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German States to 1918  F-M


Note: The list below is only complete for those polities that survived beyond 1806.  Within 
the Holy Roman Empire, there existed countless minor states (ecclesiastical states, imperial
cities, imperial villages, lordships, counties, baronies, principalities, etc.), which
are nearly impossible to list with even partial accuracy.  A major reorganization was
brought about by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, when more than 100 polities were
abolished.  Polities listed prior to 1806 are a sample of the major or most well known
polities of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine.  After 1806, all the
polities that survived the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna are listed.
 
For the sake of providing a division between eras, after the republican revolutions 
of 1918, which overthrew the last German monarchies, remaining states are listed under
German states since 1918; these include the states and provinces of the Weimar Republic, Third Reich, and the modern period.  The provinces of Prussia are listed in a separate section following the entry for Prussia (Prussian provinces to 1946). Statistical data is given only for those polities that survived to 1918.

Noble titles: Edler/Edle = Noble; Erzherzog/Erzherzogin = Archduke/Archduchess;  Freiherr/Freifrau = Baron/Baroness; Fürst/Fürstin = Prince/Princess; Gefürsteter Graf/Gräfin = Princely Count/Countess; Graf/Gräfin = Count/Countess; Grossherzog/Grossherzogin = Grand Duke/Duchess; Herr/Herrin = Lord/Lady; Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess; Kaiser/Kaiserin = Emperor/Empress; Köing/Königin = King/Queen; Kurfürst/Kurfürstin = Prince/Princess Elector; Landgraf/Landgräfin = Landgrave/Landgravine; Markgraf/Markgräfin = Margrave/Margravine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin = Count/Countess Palatine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein = Count/Countess Palatine of the Rhine; Prinz/Prinzessin = Prince/Princess; Reichsfreiherr = Imperial Baron; Reichsgraf/Reichsgräfin = Imperial Count/Countess; Rheingraf/Rheingräfin = Rhinegrave/Rhinegravine; Ritter = Knight; Wildgraf = Wildgrave.
Ecclesiastical titles: Äbt/Äbtissin = Abbot/Abbess; Bischof = bishop; Erzbischof = Archbishop; Fürstabte = Prince-Abbot; Fürstabtissin = Princess-Abbess; Fürstbischof = Prince-bishop
 
Maps showing some of the major territorial changes: Historical Map of Germany in 1660;
Historical map of Germany in 1789; Historical map of Germany in 1803; Map of Germany in 1812;
Map of German Confederation 1815; Map of German Empire 1871

Fagnolle: see Ligne under Belgium
Feldkirch : see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands
Franche-Comté: see France provinces



Frankfurt (am Main)
 
[Frankfurt Free City to 1806]                       c.1400 - 25 Sep 1806
[Frankfurt Grand Duchy 1810-1813]               25 Sep 1806 - 19 Oct 1813
 
[Frankfurt Imperial City 1833-1866]               5 Mar 1833 - 8 Oct 1866
 
Map of Frankfurt
Capital: Frankfurt
Population: 91,180 (1864)

1372                       Free Imperial City
19 Sep 1806                Frankfurt is incorporated into the Prince-Primate's
                             territorial possessions (ecclesiastic Principality
                             of Regensburg) Principality of Frankfurt (Fürstentum Frankfurt).
16 Feb 1810                Grand Duchy of Frankfurt (under French rule)
                             (Grossherzogtum Frankfurt).
19 Oct 1813                Occupied by Prussia.
 6 Nov 1813                Allied administration.
14 Dec 1813                Free City of Frankfurt.
18 Jul 1866                Administered by Prussia.
 8 Oct 1866                Annexation by Prussia.

Note: Before 1806 the highest authorities were (1) the Stadtschultheiss (a fossil of the royal supervision of the city), senior member of the Rat (Council); (2) the senior mayor (Älterer Bürgermeister), elected annually, who presides in the Rat. The mayor's term begins on a date between Easter and Pentecost, and varies from year to year.

Stadtschultheissen
1696 - 19 Apr 1716         Johann Erasmus Seiffart von         (b. 1634 - d. 1716)
                             Klettenberg und Wildeck auf Rhoda
1716 - 21 Apr 1721         Johann Georg von Holzhausen         (b. 1643 - d. 1721)
1721 - 10 Jun 1741         Johann Heinrich Werlin              (b. 1663 - d. 1741)
1741 -  9 Aug 1747         Johann Christoph Ochs von           (b. 1674 - d. 1747)
                             Ochsenstein
1747 -  6 Feb 1771         Johann Wolfgang Textor              (b. 1693 - d. 1771)
1771 - 13 Mar 1777         Johann Isaac Moors                  (b. 1707 - d. 1777)
1777 - 21 Mar 1788         Johann Martin Ruppel                (b. 1722 - d. 1788)
1788 - 27 Feb 1802         Johann Friedrich Maximilian von     (b. 1736 - d. 1802)
                             Stalburg
1802 - 27 Aug 1806         Wilhelm Carl Ludwig Moors           (b. 1749 - d. 1806)
1806 - 19 Sep 1806         Friedrich Carl Schweitzer (acting)  (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
Senior Mayors
1699 - 1700                Philipp Nicolaus Lersner            (b. 1640 - d. 1702)
1700 - 1701                Heinrich von Barckhausen (1st time) (b. 1653 - d. 1727)
1701 - 1702                Johann Adolph Stephan von           (b. 1647 - d. 1712) 
                             Cronstätten II (1st time)
1702 - 1703                Dominicus von Heyden (1st time)     (b. 1644 - d. 1710)
1703 - 1704                Nicolaus Augustus Ruland            (b. 1650 - d. 1710)
1704 - 1705                Johann Arnold Mohr von Mohrenhelm   (b. 1637 - d. 1712)
1705 - 1706                Johann Adolph von Glauburg I        (b. 1638 - d. 1718)
                             (2nd time)
1706 - 1707                Heinrich von Barckhausen (2nd time) (s.a.)
1707 - 1708                Johann Adolph Stephan von           (s.a.)
                             Cronstätten II (2nd time)
1708 - 1709                Dominicus von Heyden (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1709 - 1710                Philipp Jacob Fleckhammer von       (b. 1644 - d. 1727)
                             Aystetten
1710 - 1711                Johann Georg von Holzhausen         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
1711 - 1712                Johann Philipp Orth II (1st time)   (b. 1658 - d. 1733)
1712 - 1713                Johann Adolph von Glauburg I        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1713 - 1714                Heirich von Barckhausen (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1714 - 1715                Johann Georg von Holzhausen         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1715 - 1716                Johann Philipp Orth II (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1716 - 1717                Johann Martin von den Birghden      (b. 1644 - d. 1720)
1717 - 1718                Johann Heinrich Werlin              (b. 1663 - d. 1741)
1718 - 1719                Johann Philipp von Kellner I        (b. 1615 - d. 1719)
1719 - 1720                Konrad Hieronymus Eberhard gen.     (b. 1653 - d. 1744)
                             Schwind (1st time)
1720 - 1721                Ludwig Adolph von Syvertes          (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
1721 - 1722                Johann Christoph von Stetten        (b. 1653 - d. 1724)
1722 - 1723                Bartholomäus Barckhausen            (b. 1658 - d. 1727)
1723 - 1724                Georg Friedrich Faust von           (b. 1654 - d. 1724)
                             Aschaffenburg
1724 - 1725                Johann Hieronymus von Glauburg      (b. 1654 - d. 1727)
1725 - 1726                Johann Christoph Ochs von           (s.a.)
                             Ochsenstein (1st time)
1726                       Johann Adolph von Glauburg II       (b. 1673 - d. 1752)
                             (acting)
1726 - 1727                Konrad Hieronymus Eberhard gen.     (s.a.)
                             Schwind (2nd time)
1727 - 1728                Achilles August von Lersner         (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
                             (1st time)
1728 -  1 Sep 1728         Johann Daniel Fleischbein von       (b. 1666 - d. 1728)
                             Kleeberg
1728                       Johann Adolph von Glauburg III      (b. 1691 - d. 1741)
                             (acting)
1728 - 1729                Achilles August von Lersner         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1729 - 1730                Johann Christoph Ochs von           (s.a.)
                             Ochsenstein (2nd time)
1730 - 1731                Achilles August von Lersner         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1731 - 1732                Johann Carl von Kaib (1st time)     (b. 1684 - d. 1760)
1732 - 1733                Johann Jacob von Bertram (1st time) (b. 1684 - d. 1742)
1733 - 1734                Johann Hieronymus von Holzhausen    (b. 1674 - d. 1736)
1734 - 1735                Johann Jacob von Bertram (2nd time) (s.a.)
1735 - 1736                Johann Philipp von Syvertes         (b. 1686 - d. 1743)
                             (1st time)
1736 - 1737                Johann Carl von Kaib (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1737 - 1738                Johann Philipp von Kellner II       (b. 1682 - d. 1744)
1738 - 1739                Johann Wolfgang Textor (1st time)   (s.a.)
1739 - 1740                Johann Carl von Kaib (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1740 - 1741                Johann Philipp von Syvertes         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1741                       Johann Christoph Ochs von           (s.a.)
                             Ochsenstein (3rd time)
1741                       Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg   (b. 1693 - d. 1766)
                             und Wildeck (1st time)(acting)
1741 - 1742                Johann Wolfgang Textor (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1742 - 1743                Johann Carl von Kaib (4th time)     (s.a.)
1743 - 1744                Johann Wolfgang Textor (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1744 - 1745                Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von   (b. 1682 - d. 1770)
                             Wiederhold (1st time)
1745 - 1746                Johann Carl von Fichard (1st time)  (b. 1695 - d. 1771)
1746 - 1747                Friedrich Maximilian von            (b. 1684 - d. 1761)
                             Günderrode (1st time)
1747 - 1748                Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner I  (b. 1697 - d. 1753)
                             (1st time)
1748 - 1749                Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von   (s.a.)
                             Wiederhold (2nd time)
1749 - 1750                Friedrich Maximilian von            (s.a.)
                             Günderrode (2nd time)
1750 - 1751                Johann Carl von Fichard (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1751 - 1752                Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner I  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1752 - 1753                Johann Georg Schweitzer Edler von   (s.a.)
                             Wiederhold (3rd time)
1753 - 1754                Johann Carl von Fichard (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1754 - 1755                Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg   (s.a.)
                             und Wildeck (2nd time)
1755 - 1756                Johann Carl von Fichard (4th time)  (s.a.)
1756 - 1757                Friedrich Wilhelm von Völcker       (b. 1692 - d. 1761)
1757 - 1758                Erasmus Carl Schlösser (1st time)   (b. 1696 - d. 1773)
1758 - 1759                Philipp Jakob von Stalburg          (b. 1708 - d. 1760)
1759 - 1760                Remigius Seyffart von Klettenberg   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1760 - 1761                Johann Carl von Fichard (5th time)  (s.a.)
1761 - 1762                Johann Maximilian von Holzhausen    (b. 1708 - d. 1768)
1762 - 1763                Johann Friedrich Armand von         (b. 1687 - d. 1769)
                             Uffenbach
1763 - 1764                Johann Isaac Moors (1st time)       (s.a.)
1764 - 1765                Erasmus Carl Schlösser (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1765 - 1766                Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg  (b. 1715 - d. 1786)
                             (1st time)
1766 - 1767                Johann Carl von Fichard (6th time)  (s.a.)
1767 - 1768                Friedrich Maximilian Baur von       (b. 1707 - d. 1771)
                             Eysseneck
1768 - 1769                Johann Philipp von Heyden (1st time)(b. 1712 - d. 1778)
1769 - 1770                Johann Isaac Moors (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1770 - 1771                Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1771 - 1772                Johann Daniel von Olenschlager      (b. 1711 - d. 1778)
1772 - 1773                Johann Philipp von Heyden (2nd time)(s.a.)
1773 - 1774                Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1774 - 1775                Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg       (b. 1722 - d. 1789)
                             (1st time)
1775 - 1776                Johann Philipp von Heyden (3rd time)(s.a.)
1776 - 1777                Hieronymus Maximilian von Glauburg  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1777 - 1778                Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten   (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
                             (1st time)
1779 - 1780                Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1780 - 1781                Johann Daniel Fleischbein von       (b. 1715 - d. 1787)
                             Kleeberg II
1781 - 1782                Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1782 - 1783                Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1783 - 1784                Johann Christoph von Adlerflycht    (b. 1729 - d. 1786)
                             (1st time)
1784 - 1785                Johann Friedrich von Wiesenhütten   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1785 - 1786                Johann Christoph von Adlerflycht    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1786 - 1787                Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1787 - 1788                Johann Friedrich Maximilian von     (s.a.)
                             Stalburg
1788 - 1789                Friedrich Adolph von Glauburg       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1789 - 1790                Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner II (b. 1735 - d. 1804)
                             (1st time)
1790 - 1791                Johann Christoph von Lauterbach     (b. 1734 - d. 1798)
                             (1st time)
1791 - 1792                Adolph Carl von Humbracht (1st time)(b. 1753 - d. 1837)
1792 - 1793                Johann Christoph von Lauterbach     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1793 - 1794                Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von    (b. 1751 - d. 1820)
                             Olenstein (1st time)
1794 - 1795                Adolph Carl von Humbracht (2nd time)(s.a.)
1795 - 1796                Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von    (s.a.)
                             Olenstein (2nd time)
1796 - 1797                Johann Christoph von Lauterbach     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1797 - 1798                Adolph Carl von Humbracht (3rd time)(s.a.)
1798 - 1799                Friedrich Maximilian von Lersner II (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1799 - 1800                Adolph Carl von Humbracht (4th time)(s.a.)
1800 - 1801                Anton Ulrich Carl von Holzhausen    (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
                             (1st time)
1801 - 1802                Adolph Carl von Humbracht (5th time)(s.a.)
1802 - 1803                Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von    (s.a.)
                             Olenstein (3rd time)
1803 - 1804                Johann Friedrich von Riese          (b. 1745 - d. 1809)
1804 - 1805                Johann Nicolaus Olenschlager von    (s.a.)
                             Olenstein (4th time)
1805 - 1806                Friedrich August Wiesenhüter        (b. 1759 - d. 1823)
1806 - 19 Sep 1806         Anton Ulrich Carl von Holzhausen    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Commissioner
19 Sep 1806 - 25 Sep 1806  Franz Joseph Freiherr von Albini    (b. 1748 - d. 1816) 
Prince (title Fürst von Frankfurt)
25 Sep 1806 - 16 Feb 1810  Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr von
                             Dalberg                           (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
Grand Dukes (title Grossherzog von Frankfurt)
16 Feb 1810 - 28 Oct 1813  Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr von     (s.a.)
                             Dalberg 
30 Sep 1813 -  6 Nov 1813  Conference of ministers
                           - Franz Joseph Freiherr von Albini  (s.a.)
                           - Joseph Karl Theodor Freiherr      (b. 1761 - d. 1833)
                               von Eberstein
                           - Karl Christian Ernst Graf von     (b. 1767 - d. 1849)
                               Benzel-Sternau
28 Oct 1813 - 23 Dec 1813  Prince Eugène-Rose-Napoléon de
                             Beauharnais, prince de Venise     (b. 1781 - d. 1824)
Governors-general
 6 Nov 1813 - 31 Dec 1813  Philipp Prinz zu Hessen-Homburg     (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
31 Dec 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Heinrich XIII Fürst von             (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
                             Reuss-Greiz          
Chief of civil administration
31 Dec 1813 - 20 Jun 1815  Johann Aloys Joseph Reichsfreiherr
                             von Hügel                         (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
Senior Mayors
14 Dec 1813 -  3 Sep 1816  Adolf Carl von Humbracht (6th time) (s.a.)
                             (Head of provisional administration to 31 Dec 1813)
 3 Sep 1816 - 31 Dec 1817  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (1st time)   (b. 1755 - d. 1837)
 1 Jan 1818 - 31 Dec 1818  Georg Steitz                        (b. 1756 - d. 1819)
 1 Jan 1819 - 31 Dec 1819  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1820 - 31 Dec 1820  Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von
                             Günderrode (1st time)             (b. 1765 - d. 1823)
 1 Jan 1821 - 31 Dec 1821  Johann Büchner                      (b. 1756 - d. 1834)
 1 Jan 1822 - 31 Dec 1822  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
 1 Jan 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Johann Wilhelm Metzler (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Dec 1824  Georg Freidrich von Guaita
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1825 - 31 Dec 1825  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1772 - d. 1849)
 1 Jan 1826 - 31 Dec 1826  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1827 - 31 Dec 1827  Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp Freiherr
                             von Malapert gen. Neufville
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1784 - d. 1852)
 1 Jan 1828 - 31 Dec 1828  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1778 - d. 1857)
 1 Jan 1829 - 31 Dec 1829  Johann Peter Hieronymus Hoch        (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
 1 Jan 1830 - 31 Dec 1830  Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp Freiherr
                             von Malapert gen. Neufville
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1831 - 31 Dec 1831  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (4th time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1832 - 31 Dec 1832  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1785 - d. 1838)
 1 Jan 1833 - 31 Dec 1833  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (5th time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1834 - 31 Dec 1834  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1835 - 31 Dec 1835  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1836 - 31 Dec 1836  Ferdinand Maximilian Stark
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1837 - 31 Dec 1837  Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (6th time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1838 -  1 Nov 1838  Johann Gerhard Christian Thomas
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1838 - 1838         Eduard Franz Souchay (acting)       (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
1838 - 31 Dec 1838         Georg Friedrich von Guaita
                             (7th time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1839 - 31 Dec 1839  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1840 - 31 Dec 1840  Gottfried Scharff (1st time)        (b. 1782 - d. 1855)
 1 Jan 1841 - 31 Dec 1841  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                             Freiherr von Günderrode
                             gen. von Kellner (1st time)       (b. 1786 - d. 1862)
 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Dec 1842  Gottfried Scharff (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1843 - 31 Dec 1843  Johann Friedrich von Meyer
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1844 - 31 Dec 1844  Gottfried Scharff (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1845 - 31 Dec 1845  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1793 - d. 1866)
 1 Jan 1846 - 31 Dec 1846  Gottfried Scharff (4th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1847 - 31 Dec 1847  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                             Freiherr von Günderrode
                             gen. von Kellner (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1848 - 31 Dec 1848  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1849  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (1st time)   (b. 1802 - d. 1880)
 1 Jan 1850 - 31 Dec 1850  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1851  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                             Freiherr von Günderrode
                             gen. von Kellner (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1852 - 31 Dec 1852  Johann Georg Neuburg (1st time)     (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1853  Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden
                             (4th time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Dec 1854  Johann Georg Neuburg (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1855  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                             (1st time)                        (b. 1800 - d. 1868)
 1 Jan 1856 - 31 Dec 1856  Johann Georg Neuburg (3rd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1857  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                             (2nd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1858 - 31 Dec 1858  Johann Georg Neuburg (4th time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1859  Eduard Ludwig von Harnier
                             (3rd time)                        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1860 - 31 Dec 1860  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1861  Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm
                             Freiherr von Günderrode
                             gen. von Kellner (4th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1862 - 31 Dec 1862  Johann Georg Neuburg (5th time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1863  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1864  Anton Heinrich Emil von Oven        (b. 1817 - d. 1903)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Philipp Friedrich Gwinner           (b. 1796 - d. 1868)
 1 Jan 1866 - 18 Jul 1866  Carl Constanz Victor Fellner        (b. 1807 - d. 1866)
27 Jul 1866 - 27 Feb 1868  Samuel Gottlieb Müller (4th time)   (s.a.)
Prussian Governor
18 Jul 1866 -  8 Oct 1866  Ernst Eduard Vogel von              (b. 1797 - d. 1885)
                             Falckenstein
Civil Commissioner
21 Jul 1866 - 30 Sep 1867  Guido von Madai                     (b. 1810 - d. 1892)

Chairmen of the Council of ministers
10 Oct 1806 - Dec 1810     Carl Leopold Graf von Beust         (b. 1740 - d. 1827)
Dec 1810 - 21 Dec 1813     Franz Joseph Freiherr von Albini    (s.a.)


