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France
 
[banner
                                    of France c.987-c.1137]
                    c.987 - c.1137
 
[Banner of France Ancient
                                    c.1137-c.1365]
                    c.1137 - c.1365
 
[banner
                                    of France Modern c.1365-1632]
                       c.1365 - 1632
 
[The
                                    French Royal Standard, 1632-1790]
                 1632 - 24 Oct 1790
 
 
[First
                                    French Tricolor unofficial
                                    1790-1794]
     24 Oct 1790 - 15 Feb 1794 Unofficial
 
[French
                                    Flag]
             15 Feb 1794 -  6 Apr 1814;
             13 Mar 1815 -  8 Jul 1815
 
[White
                                    semy de lys ensign of France
                                    1814-15, 1815-30]
            6 Apr 1814 - 13 Mar 1815;
            8 Jul 1815 -  1 Aug 1830

[French
                                    flag]
             1 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848

[French
                                    flag of 1848, Feb-Mar 1848]
            24 Feb 1848 - 5 Mar 1848

[French
                                    Flag]
                 Re-adopted 5 Mar 1848
 
[flag
                                    of Free French forces, 1940-1944]
     5 Jun 1941 - 1945  Free French Flag


Map of France
Hear National Anthem
"La Marseillaise"
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 14 Jul 1795-1799, 1870
Constitution
(28 Sep 1958)
Hear Former Anthem
"Le Retour des Princes
Français à Paris"
(The Return of the
French Princes to Paris)
 (1815-1830)
Hear Former Anthem
"La Parisienne"
(The Parisian)
 (1830-1848)
-----------------------------------
Hear Former Anthem
"Chant du Départ" (1799-1815)
(Song of the Departure)

Hear Former Anthem
"Le Chant des Girondins"
(The Song of Girondists)
(1848-1852)

Hear Former Anthem
"Partant pour la Syrie"
(Going to Syria)
 (1852-1870)
Map Administrative Divisions
Declaration of the
Rights of Man and Citizen

(26 Aug 1789)
Imperial Constitutions
 (1804 and 1852; in French)
Former Constitutions
(1791; 1848; 1875; 1946;
in French)

Capital: Paris
(Vichy interim 1 Jul 1940 -
Aug 1944; Bordeaux
interim
15 Jun - 1 Jul 1940;
Tours interim
10-14 Jun 1940; Bordeaux interim
 3 Sep -8 Dec 1914; Versailles
1682-1715, 1722-1789, interim
 1871-1879; Troyes 1419-1425)

Currency: Euro (EUR);
1795-1 Jan 2002 French Franc
 (FRF);
1944-1948 Allied
Military Provisional Franc
 (FRP);
1940-1944 German Reichskreditkassenscheine
(XDEK); 1204-1795 French
 Livre (FRL)

National Holiday: 14 Jul (1789)
Fete Nationale
 (National Holiday

"Bastille Day")
Population: 62,814,233 (2013)
GDP: $2.27 trillion (2013)
Exports: $570.1 billion (2013)
Imports: $640.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: French 76.9%, Algerian and Moroccan Berber 2.2%,
Italian 1.9%, Portuguese 1.5%, Moroccan Arab 1.5%, Fleming 1.4%,
Algerian Arab 1.3%, Basque 1.3%, Jewish 1.2%, German 1.2%,
Vietnamese 1%, Catalan 0.5%, other 8.1% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 352,771 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1960): est. 300 weapons (2014)
Merchant marine: 162 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 82.3%, Muslim 7.1%, atheist 4.4%, 
Protestant 3.7%, Orthodox 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.4% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (associate), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS (observer), CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PAM, PC, PCA, PIF (partner), SEGIB (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO,  ZC
France Index
Chronology

481                        Accession of Frankish king Chlódowech (Clovis) who
                            later unites the tribe; in 486 eliminates Syagrius
                            last remnant of Roman imperial administration.
27 Nov 511 - 719           Partitioned among Frankish kings ruling at
                             Austrasia,
Neustria and Aquitaine.
Aug 843                    Kingdom of the West Franks (Francia Occidentalis).
 6 Dec 884 - 13 Jan 888    Re-incorporated into Holy Roman Empire.
May 987                    Kingdom of France
 6 Nov 1337 - 17 Jul 1453  Hundred Years War with England, during which
                             English forces occupy much of France.
 1 Dec 1420 - 13 Apr 1436  English occupation of Paris.
21 Oct 1422 - 17 Jul 1453  Kingdom of France in personal union with England
                            (from 30 Oct 1422, opposed by the French).
20 Jan 1558                Calais, the last English possession in France,
                             is taken by the French.
21 Sep 1792                French Republic ("First Republic").
21 Sep 1792 - 15 Feb 1800  Royalist resistance to the republic.
18 May 1804                State headed by emperor, but polity continues to
                             be officially styled French Republic.
 1 Jan 1809                French Empire ("First Empire").
 2 Apr 1814                France (gouvernement provisoire de la France).
 6 Apr 1814                Kingdom of France
13 Mar 1815                French Empire (restored).
 7 Jul 1815 - 30 Nov 1818  Occupied by the Allied powers.
 8 Jul 1815                Kingdom of France (restored).
24 Feb 1848                French Republic ("Second Republic").
 2 Dec 1852                French Empire ("Second Empire").
 2 Sep 1870 - 16 Sep 1873  Northern France occupied by Prussia/Germany.
17 Feb 1871                French Republic ("Third Republic").
28 Mar 1871 - 28 May 1871  Paris Commune declared in revolt.
10 May 1871 - 21 Nov 1918  Alsace-Lorraine annexed to Germany.
24 Aug 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  German occupation of parts of northeastern 
                             France.
10 Jun 1940 -  3 Sep 1944  France under German occupation (Nord and Pas de
                             Calais administered from Belgium); 15 Jun 1940
                             - 20 Mar 1945 Alsace-Lorraine is annexed to  
                             Germany; Italian occupation zone in southern
                             France which is expanded 12 Nov 1942, but from
                             9 Sep 1943 it is also occupied the Germans.
10 Jul 1940                French State (État Français), in unoccupied
                             southern France (known as "Vichy" France
                             after its headquarters).
11 Nov 1942 -  3 Sep 1944  Vichy France occupied by Germany.
12 Nov 1942 - 31 Jul 1943  Savoy, Nice, and Corsica annexed to Italy.
 3 Jun 1944                French Republic ("Third Republic" restored).
16 Jan 1947                ("Fourth Republic" [constitution promulgated
                             27 Oct 1946]).
10 Feb 1947                Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in 
                             Italy annexed to Alpes-Maritimes département.
 8 Jan 1959                ("Fifth Republic" [constitution promulgated
                              4 Oct 1958]).

Regions
Provinces
(to 1791)
Corsica
Minor
Dependencies
Occupations
(1815-1818, 1870-1873,
1914-1918,
1940-1944)
Pas de Calais
(1940-1944)
 Royalist
Resistance

(1793-1800)
Alsace-Lorraine
(1870-1918,
1940-1944)
Avignon-Venaissin
(1274-1791)
Mömpelgard
(Montbeliard)
(1419-1793)
Mülhausen
(Mulhouse)
(1699-1801)
Paris Commune
(1871)
Map of French
Empire in 1812
 

Kings¹ (Frankish/Germanic names with French in parentheses to 987)
- kings of the Franks
481 - 11 Nov 511           Chlódowech I (= Clovis I)          (b. c.466 - d. 511)
27 Nov 511 - 21 Jun 524   
Chlódomér (= Clodomir, Clodmer)    (b. c.494 - d. 524)
                             (at Soissons)
    

27 Nov 511 - 23 Dec 558    Childebert I (at Paris)            (b. c.497 - d. 558)

27 Nov 511 - Dec 561       Chlóthachar I (= Clotaire I)       (b. c.502 - d. 561)
                             (at Soissons)
 
        

Dec 561 - Nov 567          Charibert I (= Caribert I)         (b. c.517 - d. 567)
                            
(at Paris)           

Dec 561 - 28 Mar 592       Gunthram (= Gontran)(in Orléans)   (b. c.533 - d. 592)
Dec 561 - Oct 584          Chilperíc I (= Chilpéric I)        
(b. c.534 - d. 584)
                             (at Soissons)
        
Oct 584 - 18 Oct 629       Chlóthachar II (= Clotaire II)     (b. 584 - d. 629)
Oct 584 - 597              Fredegundis (Frédégonde)(f)-Regent (b. c.550 - d. 597)
18 Oct 629 - 19 Jan 639    Dagoberht I (= Dagobert I)         (b. c.608 - d. 639)
Dec 629 -  8 Apr 632       Charibert II -Co-ruler             (b. c.613 - d. 632)
                             (= Caribert II)(in Aquitania)   
19 Jan 639 - Oct 657      
Chlódowech II (= Clovis II)        (b. 634 - d. 657)
19 Jan 639 - Sep 642       Nantechildis (f) -Regent           (b. c.610 - d. 642)
                             (= Nantéchilde)

Sep 642 - 648              Erchinoald (= Erchenout) -Regent   (d. 658)
Oct 657 - Apr 673          Chlóthachar III (= Clotaire III)   (b. c.651 - d. 673)
Oct 657 - 665              Balthildis (= Balthild)(f) -Regent (b. c.626 - d. 680) 
                             (St. Balthild of Ascania)
Apr 673 - 673             
Theuderíc III (= Thierry III)      (b. c.653 - d. 690)
                             (1st time)

673 - Oct? 675             Childeríc II (= Childéric II)      (b. c.656 - d. 675)
Oct? 675 - 690             Theuderíc III (= Thierry III)      (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
690 - Mar? 695            
Chlódowech III (= Clovis III)      (b. c.678 - d. 695) 
690 - 692                  Chródechildis (f) -Regent          (b. c.650 - d. af.692)
                            
(= Clothilde)
Mar? 695 - 14 Apr 711      Childebert IV                      (b. c.679 - d. 711)

14 Apr 711 - Dec 715       Dagoberht III (= Dagobert III)     (b. c.698 - d. 715)
14 Apr 711 - 712           Grimoald (= Grimaud) -Regent       (b. c.680 - d. 714)
Nov? 715 - Feb 721         Chilper
íc II (= Chilpéric II)      (b. c.674 - d. 721)
Feb 721 - Apr 737          Theuderíc IV (= Thierry IV)        (b. c.712 - d. 737) 
Feb 721 - 726              Karl Martell -Regent               (b. c.688 - d. 741)
                            
(= Charles Marte
l "le Marteau")
Apr 737 -  2 Feb 743       Interregnum
Apr 737 - 15 Oct 741      
Karl Martell                       (s.a.)
                            
(= Charles Marte
l "le Marteau")

                             (mayor of the palace)
15 Oct 741 -  2 Feb 743    Pippin (= Pepin "le Bref")         (b. 714 - d. 768)
                             (mayor of the palace)
 2 Feb 743 - 25 Dec 751    Childeríc III (= Childéric III)    (b. c.718 - d. c.754)
25 Dec 751 - 24 Sep 768    Pippin I (= Pépin I "le Bref")     (s.a.)
 9 Oct 768 - 28 Jan 814    Karl I (= Charlemagne)             (b. 748 - d. 814)
                             (= Charles I "le Grand")
                             (from 25 Dec 800, Holy Roman Emperor Karl I)
                           - jointly with -
 9 Oct 768 -  4 Dec 771    Karlmann I (= Carloman I)          (b. 751 - d. 771)
                             (in Burgundy, Provence, Swabia)  
25 Dec 800 -  4 Dec 811    Karl (= Charles) -Co-ruler         (b. 772 - d. 811) 
                             (in Austrasia, Neustria, Saxonia) 
11 Sep 813 -  1 Oct 833    Hlúdwíg I (= Louis I "le Pieux")   (b. 778 - d. 840)
                             (co-ruler to 28 Jan 814)(1st time)
30 Jun 833 -  1 Mar 834    Hlóthar I (= Lothaire I)           (b. 795 - d. 855)
                             (regent to 1 Oct 833)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Lothar I)
 1 Mar 834 - 20 Jun 840    Hlúdwíg I (= Louis I "le Pieux")   (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)

- kings of the West Franks; later of France -
20 Jun 840 -  6 Oct 877    Karl II (= Charles II "le Chauve") (b. 823 - d. 877)
                             (from 10 Aug? 843, king of the West Franks)
                             (from 25 Dec 875, Holy Roman Emperor Karl II)
 8 Dec 877 - 11 Apr 879    Hlúdwíg II (= Louis II "le Bégue") (b. 846 - d. 879)
Sep 879 -  5 Aug 882      
Hlúdwíg II (= Louis III)           (b. c.864 - d. 882) 
 5 Aug 882 -  6 Dec 884    Karlmann II (= Carloman II)        (b. c.867 - d. 884)
13 Jun? 885 - Nov 887      Karl (= Charles "le Gros")         (b. 839 - d. 888)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Karl III "der Dicke")
29 Feb 888 -  3 Jan 898    Ódo (= Eudes)                      (b. c.859 - d. 898)
28 Jan 893 - 30 Jun 922    Karl III (=Charles III "le Simple")(b. 879 - d. 929)
                             (in dissidence to 3 Jan 898)
30 Jun 922 - 15 Jun 923    Hródbert I (= Robert I)            (b. c.862 - d. 923)
13 Jul 923 - 15 Jan 936    Hródwulf (= Rodolphe, Raoul)       (b. 89. - d. 936)
15 Jan 936 - 19 Jun 936    Hugo, dux Neustria -Regent         (b. c.898 - d. 956)
19 Jun 936 - 10 Sep 954    Ludwig IV (= Louis IV "d'Outremer")(b. 921? - d. 954)
10 Sep 954 - 12 Nov 954    Regents
                           -
Artold, archevêque de Reims      (b. 89. - d. 961)
                           - Hugo I, dux Francorum            (b. c.898 - d. 956)
12 Nov 954 -  2 Mar 986    Lothar II (= Lothaire II)          (b. 941 - d. 986)
 8 Jun 979 - 21 May 987    Ludwig V (= Louis V "le Fainéant") (b. c.967 - d. 987)
                             (co-ruler to 2 Mar 986)
21 May 987 -  3 Jun? 987   Regents
                           - Adalbero, archevêque de Reims    (b. 92. - d. 988)
                           - Hugo II, dux Francorum           (b. c.941 - d. 996)
 3 Jun? 987 - 24 Oct 996   Hugo I (= Hugues Capet)            (s.a.)
                             (= Hugo II, dux Francorum)
25 Dec 987 - 20 Jul 1031   Robert II "le Pieux" (the Pious)   (b. 972 - d. 1031)
                             (co-ruler to 24 Oct 996)
 9 Jun 1017 - 17 Sep 1026  Hugo II (= Hugues II) (co-ruler)   (b. 1007 - d. 1026)
14 May 1027 -  4 Aug 1060  Henri I                            (b. 1008 - d. 1060)
                             (co-ruler to 20 Jul 1031)
23 May 1059 - 29 Jul 1108  Philippe I                         (b. 1052 - d. 1108)
                             (co-ruler to 4 Aug 1060)
 4 Aug 1060 -  1 Sep 1067  Baudouin, comte de Flandres -Regent(b. c.1013 - d. 1067)
29 Jul 1108 -  1 Aug 1137  Louis VI "le Gros"                 (b. 1081 - d. 1137)
14 Apr 1129 - 13 Oct 1131  Philippe -Co-ruler                 (b. 1116 - d. 1131)
25 Oct 1131 - 18 Sep 1180  Louis VII "le Jeune"               (b. 1120 - d. 1180)
                             (co-ruler to 1 Aug 1137)
                             (absent on crusade 8 Jun 1147 - 11 Nov 1149) 
 8 Jun 1147 - 11 Nov 1149  Regents
                           - Suger, abbé de Saint-Denis       (b. 1081 - d. 1151)
                           - Raoul IV, comte de Vermandois    (b. c.1094 - d. 1152)
 1 Nov 1179 - 14 Jul 1223  Philippe II "Auguste"              (b. 1165 - d. 1223)
                             (co-ruler to 18 Sep 1180)
                             (absent on crusade 24 Jun 1190 - 27 Dec 1191)
24 Jun 1190 - 27 Dec 1191  Regents
                           -
Alix de Blois et de Champagne (f)(b. c.1140 - d. 1206)     
                           - Guillaume Cardinal de Champagne, (b. 1135 - d. 1202) 
                              archevêque de Reims
14 Jul 1223 -  8 Nov 1226  Louis VIII "Coeur-de-Lion"         (b. 1187 - d. 1226)
 8 Nov 1226 - 27 Aug 1270  Louis IX "la Saint"                (b. 1214 - d. 1270)
                            (absent on crusade 12 Jun 1248 -
                             10 Jul 1254 and 14 Mar - 25 Aug 1270)
 8 Nov 1226 - 25 Apr 1236  Blanche de Castille (f) -Regent    (b. 1188 - d. 1252)
                             (1st time)
12 Jun 1248 - 27 Nov 1252  Blanche de Castille (f) -Regent    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
27 Nov 1252 - 10 Jul 1254  Louis de France -Regent            (b. 1243 - d. 1260)
14 Mar 1270 - 25 Aug 1270  Regents
                           - Mathieu de Vendôme, abbé de      (b. 121. - d. 1286)
                              Saint-Denis (1st time) 
                           - Simon, seigneur de Nesle         (b. c.1209 - d. 1288) 
                              (1st time)
25 Aug 1270 -  5 Oct 1285  Philippe III "le Hardi"            (b. 1245 - d. 1285)
25 Aug 1270 - 22 May? 1271 Regents
                           - Mathieu de Vendôme, abbé de      (s.a.)
                              Saint-Denis (2nd time) 
                           - Simon, seigneur de Nesle         (s.a.) 
                              (2nd time)
 5 Oct 1285 - 29 Nov 1314  Philippe IV "le Bel"               (b. 1268 - d. 1314)
29 Nov 1314 -  5 Jun 1316  Louis X "le Hutin"                 (b. 1289 - d. 1316)
 5 Jun 1316 - 17 Jul 1316  Charles, comte de Valois -Regent   (b. 1270 - d. 1325)
17 Jul 1316 - 15 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent(b. 1293 - d. 1322)
                             (1st time)
15 Nov 1316 - 19 Nov 1316  Jean I "le Posthume"               (b. 1316 - d. 1316)
15 Nov 1316 - 19 Nov 1316  Philippe, comte de Poitiers -Regent(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Nov 1316 -  3 Jan 1322  Philippe V "le Long"               (s.a.)
                             (= Philippe, comte de Poitiers)
 3 Jan 1322 -  1 Feb 1328  Charles IV "le Bel"                (b. 1294 - d. 1328)
 1 Feb 1328 -  1 Apr 1328  Philippe, comte de Valois et       (b. 1293 - d. 1350) 
                             Anjou -Regent      
 1 Apr 1328 - 22 Aug 1350  Philippe VI                        (s.a.)
                             (= Philippe, comte de Valois et Anjou)
22 Aug 1350 -  8 Apr 1364  Jean II "le Bon"                   (b. 1319 - d. 1364)
                             (English prisoner 19 Sep 1356 - 4 Oct 1360)
19 Sep 1356 -  4 Oct 1360  Charles, duc du Normandie -Regent  (b. 1337 - d. 1380)
                             (1st time)(Lieutenant-general to 14 Mar 1458)
17 Dec 1362 - Aug 1363     Charles, duc du Normandie -Regent  (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)(Lieutenant-general)
 8 Apr 1364 - 16 Sep 1380  Charles V "le Sage"                (s.a.)
                             (= Charles, duc du Normandie)
16 Sep 1380 - 21 Oct 1422  Charles VI "le Fou"                (b. 1368 - d. 1422)
16 Sep 1380 -  1 Nov 1388  Regents
                           - Louis, duc d'Anjou               (b. 1339 - d. 1384)
                              (to 20 Sep 1384)
                           - Philippe, duc de Bourgogne       (b. 1342 - d. 1404)
                              "le Hardi"
                           - Jean de France, duc de Berry     (b. 1340 - d. 1416)
                               et Auvergne (from 19 Nov 1380)  
 6 Nov 1417 - 30 Oct 1422  Charles, duc de Touraine et        (b. 1403 - d. 1461)
                             de Berry -Lieutenant-general
21 May 1420 - 31 Aug 1422  Henry V, king of England -Regent   (b. 1387 - d. 1422)
                             (regent and heir by Treaty of Troyes) 
21 Oct 1422 - 17 Jul 1453  Henri (II) (Henry VI of England)   (b. 1421 - d. 1471)
                             (in dissidence)(nominally to 4 Mar 1461)
30 Oct 1422 - 22 Jul 1461  Charles VII "le Victorieux"        (s.a.)
                             (= Charles, duc de Touraine et Auvergne)
22 Jul 1461 - 30 Aug 1483  Louis XI "le Prudent"              (b. 1423 - d. 1483)
30 Aug 1483 -  7 Apr 1498  Charles VIII "l'Affable"           (b. 1470 - d. 1498)
30 Aug 1483 - 23 Oct 1483  Anne de Beaujeu, vicomtesse de     (b. 1461 - d. 1522)
                             Thouars (f) -Regent
23 Oct 1483 -  1 Apr 1488  Jean, duc de Bourbonnois et        (b. 1436 - d. 1488)
                             d'Auvergne -Lieutenant-general
23 Aug 1494 -  7 Nov 1495  Pierre de Beaujeu, duc de          (b. 1438 - d. 1503)
                             Bourbon -Lieutenant-general 
 7 Apr 1498 -  1 Jan 1515  Louis XII                          (b. 1462 - d. 1515) 
 1 Jan 1515 - 31 Mar 1547  François I                         (b. 1494 - d. 1547)
                             (Spanish prisoner 24 Feb 1525 - 13 Mar 1526)
24 Feb 1525 - 13 Mar 1526  Louise de Savoie (f) -Regent       (b. 1476 - d. 1531)
31 Mar 1547 - 10 Jul 1559  Henri II                           (b. 1519 - d. 1559)
10 Jul 1559 -  5 Dec 1560  François II                        (b. 1554 - d. 1560)
                             (also king of Scotland from 24 Apr 1558)
 5 Dec 1560 - 30 May 1574  Charles IX                         (b. 1550 - d. 1574)
 5 Dec 1560 - 17 Aug 1563  Catherine de Médicis (f) -Regent   (b. 1519 - d. 1589)
                             (1st time)
30 May 1574 -  2 Aug 1589  Henri III                          (b. 1551 - d. 1589)
                            (also king of Poland-Lithuania as
                             Henryk Walezy 12 Mar 1573 - 12 May 1575)
30 May 1574 -  6 Sep 1574  Catherine de Médicis (f) -Regent   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 2 Aug 1589 - 14 May 1610  Henri IV                           (b. 1553 - d. 1610)
21 Nov 1589 -  9 May 1590  Charles (X) (in dissidence)        (b. 1523 - d. 1590)
                            (Charles Cardinal de Bourbon,
                             archevêque de Reims)
                             (prisoner 21 Nov 1589 - 9 May 1590)
21 Nov 1589 - 22 Mar 1594  Charles de Guise, duc de           (b. 1554 - d. 1611)
                             Mayenne -Lieutenant-general
                             (in dissidence)  
14 May 1610 - 14 May 1643  Louis XIII "le Juste" (the Just)   (b. 1601 - d. 1643)
14 May 1610 -  2 Oct 1614  Marie de Médicis (f) -Regent       (b. 1573 - d. 1642)
14 May 1643 -  1 Sep 1715  Louis XIV "le Grand",              (b. 1638 - d. 1715)
                             "le Roi Soleil"
18 May 1643 -  7 Sep 1651  Anne-Maurice d'Autriche (f)-Regent (b. 1601 - d. 1666) 
 1 Sep 1715 - 10 May 1774  Louis XV "le Bien-Aime"            (b. 1710 - d. 1774)
12 Sep 1715 - 22 Feb 1723  Philippe, duc d'Orléans -Regent    (b. 1674 - d. 1723) 
10 May 1774 - 21 Sep 1792  Louis XVI                          (b. 1754 - d. 1793)
                             (suspended 21 Jun - 14 Sep 1791 and 10 Aug - 21 Sep 1792)
Presidents of the National Assembly (often referred to as National Constituent Assembly)
25 Jun 1791 -  2 Jul 1791  Alexandre François Marie,          (b. 1760 - d. 1794)  Feu
                             vicomte de Beauharnais (1st time)
 2 Jul 1791 - 19 Jul 1791  Charles Malo François, comte       (b. 1757 - d. 1832)  Feu
                             de Lameth
19 Jul 1791 - 30 Jul 1791  Jacques Defermon, dit Defermon     (b. 1752 - d. 1831)
                             des Chapelières 
30 Jul 1791 - 13 Aug 1791  Alexandre François Marie,          (s.a.)               Feu
                             vicomte de Beauharnais (2nd time)
13 Aug 1791 - 27 Aug 1791  Charles Louis Victor, prince       (b. 1756 - d. 1794)  Feu
                             de Broglie
27 Aug 1791 - 10 Sep 1791  Théodore Vernier                   (b. 1731 - d. 1818)
10 Sep 1791 - 14 Sep 1791  Jacques Guillaume Thouret          (b. 1746 - d. 1794)  Feu
Presidents of the National Assembly
10 Aug 1792 - 19 Aug 1792  Jean-François Honoré Merlet        (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
19 Aug 1792 -  2 Sep 1792  Jean-François Delacroix, dit       (b. 1753 - d. 1794)  Gir
                             Lacroix
 2 Sep 1792 - 16 Sep 1792  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles    (b. 1759 - d. 1794)  Gir
16 Sep 1792 - 20 Sep 1792  Pierre-Joseph Cambon               (b. 1756 - d. 1820)  Gir
Presidents of the National Convention
20 Sep 1792                Philippe Jacques Rühl (1st time)   (b. 1737 - d. 1795)  Mont
                             (acting)
20 Sep 1792 -  4 Oct 1792  Jérôme Pétion, dit Pétion de       (b. 1756 - d. 1794)  Gir
                             Villeneuve 
 4 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792  Jean-François Delacroix, dit       (s.a.)               Mont
                             Lacroix 
18 Oct 1792 -  1 Nov 1792  Marguerite Élie Guadet             (b. 1755 - d. 1794)  Gir
 1 Nov 1792 - 15 Nov 1792  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles    (s.a.)               Mont
                             (1st time) 
15 Nov 1792 - 29 Nov 1792  Baptiste-Henri Grégoire            (b. 1750 - d. 1831)  Mar
29 Nov 1792 - 13 Dec 1792  Bertrand Barère, dit Barère de     (b. 1755 - d. 1841)  Mont
                             Vieuzac        
13 Dec 1792 - 27 Dec 1792  Jacques Defermon, dit Defermon     (s.a.)               Gir
                             des Chapelières 
27 Dec 1792 - 10 Jan 1793  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard            (b. 1742 - d. 1810)  Mar
10 Jan 1793 - 24 Jan 1793  Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud        (b. 1753 - d. 1793)  Gir
24 Jan 1793 -  7 Feb 1793  Jean-Paul Rabaut, dit Rabaut       (b. 1743 - d. 1793)  Gir
                             Saint-Étienne 
 7 Feb 1793 - 21 Feb 1793  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit           (b. 1751 - d. 1840)  Mar
                             Bréard-Duplessis
21 Feb 1793 -  7 Mar 1793  Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de      (b. 1747 - d. 1814)  Mont
                             Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé
 7 Mar 1793 - 21 Mar 1793  Arnaud Gensonné                    (b. 1758 - d. 1793)  Gir
21 Mar 1793 -  4 Apr 1793  Jean Antoine Joseph de Bry,        (b. 1760 - d. 1834)  Gir
 
