  Clemens XIV (= Clement XIV)        (b. 1705 - d. 1774)
                             (Giovanni Ganganelli)
15 Feb 1775 - 29 Aug 1799  Pius VI                            (b. 1717 - d. 1799)
                             (Giovanni Angelo Braschi)
14 Mar 1800 - 20 Aug 1823  Pius VII                           (b. 1742 - d. 1823)
                             (Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti)
28 Sep 1823 - 10 Feb 1829  Leo XII                            (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
                             (Annibale della Genga)
31 Mar 1829 - 30 Nov 1830  Pius VIII                          (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
                             (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni)
 2 Feb 1831 -  1 Jun 1846  Gregorius XVI (= Gregory XVI)      (b. 1765 - d. 1846)
                             (Bartolomeo Alberto Capellari)
16 Jun 1846 -  7 Feb 1878  Pius IX                            (b. 1792 - d. 1878)
                             (Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti)
20 Feb 1878 - 20 Jul 1903  Leo XIII                           (b. 1810 - d. 1903)
                             (Gioacchino Pecci)
 4 Aug 1903 - 20 Aug 1914  Pius X                             (b. 1835 - d. 1914)
                             (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto)
 3 Sep 1914 - 22 Jan 1922  Benedictus XV (= Benedict XV)      (b. 1854 - d. 1922)
                             (Giacomo della Chiesa)
 6 Feb 1922 - 10 Feb 1939  Pius XI                            (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
                             (Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti)
 2 Mar 1939 -  9 Oct 1958  Pius XII                           (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
                             (Eugenio Pacelli)
28 Oct 1958 -  3 Jun 1963  Ioannes XXIII (= John XXIII)       (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
                             (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli)
21 Jun 1963 -  6 Aug 1978  Paulus VI (= Paul VI)              (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
                             (Giovanni Battista Montini)
26 Aug 1978 - 28 Sep 1978  Ioannes Paulus I (= John Paul I)   (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
                             (Albino Luciani)
16 Oct 1978 -  2 Apr 2005  Ioannes Paulus II (= John Paul II) (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
                             (Karol Józef Wojtyla)
19 Apr 2005 - 28 Feb 2013  Benedictus XVI (= Benedict XVI)    (b. 1927)
                             (Joseph Alois Ratzinger)
13 Mar 2013 -              Franciscus (= Francis)             (b. 1936)
                             (Jorge Mario Bergoglio Sivori)

 ¹full Papal title:
 (a) 1870 - 7 Jun 1929: Episcopus Romanus, Summus Pontifex Ecclesiae Catholicae; (in Italian) Vescovo di Roma, Sommo Pontefice della Chiesa Cattolica ("Bishop of Rome, Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic Church");
(b) from 7 Jun 1929: Sommo Pontefice, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano ("Supreme Pontiff, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City");
(i) 7 Jun 1929 - 1 Mar 2006 (Long form): Vescovo di Roma, Vicario di Gesù Cristo, Successore del principe degli apostoli, Sommo Pontefice della chiesa universale, Patriarca di Occidente, Primate d'Italia, Arcivescovo e Metropolita della Provincia Romana, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, Servo dei Servi di Dio ("Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God");
(ii) from 1 Mar 2006 (Long form): Vescovo di Roma, Vicario di Gesù Cristo, Successore del principe degli apostoli, Sommo Pontefice della chiesa universale, Primate d'Italia, Arcivescovo e Metropolita della Provincia Romana, Sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano, Servo dei Servi di Dio ("Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of
the Servants of God").






© Ben Cahoon