Freie Amter: see under Swiss Cantons
Freiburg (Fribourg): see Swiss Cantons



Freising

724                        Benedictine Abbey of Freising (Stift Freising).
738                        Elevated to Bishopric (Hochstift Freising)(subordinate to Mainz
                             from 748 to Salzburg).
1220                       Bishops also become Princes of the Empire.
 4 Apr 1803                Annexed by Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Freising)
29 Jan 1695 - 23 Feb 1727  Johann Franz Freiherr von Eckher von      (b. 1649 - d. 1727)
                             Kapfing und Liechteneck
23 Feb 1727 - 27 Jan 1763  Johann Theodor Cardinal von Bayern        (b. 1703 - d. 1763)
18 Apr 1763 - 20 Aug 1768  Klemens Wenzeslaus Herzog von Sachsen     (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
23 Jan 1769 - 15 Mar 1788  Ludwig Joseph Freiherr von Welden auf     (b. 1727 - d. 1788)
                             Laubheim und Hohenaltingen
26 May 1788 - 30 Dec 1789  Maximilian Polykarp Graf von Törring-     (b. 1739 - d. 1789)
                             Jettenbach
 1 Mar 1790 -  4 Apr 1803  Joseph Konrad Freiherr von Schroffenberg  (b. 1743 - d. 1803)


Fribourg: see under Swiss Cantons
Fricktal: see under Swiss Cantons



Friedberg in der Wetterau

1216                       Friedberg in der Wetterau castle built
                             (Burggraviate of Friedberg in der Wetterau
                             [Burggrafschaft Friedberg in der Wetterau]).
1252                       Imperial City of Friedberg in der Wetterau
                             (Reichsstadt Friedberg in der Wetterau) a separate entity.
 1 May 1287                Burggraf granted imperial justice.      
 2 Nov 1347                Pledged to Hohenlohe.
26 May 1349                Pledged to Schwarzburg.
1431                       Castle listed in the Reichsmatrikel (imperial properties) list.
1455                       The free city is acquired by the burggraviate
                             (Stadt und Burg Friedberg in der Wetterau).
21 Sep 1802                Occupied by Hesse-Darmstadt.
12 Jul 1806                Mediatized to Hesse-Darmstadt.
19 Jun 1866                Annexed to Prussia.

Burggraffen (title Burggraf zu Friedberg in der Wetterau)
1685 - 18 Jan 1699         Johann III Freiherr von Schlitz,  (b. 1644 - d. 1699)
                             gen. von Görtz 
1699 - 1705                Johann Karl Freiherr von          (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
                             Bettendorff
1706 - 1710                Johann IV Löw von Steinfurth      (b. 1662 - d. 1710)
1710 - 1727                Johann Erwin Freiherr von         (d. 1727)
                             Greifenklau zu Vollraths
1727 - 10 May 1745         Hermann XVIII Riedesel            (b. 1682 - d. 1745)
                             zu Eisenbach 
1745 - 1748                Johann Eitel II von Diede         (d. 1748)
                             zu Fürstenstein
1749 - 1755                Ernst Ludwig von Breidenbach      (d. 1755)
                             zu Breidenstein
1755 - 1776                Franz Heinrich Freiherr von       (b. 1716 - d. 1776)
                             Dalberg, Kämmerer von Worms 
1777 - 15 Feb 1805         Johann Maria Rudolph Graf         (b. 1731 - d. 1805)
                             Waldbott von Bassenheim
1805 - 12 Jul 1806         Klemens August Wilhelm Graf von   (b. 1753 - d. 1819) 
                             Westphalen



Fulda

[Prince-Bishopric of Fulda ]

12 Jan 744                 Benedictine Abbey of Fulda (Kloster Fulda)
1170                       Imperial Abbot, made primate among all abbots of Germany 
                             and Gallia (France).
1576 - 1506                Annexed to the Teutonic Order.
 5 Oct 1752                Bishopric of Fulda
22 Oct 1802                Occupied by Prussia.
23 Feb 1803 - 27 Oct 1806  Mediatized and given to the Prince of Oranje-Nassau as
                             Principality of Fulda, part of Nassau-Orange-Fulda
                             (Fürstentum Nassau-Oranien-Fulda).
27 Oct 1806                Occupied by France.
28 Aug 1807                Part of Kingdom of Westphalia.
Nov 1813 - 14 Apr 1816     Portion under Austrian administration.
Jun 1815 -  5 Feb 1816     Portion under Prussian administration.
 5 Feb 1816                Part of Hesse-Cassel.
14 Apr 1816                Portion is incorporated into Bavaria.
 1 Oct 1867                Hesse part annexed to Prussia.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Fulda)
 4 Jan 1678 - 22 Jun 1700  Placidus von Droste zu Erwitte       (b. 1641 - d. 1700)
 1 Jul 1700 -  4 Oct 1714  Adalbert I von Schleifras            (b. 1650 - d. 1714)
19 Oct 1714 - 13 Mar 1726  Konstantin von Buttlar               (b. 1679 – d. 1726)
 8 Apr 1726 -  3 Nov 1737  Adolf Freiherr von Dalberg           (b. 1678 - d. 1737)
21 Dec 1737 -  5 Oct 1752  Amandus von Buseck                   (b. 1685 - d. 1756)
Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Fulda)
 5 Oct 1752 -  4 Dec 1756  Amandus von Buseck                   (s.a.)
17 Jan 1756 - 17 Sep 1759  Adalbert II von Walderdorf           (b. 1697 - d. 1759)
22 Oct 1759 - 25 Sep 1788  Heinrich VIII von Bibra              (b. 1711 - d. 1788)
18 Nov 1788 - 22 Oct 1802  Adalbert III von Herstal             (b. 1737 - d. 1814)
Directing Commissioner
22 Oct 1802 -  6 Dec 1802  von Schenck
Prince (title Fürst zu Nassau-Oranien-Fulda)
23 Feb 1803 - 27 Oct 1806  Willem Frederik                      (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
Military governors
27 Oct 1806 - 1807         Paul Charles François Adrien Henri   (b. 1769 - d. 1846)
                             Diéudonne, baron Thiébault 
1807 - 19 May 1810         Georges, baron Kister                (b. 1752 - d. 1832)



Fürstenberg

[Colours of the
                  Fürstenberg Regiment - Colonel's Flag]

1250                       County of Fürstenberg (Grafschaft Fürstenberg).
1284                       Divided between itself and the County of Dillingen.
1407                       Partitioned between Fürstenberg-Fürstenberg and 
                             Fürstenberg-Wolfach.
 2 Dec 1716                Principality of Fürstenberg (Fürstentum Fürstenberg).
19 Nov 1805                Annexed to Baden (confirmed 12 Jul 1806).

Counts (title Graf zu Fürstenberg)
1681 - 21 Nov 1704         Prosper Ferdinand       (b. 1662 - d. 1704)
21 Nov 1704 -  2 Dec 1716  Joseph Wilhelm Ernst    (b. 1699 - d. 1762)
Princes (title Fürst zu Fürstenberg)
 2 Dec 1716 - 29 Apr 1762  Joseph Wilhelm Ernst    (s.a.)
29 Apr 1762 -  2 Jun 1783  Joseph Wenzel           (b. 1728 - d. 1783)
 2 Jun 1783 - 24 Jun 1796  Joseph Maria Benedict   (b. 1738 - d. 1796)
24 Jun 1796 - 17 May 1804  Karl Joachim            (b. 1796 - d. 1804)
17 May 1804 - 19 Nov 1805  Karl Egon II            (b. 1796 - d. 1854)
17 May 1804 - 19 Nov 1805  Elisabetha Alexandrina  (b. 1767 - d. 1822)
                             von Thurn und Taxis (f) -Regent



Gandersheim 
856                      Benedictine Abbey of Gandersheim (Stift Gandersheim).
877                      Imperial Immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarheit).
1021                     Abbesses also Countesses.
1417                     Abbesses made Princess of the Empire.
1542 - 1547              Protestant rule.
1589                     Becomes a Protestant abbey (Kaiserlich gefürsteten freiweltlichen
                          
Stiftes zu Gandersheim), Imperial Royal Free Worldly Chapter.
23 Sep 1802              Secularized and annexed to Brunswick.
 2 Nov 1806              French occupation.
28 Aug 1807              Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
1813 -  6 Nov 1813       Allied administration.
 6 Nov 1813              Reincorporated to Brunswick.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Gandersheim)
1693 - 1712              Henriette Christine Prinzessin     (b. 1669 - d. 1753)
                           von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1712 - 1713              Marie Elisabeth Prinzessin zu      (b. 1646 - d. 1713)
                           Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1713 - 24 Dec 1766       Elisabeth Ernestine Antonie        (b. 1681 - d. 1766)
                           Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen 
1767 - 26 Jun 1778       Therese Natalie Prinzessin zu      (b. 1728 - d. 1778)
                           Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
1778 - 23 Sep 1802       Auguste Dorothea Prinzessin zu     (b. 1749 - d. 1810)
                           Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel


Gaster: see under Swiss Cantons
Geneva: see Swiss Cantons
Gersau: see under Swiss Cantons

Glarus: see Swiss Cantons
Görz: see Görz and Gradisca under  Austrian Lands
Gotteshausbund (League of God's House): see Swiss Cantons

Gradisca (Gradiska): see Görz and Gradisca under  Austrian Lands
Graubünden: see Swiss Cantons

Grauder Bund (Grey League): see Swiss Cantons


Gmünd

Gmund flag

1268                     Gmünd Free Imperial City, with three mayors from 1551;
                           three "succession lines" can be distinguished.
 9 Sep 1802              Annexed to Württemburg.
1934                     Renamed Schwäbisch Gmünd.

Mayors (Bürgermeister)  
- Line 1 -
1682 - 1702              Achilles Stahl
1708 - 1718              Nikolaus Kucher
1718 - 1739              Dominikus Stahl
1739 - 1751              Franz Josef Wingert
1751 - 1769              Dominikus Geiger
1769 - 1783              Michael König
1783 - 1786              Sebastian Doll
1786 - 1797              Georg Franz Stahl von Pfeilhalden (b. 1728  d. 1797)
1797 - 1802              Benedikt Storr
- Line 2 -
1694 - 1715              Michael Storr
1715 - 1725              Ferdinand Riess
1725 - 1740              Georg Stahl
1740 - 1753              Johannes Kaiser
1753 - 1766              Ferdinand O. Storr von Ostrach 
                           (Reichserbschultheiss)
1767 - 1783              Franz Jageisen
1783 - 1789              Sebastian Ziegler
1789 - 1795              Franz Frankenstein
1796 - 1802              Alois Beisswinger
- Line 3 -
1688 - 1712              Jakob Twingert
1712 - 1724              Johann Georg Storr
1724 - 1743              Georg Mayrhöfer
1743 - 1748              Franz Ignaz Jehle
1748 - 1753              Johannes Seybold
1753 - 1766              Josef Köhler
176. - 1767              Josef Herzer
1767 - 1785              ....
1785 - 1792              Johann Mayer
1792 - 1797              Johann Bichler
1797 - 1802              Ignaz Schedel


Gutenzell

1237                     Cistercian Abbey of Gutenzell (Stift Gutenzell)
1417/37                  Abbesses made Princesses of the Empire.
27 Apr 1803              Secularized given to the Count of Törring.
12 Jul 1806              Annexed to Württemburg.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Gutenzell)
1696 - 1718              Maria Viktoria Hochwind
1718 - 1747              Maria Bernarda von Donnersberg
1747 - 1759              Maria Franziska von Gall
1759 - 1776              Maria Alexandra Zimmermann
1776 - 27 Apr 1803       Maria Justina von Erolzheim           (b. 17.. - d. 1809)



Hamburg


[Hamburg
                          c.685-1751 (Germany)]
              bf.1685 - 14 May 1751
[Hamburg
                          1751-1735 (Germany)]
            14 May 1751 - 13 Apr 1835
 
[Hamburg
                          (Germany)]
               Adopted 13 Apr 1835
 
[Hamburg State
                          flag (Germany)]
        Adopted 8 Oct 1897 State Flag 
 
Map of Hamburg
Hear National Anthem
"Stadt Hamburg an der
 Elbe Auen" (Hamburg, on the
 Elbe Floodplain
)
Text of National Anthem
(1828-1918)
Constitution
Capital: Hamburg
Population: 875,090 (1905)

808                        Hammaburg castle built.
834                        Bishopric of Hamburg
848 - 1072                 In personal union with Bishopric of Bremen.
1189                       Free City of Hamburg
1356 - 1669                Member of the Hanseatic League.
1510                       Free Imperial City of Hamburg
1618                       The Bundeskammergericht confirms that Hamburg 
                             is reichsunmittelbar; the polity usually gives itself
                             the style Free Imperial City of Hamburg; four mayors to
                             1861, alternating with two of them worthaltend (in charge)
                             at any time; four "succession lines" can be distinguished.
13 Nov 1806                Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg 
19 Nov 1806                Occupied by France.
13 Dec 1810 - 18 Mar 1813  Incorporated into France; département of Bouches-de-l'Elbe 
                             created 1 Jan 1811 (see under Germany).
18 Mar 1813                Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg (restored).
29 May 1813 - 31 May 1814  Incorporated into France.
31 May 1814                Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg (restored).
20 Dec 1819                Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
                             (from 1918 see German states since 1918).
 1 Jan 1868                Bergedorf incorporated into Hamburg (ruled jointly 
                             with Lubeck 1420-1868).

Governors-general of the Hanseatic Cities
15 Dec 1806 - 29 Apr 1807  Guillaume-Marie-Annne Brune        (b. 1763 - d. 1815)
14 Jul 1807 -  7 Mar 1809  Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte     (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
Feb 1810 - Jul 1810        Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor        (b. 1770 - d. 1849)
 1 Dec 1810 - 18 May 1813  Louis Davout, duc d'Auerstedt,     (b. 1770 – d. 1823)
                             prince du Eckmühl 
13 Jul 1810 -  3 Mar 1812  Charles Antoine Morand             (b. 1771 - d. 1835)
                            (acting for Davout)
1812 - 12 Mar 1813         Claude Carra de Saint-Cyr          (b. 1760 - d. 1834)
                            (acting for Davout)
Military governor
30 May 1813 - 10 May 1814  Louis Davout, duc d'Auerstedt,     (s.a.)
                             prince d'Eckmühl 
 2 Jul 1813 - 1814         Louis Stanislas Xavier Soyez       (b. 1769 - d. 1839)
                            (acting for Davout)

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
18 Nov 1697 - 17 Nov 1709  Peter von Lengerke                 (b. 1651 - d. 1709)
27 Nov 1709 - 15 Jul 1716  Lucas von Borstel                  (b. 1649 - d. 1716)
24 Jul 1716 - 30 Jul 1720  Bernhard Matfeld                   (b. 1661 - d. 1720)
 6 Aug 1720 -  1 Feb 1728  Hinrich Diedrich Wiese             (b. 1676 - d. 1728)
11 Feb 1728 - 22 Nov 1742  Rütger Rulant                      (b. 1665 - d. 1742)
 1 Dec 1742 - 19 Oct 1754  Conrad Widow                       (b. 1686 - d. 1754)
29 Oct 1754 - 28 Jul 1783  Nicolaus Schuback                  (b. 1700 - d. 1783)
 4 Aug 1783 - 12 Jan 1790  Johann Anderson II                 (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
22 Jan 1790 - 13 Nov 1801  Franz Anton Wagner                 (b. 1715 - d. 1801)
20 Nov 1801 - 13 Feb 1811  Friedrich von Graffen (1st time)   (b. 1745 - d. 1820)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Friedrich von Graffen (2nd time)   (s.a.)
31 May 1814 - 17 Mar 1820  Friedrich von Graffen (3rd time)   (s.a.)
25 Mar 1820 -  1 Feb 1850  Johann Heinrich Bartels            (b. 1761 - d. 1850)
- Line 2 -
22 Aug 1684 - 28 Mar 1704  Joachim Lemmermann                 (b. 16.. - d. 1704)
 4 Apr 1704 - 30 Jun 1712  Paul Paulsen
 7 Jul 1712 - 30 Jun 1722  Ludwig Becceler                    (b. 1644 - d. 1722)
 8 Jul 1722 - 15 Nov 1729  Hans Jacob Faber
23 Nov 1729 - 29 Jan 1739  Daniel Stockfleth                  (b. 1676 - d. 1739)
 7 Feb 1739 - 16 Sep 1741  Johann Hermann Luis                (b. 1683 - d. 1741)
26 Sep 1741 - 20 Nov 1759  Cornelius Poppe
23 Nov 1759 - 21 Apr 1780  Peter Greve                        (b. 1696 - d. 1780)
28 Apr 1780 - 22 Aug 1784  Frans Doormann                     (b. 1709 - d. 1784)
27 Aug 1784 - 31 Jan 1788  Johann Luis
 8 Feb 1788 - 12 Apr 1798  Martin Dorner                      (b. 1728 - d. 1798)
20 Apr 1798 - 31 Dec 1810  Daniel Lienau (1st time)           (b. 1739 - d. 1816)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Daniel Lienau (2nd time)           (s.a.)
31 May 1814 -  5 Jun 1816  Daniel Lienau (3rd time)           (s.a.)
12 Jun 1816 -  6 Jul 1821  Christian Matthias Schröder        (b. 1741 - d. 1821)
13 Jul 1821 - 26 Apr 1829  Johann Daniel Koch
 4 May 1829 - 24 Feb 1835  Martin Garlieb Sillem              (b. 1769 - d. 1835)
 2 Mar 1835 -  5 Mar 1851  Christian Daniel Benecke           (b. 1768 - d. 1851)
- Line 3 -
10 Mar 1697 -  6 Dec 1702  Hieronymus Hartwig Moller          (b. 1641 - d. 1702)
14 Dec 1702 - 28 Jul 1703  Julius Surland                     (b. 1658 - d. 1703)
 4 Aug 1703 - 28 Jan 1723  Gerhard Schröder                   (b. 1659 - d. 1723)
 5 Feb 1723 -  3 May 1743  Johann Anderson I                  (b. 1674 - d. 1743)
14 May 1743 - 23 May 1749  Nicolaus Stampeel                  (b. 1673 - d. 1749)
 3 Jun 1749 -  3 Dec 1750  Clemens Samuel Lipstorp            (b. 1696 - d. 1750)
17 Dec 1750 - 27 Jul 1751  Lucas von Spreckelsen              (b. 1691 - d. 1751)
 3 Aug 1751 -  9 Jan 1765  Lucas Corthum                      (b. 1688 - d. 1765)
17 Jan 1765 - 20 Mar 1781  Vincent Rumpff                     (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
28 Mar 1781 - 22 Aug 1800  Jacob Albrecht von Sienen          (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
29 Aug 1800 - 16 Oct 1802  Peter Hinrich Widow
23 Oct 1802 - 31 Dec 1810  Wilhelm Amsinck (1st time)         (b. 1752 - d. 1831)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Wilhelm Amsinck (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 May 1814 - 21 Jun 1831  Wilhelm Amsinck (3rd time)         (s.a.)
29 Jun 1831 - 14 Dec 1842  Amandus Augustin Abendroth         (b. 1767 - d. 1842)
23 Dec 1842 - 31 Dec 1860  Heinrich Kellinghusen              (b. 1796 - d. 1879)
- Line 4 -
 3 Nov 1687 - 28 Aug 1717  Peter Lütkens II                   (b. 1636 - d. 1717)
 7 Sep 1717 - 26 Dec 1732  Garlieb Sillem                     (b. 1676 - b. 1732)
 6 Jan 1733 - 11 Jan 1751  Martin Lucas Schele
19 Jan 1751 - 20 Nov 1774  Martin Hieronymus Schele           (b. 1699 - d. 1774)
29 Nov 1774 -  5 Sep 1778  Johann Schlüter
11 Sep 1778 -  3 Jan 1786  Albert Schulte                     (b. 1716 - d. 1786)
11 Jan 1786 - 28 Aug 1807  Johann Adolf Poppe                 (b. 1727 - d. 1807)
 4 Sep 1807 - 31 Dec 1810  Johann Arnold Heise (1st time)     (b. 1747 - d. 1834)
18 Mar 1813 - 29 May 1813  Johann Arnold Heise (2nd time)     (s.a.)
31 May 1814 -  5 Mar 1834  Johann Arnold Heise (3rd time)     (s.a.)
12 Mar 1834 - 19 Aug 1835  Martin Hieronymus Schrötteringk    (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
26 Aug 1835 - 24 Nov 1843  David Schlüter                     (b. 1758 - d. 1844)
27 Nov 1843 - 25 Jan 1855  Johann Ludwig Dammert              (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
31 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1860  Nicolaus Binder                    (b. 1785 - d. 1863)
First mayors
 2 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862  Friedrich Sieveking (1st time)     (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1865  Friedrich Sieveking (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1866 - 31 Dec 1867  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1868 - 31 Dec 1868  Friedrich Sieveking (3rd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1869  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1808 - d. 1887)
 1 Jan 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1873  Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1874 - 31 Dec 1874  Hermann Gossler                    (b. 1802 - d. 1877)
 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1875  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1877  Carl Friedrich Petersen (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1892)
 1 Jan 1878 - 31 Dec 1878  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1822 - d. 1886)
 1 Jan 1880 - 31 Dec 1880  Carl Friedrich Petersen (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1881  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (5th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1882 - 31 Dec 1882  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Carl Friedrich Petersen (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (6th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  Carl Friedrich Petersen (4th time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 -3/4 Mar 1887  Gustav Heinrich Kirchenpauer
                             (7th time)                       (s.a.)
14 Mar 1887 - 31 Dec 1888  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1820 - d. 1899)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1889  Carl Friedrich Petersen (5th time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1892 - 14 Nov 1892  Carl Friedrich Petersen (6th time) (s.a.)
14 Nov 1892 - 31 Dec 1893  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg          (s.a.)
                             (acting to 31 Dec 1892)
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1826 - d. 1901)
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1900 - 15 Sep 1900  Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
15 Sep 1900 - 31 Dec 1901  Georg Hachmann (1st time)          (b. 1838 - d. 1904)
                             (acting to 19 Nov 1900)
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                             (5th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1904 -  5 Jul 1904  Georg Hachmann (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1904 - 31 Dec 1905  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg          (s.a.)
                             (6th time)(acting to 11 Jul 1904)
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Johann Otto Stammann               (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
 1 Jan 1908 - 27 Mar 1908  Johannes Georg Mönckeberg
                             (7th time)                       (s.a.)
27 Mar 1908 - 31 Dec 1909  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                             (3rd time)(acting to 3 Apr 1908) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1911  Max Predöhl (1st time)             (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
 1 Jan 1912 -  6 Sep 1912  Johann Heinrich Burchard
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1912 - 31 Dec 1913  Carl August Schröder (1st time)    (b. 1855 - d. 1945)
                             (acting to 13 Sep 1912)
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Max Predöhl (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Werner von Melle (1st time)        (b. 1853 - d. 1937)  Non-party
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Carl August Schröder (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Max Predöhl (3rd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Werner von Melle (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Non-party