                            dit Debry       
 4 Apr 1793 - 18 Apr 1793  Jean François Bertrand Delmas      (b. 1751 - d. 1798)  Mar
 9 Apr 1793 - 18 Apr 1793  Jacques Alexis Thuriot de          (b. 1753 - d. 1829)  Mont-D
                             la Rosière (1st time)
                             (acting for Delmas)
18 Apr 1793 -  2 May 1793  Marc David Alba, dit Lasource      (b. 1763 - d. 1793)  Gir
 2 May 1793 - 16 May 1793  Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède       (b. 1765 - d. 1793)  Gir
16 May 1793 - 30 May 1793  Honoré Maximin Isnard              (b. 1758 - d. 1825)  Gir
30 May 1793 - 13 Jun 1793  François René Auguste Mallarmé     (b. 1755 - d. 1831)  Mont
13 Jun 1793 - 27 Jun 1793  Jean-Marie Collot, dit             (b. 1749 - d. 1796)  Mont
                             Collot d'Herbois (1st time)
27 Jun 1793 - 11 Jul 1793  Jacques Alexis Thuriot de          (s.a.)               Mont-D
                             la Rosière (2nd time)
11 Jul 1793 - 25 Jul 1793  André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon         (b. 1749 - d. 1813)  Mont-R
                             Saint-André
25 Jul 1793 -  8 Aug 1793  Georges-Jacques Danton             (b. 1759 - d. 1794)  Mont-D
 8 Aug 1793 - 22 Aug 1793  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles    (s.a.)               Mont-D
                             (2nd time) 
22 Aug 1793 -  5 Sep 1793  Maximilien Robespierre (1st time)  (b. 1758 - d. 1794)  Mont-R
 5 Sep 1793 - 19 Sep 1793  Jacques Nicolas Billaud, dit       (b. 1756 - d. 1819)  Mont
                             Billaud-Varenne 
19 Sep 1793 -  3 Oct 1793  Pierre-Joseph Cambon               (s.a.)               Mont
 3 Oct 1793 - 22 Oct 1793  Louis-Joseph Charlier              (b. 1754 - d. 1797)  Mont-M
22 Oct 1793 -  6 Nov 1793  Moïse Antoine Pierre Jean Bayle    (b. 1755 - d. 1811?) Mont
 6 Nov 1793 - 21 Nov 1793  Pierre Antoine Laloy (Lalloy)      (b. 1749 - d. 1846)  Mont 
21 Nov 1793 -  6 Dec 1793  Charles Gilbert Romme              (b. 1750 - d. 1795)  Mont
 6 Dec 1793 - 21 Dec 1793  Jean-Henri Voulland                (b. 1751 - d. 1801)  Mont
21 Dec 1793 -  5 Jan 1794  Georges Auguste Couthon            (b. 1755 - d. 1794)  Mont-R
 5 Jan 1794 - 20 Jan 1794  Jacques-Louis David                (b. 1748 - d. 1825)  Mont-M
20 Jan 1794 -  4 Feb 1794  Marc Guillaume Alexis Vadier       (b. 1736 - d. 1828)  Mont
 4 Feb 1794 - 19 Feb 1794  Joseph Nicolas Barbeau Du Barran,  (b. 1761 - d. 1816)  Mont
                             dit Dubarran 
19 Feb 1794 -  6 Mar 1794  Louis de Saint-Just                (b. 1767 - d. 1794)  Mont-R
 6 Mar 1794 - 21 Mar 1794  Philippe Jacques Rühl (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Mont-D
21 Mar 1794 -  5 Apr 1794  Jean-Lambert Tallien               (b. 1767 - d. 1820)  Mont
 5 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Baptiste André Amar           (b. 1755 - d. 1816)  Mont
                            (or Jean Pierre André Amar)
20 Apr 1794 -  5 May 1794  Jean Baptiste Robert Lindet        (b. 1746 - d. 1825)  Mont
 5 May 1794 - 20 May 1794  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (b. 1753 - d. 1823)  Mont
20 May 1794 -  4 Jun 1794  Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,   (b. 1763 - d. 1832)  Mont
                             dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or 
 4 Jun 1794 - 19 Jun 1794  Maximilien Robespierre (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mont-R
19 Jun 1794 -  5 Jul 1794  Élie Lacoste                       (b. 1745 - d. 1806)  Mont
 5 Jul 1794 - 19 Jul 1794  Jean-Antoine Louis, dit Louis      (b. 1742 - d. 1796)  Mont
                             du Bas-Rhin
19 Jul 1794 -  3 Aug 1794  Jean-Marie Collot, dit             (s.a.)               Mont
                             Collot d'Herbois (2nd time) 
 3 Aug 1794 - 18 Aug 1794  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (b. 1754 - d. 1838)  Mar
                             Merlin de Douai
18 Aug 1794 -  2 Sep 1794  Antoine Christophe Merlin, dit     (b. 1762 - d. 1833)  Thr
                             Merlin de Thionville 
 2 Sep 1794 - 22 Sep 1794  André Antoine Bernard des Jeuzines,(b. 1751 - d. 1818)  Mont
                             dit Bernard de Saintes 
                            (or Adrien Antoine....) 
22 Sep 1794 -  7 Oct 1794  André Dumont                       (b. 1765 - d. 1836)  Thr
 7 Oct 1794 - 22 Oct 1794  Jean-Jacques Régis Cambacérès      (b. 1753 - d. 1824)  Mar
22 Oct 1794 -  6 Nov 1794  Pierre Louis Prieur,               (b. 1756 - d. 1827)  Mont
                             dit Prieur de la Marne 
 6 Nov 1794 - 24 Nov 1794  Louis Legendre, dit Legendre de    (b. 1752 - d. 1797)  Thr
                             Paris                
24 Nov 1794 -  6 Dec 1794  Jean-Baptiste Clauzel              (b. 1746 - d. 1803)  Thr
 6 Dec 1794 - 21 Dec 1794  Jean-François Reubell              (b. 1747 - d. 1807)  Mar
21 Dec 1794 -  6 Jan 1795  Pierre Louis Bentabole             (b. 1756 - d. 1798)  Thr
 6 Jan 1795 - 20 Jan 1795  Étienne François Louis Honoré      (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
                             Tourneur, dit Le Tourneur
                            (or Charles François
Louis Honoré Letourneur) 
20 Jan 1795 -  4 Feb 1795  Joseph Stanislas François          (b. 1748 - d. 1798)  Thr
                             Xavier Alexis Rovère de Fontvielle
 4 Feb 1795 - 19 Feb 1795  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (b. 1755 - d. 1829)  Thr
19 Feb 1795 -  6 Mar 1795  François-Louis Bourdon,            (b. 1758 - d. 1798)  Thr
                             dit Bourdon de l'Oise 
 6 Mar 1795 - 24 Mar 1795  Antoine Claire Thibaudeau          (b. 1765 - d. 1854)  Mar
24 Mar 1795 -  5 Apr 1795  Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
 5 Apr 1795 - 20 Apr 1795  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas   (b. 1756 - d. 1826)  Mar
                             (or François Antoine de Boissy d'Anglas)
20 Apr 1795 -  5 May 1795  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès             (b. 1748 - d. 1836)  Mar

                             ("Abbé Sieyès")
 5 May 1795 - 26 May 1795  Théodore Vernier                   (s.a.)
20 May 1795 - 21 May 1795  Pierre Amable Soubrany             (b. 1752 - d. 1795)  Mont
                             (in rebellion)
26 May 1795 -  4 Jun 1795  Jean-Baptiste Charles Mathieu,     (b. 1763 - d. 1833)  Mar
                             dit Mathieu-Mirampal 
 4 Jun 1795 - 19 Jun 1795  Jean-Denis Lanjuinais              (b. 1753 - d. 1827)  Mar
19 Jun 1795 -  4 Jul 1795  Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray    (b. 1760 - d. 1797)  Mar
 4 Jul 1795 - 19 Jul 1795  Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de        (b. 1764 - d. 1853)  Mar
                             Pontécoulant 
19 Jul 1795 -  3 Aug 1795  Louis Marie La Revellière, dit     (b. 1753 - d. 1824)  Mar
                             La Revellière-Lépeaux
 3 Aug 1795 - 19 Aug 1795  Pierre Claude François Daunou      (b. 1761 - d. 1840)  Mar
19 Aug 1795 -  2 Sep 1795  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier        (b. 1764 - d. 1811)  Mar
                            
(or Marie Joseph Blaise de Chénier)
 2 Sep 1795 - 23 Sep 1795  Théophile Berlier                  (b. 1761 - d. 1844)  Mar
23 Sep 1795 -  8 Oct 1795  Pierre Charles Louis Baudin,       (b. 1748 - d. 1799)  Thr
                             dit Baudin des Ardennes 
 8 Oct 1795 - 26 Oct 1795  Charles François Jean Joseph       (b. 1749 - d. 1804)  Mar
                             Victor Génissieu 
26 Oct 1795 -  2 Nov 1795  the Committee of Public Safety 
                             (see heads of government)
Presidents of the Executive Directory
 2 Nov 1795 - 31 Jan 1796  Jean-François Reubell (1st time)   (s.a.)               Reac
31 Jan 1796 - 30 Apr 1796  Étienne François Louis Honoré      (s.a.)               Mod
                             Le Tourneur, dit Le Tourneur
                             (1st time) 
30 Apr 1796 - 29 Jul 1796  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (s.a.)               Mod
                             (1st time) 
29 Jul 1796 -  1 Nov 1796  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit  (s.a.)               Mod
                             La Revellière-Lépeaux (1st time)
 1 Nov 1796 - 30 Jan 1797  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (s.a.)               Reac
                             (1st time)
30 Jan 1797 - 30 Apr 1797  Jean-François Reubell (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Reac
30 Apr 1797 - 26 May 1797  Étienne François Louis Honoré      (s.a.)               Mod
                             Le Tourneur, dit Le Tourneur
     
                       (2nd time) 
26 May 1797 - 24 Aug 1797  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
24 Aug 1797 - 27 Nov 1797  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit  (s.a.)               Mod
                             La Revellière-Lépeaux (2nd time) 
27 Nov 1797 - 25 Feb 1798  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (s.a.)               Reac
                             (2nd time) 
25 Feb 1798 - 26 May 1798  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (s.a.)               Reac
                             Merlin de Douai (1st time)
26 May 1798 - 24 Aug 1798  Jean-François Reubell (3rd time)   (s.a.)               Reac
24 Aug 1798 - 27 Nov 1798  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard            (s.a.)
27 Nov 1798 - 25 Feb 1799  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit  (s.a.)               Mod
                             La Revellière-Lépeaux (3rd time) 
25 Feb 1799 - 26 May 1799  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (s.a.)               Reac
                             (3rd time) 
26 May 1799 - 18 Jun 1799  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (s.a.)               Reac
                             Merlin de Douai (2nd time)
19 Jun 1799 - 23 Sep 1799  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès             (s.a.)               Mod
23 Sep 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Louis-Jérôme Gohier                (b. 1746 - d. 1830)  Mod
11 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799  Consular Executive Commission
                           (no president, functions of consul de jour rotated daily)
                           - Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès           (s.a.)               Mod
                           - Pierre Roger Ducos, dit          (b. 1747 - d. 1816)  Mod
                               Roger-Ducos
                           - Napoléon Bonaparte               (b. 1769 - d. 1821)  Mil
First consul

25 Dec 1799 - 18 May 1804  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (s.a.)               Mil
Emperor¹
18 May 1804 - 11 Apr 1814  Napoléon I (1st time)              (s.a.)
                            (30 Apr 1814 - 1 Mar 1815 in Elba exile)
Regents
23 Jan 1814 - 28 Mar 1814  Marie Louise -Empress              (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
28 Jan 1814 - 30 Mar 1814  Joseph Napoléon de France          (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
                            (Lieutenant-general of the Empire)
 1 Apr 1814 - 14 Apr 1814  Provisional Government
                           - Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-   (b. 1754 - d. 1838)  Non-party
                               Périgord, prince de Bénévent
                              (assumes chairmanship without formal appointment,
                               colloquially referred to "president"

                           - Pierre Riel, comte de            (b. 1752 - d. 1821
)  Non-party
                               Beurnonville
                           -
Arnail François, comte de
       (b. 1757 - d. 1852)  Non-party
                               Jaucourt
                           - Emèrick Joseph Wolfgang Héribert,
                               duc de Dalberg                 (b. 1773 - d. 1833
)  Non-party
                           - François Xavier Marc Antoine de
                               Montesquiou-Fezensac           (b. 1756 - d. 1832
)  Non-party
14 Apr 1814 -  2 May 1814  Charles-Philippe de France,        (b. 1757 - d. 1836)  Non-party
                             comte d'Artois
                           (Lieutenant-general of the Kingdom)
King¹
 2 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Louis XVIII "le Désiré" (1st time) (b. 1755 - d. 1824)
                             (23 Mar - 8 Jul 1815 in Ghent exile)
Emperors¹
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Napoléon I (2nd time)              (s.a.)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Napoléon II (remained in Austria)  (b. 1811 - d. 1832)  Non-party
23 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Commission of Government
                           (also styled Executive Commission)
                           - Joseph, comte Fouché, duc        (b. 1759 - d. 1820)  Non-party
                               d'Otrante 
                              (president from 23 Jun 1815)
                           - Lazare Nicolas Marguerite        (s.a.)               Non-party
                               Carnot 
                           - Paul, comte Grenier              (b. 1768 - d. 1827)  Non-party
                           - Armand Augustin Louis            (b. 1773 - d. 1827)  Non-party
                               Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence
                           - Nicolas Marie, baron de          (b. 1762 - d. 1821)  Non-party
                               Quinette de Rochemont
Kings¹
 8 Jul 1815 - 16 Sep 1824  Louis XVIII "le Désiré" (2nd time) (s.a.)
16 Sep 1824 -  2 Aug 1830  Charles X                          (s.a.)
                            (= Charles-Philippe de France, comte d'Artois)
29 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  Municipal Commission (of Paris)
                           (in opposition to Charles X)
                           - Jacques Laffitte                 (b. 1767 - d. 1844)  Lib
                           - Casimir Pierre Périer            (b. 1777 - d. 1832)  Lib
                           - Georges Mouton, comte de Lobau   (b. 1770 - d. 1838)  Lib
                           - Auguste Jean Marie, baron de     (b. 1782 - d. 1849)  Lib
                               Schonen
                           - Pierre François Audry de         (b. 1783 - d. 1852)  Lib
                               Puiraveau
                           - François Mauguin                 (b. 1785 - d. 1854)  Lib
Lieutenant-general of the kingdom
31 Jul 1830 -  9 Aug 1830  Louis-Philippe de France, duc      (b. 1773 - d. 1850)  Lib
                             d'Orléans 
King¹
 9 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848  Louis-Philippe I "le Roi-Citoyen"  (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Government of the Republic
24 Feb 1848 -  9 May 1848  Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure   (b. 1767 - d. 1855)  Mod
President of the National Constituent Assembly
 9 May 1848 - 10 May 1848  Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez    (b. 1796 - d. 1865)  Rep
Chairman of the Executive Power Commission
11 May 1848 - 24 Jun 1848  Dominique François Jean Arago      (b. 1786 - d. 1853)  Rep
President of the National Constituent Assembly
24 Jun 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Antoine Marie Jules Sénard         (b. 1800 - d. 1885)  Non-party
Chief of the Executive Power
28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac             (b. 1802 - d. 1852)  Mod
President
20 Dec 1848 -  1 Dec 1852  Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte           (b. 1808 - d. 1873)  Bon
Emperor¹
 1 Dec 1852 -  4 Sep 1870  Napoléon III                       (s.a.)
                             (Prussian prisoner from 2 Sep 1870)
26 Jul 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Empress Eugénie -Regent            (b. 1826 - d. 1920)
President of the Government of National Defense
 4 Sep 1870 - 13 Feb 1871  Louis Jules Trochu                 (b. 1815 - d. 1896)  Mil
Presidents of the National Constituent Assembly
13 Feb 1871 - 16 Feb 1871  Denis Emmanuel, comte Benoist      (b. 1796 - d. 1880)  Con
                             d'Azy (acting)
16 Feb 1871 - 17 Feb 1871  François Jules Paul Grévy          (b. 1807 - d. 1891)  Con
Presidents
17 Feb 1871 - 24 May 1873  Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers  (b. 1797 - d. 1877)  CG
                             (chief of the Executive Power to 31 Aug 1871)
24 May 1873 - 30 Jan 1879  Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice de      (b. 1808 - d. 1893)  Mon
                             Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta 
30 Jan 1879                Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure     (b. 1798 - d. 1881)  CD
                             (acting)
30 Jan 1879 -  2 Dec 1887  François Jules Paul Grévy          (s.a.)               GRep
 2 Dec 1887 -  3 Dec 1887  Pierre Maurice Rouvier (acting)    (b. 1842 - d. 1911)  UR
 3 Dec 1887 - 25 Jun 1894  Marie François Sadi Carnot         (b. 1837 - d. 1894)  UR
25 Jun 1894 - 27 Jun 1894  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1923)  UR
                             (acting) 
27 Jun 1894 - 16 Jan 1895  Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer    (b. 1847 - d. 1907)  Rep
16 Jan 1895 - 17 Jan 1895  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (2nd time) (s.a.)               UR
                             (acting)
17 Jan 1895 - 16 Feb 1899  François Félix Faure               (b. 1841 - d. 1899)  Rep
16 Feb 1899 - 18 Feb 1899  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (3rd time) (s.a.)               UR
18 Feb 1899 - 18 Feb 1906  Émile François Loubet              (b. 1838 - d. 1929)  ARD
18 Feb 1906 - 18 Feb 1913  Clément Armand Fallières           (b. 1841 - d. 1931) ARD;1911 PRD
18 Feb 1913 - 18 Feb 1920  Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré    (b. 1860 - d. 1934) PRD;1917 ARD
                             (at Bordeaux 3 Sep - 8 Dec 1914)
18 Feb 1920 - 21 Sep 1920  Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel        (b. 1855 - d. 1922)  PRDS
21 Sep 1920 - 11 Jun 1924  Étienne Alexandre Millerand        (b. 1859 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                             (acting to 23 Sep 1920)
11 Jun 1924 - 13 Jun 1924  Frédéric François-Marsal (acting)  (b. 1874 - d. 1958)  FR
13 Jun 1924 - 13 Jun 1931  Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (b. 1863 - d. 1937)  RRS
13 Jun 1931 -  7 May 1932  Paul Athanase Doumer               (b. 1857 - d. 1932)  RRS
 7 May 1932 - 10 May 1932  André Pierre Gabriel Amédée        (b. 1876 - d. 1945)  AD
                             Tardieu (acting) 
10 May 1932 - 11 Jul 1940  Albert François Lebrun             (b. 1871 - d. 1950)  AD
                            (at Tours 10-14 Jun 1940, then Bordeaux, from 1 Jul 1940 Vichy)
Chief of State
(Chef de l'État Français)
11 Jul 1940 - 20 Aug 1944  Henri Philippe Pétain              (b. 1856 - d. 1951)Mil/Non-party
                            (in Belfort exile to 7 Sep 1944; then
                             in Sigmaringen, Germany to 23 Apr 1945)
Acting heads of state (in dissidence to 20 Aug 1944)
 3 Jun 1944 - 16 Jan 1947  the heads of government
Presidents
16 Jan 1947 - 16 Jan 1954  Jules Vincent Auriol               (b. 1884 - d. 1966)  SFIO
16 Jan 1954 -  8 Jan 1959  René Jules Gustave Coty            (b. 1882 - d. 1962)  CNIP
 8 Jan 1959 - 28 Apr 1969  Charles de Gaulle                  (b. 1890 - d. 1970) UNR;1968 UDR
28 Apr 1969 - 20 Jun 1969  Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher      (b. 1909 - d. 1996)  Ind
                             (1st time) (acting)
20 Jun 1969 -  2 Apr 1974  Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou      (b. 1911 - d. 1974)  UDR 
 3 Apr 1974 - 27 May 1974  Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher      (s.a.)               Ind
                             (2nd time) (acting)
27 May 1974 - 21 May 1981  Valéry Giscard d'Estaing           (b. 1926)            RI;1978 UDF
21 May 1981 - 17 May 1995  François Maurice Mitterrand        (b. 1916 - d. 1996)  PS
17 May 1995 - 16 May 2007  Jacques René Chirac                (b. 1932)           RPR;2002 UMP
16 May 2007 - 15 May 2012  Nicolas Paul
Sarkozy               (b. 1955)            UMP
15 May 2012 -              François Gérard
Hollande           (b. 1954)            PS

 

First Ministers of State (Premier ministre d'État)
14 May 1610 - 29 Jan 1611  Maximilien de Béthune, duc de      (b. 1559 - d. 1641)
                             Sully

29 Jan 1611 - 1614         Nicolas de Neufville, marquis de   (b. 1542 - d. 1617)  
                             Villeroy
1614 - 1616                Vacant
1616 - 24 Apr 1617         Concino Concini (Conchine),        (b. c.1575 - d. 1617)

                             marquis d'Ancre
24 Apr 1617 - 12 Aug 1624  Vacant
12 Aug 1624 -  4 Dec 1642  Armand Jean du Plessis Cardinal    (b. 1585 - d. 1642)
                             Richelieu, duc de Richelieu
 4 Dec 1642 -  9 Mar 1661  Jules Cardinal Mazarin             (b. 1602 - d. 1661)
 9 Mar 1661 -  6 Sep 1683  Jean-Baptiste Colbert              (b. 1619 - d. 1683)
 6 Sep 1683 -  2 Sep 1715  Vacant
 2 Sep 1715 - 10 Aug 1723  Gillaume Dubois                    (b. 1656 - d. 1723)
                             (from 16 Jul 1721, Gillaume Cardinal Dubois) 
10 Aug 1723 -  2 Dec 1723  Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans  (s.a.)
 2 Dec 1723 - 11 Jun 1726  Louis Henri, prince de Condé       (b. 1692 - d. 1740)
11 Jun 1726 - 29 Jan 1743  André Hercule de Fleury            (b. 1653 - d. 1743)  
                             (from 11 Sep 1726,
André Hercule Cardinal de Fleury)
29 Jan 1743 -  9 Oct 1758  Vacant
 3 Dec 1758 - 24 Dec 1770  Étienne François, duc de Choiseul  (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
24 Dec 1770 - 14 May 1774  René Nicolas Charles Augustin de   (b. 1714 - d. 1792)
                             Maupeou, marquis de Morangles et
                             de Bully, vicomte de Bruyères-le
                             -Châtel

14 May 1774 - 21 Nov 1781  Jean Frédéric Phélypeaux,          (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
                             comte de Maurepas

21 Nov 1781 - 13 Feb 1787  Charles Gravier, comte de          (b. 1719 - d. 1787)
                             Vergennes

13 Feb 1787 - 25 Aug 1788  Étienne-Charles de Loménie de      (b. 1727 - d. 1794)
                             Brienne

25 Aug 1788 - 11 Ju1 1789  Jacques Necker (1st time)          (b. 1732 - d. 1804)
11 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Louis Auguste Le Tonnellier,       (b. 1730 - d. 1807)
                             baron de Breteuil

16 Jul 1789 -  3 Sep 1790
 Jacques Necker (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1790 - 29 Nov 1791  Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin    (b. 1745 - d. 1792)
                             Saint-Hérem

29 Nov 1791 - 21 Sep 1792  Vacant
Provisional Executive Council (chair rotating weekly)
- Ministers of Justice -
21 Sep 1792 -  9 Oct 1792  Georges Jacques Danton             (s.a.)               Mont-D
 9 Oct 1792 - 20 Mar 1793  Dominique Joseph Garat             (b. 1749 - d. 1833)  Gir
20 Mar 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Louis-Jérôme Gohier                (s.a.)               Mod
- Ministers of the Marine and Colonies -
21 Sep 1792 - 10 Apr 1793  Gaspard Louis Monge                (b. 1746 - d. 1818)  Mont
10 Apr 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Dalbarade                     (b. 1743 - d. 1819)  Mil
- Ministers of Foreign Affairs -
21 Sep 1792 - 21 Jun 1793  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,   (s.a.)               Gir
                             dit Lebrun-Tondu
21 Jun 1793 -  2 Apr 1794  François Louis Michel Chemin des   (b. 1759 - d. 1840)  Mont-D
                             Forgues, dit Deforgues
 2 Apr 1794 -  5 Apr 1794  Vacant
 5 Apr 1794 -  8 Apr 1794  Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (b. 1766 - d. 1795)  Mont
                             (interim)
 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Martial Joseph Armand Herman       (b. 1759 - d. 1795)  Mont
                             (interim)²
- Ministers of the Interior -
21 Sep 1792 - 23 Jan 1793  Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière   (b. 1734 - d. 1793)  Gir
23 Jan 1793 - 20 Aug 1793  Dominique Joseph Garat             (s.a.)               Gir
                             (interim to 15 Mar 1793)
20 Aug 1793 -  5 Apr 1794  Jules François Paré                (b. 1755 - d. 1819)  Mont-D
 5 Apr 1794 -  8 Apr 1794  Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (s.a.)               Mont
                             (interim)
 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Martial Joseph Armand Herman       (s.a.)               Mont
                             (interim)
- Ministers of War -
21 Sep 1792 -  3 Oct 1792  Joseph Marie Servan, dit Servan    (b. 1741 - d. 1808)  Mil
                             de Gerbey 
 3 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,   (s.a.)               Gir
                             dit Lebrun-Tondu (1st time)
                             (interim)
18 Oct 1792 -  4 Feb 1793  Jean-Nicolas Pache                 (b. 1746 - d. 1823)  Gir
 4 Feb 1793 -  1 Apr 1793  Pierre Riel de Beurnonville        (b. 1752 - d. 1821)  Mil
 1 Apr 1793 -  4 Apr 1793  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,   (s.a.)               Gir
                             dit Lebrun-Tondu (2nd time)
                             (interim)
 4 Apr 1793 - 22 Jun 1793  Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte       (b. 1754 - d. 1840)  Mil
                             (1st time) 
22 Jun 1793  (hours)       Charles Alexis Alexandre           (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
22 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte       (s.a.)               Mil
                             (2nd time)
- Ministers of Public Contributions and Revenues -
21 Sep 1792 - 13 Jun 1793  Étienne Clavière                   (b. 1735 - d. 1793)  Gir
13 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Louis Grégoire Des Champs des      (b. 1744 - d. 1795)  Mod
                             Tournelles
Committee of Public Safety of the National Convention
20 Apr 1794 -  1 Sep 1794  Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac         (s.a.)               Mont
20 Apr 1794 -  1 Sep 1794  Jacques Nicolas Billaud, dit       (s.a.)               Mont
                             Billaud-Varenne 
20 Apr 1794 -  6 Oct 1794  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (s.a.)               Mont
                             (1st time)
20 Apr 1794 -  1 Sep 1794  Jean-Marie Collot, dit             (s.a.)               Mont
                             Collot d'Herbois 
20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794  Georges Auguste Couthon            (s.a.)               Mont-R
20 Apr 1794 - 31 Jul 1794  André Jeanbon, dit
                             Jeanbon Saint-André              (s.a.)               Mont-R
20 Apr 1794 -  6 Oct 1794  Jean Baptiste Robert Lindet        (s.a.)               Mont
20 Apr 1794 - 31 Jul 1794  Pierre Louis Prieur, dit           (s.a.)               Mont-R
                             Prieurde la Marne (1st time)
20 Apr 1794 -  6 Oct 1794  Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,   (s.a.)               Mont
                             dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or 
20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794  Maximilien Robespierre             (s.a.)               Mont-R
20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794  Louis de Saint-Just                (s.a.)               Mont-R
31 Jul 1794 -  5 Dec 1794  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit           (s.a.)               Mar
                             Bréard-Duplessis (1st time) 
31 Jul 1794 -  5 Nov 1794  Joseph Eschassériaux (1st time)    (b. 1753 - d. 1823)  Mont
31 Jul 1794 -  5 Nov 1794  Pierre Antoine Laloy               (s.a.)               Mont
31 Jul 1794 -  1 Sep 1794  Jean-Lambert Tallien (1st time)    (s.a.)               Thr
31 Jul 1794 -  5 Dec 1794  Jacques Alexis Thuriot de la
                             Rosière                          (s.a.)               Mont
31 Jul 1794 -  5 Nov 1794  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (1st time) (s.a.)               Mar
 1 Sep 1794 -  5 Dec 1794  Charles Cochon de Lapparent        (b. 1750 - d. 1825)  Mar
 1 Sep 1794 -  4 Jan 1795  Jean François Bertrand Delmas      (s.a.)               Mar
 1 Sep 1794 -  4 Jan 1795  Antoine François Fourcroy          (b. 1755 - d. 1809)  Thr
                             (1st time) 
 1 Sep 1794 -  4 Jan 1795  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (s.a.)               Mar
                             Merlin de Douai (1st time)
 6 Oct 1794 -  3 Feb 1795  Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau,   (b. 1737 - d. 1816)  Mar
                             dit Guyton-Morveau 
 6 Oct 1794 -  3 Feb 1795  Pierre Louis Prieur, dit
                             Prieur de la Marne (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mont
 6 Oct 1794 -  3 Feb 1795  Joseph Charles Étienne Richard     (b. 1761 - d. 1834)
 5 Nov 1794 -  5 Mar 1795  Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès      (s.a.)               Mar
                             (1st time) 
 5 Nov 1794 -  5 Mar 1795  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot   (s.a.)               Thr
                             (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1794 -  5 Mar 1795  Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1794 -  4 Apr 1795  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas   (s.a.)               Mar
                             (1st time) 
 5 Dec 1794 -  4 Apr 1795  Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de      (s.a.)               Thr
                             Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé 
 5 Dec 1794 -  4 Apr 1795  André Dumont                       (s.a.)               Thr
 4 Jan 1795 -  4 May 1795  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit           (s.a.)               Mar
                             Bréard-Duplessis (2nd time)
 4 Jan 1795 -  4 May 1795  Jean-Pierre Chazal                 (b. 1766 - d. 1840)  Thr
 4 Jan 1795 -  4 May 1795  Pierre Marec (1st time)            (b. 1739 - d. 1828)  Mod
 3 Feb 1795 -  3 Jun 1795  Antoine François Fourcroy          (s.a.)               Thr
                             (2nd time)
 3 Feb 1795 -  3 Jun 1795  Pierre Jean Lacombe, dit           (b. 1751 - d. 1812)  Mont
                             Lacombe Saint-Michel 
 3 Feb 1795 -  3 Jun 1795  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (s.a.)               Mar
                             Merlin de Douai (2nd time)
 5 Mar 1795 -  3 Jul 1795  Marie François Sébastien           (b. 1760 - d. 1823)  Thr
                             Christophe Delaporte, dit Laporte
 5 Mar 1795 -  3 Jul 1795  Jean-François Reubell (1st time)   (s.a.)               Mar
 5 Mar 1795 -  3 Jul 1795  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1st time)  (s.a.)               Mar
 4 Apr 1795 -  2 Aug 1795  François Aubry                     (b. 1747 - d. 1798)  Thr
 4 Apr 1795 -  2 Aug 1795  Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès      (s.a.)               Mar
                             (2nd time)
 4 Apr 1795 -  4 May 1795  Jacques Antoine Creuzé de La       (b. 1749 - d. 1800)  Mar
                             Touche, dit Creuzé-Latouche 
 4 Apr 1795 -  3 Jul 1795  Pierre Mathurin Gillet             (b. 1766 - d. 1795)  Mod
                             (or René-Mathurin Gillet)
 4 Apr 1795 -  4 May 1795  Bernard Marie Lesage (1st time)    (b. 1758 - d. 1796)  Thr
                             (or Denis-Toussaint Lesage)
 4 Apr 1795 -  3 Jul 1795  Louis Félix Roux                   (b. 1753 - d. 1817)  Thr
 4 Apr 1795 -  2 Aug 1795  Jean-Lambert Tallien (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Thr
 4 May 1795 -  1 Sep 1795  Joseph-Jacques Defermon,           (s.a.)               Thr
                             dit Defermon des Chapelières 
 4 May 1795 -  1 Sep 1795  Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de        (s.a.)               Thr
                             Pontécoulant 
 4 May 1795 -  1 Sep 1795  Jacques Antoine Rabaut, dit        (b. 1744 - d. 1820) 
                             Rabaut-Pomier 
 4 May 1795 -  2 Aug 1795  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (2nd time) (s.a.)               Mar
 4 May 1795 -  1 Sep 1795  Théodore Vernier                   (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1795 -  7 Oct 1795  Charles Antoine Augustin Blad      (b. 1764 - d. 1802)  Thr
 3 Jun 1795 -  7 Oct 1795  François Joseph Gamon              (b. 1767 - d. 1832)  Thr
 3 Jun 1795 -  7 Oct 1795  Pierre François Joachim            (b. 1761 - d. 1838)  Thr
                             Henry-Larivière 
 3 Jun 1795 -  7 Oct 1795  Pierre Marec (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mod
 3 Jul 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas   (s.a.)               Mar
                             (2nd time) 
 3 Jul 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Jean Antoine Joseph Debry          (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Bernard Marie Lesage (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Thr
                            (or Denis-Toussaint Lesage)
 3 Jul 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray    (s.a.)               Mar
 2 Aug 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Étienne François Louis Honoré      (s.a.)
                             Le Tourneur, dit Le Tourneur
 2 Aug 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit       (s.a.)               Mar
                             Merlin de Douai (3rd time)
 2 Aug 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Jean-François Reubell (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Mar
 2 Aug 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Mar
 1 Sep 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Théophile Berlier                  (s.a.)               Mar
 1 Sep 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès      (s.a.)               Mar
                             (3rd time) 
 1 Sep 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Pierre Claude François Daunou      (s.a.)               Mar
 1 Sep 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Louis Marie La Revellière, dit     (s.a.)               Mar
                             La Revellière-Lépeaux
 7 Oct 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier        (s.a.)               Mar
 7 Oct 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Joseph Eschassériaux (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Mod
 7 Oct 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Charles Claude Christophe Gourdan  (b. 1744 - d. 1804)  Mar
 7 Oct 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Antoine Claire Thibaudeau          (s.a.)               Mar
Minister Secretaries of State
(Ministre Secrétaire d'État)
25 Dec 1799 - 17 Apr 1811  Hugues Bernard Maret (1st time)    (b. 1763 - d. 1839)  Non-party
                            (from 3 May 1809, comte Maret;
                             from 15 Aug 1809,
duc de Bassano) 
17 Apr 1811 - 20 Nov 1813  Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno,         (b. 1767 - d. 1829)  Non-party
                             comte Daru             
20 Nov 1813 -  1 Apr 1814  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Bassano (2nd time) 
Archchancellor (Archi-chancelier de l'Empire)
18 May 1804 - 11 Apr 1814  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès,  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 24 Apr 1808) duc de Parme
                             (1st time)