Hanau

[flag of Count of Hanau]

1168                       Lordship of Hanau (Herrschaft Hanau).
1429                       County of Hanau (Grafschaft Hanau).
1458                       Partitioned into Hanau-Lichtenberg and
                             Hanau-Münzenberg.
21 Jan 1642                Hanau-Münzenberg passes to Hanau-Lichtenberg.
30 Mar 1685                Re-divided into Hanau-Lichtenberg and
                             Hanau-Münzenberg.
28 Mar 1736                Hanau-Lichtenberg inherited by Hesse-Darmstadt.
31 Oct 1785 -  4 Nov 1806  Under administration by Hesse-Kassel
 4 Nov 1806 - 16 May 1810  French administration.
16 May 1810                Part of Frankfurt.
 2 Dec 1813                Incorporated into Hesse-Kassel.
 1 Oct 1867                Annexed to Prussia.

Hanau-Lichtenberg

Counts (title Graf zu Hanau)
14 Feb 1641 - 30 Mar 1685  Friedrich Casimir             (b. 1623 - d. 1685)
30 Mar 1685 - 28 Mar 1736
  Johann Reinhard III           (b. 1665 - d. 1736)

Hanau-Münzenberg

Counts (title Graf zu Hanau)
21 Jan 1642 - 30 Mar 1685  Friedrich Casimir             (s.a.)
30 Mar 1685 -  4 Oct 1712  Philipp Reinhard II           (b. 1664 - d. 1712)
 4 Oct 1712 - 28 Mar 1736  Johann Reinhard III           (s.a.)
28 Mar 1736 -  1 Feb 1760  Wilhem VIII von Hessen        (b. 1682 - d. 1760)
 1 Feb 1760 - 31 Oct 1785  Wilhelm IX von Hessen         (b. 1743 - d. 1821)
 1 Feb 1760 - 13 Oct 1764  Maria von Hannover (f)-Regent (b. 1722 - d. 1772)
31 Oct 1785 -  4 Nov 1806  Vacant
Governors

c.1788                     Wilhelm Maximilian von Ditfurth
c.1790 - c.1794            Heinrich Julius von Kospoth   (b. 1724 - d. 1801)
c.1798 - 13 Mar 1806       Georg Christoph Wilhelm Adam  (b. 1738 - d. 1806)  
                             von Dalwigk
 4 Nov 1806 - 16 May 1810  François Christophe Kellerman,(b. 1735 - d. 1820)
                             duc de Valmy
Intendant
 4 Nov 1806 - 16 May 1810  Julien Alexandre Marcotte de  (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
                             Forceville 



Hanover (Hannover)
 
[Hannover flag
                          to 1727]
                      to c.1727

[Civil Flag of
                          Hannover c.1720-1801]
               c.1727 - 28 Aug 1801 
 
[Merchant Flag
                          of Hannover 1801]
            28 Aug 1801 - 20 Jun 1837 State flag
 
[Hanover
                          (Germany)]
                    1837 - 20 Sep 1866 


Map of Hanover
Hear National Anthem
"Heil Dir, Hannover"
(to 1851)

National Anthem
"Hannover, du Mein Heimatland"
 (Hannoverlied)
1851-1866

Constitution
Capital: Hanover
Population: 1,923,492 (1864)
 
1286                       Fürstentum Göttingen detached from Brunswick.
23 Nov 1432                Fürstentum Calenberg detached from Brunswick.
 6 Feb 1463                Calenberg and Göttingen merged into Fürstentum
                             Calenberg-Göttingen.
19 Dec 1692                The ruler of Calenberg-Göttingen is made a prince-elector
                             of the Holy Roman Empire; the polity is styled
                             Kurfürstentum Braunschweig und Lüneburg; the abbreviation
                             Kurbraunschweig is also in official use, and the style
                             Kurfürstentum Hannover (from the name of the capital city)
                             come into gradual official use also; the change in Erzamt
                             ("arch-office") in the ruler's style in 1710 and the
                             technically incorrect retention of the new one in 1714 are
                             the indirect result of corresponding changes for the rulers
                             of Bavaria (Bayern) and the Palatinate (Pfalz).
 1 Aug 1714 - 20 Jun 1837  Personal union with Great Britain.
26 Jul 1757 - Nov 1757     Occupied by France.
 4 Jun 1803 - 26 Oct 1805  Occupied by France.
26 Oct 1805 -  1 Apr 1806  Occupied by Prussia.
 1 Apr 1806                Annexed to Prussia.
12 Nov 1806                Occupied by France.
 1 Mar 1810 - 29 Oct 1813  Incorporated into Kingdom of Westphalia.
29 Oct 1813 -  6 Nov 1813  Allied administration.
 6 Nov 1813                Electorate restored.
12 Oct 1814                Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover).
20 Sep 1866                Annexation by Prussia.
Dukes and Electors (title Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Erzbannerträger
[from 1710 Erzschatzmeister] und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches - Duke of
Brunswick and Lüneburg, Archbannerbearer [then Archtreasurer] and Prince-elector of
the Holy Roman Empire)
19 Dec 1692 -  2 Feb 1698  Ernst August                       (b. 1629 - d. 1698)
 2 Feb 1698 - 22 Jun 1727  Georg I                            (b. 1660 - d. 1727)
22 Jun 1727 - 25 Oct 1760  Georg II                           (b. 1683 - d. 1760)
26 Jul 1757 - Nov 1757     Louis Charles César le tellier     (b. 1695 - d. 1771)
                             d'Estrées, marquis de 
                             Courtanvaux -French Military governor
25 Oct 1760 -  1 Mar 1810  Georg III (1st time)               (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
French Military governors
 4 Jun 1803 - Feb 1804     Édouard Alphonse Casimir Joseph    (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                             Mortier (1st time)
Feb 1804 - 17 Jun 1804     Jean Joseph Paul Augustin          (b. 1767 - d. 1828)
                             Dessolles
17 Jun 1804 - Sep 1805     Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte     (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
Sep 1805 - 18 Mar 1806     Gabriel Barbou Descourières        (b. 1761 - d. 1816)

Regent
26 Oct 1805 - 27 Jan 1806  Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Herzog      (b. 1735 - d. 1806)
                             von Braunschweig 
Prussian Military governor
27 Jan 1806 -  1 Apr 1806  Freidrich Wilhelm Graf von der     (b. 1742 - d. 1815)
                             Schulenburg-Kehnert 
President of the administrative commission
 1 Apr 1806 - 12 Nov 1806  Karl Heinrich Ludwig Freiherr      (b. 1753 - d. 1831)
                             von Ingersleben 
French military governors
12 Nov 1806 - 1806         Édouard Alphonse Casimir Joseph    (s.a.)
                             Mortier (2nd time)
1806 - Dec 1806            Jean Adam de Schramm               (b. 1760 - d. 1826)
  4 Dec 1806 - 1810        Jean Jacques Colaud de la          (b. 1759 - d. 1834)
                             Salcette 
General Intendant
1807 - 1810                Charles Godefroy Redon de          (b. 1748 - d. 1820)
                             Belleville            
Military governors
29 Oct 1813 -  4 Nov 1813  Ludwig Georg Thedel Graf von       (b. 1769 - d. 1862)
                             Wallmoden-Gimborn 
 4 Nov 1813 - 24 Oct 1816  Adolph Frederick,                  (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
                             Duke of Cambridge (U.K.)
Duke and Elector (title s.a.)
 6 Nov 1813 - 12 Oct 1814  Georg III (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Kings (title König von Hannover, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg)
12 Oct 1814 - 29 Jan 1820  Georg III                          (s.a.)
29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jan 1830  Georg IV                           (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
                            (regent for Georg III to 29 Jan 1820)
26 Jan 1830 - 20 Jun 1837  Wilhelm                            (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
20 Jun 1837 - 18 Nov 1851  Ernst August                       (b. 1771 - d. 1851)
18 Nov 1851 - 20 Sep 1866  Georg V                            (b. 1819 - d. 1878)
Prussian Governors-general
19 Jun 1866 - 28 Aug 1866  Ernst Friedrich Eduard Vogel von   (b. 1797 - d. 1885)
                             Falckenstein (acting)
28 Aug 1866 - 17 Sep 1867  Konstantin Bernhard von Voigts-    (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
                             Rhetz

Chief ministers
1680 - 14 Jan 1709         Franz Ernst Graf von Platen-       (b. 1631 - d. 1709)
                             Hallermund                
1709 - 1714                Andreas Gottlieb Freiherr von      (b. 1649 - d. 1726)
                             Bernstorff
1714? - 1728               Friedrich Wilhelm von Schlitz-     (b. 1647 - d. 1728)
                             Görtz                      
1728? - 1732?              Heinrich Albert von dem Busche     (b. 1664 - d. 1734)
1732 - 1732                Christian Ulrich von Hardenberg    (b. 1663 - d. 1732)
1735 - 1753                Heinrich von Grote Freiherr zu     (b. 1675 - d. 1753)
                             Schauen
1753 - 1769                Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen     (b. 1688- d. 1770)
                             (officially prime minister from 1765)
1769 - 1771                Levin Adolph Hake                  (d. 1771)
1771                       Burchard Christian von Behr        (b. 1714 - d. 1771)

1771 - 1779                Albrecht Friedrich von Lenthe      (b. 1707 - d. 1779)
1779 - 1792                Detlev Alexander von Wenkstern     (b. 1708 - d. 1792)
1792 - 1803/06             Carl Rudolph August Graf von       (b. 1731 - d. 1810)
                             Kielmansegg                
French Executive Commission
Jun 1803 - 26 Oct 1805     Christoph Ludwig Albrecht Batje
                           + Friedrich Franz Dieterich von    (b. 1759 - d. 1836)
                             Bremer
Chief ministers
1813 - 29 Mar 1823         Claus von der Decken               (b. 1742 - d. 1826)
1823 - 1832                Friedrich Franz Dietrich von Bremer(s.a.)
                            
(from 1830, Friedrich Franz Dietrich Graf von Bremer)
1832 - 1837                Carl August Graf von Alten         (b. 1764 - d. 1840)

24 Oct 1816 - 20 Jun 1837  Adolph Frederick,                  (s.a.)
                             Duke of Cambridge (governor-general;
                             from 22 Feb 1831, viceroy)
Ministers of State
28 Jun 1837 - Jun 1844     Georg Freiherr von Schele zu       (b. 1771 - d. 1844)
                             Schelenburg
1844 - 1848                Georg Freidrich Freiherr von       (b. 1783 - d. 1850)
                             Falcke
20 Mar 1848 - 28 Mar 1848  Alexander Levin Graf Bennigsen     (b. 1809 - d. 1893)
Minister-presidents
28 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1850  Alexander Levin Graf Bennigsen     (s.a.)
28 Oct 1850 - 22 Nov 1851  Alexander Freiherr von Müchhausen  (b. 1813 - d. 1886)
22 Nov 1851 - 21 Nov 1853  Eduard Freiherr von Schele zu      (b. 1805 - d. 1875)
                             Schelenburg
22 Nov 1853 - Jul 1855     Eduard Christian von Lütcken       (b. 1800 - d. 1865)
29 Jul 1853 - Dec 1862     Eduard Graf Kielmansegg-Gülzow     (b. 1804 - d. 1872)
 
9 Dec 1862 - 21 Oct 1865  Wilhelm Freiherr von Hammerstein   (b. 1801 - d. 1872)
21 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1866  Georg Heinrich Jusutus Bacmeister  (b. 1807 - d. 1890)

Ministers of the German (or Hanoverian) Chancery (resident in London)
1714 - 1717                Andreas Gottlieb Freiherr von      (s.a.)
                             Bernstorff
1720 - 1730                Johann Caspar Graf von Bothmer     (b. 1656 - d. 1732)
1725 - 1727                Christian Ulrich von Hardenberg
1727 - 1737                Johann Philipp von Hattorf         (b. 1682 - d. 1737)
1737 - 1748                Ernst von Steinberg                (b. 1692 - d. 1759)
1748 - 1762                Philipp Adolf von Münchhausen      (b. 1694 - d. 1762)
1762 - 26 Dec 1771         Burchard Christian von Behr        (b. 1714 - d. 1771)
1771 - 16 May 1795         Johann Friedrich Karl von          (b. 1714 - d. 1795)
                             Alvensleben
1795                       Georg August von Steinberg
1795 - 1805                Ernst Ludwig Julius von Lenthe     (b. 1744 - d. 1814)
May 1805 - 12 Feb 1831     Ernst Friedrich Herbert Graf zu    (b. 1766 - d. 1839)
                             Münster-Ledenburg
13 Feb 1831 - 20 Jun 1837  Ludwig von Ompteda                 (b. 1767 - d. 1854)



Harmersbach

1218 - 1718                Valley depended on Zell am Harmersbach Free City.
1718                       Imperial Valley of Harmersbach (Reichstal Harmersbach).
1803                       Annexed to Baden.

Imperial Bailiffs (Reichsvogt)
1718 - 21 Sep 1721         Michael Krantz                     (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
1721 - 1803                ....



Heggbach

bf.1195                    Cistercian Abbey of Heggbach (Stift Heggbach)
1429                       Abbesses made Princesses of Empire.
1803                       Secularized.
1806                       Annexed to Württemberg.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Heggbach)
1700 - 1712                Maria Magdalena Sohler 
1712 - 1742                Maria Cäcilia II Constanza Schmid  (b. 1671 - d. 1742)
1742 - 1773                Maria Alydis Zech                  (b. 1713 - d. 1773)
1773 - 1792                Maria Juliana Kurz                 (b. 1726 - d. 1792)
1792 - 1803                Maria Anne Vogel                   (b. 1752 - d. 1835)


Heilbronn

[Stadt Heilbronn flag
                1556-19th century]
                   1556 - 1803

1322                       Free Imperial City, from 1552 three "succession lines"
                             can be distinguished.

1647 - 1648                French occupation.
Nov 1802                   Occupied by Württemberg
.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed by 
Württemberg.

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
1695 -  8 Jan 1698         Johann Georg Pfitzer               (b. 1629 - d. 1698)  
1698 - 29 Jul 1733         Georg Friedrich von Pancug         (b. 1653 - d. 1733)
1733 - 10 Oct 1734         Johann Bernhard Orth               (b. 1677 - d. 1734)  
1734 - 24 Jun 1757         Johannes Schübler                  (b. 1686 - d. 1757)
1758 - 22 Apr 1781         Georg Philipp Mylius               (b. 1696 - d. 1781)
1781 - 13 Mar 1783         Georg Heinrich von Pancug          (b. 1717 - d. 1783)
1784 - 23 Nov 1802         Georg Christoph Kornacher          (b. 1725 - d. 1803)
- Line 2 -
1683 -  6 Oct 1716         Johann David Feyerabend            (b. 1643 - d. 1716)  
1717 - 1731                Johann Heinrich Orth               (b. 1653 - d. 1733)
1732 - 22 Dec 1733         Johann Georg Becht                 (b. 1661 - d. 1733)
1734 -  3 Dec 1740         Wilhelm Ludwig Bardili             (b. 1698 - d. 1740)
1741 - 1765                Esaias Meyer                       (b. 1684 - d. 1771)
1766 - 15 Mar 1769         Franz Leonhard Roth                (b. 1706 - d. 1769)
1770 - 16 Jun 1794         Georg Heinrich von Rosskampff      (b. 1720 - d. 1794)

1795 - 21 Aug 1795         Heinrich Karl Philibert Orth       (b. 1733 - d. 1795)
1796 - 1801                Eberhard Ludwig Becht              (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
1802 - 1803                Christian Ludwig Schübler          (b. 1754 - d. 1820)
- Line 3 -
1695 - 23 Jun 1726         Johann Esaias von Rühle            (b. 1655 - d. 1726)
1727 - 23 Dec 1729         Johann Georg Geiling               (b. 1657 - d. 1729)
1730 - 17 Jun 1732         Adam Christian Wacks               (b. 1675 - d. 1732)
1732 -  7 Sep 1753         Johann Ludwig Kübel                (b. 1684 - d. 1753)
1754 -  2 Jan 1769         Georg Heinrich Orth                (b. 1698 - d. 1769)
1770 - 1803                Gottlob Moriz Christian von Wacks  (b. 1720 - d. 1807)


Heligoland: see under Germany



Heitersheim
[Order of Malta]
                  1251 - 25 Jul 1806
1248                       Heitersheim seat of the Grandpriory of the Order of St. John of
                             Jerusalem, and Rhodes [and later Malta] Hospitaller
                            (Johanniterorden) in the Holy Roman Empire.
1428                       Priors made Princes of the Empire (reichsunmittelbar).
1548                       Principality of Heitersheim (Fürstentum Heitersheim)
25 Jul 1806                Annexed to Baden.