Chancellor
(Chancelier de France)    
13 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Charles-Henry Dambray (D'Ambray)   (b. 1760 - d. 1829)  Non-party

Minister Secretary of State

20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Bassano (3rd time) 
Archchancellor

20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès,  (s.a.)               Non-party
                             duc de Parme (2nd time)
Prime ministers³
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Vacant
 7 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Périgord, prince de Bénévent
                             (acting to 9 Jul 1815)
 
26 Sep 1815 - 29 Dec 1818  Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc    (b. 1766 - d. 1822)  Non-party
                             de Richelieu (1st time)
29 Dec 1818 - 19 Nov 1819  Jean Joseph Paul Augustin,         (b. 1767 - d. 1828)  Non-party
                             marquis Dessolles 
19 Nov 1819 - 20 Feb 1820  Élie, comte Decazes                (b. 1780 - d. 1860)  Mod
20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821  Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Richelieu (2nd time)
14 Dec 1821 -  6 Dec 1827  Jean Baptiste Séraphin Joseph,     (b. 1773 - d. 1854)  Ult
                             comte de Villèle
                             (acting to 4 Sep 1822)

 6 Dec 1827 -  4 Jan 1828  Christophe André Jean, comte       (b. 1771 - d. 1836)  Ult
                             Chabrol de Crouzol (acting)    
 4 Jan 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Jean Baptiste Silvère Gaye,        (b. 1778 - d. 1832)  Ult
                             vicomte de Martignac 
 8 Aug 1829 - 29 Jul 1830  Auguste Jules Armand Marie,        (b. 1780 - d. 1847)  Ult
                             comte de Polignac
                             (acting to 17 Nov 1829)

29 Jul 1830 - 31 Jul 1830  Casimir Louis Victurnien de        (b. 1787 - d. 1875)  Non-party
                             Rochechouart, duc de Mortemart 
Prime ministers³
 1 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure   (s.a.)               Lib   
                             (1st time) (acting)
 2 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Jacques Laffitte                   (b. 1767 - d. 1844)  PM
13 Mar 1831 - 16 May 1832  Casimir Pierre Périer              (s.a.)               Lib
16 May 1832 - 11 Oct 1832  Vacant
11 Oct 1832 - 18 Jul 1834  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc    (b. 1769 - d. 1851)  Non-party
                             de Dalmatie (1st time) 
18 Jul 1834 - 29 Oct 1834  Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard      (b. 1773 - d. 1852)  Non-party
29 Oct 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Jean Charles Persil (acting)       (b. 1785 - d. 1870)  Lib
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Bassano
18 Nov 1834 - 12 Mar 1835  Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph     (b. 1768 - d. 1835)  Non-party
                             Mortier, duc de Treviso
12 Mar 1835 - 22 Feb 1836  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,     (s.a.)               PM
                             duc de Broglie 
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers  (s.a.)               PM
                             (1st time) 
 6 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Louis Mathieu, comte Molé          (b. 1781 - d. 1855)  Orl
31 Mar 1839                Adrien Étienne Pierre, comte
      (b. 1783 - d. 1862)  PM  
                             de Gasparin (acting)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Louis Gaspard Amédée Girod de
     (b. 1781 - d. 1847)  PM
                             l'Ain (acting) 
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Dalmatie (2nd time)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers  (s.a.)               PM
                             (2nd time)
29 Oct 1840 - 19 Sep 1847  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             de Dalmatie (3rd time)
19 Sep 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  François Pierre Guillaume Guizot   (b. 1787 - d. 1874)  Con
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure
  (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Vacant
28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac             (s.a.)               Mod
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot    (b. 1791 - d. 1873)  PO
31 Oct 1849 -
22 Jan 1852  Vacant
Ministers of State (Ministre d'État)       
22 Jan 1852 - 30 Jul 1852  François Joseph Xavier, comte
     (b. 1796 - d. 1888)  Bon
                             de Casabianca
30 Jul 1852 - 23 Nov 1860  Achille Marcus Fould               (b. 1800 - d. 1867
)  Bon
23 Nov 1860 - 23 Jun 1863  Florian Alexandre Joseph, comte    (b. 1810 - d. 1868)  Bon
                             Walewski     
23 Jun 1863 - 13 Oct 1863  Auguste Adolphe Marie Billault     (b. 1805 - d. 1863
)  Bon   
13 Oct 1863 - 17 Jul 1869  Eugène Rouher                     
(b. 1814 - d. 1884)  Bon
                            (acting to 8 Oct 1863)
Keepers of the Seals, Ministers of Justice and Religious Affairs
(Gardes des sceaux, ministres de la justice et des cultes)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Jean-Baptiste Duvergier            (b. 1792 - d. 1877
)  Bon
 2 Jan 1870 -  9 Aug 1870  Olivier Émile Ollivier             (b. 1825 - d. 1913)  Bon
 9 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Charles Guillaume Cousin-Montauban,(b. 1796 - d. 1878)  Bon
                             comte de Palikao  
Prime ministers³
 4 Sep 1870 -  2 Sep 1871  Vacant
 2 Sep 1871 - 25 May 1873  Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure     (s.a.)               CD
                             (1st time) 
                             (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers)
25 May 1873 - 22 May 1874  Jacques Vicor Albert, duc de       (b. 1821 - d. 1901)  CD
                             Broglie (1st time) 
                             (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers)
22 May 1874 - 10 Mar 1875  Ernest Louis Octave Courtot de     (b. 1810 - d. 1882)  Non-party
                             Cissey
                             (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers)
10 Mar 1875 - 23 Feb 1876  Louis Joseph Buffet                (b. 1818 - d. 1898)  CD
                             (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers)
23 Feb 1876 - 12 Dec 1876  Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure     (s.a.)               CD
                             (2nd time)
                             (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers to 9 Mar 1876)
12 Dec 1876 - 17 May 1877  Jules François Simon Suisse,       (b. 1814 - d. 1896)  GRep
                             dit Simon                    
17 May 1877 - 23 Nov 1877  Jacques Victory Albert, duc de     (s.a.)               CD
                             Broglie (2nd time)
23 Nov 1877 - 13 Dec 1877  Gaëtan de Grimaudet de Rochebouët  (b. 1813 - d. 1899)  Non-party
13 Dec 1877 -  4 Feb 1879  Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure     (s.a.)               CD
                             (3rd time)
 4 Feb 1879 - 28 Dec 1879  William Henry Waddington           (b. 1826 - d. 1894)  CG
28 Dec 1879 - 23 Sep 1880  Charles Louis de Saulces de        (b. 1828 - d. 1923)  GRep
                             Freycinet (1st time)
23 Sep 1880 - 14 Nov 1881  Jules Ferry (1st time)             (b. 1832 - d. 1893)  GRep
14 Nov 1881 - 30 Jan 1882  Léon Michel Gambetta               (b. 1838 - d. 1882)  UR
30 Jan 1882 -  7 Aug 1882  Charles Louis de Saulces de        (s.a.)               GRep
                             Freycinet (2nd time)
 7 Aug 1882 - 29 Jan 1883  Charles Théodore Eugène Duclerc    (b. 1813 - d. 1888)  GRep
29 Jan 1883 - 21 Feb 1883  Clément Armand Fallières           (s.a.)               UD
21 Feb 1883 -  6 Apr 1885  Jules Ferry (2nd time)             (s.a.)               GRep
 6 Apr 1885 -  7 Jan 1886  Eugène Henri Brisson (1st time)    (b. 1835 - d. 1912)  UR
 7 Jan 1886 - 11 Dec 1886  Charles Louis de Saulces de        (s.a.)               GRep
                             Freycinet (3rd time)
11 Dec 1886 - 30 May 1887  René Marie Goblet                  (b. 1828 - d. 1905)  PRG
30 May 1887 - 12 Dec 1887  Pierre Maurice Rouvier (1st time)  (s.a.)               UR
12 Dec 1887 -  3 Apr 1888  Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (1st time)  (b. 1827 - d. 1893)  UR
 3 Apr 1888 - 22 Feb 1889  Charles Thomas Floquet             (b. 1828 - d. 1896)  GRad
22 Feb 1889 - 17 Mar 1890  Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (2nd time)  (s.a.)               UR
17 Mar 1890 - 27 Feb 1892  Charles Louis de Saulces de        (s.a.)               GRep
                             Freycinet (4th time) 
27 Feb 1892 -  6 Dec 1892  François Émile Loubet              (s.a.)               Rep
 6 Dec 1892 -  4 Apr 1893  Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot       (b. 1842 - d. 1923)  Rep
                             (1st time) 
 4 Apr 1893 -  3 Dec 1893  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (1st time) (s.a.)               UR
 3 Dec 1893 - 30 May 1894  Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Périer    (s.a.)               Rep
30 May 1894 - 26 Jan 1895  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (2nd time) (s.a.)               UR
26 Jan 1895 -  1 Nov 1895  Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot       (s.a.)               Rep
                             (2nd time)
 1 Nov 1895 - 29 Apr 1896  Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois      (b. 1851 - d. 1925)  Soc
29 Apr 1896 - 28 Jun 1898  Félix Jules Méline                 (b. 1838 - d. 1925)  PRG
28 Jun 1898 -  1 Nov 1898  Eugène Henri Brisson (2nd time)    (s.a.)               UR
 1 Nov 1898 - 22 Jun 1899  Charles Alexandre Dupuy (3rd time) (s.a.)               PRG
22 Jun 1899 -  7 Jun 1902  Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-  (b. 1846 - d. 1904)  ARD
                             Rousseau           
 7 Jun 1902 - 24 Jan 1905  Émile Justin Louis Combes          (b. 1835 - d. 1921)  RRS
24 Jan 1905 - 14 Mar 1906  Pierre Maurice Rouvier (2nd time)  (s.a.)               ARD
14 Mar 1906 - 25 Oct 1906  Jean Marie Ferdinand Sarrien       (b. 1840 - d. 1915)  RRS
25 Oct 1906 - 24 Jul 1909  Georges Clemenceau (1st time)      (b. 1841 - d. 1929)  RRS
24 Jul 1909 -  2 Mar 1911  Aristide Briand (1st time)         (b. 1862 - d. 1932)  PRS
 2 Mar 1911 - 27 Jun 1911  Antoine Emmanuel Ernest Monis      (b. 1846 - d. 1929)  RRS
27 Jun 1911 - 14 Jan 1912  Joseph Pierre Marie Auguste        (b. 1863 - d. 1934)  RRS
                             Caillaux                       
14 Jan 1912 - 21 Jan 1913  Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré    (s.a.)               PRD
                             (1st time)
21 Jan 1913 - 22 Mar 1913  Aristide Briand (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PRS
22 Mar 1913 -  9 Dec 1913  Jean Louis Barthou                 (b. 1862 - d. 1934)  GRad
 9 Dec 1913 -  9 Jun 1914  Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (s.a.)               RRS
                             (1st time) 
 9 Jun 1914 - 13 Jun 1914  Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot       (s.a.)               PRG
                             (3rd time)
13 Jun 1914 - 29 Oct 1915  Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani   (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  PRS
                             (at Bordeaux 3 Sep - 8 Dec 1914)
29 Oct 1915 - 20 Mar 1917  Aristide Briand (3rd time)         (s.a.)               PRS
20 Mar 1917 - 12 Sep 1917  Alexandre Félix Joseph Ribot       (s.a.)               ARD
                             (4th time)
12 Sep 1917 - 16 Nov 1917  Paul Prudent Painlevé (1st time)   (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  PRS
16 Nov 1917 - 20 Jan 1920  Georges Clemenceau (2nd time)      (s.a.)               RRS
20 Jan 1920 - 24 Sep 1920  Étienne Alexandre Millerand        (s.a.)               Ind + BN
24 Sep 1920 - 16 Jan 1921  Jean Claude Georges Leygues        (b. 1857 - d. 1933)  PRDS + BN
16 Jan 1921 - 15 Jan 1922  Aristide Briand (4th time)         (s.a.)               PRS
15 Jan 1922 -  9 Jun 1924  Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré    (s.a.)               PRDS + BN
                             (2nd time) 
 9 Jun 1924 - 14 Jun 1924  Frédéric François-Marsal           (s.a.)               FR + BN
14 Jun 1924 - 17 Apr 1925  Marie Édouard Herriot (1st time)   (b. 1872 - d. 1957)  RRS + CdG
17 Apr 1925 - 28 Nov 1925  Paul Prudent Painlevé (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PRS + CdG
28 Nov 1925 - 19 Jul 1926  Aristide Briand (5th time)         (s.a.)               PRS + CdG
19 Jul 1926 - 23 Jul 1926  Marie Édouard Herriot (2nd time)   (s.a.)               RRS + CdG
23 Jul 1926 - 29 Jul 1929  Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré    (s.a.)               AD
                             (3rd time)
29 Jul 1929 -  3 Nov 1929  Aristide Briand (6th time)         (s.a.)               PRS
 
3 Nov 1929 - 21 Feb 1930  André Pierre Gabriel Amédée        (s.a.)               AD
                             Tardieu (1st time)
21 Feb 1930 -  2 Mar 1930  Gabriel Camille Chautemps          (b. 1885 - d. 1963)  RRS
                             (1st time)
 2 Mar 1930 - 13 Dec 1930  André Pierre Gabriel Amédée        (s.a.)               AD
                            Tardieu (2nd time) 
13 Dec 1930 - 27 Jan 1931  Jules Joseph Théodore Steeg        (b. 1868 - d. 1950)  RRS
27 Jan 1931 - 20 Feb 1932  Pierre Laval (1st time)            (b. 1883 - d. 1945)  Non-party
20 Feb 1932 -  3 Jun 1932  André Pierre Gabriel Amédée        (s.a.)               AD
                             Tardieu (3rd time) 
 3 Jun 1932 - 18 Dec 1932  Marie Édouard Herriot (3rd time)   (s.a.)               RRS + CdG
18 Dec 1932 - 31 Jan 1933  Augustin-Alfred-Joseph Boncour,    (b. 1873 - d. 1972)  PRS + CdG
                             dit Paul-Boncour             
31 Jan 1933 - 26 Oct 1933  Édouard Daladier (1st time)        (b. 1884 - d. 1970)  RRRS + CdG
26 Oct 1933 - 26 Nov 1933  Albert Pierre Sarraut (1st time)   (b. 1872 - d. 1962)  RRS + CdG
26 Nov 1933 - 30 Jan 1934  Gabriel Camille Chautemps          (s.a.)               RRS + CdG
                             (2nd time)
30 Jan 1934 -  9 Feb 1934  Édouard Daladier (2nd time)        (s.a.)               RRS
+ CdG
 9 Feb 1934 -  8 Nov 1934  Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (s.a.)               RRS
                             (2nd time)
 8 Nov 1934 -  1 Jun 1935  Pierre Étienne Flandin             (b. 1889 - d. 1958)  AD
 1 Jun 1935 -  7 Jun 1935  Fernand Émile Honoré Bouisson      (b. 1874 - d. 1959)  PRS
 7 Jun 1935 - 24 Jan 1936  Pierre Laval (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Non-party
24 Jan 1936 -  4 Jun 1936  Albert Pierre Sarraut (2nd time)   (s.a.)               RRS
 4 Jun 1936 - 22 Jun 1937  Léon André Blum (1st time)         (b. 1872 - d. 1950)  SFIO + FP
22 Jun 1937 - 13 Mar 1938  Gabriel Camille Chautemps          (s.a.)               RRS + FP
                             (3rd time)
13 Mar 1938 - 10 Apr 1938  Léon André Blum (2nd time)         (s.a.)               SFIO + FP
10 Apr 1938 - 21 Mar 1940  Édouard Daladier (3rd time)        (s.a.)               RRS
21 Mar 1940 - 16 Jun 1940  Paul Jean Reynaud                  (b. 1878 - d. 1966)  AD
                             (at Tours 10-14 Jun 1940, then Bordeaux)
16 Jun 1940 - 18 Apr 1942  Henri Philippe Pétain              (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party

                             (at Bordeaux to 1 Jul 1940, then Vichy)
- Vice Premiers acting for Pétain-
12 Jul 1940 - 13 Dec 1940  Pierre Laval                       (s.a.)               Non-party
13 Dec 1940 - 10 Feb 1941  Pierre Étienne Flandin             (s.a.)               AD
10 Feb 1941 - 18 Apr 1942  Jean François Darlan               (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  Mil
Prime minis
ters
18 Apr 1942 - 20 Aug 1944  Pierre Laval (3rd time)
           (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (chief of government)
 7 Sep 1944 - 22 Apr 1945  Fernand de Brinon (acting)         (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  Non-party
                             (president of the French Government Commission
                             for the Defense of National Interests;

                             in Sigmaringen, Germany exile)

Chairmen of the National Committee of the Free French

(in dissidence; in London exile, from 3 Jun 1943 in Algiers)
24 Sep 1941 -  3 Jun 1943  Charles de Gaulle (1st time)       (s.a.)               Mil
 3 Jun 1943 -  9 Nov 1943  Charles de Gaulle (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Mil
                           + Henri Honoré Giraud              (b. 1879 - d. 1949)  Mil
 9 Nov 1943 -  3 Jun 1944  Charles de Gaulle (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Mil
Chairmen of the Provisional Government

 3 Jun 1944 - 26 Jan 1946  Charles de Gaulle                  (s.a.)             Mil/Non-party
                             (in Algiers, from 14 Jun 1944 in France) 
26 Jan 1946 - 24 Jun 1946  Félix Gouin                        (b. 1884 - d. 1977)  SFIO
24 Jun 1946 - 16 Dec 1946  Georges Bidault                    (b. 1899 - d. 1983)  MRP
16 Dec 1946 - 16 Jan 1947  Léon André Blum                    (s.a.)               SFIO
Prime ministers²
22 Jan 1947 - 24 Nov 1947  Paul Ramadier                      (b. 1888 - d. 1961)  SFIO
24 Nov 1947 - 24 Jul 1948  Robert Schuman (1st time)          (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  MRP + TF 
24 Jul 1948 -  2 Sep 1948  André Marie                        (b. 1897 - d. 1974)  RRS + TF
 2 Sep 1948 - 11 Sep 1948  Robert Schuman (2nd time)          (s.a.)               MRP + TF
11 Sep 1948 - 28 Oct 1949  Henri Queuille (1st time)          (b. 1884 - d. 1970)  RRS + TF
28 Oct 1949 -  2 Jul 1950  Georges Bidault                    (s.a.)               MRP + TF
 2 Jul 1950 - 12 Jul 1950  Henri Queuille (2nd time)          (s.a.)               RRS + TF
12 Jul 1950 - 10 Mar 1951  René Pleven (1st time)             (b. 1901 - d. 1993)  UDSR + TF 
10 Mar 1951 - 11 Aug 1951  Henri Queuille (3rd time)          (s.a.)               RRS + TF
11 Aug 1951 - 20 Jan 1952  René Pleven (2nd time)             (s.a.)               UDSR
20 Jan 1952 -  8 Mar 1952  Edgar Faure (1st time)             (b. 1908 - d. 1988)  RRS
 8 Mar 1952 -  8 Jan 1953  Antoine Pinay                      (b. 1891 - d. 1994)  CNIP
 8 Jan 1953 - 28 Jun 1953  René Mayer                         (b. 1895 - d. 1972)  Rad
28 Jun 1953 - 19 Jun 1954  Joseph Laniel                      (b. 1889 - d. 1975)  CNIP
19 Jun 1954 - 17 Feb 1955  Pierre Mendès-France               (b. 1907 - d. 1982)  RRS
17 Feb 1955 - 23 Feb 1955  Christian Pineau (acting)          (b. 1904 - d. 1995)  RRS
23 Feb 1955 -  1 Feb 1956  Edgar Faure (2nd time)             (s.a.)               RRS
 1 Feb 1956 - 13 Jun 1957  Guy Mollet                         (b. 1905 - d. 1975)  SFIO 
13 Jun 1957 -  6 Nov 1957  Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury           (b. 1914 - d. 1993)  RRS
 6 Nov 1957 - 14 May 1958  Félix Gaillard                     (b. 1919 - d. 1970)  RRS
14 May 1958 -  1 Jun 1958  Pierre Pflimlin                    (b. 1907 - d. 2000)  MRP 
 1 Jun 1958 -  8 Jan 1959  Charles de Gaulle                  (s.a.)               UNR
 8 Jan 1959 - 14 Apr 1962  Michel Debré                       (b. 1912 - d. 1996)  UNR 
14 Apr 1962 - 10 Jul 1968  Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou      (s.a.)               UNR 
10 Jul 1968 - 20 Jun 1969  Maurice Couve de Murville          (b. 1907 - d. 1999)  UDR
20 Jun 1969 -  5 Jul 1972  Jacques Chaban-Delmas              (b. 1915 - d. 2000)  UDR
 5 Jul 1972 - 27 May 1974  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)  UDR
27 May 1974 - 26 Aug 1976  Jacques René Chirac (1st time)     (s.a.)               UDR
26 Aug 1976 - 21 May 1981  Raymond Barre                      (b. 1924 - d. 2007)  UDF
21 May 1981 - 17 Jul 1984  Pierre Mauroy                      (b. 1928 - d. 2013)  PS
17 Jul 1984 - 20 Mar 1986  Laurent Fabius                     (b. 1946)            PS 
20 Mar 1986 - 10 May 1988  Jacques René Chirac (2nd time)     (s.a.)               RPR
10 May 1988 - 15 May 1991  Michel Rocard                      (b. 1930)            PS 
15 May 1991 -  2 Apr 1992  Edith Campion Cresson (f)          (b. 1934)            PS
 2 Apr 1992 - 29 Mar 1993  Pierre Eugène Bérégovoy            (b. 1925 - d. 1993)  PS
29 Mar 1993 - 18 May 1995  Édouard Balladur                   (b. 1929)            RPR
18 May 1995 -  3 Jun 1997  Alain Marie Juppé                  (b. 1945)            RPR
 3 Jun 1997 -  6 May 2002  Lionel Jospin                      (b. 1937)            PS
 6 May 2002 - 31 May 2005  Jean-Pierre Raffarin               (b. 1948)            DL;2002 UMP
31 May 2005 - 17 May 2007  Dominique Galouzeau de Villepin    (b. 1953)            UMP
17 May 2007 - 
16 May 2012  François Charles Fillon            (b. 1954)            UMP
16 May 2012 -  1 Apr 2014  Jean-Marc Ayrault                  (b. 1950)            PS
 1 Apr 2014 -              Manuel Valls                       (b. 1962)            PS

 

Occupations (1815-18, 1870-73, 1914-1918, 1940-45)

Commander of the Allied Occupation Army
Nov 1815 - 30 Nov 1818     Sir Arthur Wellesley, Viscount     (b. 1769 - d. 1852)
                             Wellesley of Talavera and of 
                             Wellington (U.K.)
Prussian Commander
 2 Sep 1870 - 25 Jun 1871  Helmuth Graf von Moltke            (b. 1800 - d. 1891)
Governor-general
Dec 1870 - 25 Jun 1871     Georg Friedrich Alfred Graf von    (b. 1818 - d. 1891)
                             Fabrice
Commander of the German Army of Occupation
25 Jun 1871 - 16 Sep 1873  Edwin von Manteuffel               (b. 1809 - d. 1885)

German army commanders of the First and Second: Northern part of the front

24 Aug 1914 - 28 Mar 1915  Alexander von Kluck                (b. 1846 - d. 1934)
28 Mar 1915 - 17 Sep 1915  Maximilian von Fabeck              (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
27 Aug 1914 -  4 Apr 1915  Karl Wilhelm Paul von Bülow        (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
 4 Apr 1915 - 19 Jul 1916  Friedrich von Below                (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
19 Jul 1916 - 28 Aug 1916  Maximilian von Gallwitz zu 
                             Dreyling                         (b. 1852 - d. 1937)
Commanders-in-chief of the First and Second German army groups 
28 Aug 1916 - 21 Nov 1918  Rupprecht von Bayern               (b. 1869 - d. 1955)
 6 Aug 1918 - 31 Oct 1918  Max von Böhn                       (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
German army commanders of the Third thru Fifth and Seventh armies: Central part of the front
Aug 1914 - 12 Sep 1914     Max Clemens Lothar Freiherr
                             von Hausen                       (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
12 Sep 1914 - 26 Sep 1915  Karl von Einem, gen. Rothmaler     (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
Aug 1914 - 26 Sep 1915     Albrecht Maria Alexander Herzog 
                             von Württemberg                  (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
Aug 1914 - 26 Sep 1915     Friedrich Wilhelm von Preussen     (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
1914 - 26 Sep 1915         Josias Oskar von Heeringen         (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
Commanders-in-chief of the Third thru Fifth and Seventh German army groups 
26 Sep 1915 - 11 Sep 1918  Friedrich Wilhelm von Preussen     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1918 -  6 Dec 1918  Maximilian von Gallwitz zu 
                             Dreyling                         (s.a.)
- Southern part of front line 1914-1918: no territorial gains, only consisted of 6th army -

Geman Military Governors for France (Frankreich)

10 May 1940 - 25 Oct 1940  Heinrich Alfred Hermann Walther    (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
                             von Brauchitsch
 9 Jun 1940 - 30 Jun 1940  Johannes Blaskowitz                (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
                             (military governor of Northern France)
30 Jun 1940 - 25 Oct 1940  Alfred Streccius                   (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
                             (chief of military administration France)
25 Oct 1940 - 20 Feb 1942  Otto von Stülpnagel                (b. 1878 - d. 1948)
20 Feb 1942 - 20 Jul 1944  Karl Heinrich von Stülpnagel       (b. 1886 - d. 1944) 
 
8 Apr 1943 -  4 Sep 1944  Elmar Michel                       (b. 1897 - d. 1977)  NSDAP   
                             (head of the German Military Administration in France)   
21 Jul 1944 - 26 Aug 1944  Karl Kitzinger                     (b. 1886 - d. 1962)

26 Aug 1944 -  4 Sep 1944  Otto Moritz Walter Model           (b. 1891 - d. 1945)
 5 Sep 1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Runstedt      (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
German Commanders of the Army Territory of Southern "Vichy" France (Südfrankreich)
11 Nov 1942 - 15 Dec 1942  Alexander Freiherr von Neubronn    (b. 1877 - d. 1949)
                             von Eisenburg
15 Dec 1942 - 10 Jun 1944  Heinrich Niehoff                   (b. 1882 - d. 1946)     
10 Jun 1944 - 30 Jul 1944  Theodor Geib                       (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
 1 Aug 1944 -  5 Aug 1944  Edgar Theissen                     (b. 1890 - d. 1968)

Italian Commanders (4th Army) in the Italian Occupied Zone
(in the eight departments west of the Rhone River)
Jun 1940                   Alfredo Guzzoni                    (b. 1877 - d. 1965)
Jun 1940 - Nov 1940        Mario Vercellino (1st time)        (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Nov 1940 - May 1941        Mario Caracciolo di Feroleto       (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
May 1941 -  9 Sep 1943     Mario Vercellino (2nd time)        (s.a.)


Nord and Pas-de-Calais 1940 - 1944

[War Ensign 1935-1945
                  (Germany)]

15 Jun 1940                The French départements of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais are 
                             occupied by Germany.
22 Jun 1940                Attached to German Belgian military administration (see Belgium);
                             nominally under the civil authority of "Vichy" France
                             and referred to as la Zone Rattachée ("the Attached Zone").
 7 Jul 1940                Area becomes a closed zone isolated from rest of France.
 1-5 Sep 1944              Both departments are liberated by the Allies
                             (Dunkirk is liberated on 9 May 1945).

German Military Governors (670th Oberfeldkommandantur)  
(subordinated to military governors of Belgium)
 6 Jun 1940 - 15 Nov 1942  Heinrich Niehoff                   (b. 1882 - d. 1946) 
25 Dec 1942 - 10 Jun 1943  Wilhelm Daser                      (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
10 Jun 1943 - 11 Sep 1944  George Bertram                     (b. 1882 - d. 1953)

Prefect of Lille Region
19 Apr 1941 -  2 Sep 1944  Fernand Carles                     (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
Prefect of the Nord Region
21 Mar 1936 -  2 Sep 1944  Fernand Carles                     (s.a.)
Prefect, Delegate of the Minister of the Interior in the General
Delegation of the French Government in the Occupied Territories

1941 - 1944                Henry Joseph Darrouy               (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
Prefects of Pas-de-Calais
(from Apr 1941, subordinated to Lille prefect)
1933 - 1940                Gabriël Auguste Léon Rochard       (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
 8 Aug 1940 - 1942         Amédée Félix Bussière              (b. 1886 - d. 1953)
1942 - 1943                Jean-Marcel Daugy                  (b. 1894 - d. 1968)
1943 - 1944                André Paul Sadon                   (b. 1891 - d. 1965)
Feb 1944 - Sep 1944        André Alexandre Pujes              (b. 1904 - d. 1976)

 ¹The full style of the ruler was:
(a) 987 - 3 Aug 1108: Dei gratia Francorum Rex ("by the Grace of God, King of the Franks");
(b) 3 Aug 1108 - 2 Aug 1589: par la grâce de Dieu roi de France/Dei Gratia Francorum Rex
("by the grace of God, King of France");
(c) 2 Aug 1589 - 14 Sep 1791, 4 Jun 1814 - 19 Mar 1815, 22 Jun 1815 - 9 Aug 1830: par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre/Dei Gratia Francorum et Navarrae Rex ("by the grace of God, king of France and of Navarre");
(d) 14 Sep 1791 - 21 Sep 1792, 9 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848: par la grâce de Dieu, et par
la loi constitutionnelle de l'Etat, Roi des Français ("by the grace of God, and by the Constitutional Law of the State, King of the French");
(e) 18 May 1804 - 1 Jan 1809: par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions de la République, Empereur des Français ("by the grace of God and the constitutions of the Republic, Emperor of the French"); 
  Napoléon I was also styled: from 18 Mar 1805, Roi d'Italie (King of Italy); from 25 Jul 1806, Protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin (Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine); and from 14 Oct 1809, Médiateur de la Confédération Suisse (Mediator of the Swiss Confederation);
(f) 14 Oct 1809 - 2 Apr 1814: par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions, Empereur des Français, Roi d'Italie, Protecteur de la Confédération du Rhin, Médiateur de la Confédération suisse, &c., &c., &c.
("by the grace of God and the constitutions of the Empire, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the RhineMediator of the Swiss Confederation, &c., &c., &c.:"); 
(g) 20 Mar 1815 - 7 Jul 1815: par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions, Empereur des Français ("by the grace of God and the constitutions, Emperor of the French"); 
(h) 1 Dec 1851 -  2 Sep 1870: par la grâce de Dieu et la volonté nationale, Empereur des Français ("by the grace of God and the will of the nation, Emperor of the French").

 ²On 9 Apr 1794, Philibert Buchot (b. 1748 - d. 1812), acting for Herman, chaired the last official meeting of the Provisional Executive Council.

 ³The term Prime minister (Premier ministre) was only introduced in the constitution of the "Fifth Republic" that went into effect 8 Jan 1959. Previously the principal minister was called Président du Conseil des Ministres (9 Jul 1815 - 1 Aug 1830, 22 Jan 1947 - 8 Jan 1959); Président du Conseil (1 Aug 1830 - 31 Oct 1849, 8 Mar 1876 - 18 Apr 1942); Ministre d'État (31 Oct 1849 - 17 Jul 1869); Vice-Président du Conseil (2 Sep 1871 - 9 Mar 1876); Chef du Gouvernement (18 Apr 1942 - 22 Aug 1944); and Président du Gouvernement Provisoire (3 Jun 1944 - 22 Jan 1947); although (a) there was no such position mentioned in the constitution, and (b) the formal Conseil des Ministres was (as it continues to be) chaired by the president of the republic, the Président du Conseil chairing only the (technically informal) Conseil de cabinet

French Revolutionary Calendar Note: The French Republican calendar was imposed on France by Law on 5 Oct 1793. Dates were calculated from the Autumn Equinox.  22 Sep 1792, which became the first day of An I ("Year 1").  The standard year was split into 12 thirty day months with five (or six) additional days (depending on leap years). The thirty day months were named by the distinguished poet Fabre d'Eglantine, each month having its own appropriate symbolism,
three months were assigned to each season:  The autumn months were named Vendémiaire ("month of vintage"), Brumaire ("month of fog, mist"), and Frimaire ("month of frost"); the winter months, Nivose ("month of snow"), Pluviose ("month of rain"), and Ventose ("month of wind"); the spring months, Germinal ("month of seed, budding"), Floréal ("month of blossoms"), and Prairial ("month of meadow"); and the summer months, Messidor ("month of harvest"), Thermidor ("month of heat"), and Fructidor ("month of fruits").  Each of these months was subdivided into three décades of ten days: Primidi, Duodi, Tridi, Quartidi, Qunintidi, Sextidi, Septidi, Octidi, Nonidi, and Decadi the day of rest. The five (or six) days remaining at the end of the year were designated national holidays or san culottides: jour de la vertu ("virtue day"), jour du génie ("genius day"), jour du labour ("labor day"), jour da la raison ("reason day"), jour de la récompense ("reward day"), and jour de la révolution ("revolution day") on leap years.  For obvious reasons, the calendar was unwieldy, impractical, and unpopular. Reforms were proposed, but instead Napoleon ordered the re-introduction of the traditional Gregorian calendar on 1 Jan 1806, thus condemning to death the Revolutionary calendar on 10 Nivose XIV.

Noble titles: chevalier = knight; comte/comtesse = count/countess; duc/duchesse = duke/duchess; empereur/impératrice = emperor/empress; roi/reine = king; marquis/marquise = marquess/marchioness; prince/princesse = prince/princess; seigneur/seigneuresse = lord/lady; viscomte/vicomtesse = viscount/viscountess.

Ecclesiastical titles:
abbé = abbot; archevêque = archbishop; cardinal = cardinal; evêque = bishop.

Territorial Disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Comoros and Madagascar dispute France's claim to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Mozambique Channel; Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; territorial claim in Antarctica (Terre Adelie) since 1924 is not recognized by the United Nations, U.S., Russia, or by most other countries (other than Australia, New Zealand, Norway and U.K.)
 

Party abbreviations: Ind = Indépendant (independent); PS = Parti Socialiste (Socialist Party, social-democratic, former SFIO, est.4 May 1969); UMP = Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (Union for a Popular Movement, center-right, est.23 Apr 2002 from RPR, DL and main part of UDF); Mil = Military;
- Former parties/groups: AD = Alliance Démocratique (Democratic Alliance, center-right, secular liberal, Nov 1926-1940, former PRDS); ARD = Alliance Républicaine Démocratique (Democratic Republican Alliance, center-right, secular liberal, 1901-1911 & 1917-1920, then named PRD 1911-1917 and PRDS 1920-1926); Bon = Bonapartistes (Bonapartists, supporters of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, conservative, monarchist, 1848-1871); BN = Bloc Républicain National (Republican National Block, center-right, anti-Communist coalition, 1919-1924); CD = Centre-Droit (Center-Right, conservative, monarchist [Bonapartists, Orléanists, Legitimists], 1871-1902); CdG = Cartel des Gauches (Cartel of the Left, leftist coalition of independent radicals, RRRS, PRS, independent socialists, and SFIO, 1924-1926 and 1932-1934); CG = Centre-Gauche (Center-Left, moderate left grouping, 1871-1885); CNIP = Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans (National Centre of Independents and Farmers, liberal-conservative, 1949-2002); Con = Conservateur (Conservative, right-wing, 1815-1871); DL = Démocratie Libérale (Liberal Democracy, conservative, center-right, 1997-2002, merged into UMP); Feu = Feuillans (Feuillants, constitutional monarchists, 1791-1792); FP = Front Populaire (Popular Front, leftist coalition, SFIO, Parti Radical Socialiste, and Parti Communiste Français, 1936-1938); FR = Fédération Républicaine (Republican Federation, liberal right republican, center-right, 1903-1940); Gir = Girondins (Girondists, moderate republican, federalist, 1791-1793); GRad = Gauche Radicale (Radical Left, radical leftist, 1871-1901, then RRRS); GRep = Gauche Républicaine (Republican Left, republican lefist, 1871-1585, then PRG); Lib = Libéraux (Liberal, constitutionalist, 1815-1871); Mar = Marais (Marsh, republican revolutionary moderates, 1789-1795); Mod = Modérés (Moderates, centrist, 1795-99, 1815-1871); Mon = Monarchiste (Monarchist, conservative, 1815-1871); Orl = Orléaniste (Oréanlist, conservative, constitutional monarchist, 1830-1881); Mont = Montagne (Mountain, 'Montagnards', extreme republican, Jacobin, authoritarian, centralist, opposed Girondins, 1791-1795); Mont-D = Montagnards Dantonistes (Dantonist Montagnards, partisans of Georges Jacques Danton, moderate wing of Montagnards, opposed the Terror, 1792-1794); Mont-M = Montagnards Maratistes (Maratist Montagnards, partisans of Jean-Paul Marat, extremist-wing of Mont, authoritarian, 1792-1793); Mont-R = Montagnards Robespierristes (Robespierrists  Montagnards, Mont partisans of Maximilien Robespierre, radical revolutionary, 1792-1794); MRP = Mouvement Républicain Populaire (Republican People's Movement, christian democratic, center-right, 1944-1967); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, German nationalist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); PM = Parti du Mouvement (Party of the Movement, constitutional monarchist, Orléanist, center-left, 1830-1848); PO = Parti de l'Ordre (Party of Order, conservative coalition of Legitimist [Bourbonist] and Orléanist monarchists and conservative republicans, 1848-Dec 1851); PR = Parti Républicaine (Republican Party, center-right, non-Gaullist, 1977-1997, then DL); PRD = Parti Républicain Démocratique (Democratic Republican Party, center-right, former ARD 1911-1917, renamed ARD); PRDS = Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (Democratic and Social Republican Party, center-right, secular liberal, former ARD, 30 Jun 1920-Nov 1926, renamed AD); PRGRépublicains progressistes (Progressive Republicans, conservative republicans, 1885-1902); PRSParti Républicain Socialiste (Socialist Republican Party, socialist reformist, 1911-1936); Rad = Parti Radical (Radical Party, radical republican, c.1869-1909); Reac = Réacteurs (Reactors, reactionary republicans, 1795-1799); Rep = Républicains (Republicans, 'Modérés', moderate republicans, 1848-1940); RI = Républicains Indépendants (Independent Republicans, non-Gaullist, liberal-conservative, 1962-1977, then PR); RPR = Rassemblement Pour la République (Rally for the Republic, Gaullist, conservative, 2002 UDR successor, 1976-2002, merged into UMP); RRS = Parti Républicain, Radical et Radical- Socialiste (Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party, moderate, centrist, 1901-1940 & 1945-1978, then UDF); RSU = Union Socialiste Républicaine (Republican Socialist Union, right wing splinter of SFIO, 1935-40); SFIO = Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (French Section of the Workers Internationale, socialist, center-left, 1905-1969, then PS); Soc = Radical-socialiste (Radical Socialist, 1881-1902); TF = Troisième Force (Third Force, anti-communist, anti-Gaullist, coalition of SFIO, UDSR, RRS, and MRP, 1947-1951); Thr = Thermidoriens (Thermidorians, anti-Robespierre republicans, authoritarian, 1794-1795); UD = Union Démocratique (Democratic Union, liberal, 1881-1889); UDF = Union pour la Démocratie Française (Union for the French Democracy [Démocratie Libérale, Force Démocrate, Parti Populaire pour la Démocratie Français, Parti Radical and others], centrist, social- democratic, 1978-1998); UDR = Union pour la Défense de la République (Union for the Defense of the Republic, Gaullist, conservative, UNR successor, 1971 renamed Union des Démocrates pour la République [Union of Democrats for the Republic], 1968-1976); UDSR = Union Démocratique et Socialiste de la Résistance (Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance, socialist, non-communist, 1945-1964); Ult = Ultraroyaliste (Ultra-Royalist, 'Ultras', absolute monarchist, counterrevolutionary, Bourbonist, conservative, favor restoration of ancien régime, 1814-1830); UNR = Union pour la Nouvelle République (Union for the New Republic, Guallist, conservative, 1958-1968); UR = Union Républicaine (Republican Union, radical republican, 1871-1911, then PRS)

Royalist Resistance 1793-1800

[The French Royal
                    Standard]

Aug 1792 - Apr 1795        First "Chouannerie" (Chouan royalist rebellion) in
                             Brittany, Normandy and Maine provinces north of
                             the Loire River.
11 Mar 1793 - 24 Apr 1794  Rebellion in the Vendée region, part of Brittany
                             Poitou, and Anjou provinces south of the Loire River;
                             civil matters were handled by the "Grand Superior Council 
                             of Military Vendée"
24 Apr 1794                Rebellion declines in importance, but Stofflet remained
                             the major military chief until 2 May 1795.
24 Mar 1795 - Jul 1796     Second "Chouannerie"
25 Apr 1795 - 20 Jul 1795  French Émigré forces occupy Quiberon in Brittany. 
 2 Oct 1795 - 18 Nov 1795  French Émigré forces occupy the Île-d'Yeu.
16 Oct 1799 - 15 Feb 1800  Third "Chouannerie"