Princes and General Priors (title Fürst und Generalprior des Johanniterorden zu Heitersheim)
1683 - 16 Jun 1704         Hermann II von Wachtendonck        (d. 1704)
1704 - 21 Oct 1721         Bernhard Wilhelm von der Rheide    (d. 1721)
 6 Nov 1721 -  8 Dec 1727  Goswin Hermann Otto von Merveldt   (b. 1661 - d. 1727)
1728 - 1752                Philipp Wilhelm Graf von Nesselrode
                             und Reichenstein
15 Jun 1752 - 10 Dec 1752  Philipp Joachim Freiherr von       (d. 1752)
                             Prassberg
15 Feb 1755 -  6 Mar 1775  Johann Baptist Freiherr von        (b. 1702 - d. 1775)
                             Schauenburg
13 May 1775 - 18 Aug 1777  Franz Christoph Sebastian von      (d. 1777) 
                             Freiherr von Reuchingen
25 Aug 1777 - 14 Oct 1796  Franz Benedict Joseph Graf von     (b. 1710 - d. 1796)
                             von Reinach zu Fuchsmänningen
12 Dec 1796 - 25 Jul 1806  Ignaz Balthasar Willibald Rink von (b. 1721 - d. 1807)
                             Baldenstein  



Herford

832                        Benedictine Abbey of Herford (Stift Herford).
839                        Becomes an Imperial Abbey (Reichsabtei Herford).
1147                       Granted Reichsunmittelbarkeit.
1523                       Abbesses also the Princesses of the Empire.
1533                       Protestant rule.
1631 - 1652                Herford city a Free Imperial City (Reichstadt).
27 Apr 1803                Annexed by Prussia.
28 Aug 1807 - 1813         Part of the Kingdom of Westphalia.
1815                       Part of Prussia.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Herford)
23 Jun 1688 -  1 Dec 1728  Charlotte Sophie Herzogin von       (b. 1651 - d. 1728)
                             Kurland 
1697 - 1698                Maria Elisabeth Pfalzgräfin bei     (b. 1666 - d. 1699)
                             Rhein -Co-adjutor
1727 - 1729                Sophie Dorothea Marie von 
                             Preussen -Co-adjutor
 4 Feb 1729 - 31 Mar 1750  Johanna Charlotte Fürstin von       (b. 1682 - d. 1750)
                             Anhalt-Dessau 
1745                       Anna Amalie von Preussen -Co-adjutor
31 Mar 1750 - 13 Oct 1764  Hedwig Sophie Auguste Herzogin      (b. 1705 - d. 1764)
                             von Holstein-Gottorp
1755 - 1802                Friedrike Charlotte Leopoldine Luise
                             Prinzessin von Brandenburg-       (b. 1745 - d. 1808)
                             Schwedt (co-adjutor to 13 Oct 1764)
1766 - 1779                Christine Charlotte von Hessen-
                             Kassel -Co-adjutor
1779 - 1783                Henriette Amalia Prinzessin von     (b. 1720 - d. 1793) 
                             Anhalt-Dessau -Co-adjutor
1783 - 1796                Friederike Dorothea Louise Philippine 
                             Prinzessin von Preussen -Co-adjutor
1796 - 1802                Auguste Maria Caroline von Nassau   (b. 1764 - d. 1802)
                             -Weilburg
-Co-adjutor



Hesse-Darmstadt
 
[Hesse
                      Landesfarben to 1918]                  Civil flag to 1918
 
[Hesse
                      State flag 1839-1903]      16 Mar 1839 - 1903 State flag
 
[Hesse
                      State flag 1903-1918]              1903 - 1918 State flag
 
Map of Hesse
National Anthem
"Hessenlied"
(Song of Hesse)

Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
(17 Dec 1820 - 1918)
Capital: Darmstadt
Population: 1,210,000 (1905)

1265                       Landgraviate of Hesse (Landgrafschaft Hessen) founded.
1547 - 1552                Imperial administration.
31 Mar 1567                Division into four lines, conventionally styled Hesse-Kassel,
                             Hesse-Marburg (extinct 1604), Hesse-Rheinfels (extinct 1583),
                             and Hesse-Darmstadt.
13 Aug 1806                Grand Duchy of Hesse (informally, until 1866,
                             Hesse-Darmstadt)(Grossherzogtum Hessen).
 7 Jul 1816                Ruler styled Grossherzog von Hessen und bei Rhein.
 3 Sep 1866                Cedes Mainz, Worms, and Hesse-Homburg to Prussia.
 2 Mar 1919                People's State of Hesse (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen)
31 Aug 1678 - 12 Sep 1739  Ernst Ludwig                       (b. 1667 - d. 1739)
31 Aug 1678 - 15 Dec 1685  Elisabeth Dorothea von Sachsen-    (b. 1640 - d. 1709)
                             Gotha (f) -Regent
12 Sep 1739 - 17 Oct 1768  Ludwig VIII                        (b. 1691 - d. 1768)
17 Oct 1768 -  6 Apr 1790  Ludwig IX                          (b. 1719 - d. 1790)
 6 Apr 1790 - 13 Aug 1806  Ludwig X                           (b. 1753 - d. 1830)
Grand Dukes (title Grossherzog von Hessen [from 7 Jul 1816:] und bei Rhein)
13 Aug 1806 -  6 Apr 1830  Ludwig I (Ludwig X)                (s.a.)
 6 Apr 1830 - 16 Jun 1848  Ludwig II                          (b. 1777 - d. 1848)
16 Jun 1848 - 13 Jun 1877  Ludwig III                         (b. 1806 - d. 1877)
13 Jun 1877 - 13 Mar 1892  Ludwig IV                          (b. 1837 - d. 1892)
13 Mar 1892 -  9 Nov 1918  Ernst Ludwig                       (b. 1868 - d. 1937)

Chancellors
11 Apr 1772 - Apr 1780     Friedrich Karl von Moser           (b. 1723 - d. 1798)
1780 - 1785                von Miltenberg
1782 - 1799                Christian Hartmann Samuel Freiherr (b. 1739 - d. 1807)
                             (from 1799, Reichsfreiherr) von
                             G
atzert  
1799 - 1808                Franz Ludwig Gottfried Freiherr    (b. 1738 - d. 1808)
                             v
on Lehmann
Ministers of state
10 Aug 1798 -  6 Feb 1805  Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Barkhaus- (b. 1761 - d. 1823)
                             Wiesenhütten
1808 - 31 Jul 1819         Friedrich August Freiherr von      (b. 1755 - d. 1819)
                             Lichtenberg
31 Jul 1819 - 14 Feb 1829  Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Grolman    (b. 1775 - d. 1829)
Feb 1829 -  5 Mar 1848     Karl Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr
                             Du Bos du Thil                   (b. 1777 - d. 1859)
                             (directing state minister)
Präsidenten des Gesamtministeriums (Presidents of the assembly of ministers)
 5 Mar 1848 - Jun 1848     Heinrich Wilhelm August Freiherr   (b. 1799 - d. 1880)
                             von Gagern 
Jun 1848 - Jul 1848        Carl Wilhelm Zimmermann            (b. 1781 - d. 1856)
16 Jul 1848 -  1 Jun 1850  Heinrich Carl Jaup                 (b. 1781 - d. 1860)
                             (chairman of the council of state Mar 1848 - Jun 1848)
 1 Jun 1850 -  6 Apr 1871  Karl Friedrich Reinhard Freiherr   (b. 1802 - d. 1880)

                             von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels 
 6 Apr 1871 - 13 Sep 1872  Friedrich Freiherr von Lindelof    (b. 1794 - d. 1882)
13 Sep 1872 - May 1876     Karl Wilhelm Hofmann               (b. 1827 - d. 1910)
May 1876 -  6 Jun 1880     Philip Gustav August Julius Rinck, (b. 1825 - d. 1910)
                             gen. Freiherr von Starck 
Chairmen of the council of state
 6 Jun 1880 - May 1884     Philip Gustav August Julius Rinck, (s.a.)
                             gen. Freiherr von Starck 
May 1884 - 1898            Jakob Finger                       (b. 1825 - d. 1904)  DFP
1898 - 29 Jan 1906         Carl Friedrich Bernhard Rothe      (b. 1840 - d. 1906)
 4 Feb 1906 - 11 Nov 1918  Christian Wilhelm Karl von Ewald   (b. 1852 - d. 1932)

Party abbreviation: DFP = Deutsche Fortschrittspartei (German Progressive Party, liberal, 1861-1884)



Hesse-Homburg

Hesse-Homburg  
                     to 24 Mar 1866

Map of Hesse-Homburg
Capital: Homburg
Population: 27,374 (1864)

 7 Feb 1596                Landgraviate of Hesse (informally Hesse-Homburg) established
                             under the suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt 
                             (Landgrafschaft Hessen).
1671 - 1680                Hesse-Homburg forfeited to Hesse-Darmstadt.
1680                       Hesse-Homburg re-established under the suzerainty of
                             Hesse-Darmstadt.
1708                       Hesse-Homburg sovereign.
12 Jul 1806                Hesse-Homburg under suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt.
1815                       Sovereign Landgraviate of Hesse (Souveräne Landgrafen zu Hessen).
24 Mar 1866                Incorporation into Hesse(-Darmstadt).
 4 Aug 1866                Occupied by Prussia.
 3 Sep 1866                Ceded to Prussia.
 1 Oct 1867                Incorporated into Prussia.

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen; from 1815 Souveräner Landgraf zu Hessen)
1680 - 24 Jan 1708         Friedrich II "mit dem silbernen    (b. 1633 - d. 1708)
                             Bein" 
24 Jan 1708 -  8 Jun 1746  Friedrich III                      (b. 1673 - d. 1746)
 8 Jun 1746 -  7 Feb 1751  Friedrich IV                       (b. 1724 - d. 1751)
 7 Feb 1751 - 20 Jan 1820  Friedrich V                        (b. 1748 - d. 1820)
20 Jan 1820 -  2 Apr 1829  Friedrich VI                       (b. 1769 - d. 1829)
 2 Apr 1829 - 19 Jan 1839  Ludwig                             (b. 1770 - d. 1839)
19 Jan 1839 - 15 Dec 1846  Philipp                            (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
15 Dec 1846 -  8 Sep 1848  Gustav                             (b. 1781 - d. 1848)
 8 Sep 1848 - 24 Mar 1866  Ferdinand                          (b. 1783 - d. 1866)
Prussian Civil Commissioner
 4 Aug 1866 - 30 Sep 1867  Constatin Karl Alexander Wilhelm   (b. 1821 - d. 1877) 
                             von Briesen

Directors of government
1817 - 1818                Karl Philipp August Otto           (b. 1779 - d. 1828) 
                             Ludwig Freiherr von Zyllnhardt
18 Feb 1818 - 1820         Karl Philip Reichard Freiherr 
                             von Kayser
1820 - 1827                Johann Philip von Hert             (d. 1827)
1828 - 1834                Karl Friedrich Justus Emil von     (b. 1780 - d. 1834)
                             Ibell
1835 - 1851                Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Heinrich       (d. 1851)
1851 - 1853                Christian Bassa (acting)
1853 - 1861                Johann Wilhelm Zurbuch
1861 - 24 Mar 1866         Heinrich Will                      (b. 1808 - d. 1876)



Hesse-Kassel

[Hesse-Kassel 1790-1866
                (Germany)]
       1790 - 1806, 1813 - 20 Sep 1866
 
Map of Hesse-Kassel
Hear National Anthem
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
(5 Jan 1831 - 20 Sep 1866)
Capital: Kassel
Population: 745,063 (1864)

31 Mar 1567                Landgraviate of Hesse (informally Hesse-Kassel) separated.
23 Mar 1730 -  5 Apr 1751  Personal union with Sweden.
15 May 1803                Landgrave Wilhelm IX acquires the dignity of prince-
                             elector, approved 27 Apr 1803, and the polity is styled
                             Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen).
 6 Aug 1806                At the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire the ruler clings
                             tenaciously to the now empty style of elector; the polity
                             continues to be styled Kurfürstentum Hessen.
31 Oct 1806 - 28 Aug 1807  French occupation, Hesse-Kassel abolished on 4 Nov 1806.
28 Aug 1807                The Electorate of Hesse is replaced by the Kingdom

                             of Westphalia (Königreich Westphalen) established by
                             Napoléon I for his brother Jérôme.
29/30 Oct 1813             Kingdom of Westphalia dissolved, Electorate of Hesse restored.
20 Sep 1866                Incorporated into Prussia.

Landgraves (title Landgraf zu Hessen)
 1 Dec 1670 - 23 Mar 1730  Karl                               (b. 1654 - d. 1730)
 1 Dec 1670 - 1677         Hedwig Sophie von                  (b. 1623 - d. 1683)
                             Brandenburg (f) -Regent
23 Mar 1730 -  5 Apr 1751  Friedrich I                        (b. 1676 - d. 1751)
 5 Apr 1751 -  1 Feb 1760  Wilhelm VIII                       (b. 1682 - d. 1760)
                            (23 Mar 1730 - 5 Apr 1751 regent for Friedrich I)
 1 Feb 1760 - 31 Oct 1785  Friedrich II                       (b. 1720 - d. 1785)
31 Oct 1785 - 15 May 1803  Wilhelm IX                         (b. 1743 - d. 1821)
Landgrave and Elector (title Landgraf zu Hessen, Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches);
then Elector and Sovereign Landgrave (title Kurfürst und souveräner Landgraf zu Hessen)
15 May 1803 - 28 Aug 1807  Wilhelm I (1st time)               (s.a.)
                            (Wilhelm IX) (in exile from 1 Nov 1806)
28 Aug 1807 - 29 Oct 1813  part of the Kingdom of Westphalia
Electors and Sovereign Landgraves (title Kurfürst und souveräner Landgraf zu Hessen)
30 Oct 1813 - 27 Feb 1821  Wilhelm I (2nd time)               (s.a.)
27 Feb 1821 - 20 Nov 1847  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1777 - d. 1847)
20 Nov 1847 - 20 Sep 1866  Friedrich Wilhelm I                (b. 1802 - d. 1875)
                            (30 Sep 1831 - 20 Nov 1847 regent for Wilhelm II)
Prussian Military governors
19 Jun 1866 - 28 Jun 1866  Gustav Friedrich von Beyer         (b. 1812 - d. 1889)
28 Jun 1866 - 1866         Karl Wilhelm Friedrich August      (b. 1808 - d. 1887)
                             Leopold Graf von Werder

Ministers of State
c.1730 - 1737              Johann Reinhard von Dalwigk        (b. 1667 - d. 1737)
17.. - 17..                Ferdinand Freiherr von Dörnberg    (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
17.. - 17..                Friedrich Siegmund Waitz Freiherr  (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
                             von Eschen
1772 - 1789                Martin Ernst von Schlieffen        (b. 1732 - d. 1825)
bf.1795 - af.1802          Friedrich-Sigismund von Dörnberg   (b. 1745 - d. 1808)
 4 Nov 1806 - 1807         Joseph Lagrange -French Governor   (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
Nov 1806 - 1807            Martillière -Intendant

1814 - 1816                Georg Schmerfeld                   (b. 1759 - d. 1823)
                            (secret minister of state)
1816 - 1821                ....
Presidents Directing the State ministry
1821 - 1823                Georg Schmerfeld                   (b. 1859 - d. 1823)
1823 - 1830                Friedrich Ludwig Freiherr von
                             Witzleben                        (b. 1755 – d. 1833) 

1830                       Friedrich Christoph von Schmincke  (b. 1775 - d. 1845)
Ministers of State
11 Jan 1831 - May 1832     Johann Christian Wiederhold        (b. 1775 - d. 1832)
May 1832 - 11 Jul 1837     Hans Daniel Ludwig Friedrich       (b. 1794 - d. 1862)
                             Hassenpflug (1st time)
Jul 1837 - Oct 1841        Carl von Hanstein                  (b. 1772 - d. 1861)
Oct 1841 - Sep 1847        Hermann Koch
 4 Sep 1847 -  6 Mar 1848  Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Leopold   (b. 1800 - d. 1879)
                             Scheffer (1st time)
17 Mar 1848 - 22 Feb 1850  Bernard Eberhard                   (b. 1795 - d. 1860)
                             (interior minister)
22 Feb 1850 - 16 Oct 1855  Hans Daniel Ludwig Friedrich       (s.a.)
                             Hassenpflug (2nd time)
Oct 1855 - Jul 1858        Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Leopold   (s.a.)
                             Scheffer (2nd time)
Jul 1858 - 17 May 1860     Heinrich Eduard von Stiernberg     (b. 1807 - d. 1884)
May 1860 - 18 Jun 1866     Carl Friedrich von Stiernberg      (b. 1806 - d. 1891)



Hildesheim

[Bishopric of Hildesheim
                (Germany)]

815                        Bishopric of Hildesheim (Hochstift Hildesheim)
c.1221                     Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
30 Jul 1802                Annexed to Prussia.
12 Nov 1806                Occupied by France.
28 Aug 1807                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
29 Oct 1813                Allied administration.
 2 Nov 1813                Administered by Hanover.
30 Dec 1813                Annexed to Hanover.
 3 Oct 1866                Annexed to Prussia.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Hildesheim)
19 Jul 1688 - 13 Aug 1702  Jobst Edmund Freiherr von Brabeck(b. 1619 - d. 1702)

31 Dec 1714 - 11 Dec 1723  Joseph Clemens von Bayern von
                             Wittelsbach
                   (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
 5 Feb 1724 -  6 Feb 1761  Clemens August Maria Herzog von
                             Bayern
                         (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
                            (also Archbishop of Cologne)
 6 Feb 1761 -  7 Feb 1763  Vacant
 7 Feb 1763 -  6 Jan 1789  Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von   (b. 1727 - d. 1789)
                             Westphalen

 6 Jan 1789 - 30 Jul 1802  Franz Egon Freiherr von          (b. 1737 - d. 1825)
                            Fürstenberg

Indendant
12 Nov 1806 - 28 Aug 1807  Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno Daru   (b. 1767 - d. 1829)



Hildesheim Free City

[City of Hildesheim flag]

1542                       Reformation begins, end of rule by Prince-Bishops

                             of Hildesheim.

1648                       Free City of Hildesheim
30 Jul 1802                Annexed to Prussia.
12 Nov 1806                Occupied by France.
28 Aug 1807                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
29 Oct 1813                Allied administration.
 2 Nov 1813                Administered by Hanover.
30 Dec 1813                Annexed to Hanover.
 3 Oct 1866                Annexed to Prussia.