Généralissimes of the Catholic and Royal Army
12 Jun 1793 - 14 Jul 1793  Jacques Cathelineau                (b. 1759 - d. 1793)
15 Jul 1793 - 17 Oct 1793  Maurice Joseph Louis Gigost        (b. 1752 - d. 1794)
                             d'Elbée
20 Oct 1793 - 29 Jan 1792  Henri du Vergier, comte de La      (b. 1772 - d. 1794)
                             Rochejaquelein
29 Jan 1794 - 24 Apr 1794  Jean Nicolas Stofflet (acting)     (b. 1751 - d. 1796)
Presidents of the Grand Superior Council of Military Vendée
26 May 1793 -  5 Jan 1794  Gabriel Pierre-François Jean       (b. 1760 - d. 1794)
                             Louis Guillot de Folleville, dit
                             évêque d'Agra (honorary leader)
26 May 1793 -  8 Jan 1794  Guy Joseph de Donnissan, marquis   (b. 1737 - d. 1794)
                             de Citran
                            (also governor of the occupied lands)
Commander of the Army of Lower Poitou 
(acted sometimes in alliance with Grand Army)
14 Mar 1793 - 17 Feb 1795  François Athanase Charette de      (b. 1763 - d. 1796)
                             La Contrie (1st time)
26 Jun 1795 - 25 Mar 1796  François Athanase Charette de      (s.a.)
                             La Contrie (2nd time)
Lieutenant general of the King (on Île-d'Yeu)
 2 Oct 1795 - 18 Nov 1795  Charles-Philippe de France,        (b. 1757 - d. 1836)
                             comte d'Artois 

- the "Chouannerie":
Presidents of the General Council of Brittany
12 Aug 1794 - Sep 1794     Joseph-Geneviève, comte de         (b. 1755 - d. 1827)
                             Puisaye
Sep 1794 - 20 Apr 1795     Pierre Marie Félicité Dezoteux,    (b. 1753 - d. 1812)
                             baron de Cormatin (acting)
Commandants (at Quiberon)
25 Jun 1795 - 20 Jul 1795  Joseph-Geneviève, comte de         (s.a.)
                             Puisaye
                           + Louis Charles Le Cat, comte      (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
                             d'Hervilly
General in chief of Morbihan (in southern Brittany)
Jul 1795 - 19 Jul 1796     Georges Cadoudal (1st time)        (b. 1771 - d. 1804)
26 Oct 1799 - 12 Feb 1800  Georges Cadoudal (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                            (led failed revolt 21 Aug 1803 - 9 Mar 1804)
Leader of the Revolt in Normandy
Jun 1795 -  6 Jul 1796     Marie Pierre Louis de Frotté       (b. 1766 - d. 1800)
                             (1st time)
16 Oct 1799 - 15 Feb 1800 
Marie Pierre Louis de Frotté       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)



Alsace-Lorraine
 
[German Empire
                            1870-1919 (Germany)]
            10 May 1871 - 21 Nov 1918 
 
[Elsass-Lothringen
                          Reichsland flag 1911]
            1911 - Nov 1918  Local Flag
 
Capital: Strassburg
(Strasbourg)
Population: 1,874, 014 (1910)
1,915,500 (1933)
 
21 Aug 1870 - 10 May 1871  Occupied by Prussia/Germany.
10 May 1871                By Treaty of Frankfurt, Bas-Rhin département and parts of
                             Haut-Rhin, Meurthe, Moselle and Vosges ceded to Germany.
 4 Aug 1879                Alsace-Lorraine a Reichsland (territory) of the German 
                             Empire; directly subordinated to the Emperor
                             (Reichsland Elsass-Lothringen).
31 May 1911                Limited autonomy granted.
11 Nov 1918 - 21 Nov 1918  Soviet of Strassburg proclaims itself independent as
                             Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.
11 Nov 1918                Alsace-Lorraine parliament (Landtag) proclaims itself
                             the National Council of Alsace-Lorraine and the sole
                             legal authority.
12 Nov 1918                National Council of Alsace-Lorraine takes over all
                             functions of the Statthalter and of the Secretary of
                             state and proclaimed the sovereignty of Alsace-Lorraine.
21 Nov 1918                Occupied by France.
22 Nov 1918                Retaken by France (fully reintegrated 1925).
15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945  Occupied by Germany; from 7 Aug 1940 separated from France
                             by Germany and placed under separate administration.
 

German military governor
21 Aug 1870 - 31 Aug 1871  Friedrich Graf von Bismarck-Bohlen (b. 1818 - d. 1894)
Civil commissioner
26 Aug 1870 - 31 Aug 1871  Friedrich Christian Hubert von     (b. 1809 - d. 1882)
                             Kühlwetter
Oberpräsident
 1 Sep 1871 - 30 Sep 1879  Eduard von Moeller                 (b. 1814 - d. 1880)
Reichsstatthalter
 1 Oct 1879 - 17 Jun 1885  Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel      (b. 1809 - d. 1885)
17 Jun 1885 -  5 Oct 1885  Karl von Hofmann (acting)          (b. 1827 - d. 1910)
 5 Oct 1885 - 1894         Chlodwig Karl Viktor Fürst zu      (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
                             Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst
Oct 1894 - 31 Oct 1907     Hermann Ernst Franz Fürst von      (b. 1832 - d. 1913)
                             Hohenlohe-Langenburg und Graf 
                             von Gleichen
 1 Nov 1907 - Apr 1914     Karl Leo Julius Graf von Wedel     (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
 1 May 1914 - Oct 1918     Nikolaus Michael Louis Johann      (b. 1855 - d. 1919)
                             "Hans" von Dallwitz 
14 Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1918  Rudolf Schwander                   (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Strasbourg Soviet
11 Nov 1918 - 21 Nov 1918  Johannes Rebholz (in rebellion)    (b. 1885 - d. 1960)
Presidents of the Administrative Board of the National Council
12 Nov 1918 - Nov 1918     Eugen Ricklin                      (b. 1862 - d. 1935)
Nov 1918 - 21 Nov 1918     Jacques Peirotes                   (b. 1869 - d. 1935) 
French High Commissioner
21 Nov 1918 - 21 Mar 1919  Georges Maringer                   (b. 1862 - d. 1941)
General Commissioners
27 Mar 1919 - 20 Mar 1920  Étienne Alexandre Millerand        (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
20 Mar 1920 - 20 Jul 1924  Gabriel Ferdinand Alapetite        (b. 1854 - d. 1932) 
20 Jul 1924 - 15 Oct 1925  Henri Richard Cacaud (interim)     (b. 1875 - d. 1961) 
Chief of civil administration in Alsace
 7 Aug 1940 - 20 Mar 1945  Robert Wagner                      (b. 1895 - d. 1946)
Chiefs of civil administration in Lorraine
 7 Aug 1940 - 28 Sep 1944  Josef Bürckel                      (b. 1895 - d. 1944)
29 Sep 1944 - 20 Mar 1945  Willi Stöhr                        (b. 1903 - d. 1994) 

Secretaries of state
 1 Oct 1879 - Jul 1880     Karl Joseph Benjamin Herzog        (b. 1827 - d. 1902)
Oct 1880 - 1887            Karl Hofmann                       (s.a.)
                             (from 29 Apr 1882, Karl von Hoffmann)
1887 - Jul 1901            Maximilian von Puttkamer           (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
                             (acting to 1889)
Jul 1901 - 1908            Ernst Matthias von Köller          (b. 1841 - d. 1928)
1908 - Feb 1914            Hugo Freiherr Zorn von Bulach      (b. 1851 - d. 1921)
10 Feb 1914 - May 1916     Siegfried Friedrich Wilhelm        (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
                             Erdmann Graf von Roedern
May 1916 - Oct 1918        Georg Freiherr von Tschammer und   (b. 1869 - d. 1918)
                             Quaritz
Oct 1918 - 12 Nov 1918     Karl Hauss                         (b. 1871 - d. 1925)


Avignon - Comtat Venaissin
[Papal flag before
                    1808]
                  1274 - 12 Jun 1790
Capital: Avignon
Population: 191,000 (1801)
         
1125                       Comtat-Venaissin (not including Avignon) becomes part of the
                             County of Toulouse.
12 Sep 1226                Avignon, formerly part of Toulouse, is conquered by France.
 7 May 1251                Avignon made a common possession of counts Charles of Anjou
                             and Alphonse de Poitiers, brothers of French King Louis VIII.
25 Aug 1271                At the death of Alphonse de Poitiers, Avignon and 
                             Comtat-Venaissin are united with the French crown.
1274                       Comtat-Venaissin becomes a Papal possession, but not
                              part of the Papal States.
1290                       Avignon is ceded to the Duchy of Provence.
 9 Mar 1309 - 17 Jan 1377  The Popes rule from Avignon, this era has been referred to
                             as the "Babylonian Captivity of the Church."
 9 Jun 1348                Avignon becomes a Papal possession.
20 Sep 1378 - 12 Mar 1403  During the "Great Schism" rival (anti-)Popes rule from Avignon.
28 Jul 1663 - 12 Feb 1664
  French occupation.
 9 Jun 1768 - 30 Apr 1774  French occupation.
24 May 1790                The States General of the Comtat, proclaims a
                             constitution, but remains loyal to the pope. 
12 Jun 1790                Avignon assembly votes the end of Papal rule and
                             union of Avignon with France.
10 Jan 1791 - 14 Jun 1791  Civil war between Avignon and the Comtat. Several towns
                             of the Comtat now rally to Avignon (Châteauneuf-du-Pape,
                             Saint-Saturnin, and Cavaillon).
14 Sep 1791                Annexed by France (Avignon part of Bouches du Rhône département
                             and part of Comtat-Venaissain to Drôme département).
25 Jun 1793                Avignon and Comtat-Venaissain re-integrated along with
                             Orange to form Vaucluse département.
19 Feb 1797                Ceded to France by the Treaty of Tolentino.
30 May 1814                Annexation formally recognized by the Pope.


Legats of Avignon

1367 - 1371                Philippe de Cabassolle -Governor   (b. 1305 - d. 1372)
1376                       Jean de Blauzac (vicar-general)    (d. 1379)
1409 - 1410                Pierre de Tourroye
1410 - 1432                François de Conzie                 (b. 1356 - d. 1732)
1432                       Marco Condulmero
1432 - 1433                Alphonse Carillo -Governor-rector  (d. 1434)
1433 - 13 Dec 1464         Pierre Cardinal de Foix            (b. 1386 - d. 1464) 
13 Dec 1464 - 1470         Vacant
1470 - 1476                Charles Cardinal de Bourbon        (b. 1434 - d. 1488) 
1476 - 1503                Giuliano Cardinal della Rovere     (b. 1443 - d. 1513)
1503 - 25 May 1510         Georges Cardinal d'Amboise         (b. 1460 - d. 1510) 
1511 -  9 Nov 1513         Robert Cardinal Guibé              (b. 1460 - d. 1513)
1513 - Feb 1541            François Guilhem Cardinal de       (b. 1478 - d. 1540)
                             Clermont-Lodève 
13 Mar 1541 - 13 Apr 1565  Alessandro Cardinal Farnèse        (b. 1520 - d. 1589)
13 Apr 1565 -  9 May 1590  Charles Cardinal de Bourbon-Vendôme(b. 1523 - d. 1590)
                           - jointly with -
13 Apr 1565 - 10 Jul 1585  Georges Cardinal d'Armagnac        (b. c.1501 - d. 1585)
 9 May 1590 -  8 Feb 1593  Vacant
 8 Feb 1593 - 1601         Ottavio Cardinal Acquaviva         (b. 1560 - d. 1612)
                             d'Aragona
1601 - 1605                Cinzio Passeri Cardinal            (b. 1551 - d. 1610)
                             Aldobrandini
1605 - 1621                Scipio Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghèse(b. 1576 - d. 1633)
1621 - 1623                Ludovico Cardinal Ludovisi         (b. 1595 - d. 1632)
 2 Oct 1623 - 1633         Francesco Cardinal Barberini       (b. 1597 - d. 1679)
21 Mar 1633 - 1644         Antonio Cardinal Barberini         (b. 1608 - d. 1671)
12 Dec 1644 - 1650         Camillo Francesco Cardinal Pamphilj(b. 1622 - d. 1666)
21 Feb 1650 - 1654         Camillo Cardinal Astalli-Pamphilj  (b. 1619 - d. 1663)
1654 - 1657                Vacant
23 Apr 1657 - 1668         Flavio Cardinal Chigi              (b. 1631 - d. 1693)
31 Jan 1668 - 1670         Giacomo Cardinal Rospigliosi       (b. 1628 - d. 1684)
19 May 1670 - 1677         Paluzzio Paluzzi Altieri Degli     (b. 1623 - d. 1698)                              Albertoni   
1677 - 1690                Alderano Cardinal Cibo             (b. 1613 - d. 1700)
11 Jan 1690 -  7 Feb 1693  Pietro Cardinal Ottoboni           (b. 1667 - d. 1740)
Vice-legats of Avignon
10 Feb 1542 - 1544         Alessandro Campeggio               (b. 1504 - d. 1554)
1544 - 1547                Antonio Trivulzio (Trivulce)       (b. c.1514 - d. 1559)
1547 - 1552                Camillo Mentuato                   (d. 1560)
1552 - 1554                Théodore-Jean de Clermont-Tallard  (d. c.1569)
1554 - 1559                Giacomo Maria de Sala
1560 - 1562                Alessandro Guidiccioni             (b. 1524 - d. 1605)
 6 Feb 1652 - 1565         Lorenzo Lenzi                      (d. 1571)
1565 - May 1585            Georges Cardinal d'Armagnac        (s.a.)
                             (co-legate)
1585 (months)              Guillaume Le Blanc (acting)        (d. 1588)
1585 - 1589                Domenico Grimaldi (1st time)       (d. 1592)
1589 - 1592                Domenico Petrucci                  (d. c.1598)
1592                       Domenico Grimaldi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
22 Aug 1592 - 1593         Silvio Savelli                     (b. 1550 - d. 1599)
1594 - 1595                Antonio Gianotti
1596 - 1599                Giovanni Francesco Bordini 
1599 - 1604                Carlo Conti                        (b. 1568 - d. 1615)
12 Feb 1604 - 1607         Pietro Francesco Montorio
Jul 1607 - 1609            Giuseppe Ferrier (Ferreri)         (b. 15.. - d. 1610)
1609 - 1610                Francesco Stefano Dulci
1610 - 14 Jun 1614         Filippo Filonardi                  (b. 1582 - d. 1622)
1614 - 1621                Giovanni Francesco de Bagno        (b. 1578 - d. 1641)
                             (Jean-François de Bagni)
1621 - 1622                Guillaume du Broc du Nozet         (d. 1626)
1622  (1 month)            Ottavio Corsini
1622                       Bartolomeo Guidotti
1623 - 1629                Cosimo de' Bardi                   (b. 1576 - d. 1631)
1629 - 1634                Mario Filonardi (Marius Philonardi)
24 Jul 1634 - 1637         Jules Cardinal Mazarin             (b. 1602 - d. 1661)
1634 - 1636                Fabrice de la Bourdaisière         (d. 1646)
                             (pro-legate for Mazarin)
1637 - 1645                Federico Sforza                    (b. 1603 - d. 1676)
1645                       Bernardo Pinelli
31 Jul 1645 -  8 Oct 1653  Lorenzo Corsi
 8 Oct 1653 -  5 Jun 1654  Domenico de Marinis                (b. 1599 - d. 1669) 
 5 Jun 1654 - 23 Dec 1655  Agostino Franciotti
23 Dec 1655 - 28 Jan 1659  Giovanni Niccolo Conti             (b. 1617 - d. 1698)
29 Jan 1659 - 24 Sep 1664  Gaspare Lascaris di Castellar      (d. 1684)
French Governor-general
Jul 1663 - 12 Feb 1664     François des Monstiers, comte de   (d. 1672)
                             Mérinville
Vice-legats of Avignon
24 Sep 1664 - 21 Aug 1665  Alessandro Colonna
20 Aug 1665 - 1670         Lorenzo Lomellini
12 Jul 1670 - 1670         Azzo Ariosto (1st time) (acting)
19 Jul 1670 -  5 Apr 1671  Horace Mathei (Orazio Mattei)      (b. 1622 - d. 1688)
 1 Apr 1671 - 18 Aug 1671  Azzo Ariosto (2nd time) (acting)
28 Aug 1671 - 26 Feb 1672  Niccolò Pietro Bargellini          (b. 1630 - d. 1694)
27 Feb 1672 - 28 Aug 1672  Azzo Ariosto (3rd time) (acting)
28 Aug 1672 - 1673         Marcello Durazzo (acting)          (b. 1633 - d. 1710)
31 May 1673 - 20 Jul 1673  Giacinto Libelli (1st time)(acting)
20 Jul 1673 - 17 Aug 1676  Carlo Anguisciola                  (d. 1676)
17 Aug 1676 - Mar 1677     Giacinto Libelli (2nd time)(acting)
1677 - 1685                Francesco Niccolini                (b. 1639 - d. 1692)
12 Dec 1685 - 31 Jul 1691  Baldasare Cenci                    (b. 1648 - d. 1709)
31 Jul 1691 -  8 Apr 1692  Lozenzo Fieschi (Laurent Fieschi)  (b. 1642 - d. 1726)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 8 Apr 1692 - 26 Feb 1696  Marco Delfino (Marc Delphini)      (b. 1654 - d. 1704)
1696                       Lorenzo Fieschi                    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 7 Jun 1696 - 26 Jul 1700  Filippo Antonio Gualteri           (b. 1660 - d. 1728)
26 Jul 1700 - 10 Aug 1700  Giovanni Battista Cicci (acting)
19 Aug 1700 - 31 May 1703  Antonio Francesco Sanvitali        (b. 1660 - d. 1714)
                            
(Antoine François Sanvitali)
31 May 1703 -  8 Aug 1706  
Antoine Banchieri                  (b. 1667 - d. 1733)
 8 Aug 1706 -  4 Nov 1706  Francesco Maurizio Gontieri        (b. 1659 - d. 1742)
                             (François-Maurice de Gontieri)
                             (1st time)(acting)

 4 Nov 1706 - 12 Nov 1711  Sinibaldo Doria                    (b. 1664 - d. 1733)
1711 - 1717                Alamanno Salviati                  (b. 1669 - d. 1733)
10 Oct 1716 - 1719         Francesco Maurizio Gontieri        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)(acting)
20 Aug 1719 -  7 Mar 1731  Raniero d'Elci (Rainiero d'Elci)   (b. 1670 - d. 1761)
 7 Mar 1731 - 11 Sep 1731  Francesco Maurizio Gontieri        (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)(acting)
11 Sep 1731 -  8 Oct 1739  Filippo Buondelmonte               (b. 1691 - d. 1741)
                            
(Philippe Bondelmonte)
 8 Oct 1739 - 18 Nov 1739  Marcelo Crescenzi                  (b. 1694 - d. 1768)

1739 -  8 Jun 1744         Niccolò Maria Cardinal Lercari     (b. 1675 - d. 1757)
1744 - 28 Jul 1754         Pasquale d'Acquaviva d'Aragon      (b. 1718 - d. 1788)
1754 - 16 Mar 1760         Paolo Passionei
1760                       Francesco Maria Manzi (1st time)   (b. 1694 - d. 1774)
                            
(François Marie de Manzi)
1760 - 1766               
Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati    (b. 1722 - d. 1794)
                            
(Grégoire Antoine Marie Salviati)
1766 - 1767               
Francesco Maria Manzi (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1767 -  9 Jun 1768         Giuseppe Vincentini
French Governor
 9 Jun 1768 - 30 Apr 1774  Jean Louis Roger, marquis de       (b. 1717 - d. 1776)
                             Rochechouart
Vice-Legats of Avignon
1774 - 1775                Francesco Maria Manzi (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 2 May 1775 - 1776         Angelo Maria Durini                (b. 1726 - d. 1796)
                             (Ange-Marie Durini)
                             (president of the legation)

13 Jun 1776 -  6 Aug 1776  G. Carlo Vincenzo Giovio (acting)
 6 Aug 1776 - 1787         Giacomo Filomarino Della Rocca
1787 - 12 Jun 1790         Filippo Casoni (Philippe Casoni)   (b. 1733 - d. 1812)
Maires of Avignon
Feb 1790 - Mar 1790        Jean-Baptiste d'Armand 
14? Mar 1790 - 14 Sep 1791 Antoine Agricol Richard 
Rectors of Comtat Venaissin
1274 - c.1284              Guillaume de Villaret              (b. c.1235 - d. 1305)
1287 - 1289                Henri de Ganève
1290 - 129.                Philippe de Brenizon
129. - c.1295              Jean de Grallin
1297 - 1299                Nicolò de'Franzesi
1299 - 1302                Matteo de Chieti
1302 - 1303                Roger de Spini
1302 - 1303                Jean Arthenisii
1303 - 1310                Guillaume de Mandagout             (d. 1321)
1310 - 1317                Raimond Guilhem de Budos           (d. 1363)
1317 - 1334                Arnaud de Trian
1335 - 1341                Pierre Guilhem
1342 - 1343                Jean Arpadelle
1344 - 1353                Hugues de la Roque                 (b. c.1335 - d. 1398)
1353 - 1362                Guillaume de Roffiac               (d. 1364)
1362 - 1370                Philippe de Cabassolle             (b. 1305 - d. 1372)
1370 - 1371                Étienne Aubert                     (d. 1378)
1372 - 1376                Aymar de Poitiers-Valentinois      (b. 1322 - d. 1376)
1376 - 1379                Guillaume Roger de Beaufort,       (b. 1331 - d. 1395)
                             vicomte de Turenne
1379 - 1390                Henri de Sévery                    (d. 1396)
1390 - 1392                Odon de Villars                    (b. 1354 - d. 1414)
1393 - 1394                Pons de Langeac (1st time)         (b. 1339 - d. 1417)
1395 - 1397                Gaston de Moncada
1397 - 1398                Antonio de Luna (1st time)
1399 - 1400                Giovanni de Alzenno
1401 - 1402                Pons de Langeac (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1403 - 1408                Antonio de Luna (2nd time) 
1408 - 1410                Rodrigo de Luna
1410 - 1422                Jean de Poitiers
1424                       Giacomo de Complo
1424 - 1431                Pietro Cottini
1432                       Marco Condolmerio
1432 - 1433                Onofrio Francesco di San Severino  (d. 1450)
1433                       Jean de Poitiers
1433 - 1459                Pierre de Foix de Castelbon        (b. 1386 - d. 1464)
1459 - 1460                Angelo Geraldini (acting)
1460 - 1472                Constantino Heruli
1473                       Jean Baile                         (d. 1494)
1474                       Frédéric de Saluces                (d. 1481)
1475                       Edouard de Messey
1475 - 1476                Renaud de Bourbon                  (d. 1483)
1476 - 1478                Angelo Geraldini
1478 - 1479                Giovanni Rosa
1479 - 1482                Amalric de Vaison, êvéque
                             de Vaison
1482                       Giovanni Casaleti
1482                       Rodolfo Bonicafio
1483 - 1485                Guillaume Adhémar
1485 - 1490                Constantino Heruli
1490 - 1495                Giovanni Andrea Grimaldi           (d. 1505)
1495 - 1502                Clément de la Rovère               (b. 1462 - d. 1504)
1502 - 1503                Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere   (b. 1471 - d. 1507) 
1503 - 1505                Louis de Rochechouart              (d. 1505)
1505 - 1509                François d'Estaing                 (b. 1460 - d. 1529)
1510 - 1511                Angelo Leonini
1511 - 1513                Jean de Montaigu
1513 - 1514                Pierre de Valetariis               (b. c.1461 - d. 1514)
1514                       François de Villeneuve
1515                       Pierre de Brie
1516 - 1541                Giscard de Corneillan              (d. 1543)
1541 - 1547                Paul Sadolet (1st time)            (b. 1508 - d. 1572)
1547 - 1553                Andrea Recuperati
1553 - 1554                Giacomo Maria Sala
1554 - 1555                Antonio Vacca
1555                       Antonio Paulo Toscomi
1555 - 1560                François de Castellane
1560 - 1561                Paul Sadolet (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1561 - 1565                Laurent de Tarascon
1565 - 1566                Pietro Sabbatier (Pierre Sabatier)
1566                       François de Castellane
1566 - 1567                Jean de Roquelaure
1567 - 1572                Paul Sadolet                       (b. 1508 - d. 1572)
1572                       Gaspard du Pont
1572 - 1577                Jacques Sacrat
1577 - 1584                Domenico Grimaldi                  (d. 1592)
1584 - 1586                Pompeo Rocchi
1586 - 1587                Francesco Argolici
1588 - 1593                Jacques Sacrat
1593                       Guillaume de Cheisolme             (d. 1629)
1593 - 1594                Achille Gimnasi
1594 - 1598                Geronimo Leopardi
1598 - 1600                Orarzio Capponi (1st time)         (b. 1552 - d. 1622)
1600 - 1605                Jean de Tulle
1605 - 1607                Giacomo Raccamador
1607 - 1609                Orarzio Capponi (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1609 - 1614                Baldassare Gaddi
1614 - 1615                Cosimo de' Bardi (1st time)        (s.a.)
1615 - 1616                Ottavio Mancini
1616 - 1621                Cosimo de' Bardi (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1621 - 1627                Cesare Racagna
1627                       Antonio Brunacchi
1627                       Francisco de Suarès
1627 - 1630                Perso Caraccio
1630 - 1637                Giovanni Battista Bongo
1637 - 1643                Jean-Côme Kéermans (1st time)
1643 - 1644                Guidobaldo Gallo
1644 - 1652                Jean-Côme Kéermans (2nd time)
1652 - 1657                Mario Buti
1657 - 1664                Cesare Salvani
Aug 1663 - 12 Feb 1664     French occupation
1664 - 1672                Farulfe de Montemarte
1672 - 1682                Michel Antoine de Vibo
1682 - 1689                Giovanni Rasponi                  (b. 1646 - d. 1714)
1689 - 1696                Filippo Onofrio
1696 - 1697                Scipio Zanelli
1698 - 1702                Flavio Barbarossa
1702 - 1707                Francesco Maria Abbati (1st time) (b. 1660 - d. 1735)
1707 - 1711                Bernardino Guinigi
1711                       Carlo Francesco Gallarini
1711 - 1712                Francesco Maria Abbati (2nd time) (s.a.)
1712 - 1716                Alessandro Francesco Codebò       (b. 1665 - d. 1733)
1716 - 1733                Ottavio Gasparini                 (b. 1676 - d. 1749)
15 Jul 1733 - 1738         Azzolino Cervini                  (b. 1698 - d. 17..)
1738 - 25 Feb 1745         Alessandro Guiccioli              (b. 1680 - d. 1752)
1745                       Domenico Giuseppe Inguiberti      (b. 1683 - d. 1757)
1745 - 1753                Gaspard de Sainte-Croix
26 Dec 1753 - 1755         Tommasso Galli                    (b. 1699 - d. 1765)
19 Apr 1755 - 1758         Fortunato Savini
 8 Aug 1758 -  9 Jun 1768  Carlo Manzoni
 9 Jun 1768 - 30 Apr 1774  French occupation
Apr 1774 - 1776            Denis François Régis Valoris      (b. 1721 - d. 1781)
                            
(Dionisio Francesco Regis Valoris)
Nov 1776 - 1785            Giulio Cesare Zoglio (Zollio)     (b. 1733 - d. 1795)

1785 - 1787                Giuseppe Beni (Joseph de Béni)    (b. 1729 - d. 1806)
1787 - 1790                Cristofano Pieracchi              (b. 1741 - d. 1797)
Vice-legat
12 Jun 1790 - 14 Sep 1791  Filippo Casoni                    (s.a.)


Corsica (Corse): see under France Regions
Lorraine and Bar: see Provinces of France to 1791


Mömpelgard (Montbéliard)
[County of
                    Montbeliard pre-1793 (Germany)]
                   to 11 Oct 1793
Capital: Mömpelgard
Population: N/A (1793)
           
1034                       County of Mömpelgard (Montbéliard)(Grafschaft Mömpelgard).
 2 Jul 1419                Passed to Württemberg.
 1 May 1534 - 1535         Occupied by France.
1617 - 25 Mar 1723         Principality of Mömpelgard, under a collateral branch
                             of Württemberg.
1633 - 1643                Occupied by France.
1676 - 15 Aug 1679         Occupied by France.
25 Mar 1723                Passed to Württemberg (style Herzog von Württemberg
                             und Graf von Mömpelgard).
Apr 1734 - Oct 1735        Occupied by France.
10 May 1748                Under French sovereignty, but continues to be administered
                             by Württemberg.
11 Nov 1793                Montbéliard (Mömpelgard) annexed by France;
                             part of département of Haute-Saône.
 9 Feb 1801                Annexation recognized by Treaty of Lunéville.

Counts (title: Graf zu Mömpelgard)
1697 -  1 Jun 1699         Georg                              (b. 1626 - d. 1699)
 1 Jun 1699 - 25 Mar 1723  Leopold Eberhard                   (b. 1670 - d. 1723)
25 Mar 1723 - 31 Oct 1733  Eberhard Ludwig                    (b. 1676 - d. 1733)
31 Oct 1733 - 12 Mar 1737  Karl Alexander                     (b. 1684 - d. 1737)
12 Mar 1737 - 11 Nov 1793  Karl Eugen                         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
                             (nominally from 10 May 1748)

French Governors
 1 May 1534 - 1535?        Philippe Chabot, comte de Charny   (b. 1492 - d. 1543)
 1 May 1534 - 1535?        Paul de La Barthe, sieur de
                             Thermes (acting for Chabot)      (b. 1482 -  d. 1562)
Sep 1633 - Jun 1636        Charles de Livron, marquis         (d. 1671)
                             de Bourbonne
16 May 1636 - 1636         Louis de Champagne, comte          (b. 1576 - d. 1636)
                             de La Suze              
Dec 1636 - 1639?           Jacques Rouxel de Médavy,          (b. 1603 - d. 1680)
                             comte de Grancey
                           + Louis, marquis de Nettancourt
                             (1638-39)
11 Jan 1639 - 10 Dec 1643  François de Caumont, marquis de    (d. 1656)
                             Castelmoron et seigneur de
                             Montpouillan
167. - 15 Aug 1679         de Beaulieu
Apr 1734 - Oct 1735        Coste de Rantzevelle
Statthalter
1723 - 1733                Friedrich-Wilhelm, graf von        (b. 1666 - d. 1755)
                             Grävenitz
1733 - c.1734              von Negendanck
1736 - 1748                Arnold Franz de Tornaco            (b. 1696 - d. 1766)
1748 - 1756                Reinhard von Gemmingen-Guttenberg  (b. 1698 - d. 1773)
1756? - 13 Mar 1759        Joseph Christoph von Palm          (b. 1706 - d. 1781)
1759 -  3 Jan 1760         Carl Georg August von Oppel        (d. 1760)
1760 - 1776                ....
1776 - 1786?               Carl Gustaf Friedrich von Uexküll  (b. 1716 - d. 1801)
1769 - 11 Nov 1793         Friedrich Eugen Herzog von         (b. 1732 - d. 1797)
                             Württemberg (officially from 1786)



Mülhausen (Mulhouse)
 
[Mülhausen
                          (Mulhouse) city flag]
             1770 - 1798
 
[Republic of
                          Mulhouse 1798 (Germany)]
                   1798
 
Capital:  Mülhausen
Population: N/A
 
1227                       Mülhausen (Mulhouse) a city.
1273                       Imperial free city. There were three mayors 1587-95 and from 1602,
                             alternating with the first mayors being "in charge" at any
                             time; three "succession lines" can be distinguished.
1293                       Free city status confirmed.
19 Jan 1515                Mülhausen an associate member (Zugewandter Ort) of
                             the Swiss Confederation.
24 Oct 1648                Recognized by France as part of the Swiss Confederation.
28 Jan 1798                Requests annexation to France.
15 Mar 1798                Incorporated into France (part of département Haut-Rhin).
 9 Feb 1801                Formally ceded to France (afterwards follows Alsace-Lorraine).