Oberbürgermeister
1699 - 1700                Joachim Heinrich Albrecht
                             (10th time)
1700 - 1701                Albert Ludolph von Harlessem      (b. 1640 - d. 1717)  
                             (12th time)
1701 - 1702                Joachim Heinrich Albrecht
                             (11th time)
1702 - 1703                Albert Ludolph von Harlessem      (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
1703 - 1704                Ludolph Andreas Behrens (1st time)
(b. 1666 - d. 1713)
1704 - 1705                Gerhard Evers
1705 - 1706                Ludolph Andreas Behrens (2nd time)(s.a.)
1706 - 1707                Johann Jobst Dörrien (1st time)  
(b. 1677 - d. 1739)
1707 - 1708                Ludolph Andreas Behrens (3rd time)(s.a.)
1708 - 1709                Johann Jobst Dörrien (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1709 - 1710                Ludolph Andreas Behrens (4th time)(s.a.)
1710 - 1711                Johann Jobst Dörrien (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1711 - 1712                Ludolph Andreas Behrens (5th time)(s.a.)
1712 - 1713                Johann Jobst Dörrien (4th time)   (s.a.)
1713 - 16 Apr 1713         Ludolph Andreas Behrens (6th time)(s.a.)
11 May 1713 - 1714         Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (1st time)
1714 - 1715                Johann Jobst Dörrien (5th time
)   (s.a.)
1715 - 1716                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (2nd time)
1716 - 1717                Johann Jobst Dörrien (6th time
)   (s.a.)
1717 - 1718                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (3rd time)
1718 - 1719                Johann Jobst Dörrien (7th time
)   (s.a.)
1719 - 1720                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (4th time)
1720 - 1721                Johann Jobst Dörrien (8th time
)   (s.a.)
1721 - 1722                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (5th time)
1722 - 1723                Johann Jobst Dörrien (9th time
)   (s.a.)
1723 - 1724                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (6th time)
1724 - 1725                Johann Jobst Dörrien (10th time
)  (s.a.)
1725 - 1726                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (7th time)
1726 - 1727                Johann Jobst Dörrien (11th time)
 (s.a.)
1727 - 1728                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (8th time)
1728 - 1729                Johann Jobst Dörrien (12th time)
 (s.a.)
1729 - 1730                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (9th time)
1730 - 1731                Johann Jobst Dörrien (13th time)
 (s.a.)
1731 - 1732                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (10th time)
1732 - 1733                Johann Jobst Dörrien (14th time)
 (s.a.)
1733 - 1734                Johann Melchior Hoffmeister
                             (11th time)
1734 - 1735                Johann Jobst Dörrien (15th time)
 (s.a.)
1735 - 1736                Johann Lüder Borchers (1st time)
1736 - 1737                Johann Jobst Dörrien (16th time)
 (s.a.)
1737 - 1738                Johann Lüder Borchers (2nd time)
1738                       Johann Jobst Dörrien (17th time)
 (s.a.) 
 5 Jun 1738 - 1739         Franz Anton Witte (1st time)
     (d. 1765)
1739 - 1740                Johann Lüder Borchers (3rd time)  
1740 - 1741                Franz Anton Witte (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1741 - 1742                Johann Lüder Borchers (4th time)
1742 - 1743                Franz Anton Witte (3rd time)
     (s.a.)
1743 - 1744                Johann Lüder Borchers (5th time)
1744 - 1744                Franz Anton Witte (4th time)
     (s.a.)
1745 - 1745                Johann Lüder Borchers (6th time)
1746 - 1747                Franz Anton Witte (5th time)
     (s.a.)
1747 - 1748                Johann Lüder Borchers (7th time)
1748 - 1749                Franz Anton Witte (6th time)
     (s.a.)
1749 - 1750                Johann Lüder Borchers (8th time)
1750 - 1751                Ludolph Daniel von Harlessem
     (b. 1700 - d. 1759)
                             (1st time)  
1751 - 1752                Johann Lüder Borchers (9th time)
1752 - 1753                Ludolph Daniel von Harlessem      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1753 - 1754                Johann Lüder Borchers (10th time)
1754 - 1755                Ludolph Daniel von Harlessem      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1755 - 1756                Johann Lüder Borchers (11th time)
1756 - 1757                Ludolph Daniel von Harlessem      (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1757 - 11 Oct 1757         Johann Lüder Borchers (12th time)
 5 Dec 1757 - 1758         Franz Anton Witte (7th time)
     (s.a.)
1758 - 1759                Ludolph Daniel von Harlessem      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1759 - 1760                Franz Anton Witte (8th time)
     (s.a.)
1760 - 1761                Johann Melchior Brandis (1st time)(b. 1721 - d. 1796)
1761 - 1762                Franz Anton Witte (9th time)
     (s.a.)
1762 - 1763                Johann Melchior Brandis (2nd time)(s.a.)
1763 - 1764                Franz Anton Witte (10th time)
    (s.a.)
1764 - 1765                Johann Melchior Brandis (3rd time)(s.a.)
1765 - 14 Apr 1765         Franz Anton Witte (11th time)  
   (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1765 - 1766         Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (1st time)
1766 - 1767                Johann Melchior Brandis (4th time)(s.a.)
1767 - 1768                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (2nd time)
1768 - 1769                Johann Melchior Brandis (5th time)(s.a.)
1769 - 1770                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (3rd time)
1770 - 1771                Johann Melchior Brandis (6th time)(s.a.)
1771 - 1772                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (4th time)
1772 - 1773                Johann Melchior Brandis (7th time)(s.a.)
1773 - 1774                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (5th time)
1774 - 1774                Johann Melchior Brandis (8th time)(s.a.)
1775 - 1776                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (6th time)
1776 - 1777                Johann Melchior Brandis (9th time)(s.a.)
1777 - 1778                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (7th time)
1778 - 1779                Johann Melchior Brandis           (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1779 - 1780                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (8th time)
1780 - 1781                Johann Melchior Brandis           (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
1781 - 1782                Heinrich Wilhelm Hansen (9th time)
1782 - 1785                Johann Melchior Brandis          (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1785 - 1786                Johann Friedrich Hollo (1st time)
1786 - 1788                Johann Melchior Brandis          (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
1787 - 1788                Johann Friedrich Hollo (2nd time)
1788 - 1789                Johann Melchior Brandis          (s.a.)
                             (14th time)
1789 - 1790                Johann Friedrich Hollo (3rd time)
1790 - 1791                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel     
(b. 1749 - d. 1826)
                             (1st time) 
1791 - 1792                Georg Christian Marheinecke
                             (1st time)
1792 - 1793                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1793 - 1794                Georg Christian Marheinecke
                             (2nd time)
1794 - 1795                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)  
1795 - 1796                Georg Christian Marheinecke
                             (3rd time)
1796 - 1797                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
      (s.a.)
                             (4th time)  

1797 - 1798                Georg Christian Marheinecke
                             (4th time)
1798 - 1799                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)

1799 - 1800                Georg Christian Marheinecke
                             (5th time)
1800 - 1801                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
     (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
1801 - 1802                Ernst Cludius
1802 - 1803                Christoph Friedrich Lüntzel
      (s.a.)
                             (7th time)            

1803                       Georg Otto Ferdinand Lohde       (b. 1770 - d. 1851)


Hohenems: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands to 1918

Hohengeroldseck (Hohengeroldseck-Leyen)
 
[County of
                          Hohengeroldseck (Germany)]
                  to 16 Mar 1798
[Hohengeroldseck-Leyen 1806-1813]
                     1806 - 1814

12th cent.                 Lordship of Hohengeroldseck (Herrschaft Hohengeroldseck).
1692 - 1705                Imperial administration.
22 Nov 1711                County of Hohengeroldseck (Grafschaft Hohengeroldseck)
                             under Leyen dynasty.
12 Jul 1806                Principality Hohengeroldseck (Fürstentum Hohengeroldseck)
30 May 1814 - 1815         Allied administration.
1815                       Under Austrian sovereignty.
20 Jul 1819                Incorporated into Baden.

Lords (title Freiherr von Leyen zu Hohengeroldseck)
1692 - 17 Jul 1704         Johann Nikolaus                  (b. 1633 - d. 1704)
1705 - 22 Nov 1711         Karl Kaspar Franz                (b. 1655 - d. 1739)
Counts (title Reichsgraf von Leyen zu Hohengeroldseck)
22 Nov 1711 - 30 Nov 1739  Karl Kaspar Franz                (s.a.)
30 Nov 1739 - 16 Feb 1760  Friedrich Ferdinand Franz Anton  (b. 1709 - d. 1760)
16 Feb 1760 - 26 Sep 1775  Franz Karl                       (b. 1736 - d. 1775)
26 Sep 1775 - 12 Jul 1806  Philipp Franz                    (b. 1766 - d. 1829)
Prince (title Fürst von Leyen zu Hohengeroldseck)
12 Jul 1806 - 1815         Philipp Franz                    (s.a.)



Hohenlohe

[Hohenlohe]

bf.1183                    County of Hohenlohe (Grafschaft Hohenlohe)
1230                       Hohenlohe divides into Hohenlohe-Hohenlohe and
                             Hohenlohe-Brauneck (which in 1390 passes to Brandenburg).
1249                       Hohenlohe-Brauneck subdivides into Hohenlohe-Haltenbergstetten
                            (which in 1381 part of Hohenlohe-Weikersheim).
1256                       Hohenlohe is divided into Hohenlohe-Möckmühl (1340 divided between
                             Hohenlohe-Uffenheim and Hohenlohe-Wernsberg),
                             Hohenlohe-Röltingen (extinct 1290) and Hohenlohe-Weikersheim 
                            (in 1472 becomes Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst-Weikersheim).
1472                       County of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, partitioned from
                             Hohenlohe-Weikersheim (1698 annexed to Hohenlohe-Öhringen).
1551                       Division into Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (extinct 1805) and 
                             Hohenlohe-Waldenburg (1615, 1679 Partitioned into various states)
1688                       Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst partitioned into Hohenlohe-Bartenstein
                             and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst.
1701                       Junior line of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein divided into 
                             Hohelohe-Langenburg, Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and 
                             Hohenlohe-Kirchberg. 
1798                       Hohenlohe-Jagstberg split from Hohenlohe-Bartenstein.
27 Jul 1805                Senior line of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein extinct.
12 Jul 1806                Hohenlohe possessions divided between Bavaria and Württemberg.
 

Hohenlohe-Bartenstein

1688                       County of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein, partitioned from
                             Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. 
21 May 1764                Principality of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Württemberg.

Counts (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein)
1688 - 15 Jan 1729         Philipp Karl Kaspar              (b. 1668 - d. 1729)
15 Jan 1729 - 1744         Karl Philipp                     (b. 1702 - d. 1763)
1729 - 21 May 1764         Joseph Anton Pfedelbach          (b. 1707 - d. 1764)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Bartenstein)
21 May 1764 -  1 Mar 1763  Karl Philipp                     (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1763 - 1798         Ludwig Leopold                   (b. 1731 - d. 1799)
1798 - 12 Jul 1806         Ludwig Aloys                     (b. 1786 - d. 1827)


Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

1701                       County of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, partitioned from 
                             Hohenlohe-Langenburg. 
 7 Jan 1764                Principality of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen.
12 Jul 1806                Annexed by Bavaria.

Counts (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen)
1701 -  2 Oct 1743         Christian Kraft                  (b. 1668 - d. 1743)
 2 Oct 1743 -  7 Jan 1764  Philipp Heinrich                 (b. 1702 - d. 1781)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen-[from 27 Jul 1805] Öhringen)
 7 Jan 1764 -  5 Apr 1781  Philipp Heinrich                 (s.a.)
 5 Apr 1781 - 13 Feb 1796  Heinrich August                  (b. 1715 - d. 1796)
13 Feb 1796 - 1806         Friedrich Ludwig                 (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
1806 - 12 Jul 1806         Friedrich August II              (b. 1784 - d. 1853)


Hohenlohe-Jagstberg

1798                       Principality of Hohenlohe-Jagstberg, partitioned from 
                             Hohenlohe-Bartenstein.
12 Jul 1806                Annexed by Württemberg.

Prince (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Jagstberg)
1798 - 12 Jul 1806         Karl Joseph                       (b. 1766 - d. 1838)


Hohenlohe-Kirchberg

1701                       County of Hohenlohe-Kirchberg, partitioned from 
                             Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
 7 Jan 1764                Principality of Hohenlohe-Kirchberg
12 Jul 1806                Annexed by Bavaria.
28 Feb 1810                Transferred to Württemberg.

Counts (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg)
1701 - 28 Aug 1737         Friedrich Eberhard               (b. 1672 - d. 1737)
28 Aug 1737 -  7 Jan 1764  Karl August                      (b. 1707 - d. 1767)

Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg)
 7 Jan 1764 - 17 May 1767  Karl August                      (s.a.)
17 May 1767 - 12 Jul 1806  Christian Friedrich Karl         (b. 1729 - d. 1819)


Hohenlohe-Langenburg

Hohenlohe-Langenburg

1568                       County of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
1590 - 1610                Part of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein.
1610                       County of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, partitioned from 
                             Hohenlohe-Neuenstein.
 7 Jan 1764                Principality of Hohenlohe-Langenburg
12 Jul 1806                Annexed by Württemberg.

Count (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
 5 Aug 1699 - 17 Apr 1715  Albrecht Wolfgang                (b. 1659 - d. 1715)
17 Apr 1715 -  7 Jan 1764  Ludwig                           (b. 1696 - d. 1765)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
 7 Jan 1764 - 16 Jan 1765  Ludwig                           (s.a.)
16 Jan 1765 -  4 Jul 1789  Christian Albrecht Ludwig        (b. 1726 - d. 1789)
 4 Jul 1789 - 12 Jul 1806  Karl Ludwig                      (b. 1762 - d. 1825)


Hohenlohe-Öhringen(-Neuenstein)
[Hohenlohe-Öhringen]

1676                       County of Hohenlohe-Öhringen, partitioned from Hohenlohe-
                             Neuenstein.
 7 Jan 1764                Principality of Hohenlohe-Öhringen
27 Jul 1805                Passed to Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen.

Counts (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen)
1676 - 17 Oct 1702         Johann Friedrich I               (b. 1617 - d. 1702)
17 Oct 1702 - 1708         Friedrich Kraft                  (b. 1667 - d. 1709)
17 Oct 1702 -  7 Jan 1764  Johann Friedrich II              (b. 1683 - d. 1765)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen)
 7 Jan 1764 - 24 Aug 1765  Johann Friedrich II              (s.a.)
24 Aug 1765 - 27 Jul 1805  Ludwig Friedrich Karl            (b. 1723 - d. 1805)


Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst-Weikersheim

1472                       County of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst-Weikersheim,
                             partitioned from Hohenlohe-Weikersheim. 
1545 - 1568                Part of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein.
1545 - 1568                Part of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein.
1684 - 17 Oct 1702         Part of Hohenlohe-Öhringen.
17 Oct 1702                County of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst-Weikersheim
 5 May 1756                Part of Hohenlohe-Öhringen.

Count (title Graf zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst-Weikersheim)
17 Oct 1702 -  5 May 1756  Karl Ludwig                   (b. 1674 - d. 1756)


Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst

[Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingfürst]

1688                       County of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst,
                             split from Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst.
21 May 1744                Principality of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst
12 Jul 1806                Annexed by Bavaria.

Count (title Graf zu Hohenlohe und Waldenburg, Herr zu Schillingsfürst
und Langenburg)
21 Feb 1697 - 21 May 1744  Philipp Ernst I                    (b. 1663 - d. 1759)
Princes (title Fürst von Hohenlohe, Graf zu Waldenburg, Herr zu Schillingsfürst
und Langenburg)
21 May 1744 - 29 Nov 1759  Philipp Ernst I                    (s.a.)
29 Nov 1759 - 21 Jan 1793  Karl Albrecht I                    (b. 1719 - d. 1793)
21 Jan 1793 - 14 Jun 1796  Karl Albrecht II                   (b. 1742 - d. 1796)
14 Jun 1796 - 12 Jul 1806  Karl Albrecht III Philipp Joseph   (b. 1776 - d. 1843)


Hohensax: see under Swiss Cantons



Hohenzollern

[Hohenzollern to 1849
                (Germany)]
                    to 7 Dec 1849

c.1350                     Friedrich VII "der alte Schwarzgraf" (rule 1333-79) takes the
                             style of Graf von Hohenzollern.
18 Mar 1576                Grafschaft Hohenzollern split into Grafschaft
                             Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Grafschaft Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
                             and Hohenzollern-Haigerloch.
29 Mar 1623                Both Counts raised to the rank of princes
                             (Graf und Fürst von Hohenzollern zu Hechingen, Graf und Fürst
                             von Hohenzollern zu Sigmaringen).
 7 Mar 1634                Hohenzollern-Haigerloch ceded to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
1805                       Made sovereign principalities Fürstentum Hohenzollern-Hechingen
                             and Fürstentum Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
 7 Dec 1849                Both princes abdicate; principalities under Prussian
                             administration.
12 Mar 1850                Principalities incorporated into Prussia.

Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Counts and Princes (title Graf und Fürst von Hohenzollern zu Hechingen)
13 Jan 1671 - 14 Nov 1735  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1663 - d. 1735)
14 Nov 1735 -  4 Jun 1750  Friedrich Ludwig                   (b. 1688 - d. 1750)
 4 Jun 1750 -  9 Apr 1798  Joseph Wilhelm                     (b. 1717 - d. 1798)
 9 Apr 1798 - 1805         Hermann Friedrich Otto             (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenzollern Hechingen)
1805 - 2 Nov 1810          Hermann Friedrich Otto             (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1810 - 13 Sep 1838  Friedrich Hermann Otto             (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
13 Sep 1838 -  7 Dec 1849  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1801 - d. 1869)


Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Counts and Princes (title Graf und Fürst von Hohenzollern zu Sigmaringen)
13 Aug 1689 - 20 Oct 1715  Meinrad II                         (b. 1673 - d. 1715)
20 Oct 1715 -  8 Dec 1769  Joseph Franz Ernst                 (b. 1702 - d. 1769)
 8 Dec 1769 - 20 Dec 1785  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1724 - d. 1785)
20 Dec 1785 - 1805         Anton                              (b. 1762 - d. 1831)
Princes (title Fürst zu Hohenzollern Sigmaringen)
1805 - 17 Oct 1831         Anton                              (s.a.)
17 Oct 1831 - 27 Aug 1848  Karl                               (b. 1785 - d. 1853)
27 Aug 1848 -  7 Dec 1849  Karl Anton                         (b. 1811 - d. 1885)


Holstein: see Schleswig-Holsetin


Isenburg (Ysenburg)

1137                       County of Isenburg (Grafschaft Isenburg) and County of
1142                       Division into Isenburg-Isenburg and Isenburg-Kempenich.
1199                       Division of Isenburg-Isenburg into Isenburg-Weid
                             (superseded by Weid in 1462) and Nieder-Isenburg.
1341                       Isenburg-Büdingen created from Isenburg-Cleberg.
1503                       Nieder-Isenburg divided into Isenburg-Grenzau and
                             Isenburg-Neumagen (to Arnberg 1664).
1511                       Isenburg-Büdingen divided into Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein
                             and Isenburg-Ronneburg.
1628                       Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein divided into Isenburg-Birstein,
                             Isenburg-Büdingen and Isenburg-Offenbach, Isenburg-
                             Büdingen-Marienborn (to 1725), Isenburg-Meerholz and 
                             (from 1673) Isenburg-Büdingen-Wächtersbach.
1664                       Isenburg-Birstein absorbed into Isenburg-Offenbach.
1711                       Isenburg-Offenbach divided into Isenburg-Birstein and
                             Isenburg-Philippseich.
23 May 1744                Isenburg-Birstein a Principality (Fürstentum Isenburg-Birstein).
12 Jul 1806                Sovereign Principality of Isenburg created
                            (Souveräne Fürstentum zu Isenburg) which includes the
                             mediatized domains of all other branches.
1810 - 1813                Occupied by France.
1813 - 1816                Austrian administration.
1816                       Annexed by Hesse-Darmstadt.
 

Isenburg-Büdingen-Büdingen

[County of
                Isenburg-Büdingen]  

1628                       County Isenburg-Büdingen-Büdingen
12 Jul 1806                Incorporated into Isenburg-Birsetin.

Counts (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Büdingen-Büdingen)
1693 - 31 May 1708         Johann Ernst II                      (b. 1683 - d. 1708)
31 May 1708 - 15 Oct 1749  Ernst Kasimir I                      (b. 1687 - d. 1749)
15 Oct 1749 - 12 Feb 1768  Gustav Friedrich                     (b. 1715 - d. 1768)
12 Feb 1768 - 15 Dec 1775  Ludwig Kasimir                       (b. 1710 - d. 1775)
15 Dec 1775 - 25 Feb 1801  Ernst Kasimir II                     (b. 1757 - d. 1801)
25 Feb 1801 - 12 Jul 1806  Ernst Kasimir III                    (b. 1781 - d. 1852)


Isenburg-Büdingen-Marienborn

1628                       County of Isenburg-Büdingen-Marienborn
16 Mar 1725                Incorporated into Isenburg-Meerholz.

Count (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Büdingen-Marienborn)
1673 - 16 Mar 1725         Karl August                           (b. 1667 - d. 1725)


Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz

1628                       County of Isenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz
12 Jul 1806                Incorporated into Isenburg-Birsetin.

Counts (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Büdingen-Meerholz)
1673 - 11 Feb 1724         Georg Albrecht                        (b. 1664 - d. 1724)
11 Feb 1724 - 14 Mar 1774  Karl                                  (b. 1700 - d. 1774)
14 Mar 1774 -  4 May 1802  Johann Friedrich Wilhelm              (b. 1729 - d. 1802)
 4 May 1802 - 12 Jul 1806  Karl Wilhelm Ludwig                   (b. 1763 - d. 1832)


Isenburg-Büdingen-Wächtersbach

1673                       County Isenburg-Büdingen-Wächtersbach
12 Jul 1806                Incorporated into Isenburg-Birsetin.

Counts (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Büdingen-Wächtersbach)
1673 - 14 Mar 1703         Ferdinand Maximilian I                (b. 1661 - d. 1703)
14 Mar 1703 - 21 Apr 1755  Ferdinand Maximilian II               (b. 1692 - d. 1755)
21 Apr 1755 - 16 Sep 1778  Ferdinand Kasimir I                   (b. 1716 - d. 1778)
16 Sep 1778 -  1 Dec 1780  Ferdinand Kasimir II                  (b. 1752 - d. 1780)
 1 Dec 1780 - 25 Nov 1782  Albrecht August                       (b. 1717 - d. 1782)
25 Nov 1782 - 15 Aug 1785  Wilhelm Reinhard                      (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
51 Aug 1785 - 19 Apr 1798  Adolf I                               (b. 1722 - d. 1798)
19 Apr 1798 - 23 Jun 1805  Ludwig Maximilian I                   (b. 1741 - d. 1805)
23 Jun 1805 - 12 Jul 1806  Ludwig Maximilian II                  (b. 1791 - d. 1821)


Isenburg-Birstein

[Isenburg (Germany)]  

1628                        County of Isenburg-Birstein
1664                        Absorbed into Isenburg-Offenbach.
1711                        County of Isenburg-Birstein (restored).
23 May 1744                 Principality of Isenburg-Birstein
12 Jul 1806                 Sovereign Principality of Isenburg
1810 - 1813                 Occupied by France.
1813 - 21 Mar 1816          Austrian administration.
21 Mar 1816                 Incorporated into Hesse-Darmstadt.

Count (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Birstein)
1711 - 23 May 1744          Wolfgang Ernst I                      (b. 1686 - d. 1754)
Princes (title Fürst zu Ysenburg und Birstein)
23 May 1744 - 15 Apr 1754   Wolfgang Ernst I                      (s.a.)
15 Apr 1754 -  3 Feb 1803   Wolfgang Ernst II                     (b. 1735 - d. 1803)
15 Apr 1754 - 1759          Friedrich Ernst -Regent               (b. 1709 - d. 1784)
 3 Feb 1803 - 12 Jul 1806   Karl I Friedrich Ludwig Moritz        (b. 1766 - d. 1820)
Prince (title Fürst von Ysenburg)
12 Jul 1806 - 1814          Karl I Friedrich Ludwig Moritz        (s.a.)


Isenburg-Offenbach

1628                       County Isenburg-Offenbach
1635 - 1643                Occupied by Hesse-Darmstadt.
1711                       Passed to Isenburg-Birstein.

Counts (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Offenbach)
1685 - 1711                Johann Philipp                        (b. 1655 - d. 1718)
                           - jointly with the following -
1685 - 1711                Christian Heinrich
                             (in Eisenberg and Langenselbold)


Isenburg-Philippseich

1711                       County Isenburg-Philippseich
12 Jul 1806                Incorporated into Isenburg-Birstein.

Counts (title Graf zu Ysenburg und Philippseich)
1711 -  7 Mar 1772         Wilhelm Moritz II                     (b. 1688 - d. 1772)
 7 Mar 1772 - 26 Mar 1779  Christian Karl                        (b. 1732 - d. 1779)
26 Mar 1779 - 30 Jan 1781  Karl Wilhelm                          (b. 1767 - d. 1781)
                           - jointly with -
26 Mar 1779 - 12 Jul 1806  Heinrich Ferdinand                    (b. 1770 - d. 1838)


Istria (Istrien): see Austrian Lands


Jever

[Jever]
                to 1807, 1813 - 1818

1330                       Chiefdom of Jever (Häuptlingschaft Jever).
....                       Lordship of Jever (Herrlichkeit Jever).
20 Feb 1575 - 29 Jun 1667  Personal union with Oldenburg.
29 Jun 1667 -  3 Mar 1793  Personal union with Anhalt-Zerbst.
1675 - 1677                Occupied by Denmark.
1678 - 1679
               Occupied by Münster.
1679 - 1679                Occupied by France.
1683 - 1689                Occupied by Denmark.
 3 Mar 1793                Possession of the Russia.
Oct 1806                   Occupied by France.
1807                       Ceded by Russia to Duchy of Holstein (not effected).
 7 Jul 1807                Ceded to France by Russia.
11 Nov 1807                Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland;
                             part of the département Oost-Friesland.
 9 Jul 1810                Incorporated into France as part of département
                             Ems-Oriental (see under Germany).
 8 Nov 1813                Restored to Russia.
18 Apr 1818                Incorporated into Oldenburg.

Lords (title Herr zu Jever)
20 Feb 1557 - 29 Jun 1667  the Counts of Oldenburg
29 Jun 1667 -  3 Mar 1793  the Dukes of Anhalt-Zerbst
 3 Mar 1793 -  7 Jul 1807  the Empress/Emperors of Russia
 8 Nov 1813 - 18 Apr 1818  the Emperor of Russia
Administrators (title Landdrost zu Jever)
16.. - 1672                Hilmar III von Münchhausen         (b. 1636 - d. 1672)
1672? - 25 Oct 1677        Joachim Friedrich Brandt von
      (b. 1621 - d. 1677)
                             Lindau
c.1677 - 1701?             Ernst Christian von Bartensleben

1684 - 27 Feb 1689         Tönne Falk -Danish commander
1701 - 1718                Haro Joachim von Closter           (b. 1678 - d. 1728)
1718 - 1720                von Kötteritz
1720 - 1742                Johann Ludwig von Anhalt-Dornburg  (b. 1688 - d. 1746)
                             (Oberlanddrost)
1742 -  3 Mar 1793         ....
 3 Mar 1793 -  7 Jul 1807  Friederike Auguste Sophie          (b. 1744 - d. 1827)
                             von Anhalt-Zerbst (f)



Kaisersheim (Kaisheim)

21 Sep 1135                Cistercian Abbey of Kaisersheim (Stift Kaisersheim).
1363                       Abbots made princes of the Empire (Reichsstift Kaiserheim).
1656                       Imperial immediacy recognized by Pfalz-Neuburg.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Kaisersheim)
1696 - 1698                Judas Thaddäus Mayr 
1698 - 1723                Roger I von Röltz
1723 - 1739                Roger II Friesl
1739 - 1771                Cölestin I Meermols

1771 - 1783                Cölestin II Angelsbrucker          (b. 1726 - d. 1783)
1783 - 1803                Franz Xaver Müller



Käppel (Keppel)

12th cent.                 Benedictine Abbey of Käppel (Keppel)(Stift Käppel)
1572 - 1626                Protestant administration.
1588                       Abbesses also Princess of the Empire.
1626                       Abbey abolished.
1650                       Abbey re-founded as a double-confession Chapter,
                             with both Roman Catholic and Protestant 
                             Abbesses alternating. 
12 Jul 1806                Secularized and annexed to Nassau.
20 Sep 1866                Part of Prussia.

Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Käppel)
1654 - 1659                Johannetta Stephana von der Hees
                             (Roman Catholic)
1659 - 1663                Eleonora Theodora Vogtin von Elspe
                             (Protestant)
1663 - 1685                Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen       (d. 1685) 
                             (Roman Catholic)
1685 - 1691                Agathe Juliane von Steprodt           (d. 1691) 
                             (Protestant)
1692 - 1717                Anna Elisabeth von der Hees           (d. 1717)
                             (Roman Catholic)
1717 - 1748                Sophie Charlotte von Bottlenberg      (d. 1748) 
                             gen. Kessel (Protestant)
1748 - 1753                Vacant
1753 - 1779                Johanna Dorothea Helene Margarethe    (d. 1779)
                             Katharina von Syberg zu Schwerte, 
                             Hees und Sümmern (Roman Catholic)
1780 - 1806                Marianne Antonia von Donop            (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
                             (Protestant)
1808                       Isabella de Meslè (Roman Catholic)    (b. 1761 - d. 1820)
                            (appointed by Joachim Murat, but not inagurated)



Kempten

[Abbey of Kempten]

c.747                      Benedictine Abbey of Kempten (Stift Kempten).
1213                       Emperor Frederick II declared the abbots of Kempten Abbey
                             members of the Reichstag and granted the abbot the right
                             to bear the title of Duke (Reichsfürststift Kempten).

1360                       Abbots become Princes of the Empire.
1802                       Occupied by Bavaria.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Kempten)
1678 - 10 Nov 1728         Ruprecht I von Bodman                   (b. 1646 - d. 1728)
1728 - 15 Dec 1747         Anselm Reichlin von Meldegg             (b. 1679 - d. 1747)
1747 - 25 May 1760         Engelbert von Syrgenstein               (b. 1694 - d. 1760)
1760 - 16 Nov 1785         Honorius Roth von Schreckenstein        (b. 1726 - d. 1785)
1785 -  8 Aug 1793         Ruprecht II von Neuenstein              (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
1793 - 1803                Castolus Reichlin von Meldegg-Amtzell   (b. 1743 - d. 1804)



Kempten Free City

1289                       Kempten Free Imperial City (in Allgäu)(Reichsstadt Kempten).
1525                       Last property rights of the abbots in the free city sold.
1527                       City converts to Protestantism.
1802                       Occupied by Bavaria.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.   

Mayors (Bürgermeister)

1698 - 1703                Jacob König  
1703 - 1710                Johann Christoph Fels          
1710 - 1713                Johann Ulrich Stadtmüller  
1713 - 1725                Matthias Jenisch  
1725 - 1726                Johann Jacob Beusch  
1726 - 1727                Hieronimus Bartholomäus König  
1727 - 1732                Johannes Schmelz  
1732 - 1734                Josef Lemer  
1734 - 1745                Johann Jacob Jenisch  
1745 - 1752                Johann Lucas Specklin  
1752 - 1759                Caspar Ade  
1759 - 1762                Matthias Rodach  
1762 - 1763                Abraham Wieland  
1763 - 1764                Leonhard Föhr  
1764                       Johann Georg König  
1764 - 1773                Johann Adam Kesel  
1773 - 1778                Johan Leonhard Bogner  
1778 - 1785                Matthäus Philipp Neubronner             (b. 1714 - d. 1785)
1785 - 1789                Johann Jacob von Jenisch  
1789 - 1792                Johann Jacob Wankmüller  
1792 - 1804                Leonhard Fehr  


Kniphausen (Knyphausen)
 
[Kniphausen
                          1689-1702 (Lower Saxony, Germany)]
                  c.1695 - c.1702 
[Kniphausen
                          1702-1751 (Lower Saxony, Germany)]
                   c.1702 - 1751 
[Kniphausen
                          1787-1807, 1825-1849]
       c.1787 - 1807, 8 Jun 1825 - 1849 
[Kniphausen
                          1849-1855]
               1849 - 29 May 1855

1438                       Barony of Kniphausen (Knyphausen)
                             (Herrlichkeit Kniphausen).
1624                       Imperial Barony of Kniphausen (Knyphausen)
                             (Reichsfreie Herrlichkeit Kniphausen).
 7 Jul 1807                Ceded to France by Prussia.
11 Nov 1807                Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland; from 
                             11 Mar 1808 part of the département Oost-Friesland.
 9 Jul 1810                Incorporated into France as part of département
                             Ems-Oriental (see under Germany).
 8 Nov 1813 - 1814         Occupied by Russia.
1813                       Administered by Oldenburg.
13 Apr 1818                Barony of Kniphausen (restored).
31 Jul 1826                Semi-sovereignty under Oldenburg.
 1 Aug 1854                Ceded to Oldenburg (formally incorporated 29 May 1855).

Lords (title Herr/Herrin zu Kniphausen)
26 Jun 1681 -  6 Jun 1738  Anton II                                 (b. 1681 - d. 1738)
27 Oct 1680 - 26 Jun 1701  Charlotte Amélie de la                   (b. 1652 - d. 1732)
                             Trémoille (f) -Regent
 6 Jun 1738 - 1754         Charlotte Sophie (f) -Lady               (b. 1715 - d. 1800)
1754 -  1 Apr 1768         Christian Friedrich Anton                (b. 1734 - d. 1768)
 1 Apr 1768 -  7 Jul 1807  Wilhelm II Gustav Friedrich (1st time)   (b. 1762 - d. 1835)
 1 Apr 1768 - 21 Jul 1783  Marie Katharina von Tuyll (f) -Regent    (b. 1743 - d. 1798)
13 Apr 1818 - 22 Oct 1835  Wilhelm II Gustav Friedrich (2nd time)   (s.a.)
22 Oct 1835 -  1 Aug 1854  Gustav Adolf                             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)


Konstanz: see Constance


Lauenburg
 
[Duchy of
                          Lauenburg to 1866]                           to 1866
[Prussian Duchy
                          of Lauenburg after 1866]
                     1866 - 1876

11 Aug 1261                Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg; very formally
                             Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg [Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg]).
1314 - 1401                Divided into a elder line (Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln) and a
                             younger line (Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg).
1359 - 1683                The city of Mölln is mortgaged to Lübeck.
23 Aug 1420                Lauenburg cedes Bergedorf and the joint parishes (Vierlande) to
                             Hamburg and Lübeck, which erect a condominium in the area.
30 Sep 1689                With the death of Duke Julius Francis the Askanian dynasty of
                             Lauenburg became extinct in the male line.
1691 - 1705                Occupied by Brunswick-Lüneburg.
28 Aug 1705                Possession of the elector of Hanover.
1803 - 1805                Occupied by France.
1805 - 1806                Occupied by British, Russian and Swedish forces.
Dec 1805                   Ceded to Prussia by France.
1806 - Nov 1806            Occupied by Prussia.
Nov 1806 - 1810            Occupied by France.
13 Dec 1810 - 1813         Incorporated into France; part of département
                             Bouches-de-l'Elbe (see under Germany). 
 9 Jun 1815  (one day)     Incorporated into Prussia.
 9 Jun 1815                Incorporated into Denmark.
16 Nov 1864 - 20 Aug 1865  Jointly administered by Austria and Prussia.
 1 Jul 1876                Incorporated into Prussia with the continued style
                             of Duchy of Lauenburg.

Dukes (title Herzog von Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen; Herzog zu [der] Lauenburg)
22 Sep 1691 - 28 Aug 1705  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1624 - d. 1705)
                            (in dispute from 11 Oct 1689)
28 Aug 1705 - 13 Dec 1810  the electors of Hanover
1813 -  9 Jun 1815         the elector, then king, of Hanover
 9 Jun 1815 - 16 Nov 1864  the kings of Denmark
20 Aug 1865 -  1 Jul 1876  the king of Prussia

Danish Governors
23 Nov 1816 - 26 Mar 1833  Cay Friedrich Graf Reventlow        (b. 1753 - d. 1834)
18 Mar 1834 - 22 Dec 1835  Joachim Godsche von Levetzau        (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
22 Dec 1835 -  9 Jan 1838  Vacant
 9 Jan 1838 - 1852         Christian Andreas Friedrich Graf    (b. 1796 - d. 1857)
                             Rantzau         
1852 - 1856                Friedrich Freiherr von Pechlin      (b. 1789 - d. 1863)
1857 - 1864                Emil Graf Rantzau                   (b. 1827 - d. 1888)



Leiningen

[Leiningen dynasty]

1557                       County of Leiningen (Grafschaft Leiningen)
1681
16 Aug 1707                Dynastic division into Alt-Leiningen and Neu-Leiningen
                            (or Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg).
 3 Jul 1779                Counts made princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
1793                       Possessions on left bank of Rhine occupied by France.
1801 - 1806                Occupied by France.
25 Mar 1803                Principality of Leiningen (Fürstentum Leiningen) created for
                             the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line.
12 Jul 1806                Neu-Leiningen lands are divided between Baden, with parts to
                             Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt; the Alt-Leiningen lands are divided
                             between Berg and Hesse-Darmstadt.
1813 - 1815                Allied Administration.
1815                       Former Alt-Leiningen lands annexed the Nassau duchies.
1816                       Former Neu-Leiningen lands annexed to Bavaria

Count (title Graf zu Leiningen)
14 Nov 1688 - 16 Aug 1705  Philipp Ludwig               (b. 1652 - d. 1705)


Alt-Leiningen

Counts (title Graf zu Alt-Leiningen)
16 Aug 1705 - 17 May 1720  Christoph Christian          (b. 1656 - d. 1720)
17 May 1720 -  4 Feb 1751  Georg Hermann                (b. 1679 - d. 1751)
 4 Feb 1751 - 18 Feb 1770  Christian Johann             (b. 1730 - d. 1770)
 4 Feb 1751 - 31 Aug 1758  Charlotte Wilhelmine         (b. 1708 - d. 1792)
                             zu Pappenheim (f) -Regent
18 Feb 1770 - 12 Jul 1806  Christian Karl               (b. 1757 - d. 1811)


Neu-Leiningen

Counts (title Graf zu Neu-Leiningen)
16 Aug 1705 -  4 May 1726  Georg II Karl Ludwig         (b. 1666 - d. 1726)
 4 May 1726 -  3 Jul 1779  Georg Karl I August Ludwig   (b. 1717 - d. 1787)
 4 May 1726 - 1738         Margareta Christiana Augusta (b. 1694 - d. 1761)
                             Gräfin von Gyldenløv-
                             Danneskiold (f) -Regent
                             (to 3 May 1739, for Georg Ernst Ludwig)                             - jointly with - 
 4 May 1726 - 1759         Georg Ernst Ludwig           (b. 1718 - d. 1765)

Princes
(title Fürst zu Leiningen) 
 3 Jul 1779 -
19 Mar 1787  Georg Karl I August Ludwig   (s.a.)