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- 1st Line -
18 Dec 1699 - 19 Dec 1700  Gottfridt Engelman (4th time)
19 Dec 1700 - 17 Dec 1701  Hans Görg Hässler (1st time)
17 Dec 1701 - 21 Dec 1702  Josua Fürstenberger (1st time)     (b. 1646 - d. 1732)
21 Dec 1702 - 20 Dec 1703  Gottfridt Engelman (5th time)
20 Dec 1703 - 18 Dec 1704  Niclaus Rissler (1st time)
18 Dec 1704 - 17 Dec 1705  Josua Fürstenberger (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1705 - 23 Dec 1706  Gottfridt Engelman (6th time)
23 Dec 1706 - 22 Dec 1707  Niclaus Rissler (2nd time)
22 Dec 1707 - 20 Dec 1708  Josua Fürstenberger (3rd time)     (s.a.)
20 Dec 1708 - 19 Dec 1709  Gottfridt Engelman (7th time)
19 Dec 1709 - 18 Dec 1710  Niclaus Rissler (3rd time) 
18 Dec 1710 - 17 Dec 1711  Josua Fürstenberger (4th time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1711 - 22 Dec 1712  Gottfridt Engelman (8th time)
22 Dec 1712 - 21 Dec 1713  Johannes Dollfus (1st time)        (b. 1639 - d. 1716)
21 Dec 1713 - 20 Dec 1714  Josua Fürstenberger (5th time)     (s.a.)
20 Dec 1714 - 19 Dec 1715  Gottfridt Engelman (9th time)
19 Dec 1715 - 17 Dec 1716  Johannes Dollfus (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Dec 1716 - 23 Dec 1717  Josua Fürstenberger (6th time)     (s.a.)
23 Dec 1717 - 22 Dec 1718  Gottfridt Engelman (10th time)
22 Dec 1718 - 21 Dec 1719  Johannes Hofer (1st time)          (b. 1669 - d. 1752)
21 Dec 1719 - 19 Dec 1720  Josua Fürstenberger (7th time)     (s.a.)
19 Dec 1720 - 18 Dec 1721  Thiebold Schmerber (1st time)
18 Dec 1721 - 17 Dec 1722  Johannes Hofer (2nd time)          (s.a.)
17 Dec 1722 - 23 Dec 1723  Josua Fürstenberger (8th time)     (s.a.)
23 Dec 1723 - 21 Dec 1724  Thiebold Schmerber (2nd time)
21 Dec 1724 - 20 Dec 1725  Johannes Hofer (3rd time)          (s.a.)
20 Dec 1725 - 19 Dec 1726  Josua Fürstenberger (9th time)     (s.a.)
19 Dec 1726 - 18 Dec 1727  Thiebold Schmerber (3rd time) 
18 Dec 1727 - 23 Dec 1728  Johannes Hofer (4th time)          (s.a.)
23 Dec 1728 - 22 Dec 1729  Josua Fürstenberger (10th time)    (s.a.)
22 Dec 1729 - 21 Dec 1730  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
21 Dec 1730 - 21 Dec 1731  Johannes Hofer (5th time)          (s.a.)
20 Dec 1731 -  8 Feb 1732  Josua Fürstenberger (11th time)    (s.a.)
 8 Feb 1732 - 18 Dec 1732  .... (acting)
18 Dec 1732 - 17 Dec 1733  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
17 Dec 1733 - 23 Dec 1734  Johannes Hofer (6th time)          (s.a.)
23 Dec 1734 - 22 Dec 1735  Paulus Schwartz 
22 Dec 1735 - 20 Dec 1736  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (3rd time)
20 Dec 1736 - 19 Dec 1737  Johannes Hofer (7th time)          (s.a.)
19 Dec 1737 - 18 Dec 1738  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (1st time)
18 Dec 1738 - 17 Dec 1739  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
17 Dec 1739 - 22 Dec 1740  Johannes Hofer (8th time)          (s.a.)
22 Dec 1740 - 21 Dec 1741  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (2nd time)
21 Dec 1741 - 20 Dec 1742  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (5th time)
20 Dec 1742 - 20 Dec 1742  Johannes Hofer (9th time)          (s.a.)
19 Dec 1743 - 17 Dec 1744  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (3rd time)
17 Dec 1744 - 14 Dec 1745  Philip Jacob Freiss
14 Dec 1745 - 22 Dec 1746  Johannes Hofer (10th time)         (s.a.)
22 Dec 1746 - 21 Dec 1747  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (4th time)
21 Dec 1747 - 19 Dec 1748  Hans Michel Hartmann (1st time)    (b. 1680 - d. 1753)
19 Dec 1748 - 18 Dec 1749  Johannes Hofer (11th time)         (s.a.)
18 Dec 1749 - 17 Dec 1750  Sebastian Spörlin (1st time)
17 Dec 1750 - 23 Dec 1751  Hans Michel Hartmann (2nd time)    (s.a.)
23 Dec 1751 - 21 Dec 1752  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (b. 1697 - d. 1781)
                             (1st time)
21 Dec 1752 - 20 Dec 1753  Sebastian Spörlin (2nd time)
20 Dec 1753 - 19 Dec 1754  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (1st time) 
19 Dec 1754 - 18 Dec 1755  Johannes Hofer "die Junger"        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
18 Dec 1755 - 23 Dec 1756  Sebastian Spörlin (3rd time)
23 Dec 1756 - 22 Dec 1757  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (2nd time)
22 Dec 1757 - 21 Dec 1758  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
21 Dec 1758 - 20 Dec 1759  Sebastian Spörlin (4th time)
20 Dec 1759 - 18 Dec 1760  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (3rd time)
18 Dec 1760 - 17 Dec 1761  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
17 Dec 1761 - 23 Dec 1762  Josua Rissler  (1st time)
23 Dec 1762 - 22 Dec 1763  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (4th time)
22 Dec 1763 - 20 Dec 1764  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
20 Dec 1764 - 20 Dec 1764  Josua Rissler (2nd time)
19 Dec 1765 - 18 Dec 1766  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (5th time)
18 Dec 1766 - 17 Dec 1767  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
17 Dec 1767 - 22 Dec 1768  Josua Rissler (3rd time)
22 Dec 1768 - 21 Dec 1769  Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
21 Dec 1769 - 20 Dec 1770  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
20 Dec 1770 - 19 Dec 1771  Josua Rissler (4th time)
19 Dec 1771 - 17 Dec 1772  Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
17 Dec 1772 - 23 Dec 1773  Johannes Hofer "die Junger"        (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
23 Dec 1773 - 22 Dec 1774  Josua Rissler (5th time)
22 Dec 1774 - 21 Dec 1775  Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
21 Dec 1775 - 19 Dec 1776  Johannes Hofer "die Junger"        (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
19 Dec 1776 - 18 Dec 1777  Josua Rissler (6th time)
18 Dec 1777 - 17 Dec 1778  Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
17 Dec 1778 - 23 Dec 1779  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
23 Dec 1779 - 21 Dec 1780  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (b. 1731 - d. c.1798) 
                             (1st time)
21 Dec 1780 - 20 Dec 1781  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (1st time)
20 Dec 1781 - 19 Dec 1782  Johannes Dollfuss (1st time)       (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
19 Dec 1782 - 18 Dec 1783  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
18 Dec 1783 - 23 Dec 1784  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (2nd time)
23 Dec 1784 - 23 Dec 1785  Johannes Dollfuss (2nd time)       (s.a.)
23 Dec 1785 - 21 Dec 1786  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
21 Dec 1786 - 20 Dec 1787  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (3rd time)
20 Dec 1787 - 18 Dec 1788  Johannes Dollfuss (3rd time)       (s.a.)
18 Dec 1788 - 17 Dec 1789  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (4th time)
17 Dec 1789 - 23 Dec 1790  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (4th time)
23 Dec 1790 - 22 Dec 1791  Johannes Dollfuss (4th time)       (s.a.)
22 Dec 1791 - 20 Dec 1792  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
20 Dec 1792 - 19 Dec 1793  Paulus Blech (1st time)
19 Dec 1793 - 18 Dec 1794  Johannes Dollfuss (5th time)       (s.a.)
18 Dec 1794 - 17 Dec 1795  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (6th time)
17 Dec 1795 - 22 Dec 1796  Paulus Blech (2nd time)
22 Dec 1796 - 21 Dec 1797  Johannes Dollfuss (6th time)       (s.a.)
21 Dec 1797 - 15 Mar 1798  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
- 2nd Line -
18 Dec 1699 - 19 Dec 1700  Hans Görg Hässler (2nd time)
19 Dec 1700 - 17 Dec 1701  Josua Fürstenberger (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1701 - 21 Dec 1702  Gottfridt Engelman (5th time)
21 Dec 1702 - 20 Dec 1703  Hans Görg Hässler (3rd time)
20 Dec 1703 - 18 Dec 1704  Josua Fürstenberger (3rd time)     (s.a.)
18 Dec 1704 - 17 Dec 1705  Gottfridt Engelman (6th time)
17 Dec 1705 - 23 Dec 1706  Niclaus Rissler (1st time)
23 Dec 1706 - 22 Dec 1707  Josua Fürstenberger (4th time)     (s.a.)
22 Dec 1707 - 20 Dec 1708  Gottfridt Engelman (7th time)
22 Dec 1707 - 20 Dec 1708  Niclaus Rissler (2nd time)
20 Dec 1708 - 19 Dec 1709  Josua Fürstenberger (5th time)     (s.a.)
18 Dec 1710 - 17 Dec 1711  Gottfridt Engelman (8th time)
17 Dec 1711 - 22 Dec 1712  Johannes Dollfus (1st time)        (s.a.)
22 Dec 1712 - 21 Dec 1713  Josua Fürstenberger (6th time)     (s.a.)
21 Dec 1713 - 20 Dec 1714  Gottfridt Engelman (9th time)
20 Dec 1714 - 19 Dec 1715  Johannes Dollfus (2nd time)        (s.a.)
19 Dec 1715 - 17 Dec 1716  Josua Fürstenberger (7th time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1716 - 23 Dec 1717  Gottfridt Engelman (10th time)
23 Dec 1717 - 22 Dec 1718  Johannes Hofer (1st time)          (s.a.)
22 Dec 1718 - 21 Dec 1719  Josua Fürstenberger (8th time)     (s.a.)
21 Dec 1719 - 18 Dec 1721  Johannes Hofer (2nd time)          (s.a.)
18 Dec 1721 - 17 Dec 1722  Josua Fürstenberger (9th time)     (s.a.)
17 Dec 1722 - 23 Dec 1723  Thiebold Schmerber (1st time)
23 Dec 1723 - 21 Dec 1724  Johannes Hofer (3rd time)
21 Dec 1724 - 20 Dec 1725  Josua Fürstenberger (10th time)    (s.a.)
20 Dec 1725 - 19 Dec 1726  Thiebold Schmerber (2nd time)
19 Dec 1726 - 18 Dec 1727  Johannes Hofer (4th time)          (s.a.)
18 Dec 1727 - 23 Dec 1728  Josua Fürstenberger (11th time)    (s.a.)
23 Dec 1728 - 22 Dec 1729  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
22 Dec 1729 - 21 Dec 1730  Johannes Hofer (5th time)          (s.a.)
21 Dec 1730 - 21 Dec 1731  Josua Fürstenberger (12th time)    (s.a.)
20 Dec 1731 - 18 Dec 1732  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
18 Dec 1732 - 17 Dec 1733  Johannes Hofer (6th time)          (s.a.)
17 Dec 1733 - 23 Dec 1734  Paulus Schwartz (1st time)
23 Dec 1734 - 22 Dec 1735  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (3rd time)
22 Dec 1735 - 20 Dec 1736  Johannes Hofer (7th time)          (s.a.)
20 Dec 1736 - 19 Dec 1737  Paulus Schwartz (2nd time)
19 Dec 1737 - 18 Dec 1738  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
18 Dec 1738 - 17 Dec 1739  Johannes Hofer (8th time)          (s.a.)
17 Dec 1739 - 22 Dec 1740  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (1st time)
22 Dec 1740 - 21 Dec 1741  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (5th time)
21 Dec 1741 - 20 Dec 1742  Johannes Hofer (9th time)          (s.a.)
20 Dec 1742 - 20 Dec 1742  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (2nd time)   (s.a.)
19 Dec 1743 - 17 Dec 1744  Philip Jacob Freiss 
17 Dec 1744 - 14 Dec 1745  Johannes Hofer (10th time)         (s.a.)
14 Dec 1745 - 22 Dec 1746  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (3rd time)
22 Dec 1746 - 21 Dec 1747  Hans Michel Hartmann (1st time)    (s.a.)
21 Dec 1747 - 19 Dec 1748  Johannes Hofer (11th time)         (s.a.)
19 Dec 1748 - 18 Dec 1749  Sebastian Spörlin (1st time)
18 Dec 1749 - 17 Dec 1750  Hans Michel Hartmann (2nd time)    (s.a.)
17 Dec 1750 - 23 Dec 1751  Johannes Hofer (12th time)         (s.a.)
23 Dec 1751 - 21 Dec 1752  Sebastian Spörlin (2nd time)
21 Dec 1752 - 20 Dec 1753  Hans Michel Hartmann (3rd time)    (s.a.)
20 Dec 1753 - 19 Dec 1754  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
19 Dec 1754 - 18 Dec 1755  Sebastian Spörlin (3rd time)
18 Dec 1755 - 23 Dec 1756  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel
                             (1st time)
23 Dec 1756 - 22 Dec 1757  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
22 Dec 1757 - 21 Dec 1758  Sebastian Spörlin (4th time)
21 Dec 1758 - 20 Dec 1759  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (2nd time)
20 Dec 1759 - 18 Dec 1760  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"
                             (3rd time)
18 Dec 1760 - 17 Dec 1761  Josua Rissler (1st time)
17 Dec 1761 - 23 Dec 1762  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (3rd time)
23 Dec 1762 - 22 Dec 1763  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
22 Dec 1763 - 20 Dec 1764  Josua Rissler (2nd time)
20 Dec 1764 - 19 Dec 1765  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (4th time)
19 Dec 1765 - 18 Dec 1766  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
18 Dec 1766 - 17 Dec 1767  Josua Rissler (3rd time)
17 Dec 1767 - 22 Dec 1768  Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
22 Dec 1768 - 21 Dec 1769  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
21 Dec 1769 - 20 Dec 1770  Josua Rissler (4th time)
20 Dec 1770 - 19 Dec 1771  Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
19 Dec 1771 - 17 Dec 1772  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
17 Dec 1772 - 23 Dec 1773  Josua Rissler (4th time)
23 Dec 1773 - 22 Dec 1774  Friedrich Cornetz (3rd time)
22 Dec 1774 - 21 Dec 1775  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
21 Dec 1775 - 19 Dec 1776  Josua Rissler (5th time)
19 Dec 1776 - 18 Dec 1777  Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
18 Dec 1777 - 17 Dec 1778  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
17 Dec 1778 - 23 Dec 1779  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
23 Dec 1779 - 21 Dec 1780  Friedrich Cornetz (5th time)
21 Dec 1780 - 30 Oct 1781  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
30 Oct 1781 - 20 Dec 1781  .... (acting)
20 Dec 1781 - 19 Dec 1782  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
19 Dec 1782 - 18 Dec 1783  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (1st time)
18 Dec 1783 - 23 Dec 1784  Johannes Dollfuss (1st time)       (s.a.)
23 Dec 1784 - 23 Dec 1785  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
23 Dec 1785 - 20 Dec 1787  Johannes Dollfuss (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Dec 1787 - 18 Dec 1788  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (4th time)
18 Dec 1788 - 17 Dec 1789  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (2nd time)
17 Dec 1789 - 23 Dec 1790  Johannes Dollfuss (3rd time)       (s.a.)
23 Dec 1790 - 22 Dec 1791  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (5th time)
22 Dec 1791 - 20 Dec 1792  Paulus Blech (1st time)
20 Dec 1792 - 19 Dec 1793  Johannes Dollfuss (4th time)       (s.a.)
19 Dec 1793 - 18 Dec 1794  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
18 Dec 1794 - 17 Dec 1795  Paulus Blech (2nd time)
17 Dec 1795 - 22 Dec 1796  Johannes Dollfuss (5th time)       (s.a.)
22 Dec 1796 - 21 Dec 1797  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (7th time)
21 Dec 1797 - 15 Mar 1798  Johannes Dollfuss (6th time)       (s.a.)
- 3rd Line -
18 Dec 1699 - 19 Dec 1700  Josua Fürstenberger (1st time)     (s.a.)
19 Dec 1700 - 17 Dec 1701  Gottfridt Engelman (2nd time)
17 Dec 1701 - 21 Dec 1702  Hans Görg Hässler (3rd time)
21 Dec 1702 - 20 Dec 1703  Josua Fürstenberger (2nd time)     (s.a.)
20 Dec 1703 - 18 Dec 1704  Gottfridt Engelman (3rd time)
18 Dec 1704 - 17 Dec 1705  Niclaus Rissler (1st time)
17 Dec 1705 - 23 Dec 1706  Josua Fürstenberger (3rd time)     (s.a.)
23 Dec 1706 - 22 Dec 1707  Gottfridt Engelman (4th time)
22 Dec 1707 - 20 Dec 1708  Niclaus Rissler (2nd time)
22 Dec 1707 - 20 Dec 1708  Josua Fürstenberger (4th time)     (s.a.)
20 Dec 1708 - 19 Dec 1709  Gottfridt Engelman (5th time)
18 Dec 1710 - 17 Dec 1711  Johannes Dollfus (1st time)        (s.a.)
17 Dec 1711 - 22 Dec 1712  Josua Fürstenberger (5th time)     (s.a.)
22 Dec 1712 - 21 Dec 1713  Gottfridt Engelman (6th time)
21 Dec 1713 - 20 Dec 1714  Johannes Dollfus (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Dec 1714 - 19 Dec 1715  Josua Fürstenberger (6th time)     (s.a.)
19 Dec 1715 - 17 Dec 1716  Gottfridt Engelman (7th time)
17 Dec 1716 - 23 Dec 1717  Johannes Hofer (1st time)          (s.a.)
23 Dec 1717 - 22 Dec 1718  Josua Fürstenberger (7th time)     (s.a.)
22 Dec 1718 - 21 Dec 1719  Gottfridt Engelman (8th time)
21 Dec 1719 - 19 Dec 1720  Thiebold Schmerber (1st time)
19 Dec 1720 - 18 Dec 1721  Josua Fürstenberger (8th time)     (s.a.)
18 Dec 1721 - 17 Dec 1722  Thiebold Schmerber (2nd time)
17 Dec 1722 - 23 Dec 1723  Johannes Hofer (2nd time)          (s.a.)
23 Dec 1723 - 21 Dec 1724  Josua Fürstenberger (9th time)     (s.a.)
21 Dec 1724 - 20 Dec 1725  Thiebold Schmerber (3rdd time)
20 Dec 1725 - 19 Dec 1726  Johannes Hofer (3rd time)          (s.a.)
19 Dec 1726 - 18 Dec 1727  Josua Fürstenberger (10th time)    (s.a.)
18 Dec 1727 - 23 Dec 1728  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
23 Dec 1728 - 22 Dec 1729  Johannes Hofer (4th time)          (s.a.)
22 Dec 1729 - 21 Dec 1730  Josua Fürstenberger (11th time)    (s.a.)
21 Dec 1730 - 21 Dec 1731  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
20 Dec 1731 - 18 Dec 1732  Johannes Hofer (5th time)          (s.a.)
18 Dec 1732 - 17 Dec 1733  Paulus Schwartz (1st time)
17 Dec 1733 - 23 Dec 1734  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
23 Dec 1734 - 22 Dec 1735  Johannes Hofer (6th time)          (s.a.)
22 Dec 1735 - 20 Dec 1736  Paulus Schwartz (2nd time)
20 Dec 1736 - 19 Dec 1737  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (3rd time)
19 Dec 1737 - 18 Dec 1738  Johannes Hofer (7th time)          (s.a.)
18 Dec 1738 - 17 Dec 1739  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (1st time)
17 Dec 1739 - 22 Dec 1740  Wolf Friedrich Cornetz (4th time) 
22 Dec 1740 - 21 Dec 1741  Johannes Hofer (8th time)          (s.a.)
21 Dec 1741 - 20 Dec 1742  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (2nd time)
20 Dec 1742 - 20 Dec 1742  Philip Jacob Friess (1st time)
19 Dec 1743 - 17 Dec 1744  Johannes Hofer (9th time)          (s.a.)
17 Dec 1744 - 14 Dec 1745  Hans Heinrich Dolfuss (3rd time)
14 Dec 1745 - 22 Dec 1746  Philip Jacob Friess (2nd time)
22 Dec 1746 - 21 Dec 1747  Johannes Hofer (10th time)         (s.a.)
21 Dec 1747 - 19 Dec 1748  Sebastian Spörlin (1st time)
19 Dec 1748 - 18 Dec 1749  Hans Michel Hartmann (1st time)    (s.a.)
18 Dec 1749 - 17 Dec 1750  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
17 Dec 1750 - 23 Dec 1751  Sebastian Spörlin (2nd time)
23 Dec 1751 - 21 Dec 1752  Hans Michel Hartmann (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Dec 1752 - 20 Dec 1753  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Dec 1753 - 19 Dec 1754  Sebastian Spörlin (3rd time)
19 Dec 1754 - 18 Dec 1755  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (1st time)
18 Dec 1755 - 23 Dec 1756  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
23 Dec 1756 - 22 Dec 1757  Sebastian Spörlin (4th time)
22 Dec 1757 - 21 Dec 1758  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (2nd time)
21 Dec 1758 - 20 Dec 1759  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
20 Dec 1759 - 18 Dec 1760  Sebastian Spörlin (5th time)
18 Dec 1760 - 17 Dec 1761  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel
                             (3rd time)
17 Dec 1761 - 23 Dec 1762  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
23 Dec 1762 - 22 Dec 1763  Jacob Rissler (1st time)
22 Dec 1763 - 20 Dec 1764  Niclaus Heylmann zum Engel 
                             (4th time)
20 Dec 1764 - 19 Dec 1765  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
19 Dec 1765 - 18 Dec 1766  Jacob Rissler (2nd time)
18 Dec 1766 - 17 Dec 1767  Friedrich Cornetz (1st time)
17 Dec 1767 - 22 Dec 1768  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
22 Dec 1768 - 21 Dec 1769  Jacob Rissler (3rd time)
21 Dec 1769 - 20 Dec 1770  Friedrich Cornetz (2nd time)
20 Dec 1770 - 19 Dec 1771  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
19 Dec 1771 - 17 Dec 1772  Jacob Rissler (4th time)
17 Dec 1772 - 23 Dec 1773  Friedrich Cornetz (3rd time)
23 Dec 1773 - 22 Dec 1774  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
22 Dec 1774 - 21 Dec 1775  Jacob Rissler (5th time)
21 Dec 1775 - 19 Dec 1776  Friedrich Cornetz (4th time)
19 Dec 1776 - 18 Dec 1777  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
18 Dec 1777 - 17 Dec 1778  Jacob Rissler (6th time)
17 Dec 1778 - 23 Dec 1779  Friedrich Cornetz (5th time)
23 Dec 1779 - 30 Oct 1780  Johannes Hofer "der Jüngere"       (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
30 Oct 1780 - 21 Dec 1780  .... (acting)
21 Dec 1780 - 20 Dec 1781  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (1st time)
20 Dec 1781 - 19 Dec 1782  Jhannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (1st time)
19 Dec 1782 - 18 Dec 1783  Johannes Dollfuss (1st time)       (s.a.)
18 Dec 1783 - 23 Dec 1784  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
23 Dec 1784 - 21 Dec 1786  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (2nd time)
21 Dec 1786 - 20 Dec 1787  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)
20 Dec 1787 - 18 Dec 1788  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (3rd time)
18 Dec 1788 - 17 Dec 1789  Johannes Dollfuss (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Dec 1789 - 23 Dec 1790  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
23 Dec 1790 - 22 Dec 1791  Johannes Michael Spörlein 
                             (4th time)
22 Dec 1791 - 20 Dec 1792  Johannes Dollfuss (3rd time)       (s.a.) 
20 Dec 1792 - 19 Dec 1793  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (5th time)
19 Dec 1793 - 18 Dec 1794  Paulus Blech (1st time)
18 Dec 1794 - 17 Dec 1795  Johannes Dollfuss (4th time)       (s.a.) 
17 Dec 1795 - 22 Dec 1796  Johannes Heinrich Dollfuss         (s.a.) 
                             (6th time)
22 Dec 1796 - 15 Mar 1798  Johannes (Jean) Hofer
President of the Municipality
15 Mar 1798 - 21 Dec 1800  Pierre Thierry                     (b. 1743 - d. 1807)
Mayor
21 Dec 1800 -  9 Feb 1801  Jean-Michel Hofer                  (b. 1747 - d. 1808)
                            (contuines after annexation to 1807)



Paris Commune

[Paris Commune Flag 1871]
           29 Mar 1871 - 28 May 1871
 
Map of Paris Commune
Hear Commune Anthem
"La Marseillaise"
Commune Manifesto
(19 Apr 1871)

City Population: 1,851,000 (1871)

18 Mar 1871                Commune of Paris (in rebellion against French government).
 7 Apr 1871                French army captures the Seine crossing at Neuilly.
 3 May 1871                French government begins conquest of Communard areas.
 9 May 1871                Fort Issay captured by French army.
28 May 1871                Commune extinguished.

Presidents of the Commune (in rebellion)
18 Mar 1871 - 28 Mar 1871  Central Committee of the Republican
                           Federation of the National Guard
28 Mar 1871                Charles Beslay (acting)            (b. 1795 - d. 1878)  Int
29 Mar 1871                Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais         (b. 1826 - d. 1901)
29 Mar 1871 - 20 Apr 1871  Executive Commission
                           - Émile Désiré François Eudes      (b. 1843 - d. 1888)  Bla
                               (to 3 Apr 1871)
                           - Émile Victor Duval               (b. 1841 - d. 1871)  Bla/Int
                               (to 4 Apr 1871)
                           - Jules Henri Marius Bergeret      (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
                               (to 3 Apr 1871)
                           - Gustave Tridon                   (b. 1841 - d. 1871)  Bla
                           - Gustave Adolphe Lefrançais       (s.a.) 
                               (to 3 Apr 1871)
                           - Félix Pyat                       (b. 1810 - d. 1889)  Int
                           - Édouard Vaillant                 (b. 1840 - d. 1915)  SR/Int
                           - Frédéric Étienne Cournet         (b. 1839 - d. 1885)
                               (from 3 Apr 1871)
                           - Charles Delescluze               (b. 1809 - d. 1871)  Jac
                               (from 4 Apr 1871)
                           - Augustin Germain Avrial          (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
                               (from 10 Apr 1871)
                           - Auguste Jean Marie Vermorel      (b. 1841 - d. 1871)
                               (from Apr 1871)
20 Apr 1871 -  1 May 1871  Executive Commission
                           - Gustave Paul Cluseret            (b. 1823 - d. 1900)  Int
                           - François Jourde                  (b. 1843 - d. 1893)
                           - Auguste Vincent Viard            (b. 1836 - d. 1892)
                           - Jean François Paschal Grousset   (b. 1844 - d. 1909)
                           - Leó Fränkel                      (b. 1844 - d. 1896)  SR/Int
                           - Eugène Protot                    (b. 1839 - d. 1921)  Bla
                           - Jules Andrieu                    (b. 1820 - d. 1884)  Int
                           - Édouard Vaillant                 (s.a.)
                           - Raoul Rigault                    (b. 1846 - d. 1871)  Bla
                              (to 24 Apr 1871)
                           - Frédéric Étienne Cournet         (s.a.)
                               (from 24 Apr 1871)
 1 May 1871 - 25 May 1871  Committee of Public Welfare
                           - Gabriel Ranvier                  (b. 1828 - d. 1879)  Bla
                           - Antoine Arnaud                   (b. 1831 - d. 1885)  Int
                           - Léon Meillet                     (b. 1843 - d. 1909)  SR/Int
                               (to 9 May 1871 and from 17 May 1871)
                           - Félix Pyat                       (s.a.)               Int
                               (to 9 May 1871)
                           - Charles Gérardin                 (b. 1843 - d. 1921)
                               (to 9 May 1871)
                           - Louis Charles Delescluze         (s.a.)               Jac
                               (9-12 May 1871)
                           - Charles Ferdinand Gambon         (b. 1820 - d. 1887)  SR
                               (from 9 May 1871)
                           - Émile Désiré François Eudes      (s.a.)               Bla
                               (from 9 May 1871)
                           - Alfred Édouard Billioray         (b. 1841 - d. 1876)
                               (from 12 May 1871)
                           - Simon Dereure                    (b. 1838 - d. 1900)  Int 
                               (from 17 May 1871)
                           - Jules Johannard                  (b. 1843 - d. 1892)  Int 
                               (from 17 May 1871)
25 May 1871 - 28 May 1871  Eugène Varlin                      (b. 1839 - d. 1871)  Mil
                             (head of the Central Committee of National Guard)

Party/faction abbreviations: Bla = Blanquistes (partisans of Louis-Auguste Blanqui [b. 1805 - d. 1881], extreme-left); Int = Internationale ([first] International, Karl Marx's socialist organization, 1864-1876); Jac = Jacobins (leftist republican); SR = Socialistes Révolutionnaires (Revolutionary Socialists)


Lyon Commune

28 Sep 1870 - 29 Sep 1870  Attempt to create a revolutionary commune.
23 Mar 1871 - 24 Mar 1871  Attempt to create a revolutionary commune.

Chairman Central Committee of Salvation of France
(in rebellion)
28 Sep 1870 - 29 Sep 1870  Mikhail Bakunin                    (b. 1814 - d. 1876)
23 Mar 1871 - 24 Mar 1871  Communal Commission (in rebellion)
                           - Bouvatier
                           - Crestin
                           - Durand
                           - Perret
                           - B. Velay


Marseille Commune

[Marseille Commune Flag
                  1871]
            23 Mar - 4 Apr 1871

 1 Nov 1870 -  7 Nov 1870  Attempt to create a revolutionary commune.
23 Mar 1871 -  4 Apr 1871  Attempt to create a revolutionary commune.

President of the Revolutionary Commune (in rebellion)
 1 Nov 1870 -  7 Nov 1870  Adolphe Carcassonne                (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
President of the Departmental Commission (in rebellion)
23 Mar 1871 -  4 Apr 1871  Gaston Crémieux                    (b. 1836 - d. 1871)






 © Ben Cahoon