19 Mar 1787 -  7 Jun 1798  Karl II Gustav Reinhard      (b. 1747 - d. 1798)
                             Woldemar
 7 Jun 1798 - 12 Jul 1806  Ferdinand Karl III Wilhelm   (b. 1767 - d. 1813)
                             Leopold


Leyen: see Hohengeroldseck
Liechtenstein: see Liechtenstein

Liège: see under Belgium

Ligne: see under Belgium

Limburg: see under Netherlands


Lindau am Bodensee

1043                       Benedictine Abbey of Lindau am Bodensee (Damenstift Lindau).
1275 - 1802                Lindau city a Free Imperial City.
1466                       Abbesses made Princesses of the Empire.
27 Apr 1803                Secularized as a county for the Count of Bretzenheim.
14 Mar 1804                Ceded to Austria.
29 Dec 1805                Annexed by Bavaria.
14 Mar 1806                Bavaria takes possession.

Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Lindau)
1689 - 1720                Maria Magdalena von Hallwyl
                             von Herblingen 
1720 - 1730                Maria Franzisca Hundbiss
                             von Waltrams
1730 - 1743                Maria Anna Margaretha von           (b. 1711 - d. 1771)
                             Gemmingen (1st time)
1743 - 1757                Therese Wilhelmine von 
                             Pollheim-Winkelhausen
1757 - 25 Jan 1771         Maria Anna Margaretha von           (s.a.)
                             Gemmingen (2nd time)
1771 - 1781                Maria Josepha Agatha von
                             Ulm-Langerhein
1782 - 20 Jan 1796         Frederike Caroline Josephine        (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
                             Gräfin von Bretzenheim
1797 - 1800                Maria Anna Franziska Susanna Clara
                             Ferdinanda von Ulm-Langerhein
1800 - 1803                Vacant
Count (title Graf zu Bretzenheim und Lindau)
27 Apr 1803 - 14 Mar 1804  Karl August Fürst von Bretzenheim   (b. 1768 - d. 1828)
                             von Regecz



Lippe
 
[Lippe-Detmold
                          civil flag, 1815-1904 (Germany)]
              c.1820 - 1904 Civil  flag
[Lippe-Detmold
                          flag, 1904-1918 (Germany)]
        1904 - 1918 Civil and State flag
[Lippe-Detmold
                          State flag 1856-1876]
             1856 - c.1876 State flag
[Lippe-Detmold
                          State flag 1876-1904]
             c.1876 - 1904 State flag
 
Map of Lippe-Detmold
Hear National Anthem
"Lippe-Detmold eine
 Wunderschone Stadt
"
(Lippe-Detmold, a Great Place)
Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
Capital: Detmold
Population: 145,610 (1905)

1129                       Lordship of (the) Lippe founded (Herrschaft Lippe
                             [Lippe is the name of a river]. Style: Edler Herr zur Lippe.
1529                       Polity elevated to rank of county (Grafschaft Lippe); 
                             style: Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe.
1616                       The dynastic line is divided into four "sovereign" lines:
                             Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Brake, Lippe-Schwalenberg (extinct 
                             23 Sep 1620), Lippe-Alverdissen; plus two "non-sovereign" 
                             lines. The style of the rulers of the "sovereign" lines 
                             remains Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe.
21 Feb 1709                Lippe-Brake extinct, incorporated into Lippe-Detmold.
27 Oct 1720                Polity elevated to the rank of principality 
                            (Fürstentum Lippe), but style in use only from 16 Dec 1789.
1749                       On the extinction of the Lippe-Alverdissen line 
                            (which had generated the ruling line in Schaumburg-Lippe), 
                             the single Lippe-Detmold line survives. (Detmold is 
                             the capital town; the term Lippe-Detmold is sometimes
                             retained in informal use for the whole polity).
16 Dec 1789                Style Principality of Lippe (Fürstentum Lippe) in use.
Nov 1918                   Free State Lippe-Detmold (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Lippe-Detmold

Counts (title Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe)
22 May 1697 - 18 Jul 1718  Friedrich Adolf                    (b. 1667 - d. 1718)
18 Jul 1718 - 12 Oct 1734  Simon Heinrich Adolf               (b. 1694 - d. 1734)
                            (recognized as Reichsfürst [prince]
                             from 27 Oct 1720, but not so his successors)
12 Oct 1734 - 1749         Simon August                       (b. 1727 - d. 1782)


Lippe-Brake

Counts (title Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe)
18 Nov 1657 - 12 Mar 1700  Kasimir                            (b. 1627 - d. 1700)
12 Mar 1700 - 27 Oct 1707  Rudolf                             (b. 1664 - d. 1707)
27 Oct 1707 - 21 Feb 1709  Ludwig Ferdinand                   (b. 1680 - d. 1709)


Lippe-Alverdissen

Counts (title Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe)
20 Apr 1681 - 27 Nov 1723  Philipp Ernst                      (b. 1659 - d. 1723)
27 Nov 1723 - 1749         Friedrich Ernst                    (b. 1694 - d. 1777)


Lippe (reunited)

[Lippe-Detmold civil
                  flag, 1904-1918 (Germany)]
          1904 - 1918 Civil flag 

Counts (title Graf und Edler Herr zur Lippe)
1749 -  1 May 1782         Simon Augustus                     (s.a.)
 1 May 1782 - 16 Dec 1789  Leopold I                          (b. 1767 - d. 1802)
 1 May 1782 - 16 Dec 1789  Ludwig Adolf -Regent               (b. 1732 - d. 1800)
Princes (title Fürst zur Lippe)
16 Dec 1789 -  4 Apr 1802  Leopold I                          (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1802 -  1 Jan 1851  Leopold II                         (b. 1800 - d. 1851)
 4 Apr 1802 -  3 Jul 1820  Pauline Fürstin von Anhalt-        (b. 1769 - d. 1820)
                             Bernberg (f) -Regent 
 1 Jan 1851 -  8 Dec 1875  Leopold III                        (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
 8 Dec 1875 - 20 Mar 1895  Woldemar                           (b. 1824 - d. 1895)
20 Mar 1895 - 13 Jan 1905  Alexander                          (b. 1831 - d. 1905)
22 Jun 1895 - 10 Jul 1897  Prinz Adolf zu Schaumburg-         (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
                             Lippe -Regent 
10 Jul 1897 - 26 Sep 1904  Ernst Graf zur Lippe-              (b. 1842 - d. 1904)
                             Biesterfeld -Regent 
26 Sep 1904 - 25 Oct 1905  Leopold Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld (b. 1871 - d. 1949)
                            (regent [for Alexander to 13 Jan 1905])
25 Oct 1905 - 12 Nov 1918  Leopold IV                         (s.a.)

Chancellors
1810 - 1828                Karl Friedrich Funk von Senftenau  (b. 1748 - d. 1828)
1829 - 1832                Friedrich Wilhelm Helwing          (b. 1758 - d. 1833)
1832 - 1848                Wilhelm Arnold Eschenburg          (b. 1778 - d. 1861)
1848 - 1850                Friedrich Simon Leopold            (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
1850 - 1853                Christian Theodor von Meien        (b. 1781 - d. 1857)
Cabinet ministers
1853 - 1855                Laurenz Martin Hannibal Christian  (b. 1784 - d. 1868) 
                             Fischer
1856 - 1868                Alexander Wilhelm Heinrich August  (b. 1820 - d. 1903) 
                             von Oheimb
1868 - 1872                Karl Theodor Heldmann              (b. 1801 - d. 1872)
1872 - 1875                Julius Adalbert von Flottwell      (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
1876 - 1885                August Eschenburg                  (b. 1823 - d. 1884)
1885 - 1889                Hugo Samuel Wilhelm Egmont         (b. 1842 - d. 1904) 
                             Freiherr von Richthofen
1889 - 1895                Friedrich Otto Hermann Wolffgramm  (b. 1836 - d. 1895)
                            (from 1890, Friedrich Otto Hermann
                             von Wolffgramm)    
1895 - 1897                Karl Friedrich von Oertzen         (b. 1844 - d. 1914)
Ministers of state
1897 - 1899                Karl Gustav Oskar Miesitschek von  (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
                             Wischkau
1900 - 1912                Max Freiherr von Gevekot           (b. 1845 - d. 1916)
1913 - 1918                Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Biedenweg (b. 1864 - d. 1940)


Lorraine: see France provinces

Löwenstein-Wertheim

1494                       County of Löwenstein-Wertheim (Grafschaft Löwenstein-Wertheim)
1611                       Divided into Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort and
                             Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg.
12 Jul 1806                Mediatised and divided among Baden, Bavaria, Württemberg,
                             Würzburg, Grand Duchy of Frankfurt, and Hesse-Darmstadt.
1813/15                    Lands given to Grand Duchy of Frankfurt and Würzburg are divided
                             among Baden, Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt and Württemberg.
 

Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort

1611                       County of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort
                            (Grafschaft Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort).
 3 Apr 1711                Principality of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort
                            (Fürstentum Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort).
22 Jan 1803                Principality of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
                            (Fürstentum Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg).
12 Jul 1806                Mediatised.

Count (title Graf zu Löwenstein und Graf zu Wertheim-Rochefort)
1672 -  3 Apr 1711         Maximilian Karl Albrecht           (b. 1656 - d. 1718)
Prince (title Furst zu Löwenstein und Graf zu Wertheim-Rochefort [from 1803, Rosenberg])
 3 Apr 1711 - 26 Dec 1718  Maximilian Karl Albrecht           (s.a.)
26 Dec 1718 - 16 Mar 1735  Dominikus Marquard                 (b. 1690 - d. 1735)
16 Mar 1735 -  6 Jan 1789  Karl Thomas                        (b. 1714 - d. 1789)
 6 Jun 1789 - 12 Jul 1806  Dominik Constantin                 (b. 1762 - d. 1814) 



Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg

1611                       County of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg
                            (Grafschaft Löwenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg).
12 Jul 1806                Mediatised.

Counts (title Graf zu Löwenstein und Wertheim-Virneburg)
23 Mar 1683 - 31 Mar 1721  Heinrich Friedrich                 (b. 1682 - d. 1721)
31 Mar 1721 -  4 Feb 1790  Johann Ludwig Vollrath             (b. 1705 - d. 1790)
 4 Feb 1790 - 12 Jul 1806  Johann Karl Ludwig                 (b. 1740 - d. 1816)



Lübeck
 
[Lübeck, civil
                          flag 1280]
                 1280 - 1918 Civil Flag
 
Lübeck Free City
                          State flag c.1670-1839
              c.1670 - 1839  State Flag
 
Lübeck Free City
                          State flag 1839-1850
            1839 - 16 Oct 1850 State Flag
 
Lübeck Free
                          City State flag 1850-1890
     16 Oct 1850 - 19 Nov 1890 State Flag
[State Flag of
                          Lübeck, 1900]
         19 Nov 1890 - 1918 State Flag



Map of Lübeck
National Anthem
"Lübeckisches Nationallied"
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Lübeck
Population: 105,857 (1905)

c.819                      Liubice founded.
1127                       Burned to the ground.
1143                       Lübeck re-founded at modern location.
1160                       Granted city rights.
1181 - 1189                Free Imperial City.
1189                       Part of Duchy of Saxony.
1192                       Part of Holstein.
1217 - 1226                Danish occupation. 
1226                       Free Imperial City, four mayors to 31 Dec 1848;
                             four "succession lines" can be distinguished.
1356 - 1669                Member of the Hanseatic League.
1420 -  1 Jan 1868         Bergedorf annexed (ruled jointly with Hamburg to 1868).
1806 - 1811                Lübeck and the Hanseatic cities occupied by France
                             (see Hamburg).
13 Dec 1810                Incorporated into France; from 1 Jan 1811 part of département
                             Bouches-de-l'Elbe (see under Germany).
1813                       Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck (restored)
                             (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
1697 - 16 Jun 1705         Gotthard Kerkerink                 (b. 1639 - d. 1705)
1706 - 1708                Sebastian Gerken                   (b. 1656 - d. 1710)
1708 -  4 Mar 1729         Adolf Matthäus Rodde               (b. 1655 - d. 1729)
1731 -  9 Apr 1731         Jakob Hübens                       (b. 1654 - d. 1731)
1732 - 1737                Johann Heinrich Dreyer             (b. 1670 - d. 1737)
1738 - 1743                Hermann Münter                     (b. 1679 - d. 1743)
1743 - 1757                Heinrich Rust                      (b. 1678 - d. 1757)
1757 - 1761                Matthäus Rodde II                  (b. 1681 - d. 1761)
1761 - 1768                Ludwig Philipp Röck (Roeck)        (b. 1697 - d. 1768)
1769 - 1773                Friedrich Green                    (b. 1701 - d. 1773)
1773 - 27 Nov 1788         Joachim Peters                     (b. 1712 - d. 1788)
1789 - 1790                Franz Berhard Rodde                (b. 1721 - d. 1790)
1790 - 1792                Anton Dietrich Wilken              (b. 1715 - d. 1792)
1792 - 15 Nov 1798         Jürgen Bloom                       (b. 1733 - d. 1798)
1799 - 1804                Johann Georg Böhme                 (b. 1730 - d. 1804)
1804 - 1810                Johann Philipp Plessing            (b. 1741 - d. 1810)
1810 - 31 Dec 1810         Georg David Richerz                (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
1814 - 1821                Christian Adolf Overbeck           (b. 1755 - d. 1821)
1821 - 1845                Christian Heinrich Kindler         (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
1845 - 31 Dec 1848         Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl   (b. 1790 - d. 1870)
                             (1st time)
- Line 2 -
1695 - 1703                Hieronymus von Dorne               (b. 1646 - d. 1704)
1703 - 31 Jul 1714         Johann Westken                     (b. 1623 - d. 1714)
1715 - 1722                Peter Heinrich Tesdorpf I          (b. 1648 - d. 1716)
1722 - 1727                Joachim Lüder Carstens             (b. 1655 - d. 1727)
1728 - 1732                Heinrich von Brömsen               (b. 1673 - d. 1732)
1732 - 1744                Anton von Lüneburg                 (b. 1678 - d. 1744)
1744 - 1750                Johann Adolf Krohn                 (b. 1674 - d. 1750)
1750 - 1757                Andreas Albrecht von Brömsen       (b. 1703 - d. 1767)
1757 - 1778                Daniel Häks (Haecks)               (b. 1706 - d. 1778)  
1778 - 1805                Hermann Georg Büneckau             (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
1805 - 31 Dec 1810         Johann Kaspar Lindenberg (1st time)(b. 1740 - d. 1824)
1813 - 28 Apr 1824         Johann Kaspar Lindenberg (2nd time)(s.a.)
1824 - 14 Apr 1833         Adolf Heinrich Voeg                (b. 1766 - d. 1833)
1833                       Johann Heinrich Kipp               (b. 1771 - d. 1833)
1833 - 31 Dec 1848         Bernhard Heinrich Frister          (b. 1778 - d. 1861) 
                             (1st time)
- Line 3 -
1669 -  1 Sep 1700         Johann Ritter                      (b. 1622 - d. 1700)
1706 - 18 Dec 1716         Thomas von Wickede II              (b. 1646 - d. 1716) 
1717 - 1724                Daniel Müller II                   (b. 1661 - d. 1724)
1724 - 1730                Hermann Rodde                      (b. 1666 - d. 1730)
1731 - 1734                Christian Albrecht Niemann         (b. 1680 - d. 1734)
1735 - 1743                August Simon Lindholz              (b. 1679 - d. 1743)
1744 - 1765                Gotthard Arnold Isselhorst         (b. 1682 - d. 1765)
1765 - 22 Dec 1782         Georg Wilhelm Detharding           (b. 1701 - d. 1782)
1783 - 1793                Joachim Tank                       (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
1794 - 1799                Gabriel Christian Lemcke           (b. 1738 - d. 1799)
1800 - 1806                Christian von Brömsen              (b. 1742 - d. 1808)
1806 - 31 Dec 1810         Matthäus Rodde III                 (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
1817                       Nikolaus Jakob Keusch              (b. 1745 - d. 1817)
1818 - 1824                Stephan Heinrich Behnke            (b. 1747 - d. 1824)
1826 - 20 Mar 1826         Friedrich Nölting                  (b. 1759 - d. 1826)
1827 - 1832                Peter Heinrich Tesdorpf II         (b. 1751 - d. 1832)
1832 - 31 Dec 1848         Thomas Günter Wunderlich           (b. 1774 - d. 1852)
- Line 4 -
1694 - 1707                Anton Winkler                      (b. 1657 - d. 1707)
1707 - 1724                Daniel Müller I                    (b. 1661 - d. 1724)
1724 - 1750                Heinrich Balemann                  (b. 1677 - d. 1750)
1750 - 1761                Johann Friedrich Carstens          (b. 1696 - d. 1761)
1761 - 1768                Heinrich Dietrich Balemann         (b. 1703 - d. 1768)
1768 - 1773                Heinrich Brokes II                 (b. 1706 - d. 1773)
1773 - 1776                Bernhard von Wickede               (b. 1705 - d. 1776)
1777 - 25 Nov 1780         Joachim Matthias Lütkens           (b. 1713 - d. 1780)
1781 - 1786                Johann Arnold Isselhorst           (b. 1720 - d. 1786)
1786 - 1805                Hermann Dietrich Krohn             (b. 1734 - d. 1805)
1805 - 31 Dec 1810         Johann Matthäus Tesdorpf
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1749 - d. 1824)
1813 - 25 Jan 1824         Johann Matthäus Tesdorpf
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
1825 - 31 Dec 1848         Christian Nikolaus von Evers
Presiding mayors
 1 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1850  Heinrich Brehmer (1st time)        (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1852  Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl   (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1854  Bernhard Heinrich Frister          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1856  Karl Ludwig Röck (1st time)        (b. 1790 - d. 1869)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1858  Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 1 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1860  Karl Ludwig Röck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862  Heinrich Brehmer (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864  Karl Ludwig Röck (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1866  Heinrich Brehmer (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1868  Karl Ludwig Röck (4th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1870  Theodor Curtius (1st time)         (b. 1811 - d. 1889)
 1 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872  Heinrich Theodor Behn (1st time)   (b. 1819 - d. 1906)
 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1874  Theodor Curtius (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1876  Heinrich Theodor Behn (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1878  Theodor Curtius (3rd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1880  Heinrich Theodor Behn (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1882  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (1st time)  (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1884  Heinrich Theodor Behn (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1886  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1888  Heinrich Theodor Behn (5th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1890  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1892  Heinrich Theodor Behn (6th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1894  Artur Gustav Kulenkamp (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1896  Heinrich Theodor Behn (7th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1898  Wilhelm Brehmer (1st time)         (b. 1828 - d. 1905)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1900  Heinrich Klug (1st time)           (b. 1837 - d. 1912)
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1902  Wilhelm Brehmer (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1904  Heinrich Klug (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1906  Johann Georg Eschenburg (1st time) (b. 1844 - d. 1936)
 1 Jan 1907 - 13 Oct 1908  Ernst Christian Johannes Schön     (b. 1843 - d. 1908)
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1910  Johann Georg Eschenburg (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1912  Johann Hermann Eschenburg          (b. 1844 - d. 1920) 
                             (1st time)
 1 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1914  Johann Georg Eschenburg (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1916  Johann Hermann Eschenburg          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1917 - 1920         Emil Ferdinand Fehling             (b. 1847 - d. 1927)  Non-party



Lübeck Bishopric

948                        Bishopric of Oldenburg in Holstein 
                             (Hochstift Oldenburg en Holstein)
1163                       Bishops residence transferred to Lübeck;
                             Bishopric of Lübeck (Hochstift Lübeck).
1180                       Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
1350                       Bishops residence transferred to Eutin.
1586                       Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp also Bishops.
 4 Apr 1803                Created a principality (Fürstentum Lübeck) by decree of
                             the Duke of Oldenburg.
26 May 1804                Personal union with Oldenburg to 1918,  some villages
                             are ceded to the Free City of Lübeck.
13 Dec 1810 - 1813         Incorporated into France; from 1 Jan 1811 encalve of département
                             Bouches-de-l'Elbe (see under Germany).
 1 Dec 1813                Restored to Oldenburg.
11 Nov 1918                Becomes an excalve of Free State of Oldenburg.
 1 Apr 1937                Incorporated into Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Lübeck)
 4 Jul 1666 -  2 Oct 1705  August Friedrich Herzog von        (b. 1646 - d. 1705)
                             Holstein-Gottorp
 2 Oct 1705 - 26 Apr 1706  Karl af Denmark -Regent            (b. 1680 - d. 1729)
26 Apr 1706 - 24 Apr 1726  Christian August Herzog von        (b. 1673 - d. 1726)
                             Holstein-Gottorp
25 Apr 1726 - 31 May 1727  Karl August Herzog von             (b. 1706 - d. 1727)
                             Holstein-Gottorp
16 Sep 1727 - 29 Oct 1750  Adolf Friedrich Herzog von         (b. 1710 - d. 1771)
                             Holstein-Gottorp
15 Dec 1750 -  6 Jul 1785  Friedrich August Herzog von        (b. 1711 - d. 1785)
                             Holstein-Gottorp
 6 Jul 1785 -  4 Jul 1803  Peter Friedrich Ludwig Herzog      (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
                             von Holstein-Gottorp
Princes (title Fürst von Lübeck)
 4 Apr 1803 - 26 May 1806  Peter Friedrich Ludwig Herzog      (s.a.)
                             von Holstein-Gottorp
26 May 1806 - 13 Dec 1810  the Dukes/Grand Dukes of Oldenburg 
 1 Dec 1813 - 11 Nov 1918 
the Dukes/Grand Dukes of Oldenburg



Lüneburg

1269                       Principality of Lüneburg (Fürstentum Lüneburg).
28 Aug 1705                Incorporated into Kurbraunschweig (Hanover).
10 Dec 1810                Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
23 Apr 1813                Administered by Hanover.
20 Dec 1813                Reincorporated into Hanover.

Duke and Prince (title Herzog zu Braunschweig und Fürst zu Lüneburg)
12 Sep 1665 - 28 Aug 1705  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1624 - d. 1705)
Government commissioners
23 Apr 1813 - 20 Dec 1813  C. von Lenthe
                           + G. von Meding 
                           + P.W. Jochmus


Lustenau: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands to 1918
Lüttich: see Liège: under Belgium

Luxembourg: see Luxembourg
Luzern (Lucerne): see Swiss Cantons

Maastricht: see under Netherlands


Mainz (Mayence)

[Mainz]
                to 25 Jul 1806

80                         Bishopric of Mayence (Stift Mainz) founded, according to legend.
780                        Raised to Archbishopric of Mayence (Erzstift Mainz)
965                        Archbishop is Archchancellor continuously from this date
                             (intermittently from 911).
1244 - 1462                Separate Free City of Mainz.
1257                       Archbishop recognized continuously from this date as elector.
25 Dec 1356                Golden Bull codifies Archchancellor office and electoral status.
21 Oct 1792 - 23 Jul 1797  Occupied by France.
16 Mar 1793 - 23 Jul 1793  Republic of Mainz (Mainzer Republik; République de Mayence)
                             proclaimed.

 9 Mar 1801                Southern parts of electorate of Mainz (including Mainz itself)
                             part of French département Mont-Tonnerre (see under Germany).
27 Apr 1803                Final Act (enactment of Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of
                             25 Feb 1803) abolishes the electoral principality of Mayence;
                             archbishop preserves offices of archchancellor and
                             prince-elector, with new see of Ratisbon (Regensburg).
25 Jul 1806                Archbishop resigns from Reich and becomes prince-primate
                             (Fürstprimas) of the Rhine Confederation.
1814                       Part of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Archbishops¹
30 Mar 1695 - 30 Jan 1729  Lothar Franz Reichsfreiherr von Schönborn  (b. 1655 - d. 1729)
                            (from 1701, Lothar Franz Graf von Schönborn) 
 7 Apr 1729 - 18 Apr 1732  Franz Ludwig Pfalzgraf bei Rhein,          (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
                             Herzog von Neuburg
 9 Jun 1732 - 20 Mar 1743  Philipp Karl Freiherr von Eltz-Kempenich   (b. 1665 - d. 1743)
22 Apr 1743 -  4 Jun 1763  Johann Friedrich Karl Graf von Ostein      (b. 1689 - d. 1763)
 5 Jul 1763 - 11 Jun 1774  Emmerich Joseph Freiherr von Breidbach     (b. 1707 - d. 1774)
                             zu Bürresheim
18 Jul 1774 - 17 Mar 1793  Friedrich Karl Joseph Freiherr             (b. 1719 - d. 1802)
                             von Erthal (1st time)
Head of the Provisional Administration 
19 Nov 1792 - 17 Mar 1793  Anton Joseph Dorsch                        (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
Chairman of the Rhenish-German National Council
17 Mar 1793 - 23 Jul 1793  Andreas Joseph Hofmann                     (b. 1752 - d. 1849)
Archbishops¹
23 Jul 1793 -  4 Jul 1802  Friedrich Karl Joseph Freiherr             (s.a.)
                             von Erthal (2nd time)
 4 Jul 1802 - 25 Jul 1806  Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg    (b. 1744 - d. 1817)

French commissioners 
Nov 1792 - Jul 1793        - Jean-Baptiste François Reubell           (b. 1747 - d. 1807)
                           - Antoine Christophe Merlin de Thionville  (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
                           - Nicolas Haussmann (to Jan 1793)          (b. 1760 - d. 1846)
                           - Johann Friedrich Simon                   (b. 1747 - d. 1829)
                              (from Jan 1793 - Mar 1793)
                           - Ludwig Meyenfeld                         (b. 1751 - d. 1834)
                              (from Mar 1793)
 

 ¹Full title to 27 Apr 1803: Archbishop of Mayence and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Germany and Prince-Elector (Erzbischof von Mainz und des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Erzkanzler für Germanien und Kurfürst); from  27 Apr 1803: Archchancellor and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Archbishop of Ratisbon (Erzkanzler und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reichs und Erzbischof von Regensburg).
Mantua: see under Italian states
Masserano: see under Italian states
Mecklenburg

[Rostock merchant flag]

 8 Jul 1348                Duchy of Mecklenburg (Herzogtum Mecklenburg) established;
                             style of ruler (typical version): Herzog zu Mecklenburg,
                             Fürst zu Wenden, Rostock und Stargard des Landes Herr.
13 Jul 1471 -  2 Nov 1695  There are several incomplete and informal territorial
                             divisions, centered mainly on Schwerin and Güstrow, and some
                             sources regard these as separate polities.
 8 Mar 1701                Herzogtum Mecklenburg permanently split into Herzogtum
                             Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Herzogtum Mecklenburg-Strelitz;
                             however, the style of both rulers remains Herzog von
                             Mecklenburg, Fürst zu Wenden, Schwerin und Ratzeburg, Graf
                             zu Schwerin, der Länder Rostock und Stargard, des Landes Herr.

Duke
 1 Jul 1692 -  8 Mar 1701  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1675 - d. 1713)


Mecklenburg-Schwerin
 
[Mecklenburg-Schwerin civil flag
                          1863-1918]
            23 Dec 1863 - 1918 Civil flag
 
[State Flag
                          1900-1918 (Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany)]
          2 Jan 1900 - 1918 State flag
 
Map of Mecklenburg-Schwerin National Anthem
"Mecklenburger Heimatland"
(Mecklenburger Homeland)

Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Schwerin in Mecklenburg
Population: 625,000 (1905)

14 Jun 1815                Duchy elevated to rank of grand duchy (Grossherzogtum).
14 Nov 1918                Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Schwerin)
                             (see German states since 1918).

Dukes
 8 Mar 1701 - 31 Jul 1713  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (s.a.)
31 Jul 1713 - 28 Nov 1747  Karl Leopold                       (b. 1678 - d. 1747)
28 Nov 1747 - 30 May 1756  Christian Ludwig II                (b. 1683 - d. 1756)
30 May 1756 - 24 Apr 1785  Friedrich "der Fromme"             (b. 1717 - d. 1785)
24 Apr 1785 - 14 Jun 1815  Friedrich Franz I                  (b. 1756 - d. 1837)
Grand dukes
14 Jun 1815 -  1 Feb 1837  Friedrich Franz I                  (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1837 -  7 Mar 1842  Paul Friedrich                     (b. 1800 - d. 1842)
 7 Mar 1842 - 15 Apr 1883  Friedrich Franz II                 (b. 1823 - d. 1883)
15 Apr 1883 - 10 Apr 1897  Friedrich Franz III                (b. 1851 - d. 1897)
10 Apr 1897 - 14 Nov 1918  Friedrich Franz IV                 (b. 1882 - d. 1945)
11 Apr 1897 -  9 Apr 1901  Johann Albrecht -Regent            (b. 1857 - d. 1920)

Prime Ministers
14 May 1783 - 17 May 1784  Carl Friedrich Graf von            (b. 1720 - d. 1783) 
                             Bassewitz
17 May 1784 - 26 Jan 1800  Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf      (b. 1726 - d. 1800)
                             Cölpin
1800 - 24 Nov 1808         Bernhard Friedrich Graf von        (b. 1756 - d. 1816)
                             Bassewitz
24 Nov 1808 - 12 Apr 1836  August Georg Freiherr von          (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
                             Brandenstein
1836 - 25 Apr 1837         Leopold Engelke von Plessen        (b. 1769 - d. 1737)
1837 - 1840                Christian Friedrich Krüger
1840 - 1850                Ludwig von Lützow                  (b. 1793 - d. 1872)
Presidents of the State Ministry
12 Apr 1850 - 1858         Hans Adolf Karl Graf von Bülow
29 May 1858 - 1869         Jasper Joachim Bernhard Wilhelm    (b. 1801 - d. 1874)
                             von Oertzen 
1869 - 15 Dec 1885         Henning Carl Friedrich Graf von    (b. 1814 - d. 1885)
                             Bassewitz 
1886 - 1901                Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm von    (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
                             Bülow
1901 - 1914                Karl Heinrich Ludwig Graf von      (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
                             Bassewitz-Levetzow 
1914 -  9 Nov 1918         Adolf Ferdinand Helmut August      (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
                             Wilhelm Langfeld 


Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
[Mecklenburg-Strelitz civil flag
                          1863-1918]
             4 Jan 1864 - 1918 Civil flag
 
[Mecklenburg-Strelitz Grand Duke flag
                          c.1897-1918]
         c.1897 - 1918 Grand Dukes' flag
 
Map of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
National Anthem
"Vandalia"
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Neu-Strelitz 
Population: 103,000 (1905)

28 Jun 1815                Duchy elevated to rank of grand duchy (Grossherzogtum).
14 Nov 1918                Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz)
                             (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Dukes
 8 Mar 1701 - 12 May 1708  Adolf Friedrich II                 (b. 1658 - d. 1708)
12 May 1708 - 11 Dec 1752  Adolf Friedrich III                (b. 1686 - d. 1752)
11 Dec 1752 -  2 Jun 1794  Adolf Friedrich IV                 (b. 1738 - d. 1794)
 2 Jun 1794 - 28 Jun 1815  Karl II Ludwig Friedrich           (b. 1741 - d. 1816)
Grand dukes
28 Jun 1815 -  6 Nov 1816  Karl II Ludwig Friedrich           (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1816 -  6 Sep 1860  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1779 - d. 1860)
 6 Sep 1860 - 30 May 1904  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1819 - d. 1904)
30 May 1904 - 11 Jun 1914  Adolf Friedrich V                  (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
11 Jun 1914 - 23 Feb 1918  Adolf Friedrich VI                 (b. 1882 - d. 1918)
27 Feb 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Friedrich Franz IV, Grossherzog    (b. 1882 - d. 1945)
                             von Mecklenburg-Schwerin -Regent

Prime Minister
17.. - 1769                Christian Arnold von Zesterfleth  
Ministers of State
1769 - Apr 1784            Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf      (b. 1726 - d. 1800)
                             Cöpin
Apr 1784 - 1794            Vacant
1794 - 1800                Otto Ulrich von Dewitz             (b. 1747 - d. 1808)
1800 - 1836                Karl Wilhelm Friedrich David von   (b. 1776 - d. 1827)
                             Pentz 

1827 - 1836                August Otto Ernst Freiherr von     (b. 1777 - d. 1837)
                             Örtzen auf Klokow 
1837 - 1848                Otto Ludwig Christian von Dewitz   (b. 1780 - d. 1864)
                             auf Sallnow
1848 - 1850                Vacant
1850 - 1862                Wilhelm von Bernstorff           
 1 Nov 1862 - 1868         Bernhard Ernst von Bülow           (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
1868 - 1872                Wilhelm Karl Konrad Freiherr von   (b. 1808 - d. 1872)
                             Hammerstein-Loxten

1872 - 1885                Anton von Piper (acting)           (b. 1805 - d. 1880)
1885 - 1907                Friedrich Wilhelm Otto Ulrich      (b. 1843 - d. 1928)
                             Karl Helmut von Dewitz 
1907 - 10 Nov 1918         Heinrich Bossart                   (b. 1857 - d. 1930)


Megen: see under Netherlands


Mergentheim (Marienthal)

[Teutonic Order]

1219                       Mergentheim (Marienthal) a possession of the Teutonic Order.
1226                       Grand Master (Hochmeister) of the Teutonic Order is granted by
                             the Emperor all the privileges and (from 1230) style of the
                             Prince of the Empire. The knights are entitled to subject the 
                             Prussians on behalf of the Empire.
 9 Sep 1309                Seat of the Grand Master (Hochmeister) is moved from Venice
                             to Marienburg (Malbork) in Prussia. The Grand Master takes
                             over direct administration of the Prussian branch (the area
                             later designated East Prussia).
16 Dec 1526                Seat of the Grand Master is moved to Mergentheim.
24 Apr 1809                Order is dissolved in German lands by Napoleon, and
                             Mergentheim annexed to Frankfurt.
1810                       Mergentheim annexed to Württemberg.

Land masters (title Landmeister des Deutschen Ordens zu Marienthal)
1219 - 16 Dec 1526         ....

Prince-Grand Masters (title from 1530, Fürst und Hoch-und Deutschmeister des Deutschen Ordens in deutschen und wälschen Landen, Administratoren des Hochmeistertums in Preussen, Herrn zu 
Freudenthal und Eulenberg - Grand and German Masters of the German Order in German and Welsh [=Italian or foreign] lands, Administrators of the Grand Masterdom in Prussia, lords of F.
and E.)
16 Dec 1526 -  4 Jun 1543  Walter von Cronberg                (b. 1477 - d. 1543)
                             (acting to 16 Dec 1526)
14 Jun 1543 - 11 Feb 1566  Wolfgang Schutzbar, gen. von       (b. c.1483 - d. 1566)
                             Milchling
18 Feb 1566 - 17 Jun 1572  Georg Hund von Wenckheim           (b. c.1522 - d. 1572)
 6 Aug 1572 - 12 Dec 1590  Heinrich VIII von Bobenhause       (b. c.1514 - d. 1595)
12 Dec 1590 -  2 Nov 1618  Maximilian Erzherzog von           (b. 1558 - d. 1618)
                             Österreich 
                             (coadjutor from 21 May 1585)
14 Jan 1619 - 28 Dec 1624  Karl I von Österreich              (b. 1590 - d. 1624)
                             (coadjutor from 12 Sep 1618)
19 Mar 1625 - 25 Oct 1627  Johann Eustach von Westernach      (b. 1545 - d. 1627)
30 Dec 1627 - 21 Nov 1641  Johann Kaspar I, graf von Stadion  (b. 1567 - d. 1641)
                             zu Freudenthal
 4 May 1642 - 20 Nov 1662  Leopold Wilhelm Erzherzog von      (b. 1614 - d. 1662)
                             Österreich 
                             (coadjutor from 24 Aug 1639)
 5 May 1662 - 27 Jan 1664  Karl Joseph Erzherzog von          (b. 1649 - d. 1664)
                             Österreich (coadjutor) 
20 Mar 1664 -  9 Sep 1684  Johann Kaspar II von Ampringen     (b. 1619 - d. 1684)
12 Jul 1694 - 18 Apr 1732  Ludwig Franz Pfalzgraf bei Rhein   (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
                             und Fürst von Neuburg
17 Jul 1732 -  4 Feb 1761  Clemens August Herzog von Bayern   (b. 1700 - d. 2761)
 3 May 1761 -  4 Jul 1780  Karl Alexander Herzog von          (b. 1712 - d. 1780)
                             Lothringen 
 3 Oct 1769 - 27 Jul 1801  Maximilian Franz Erzherzog von     (b. 1756 - d. 1801)
                             Österreich 
                             (coadjutor to 25 Oct 1780;
                             1784-1801 Bishop of Münster, 
                             1784-1801 Bishop of Cologne)
27 Jul 1801 - 30 Jun 1804  Karl II Ludwig Johann Erzherzog    (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
                             von Österreich 
30 Jun 1804 - 24 Apr 1809  Anton Viktor Joseph Raymund        (b. 1779 - d. 1835)
                             Erzherzog von Österreich


Metz: see France provinces

Minden
[Minden Bishopric
                  (Germany)]

803                        Bishopric of Minden (Hochstift Minden).
1554 - 1625                Under Protestant bishops.
Apr 1636 - 15 Oct 1649     Occupied by Sweden.
15 Oct 1649                Secularized and annexed to Brandenburg
                             (from 1701, Prussia).
Apr 1759 - Aug 1759        Occupied by France.
28 Aug 1807                Part of the Kingdom of Westphalia.
1813 - 25 May 1815         Under Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Re-incorporated into Prussia.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Minden)
11 Sep 1587 - 21 Jan 1599  Anton Graf von Schaumberg          (b. 1549 - d. 1599)
1599 - 1625                Christian von Braunschweig-        (b. 1566 - d. 1633)
                             Lüneburg
1625 - 1629                Vacant 
13 Sep 1629 - 24 Oct 1648  Franz Wilhelm Reichsgraf von       (b. 1593 - d. 1661) 
                             Wartenberg              
Swedish Governors
Apr 1636 - 163.            Claes Dietrich von Sperrenter
Dec 1638 - Apr 1639        Fromhold Wolff (acting)            (b. 1600 - d. c.1659)
Jun 1639 - Dec 1639        Carl Gregersson (acting)
Dec 1639 - Nov 1640        Lennart Torstenson greve           (b. 1603 - d. 1651)
                             av Ortala
Nov 1640 - 1643            Friedrich von Zabeltitz            (b. 1595 - d. 1643)
1644 - 15 Oct 1649         Gustaf Otto Stenbock               (b. 1614 - d. 1685) 


Milan: see Lombardy under Italian states
Mirandola: see under Italian states


Mömpelgard (Montbéliard): see under  France
Moravia (Mähren): see Czech Republic

Mulhouse: see under  France


Münster

[Bishopric of Münster,
                c.1770-1803]
                    c.1770 - 1803

791                        Bishopric of Münster (Hochstift Münster).
1134                       Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
1534 - 1535                Anabaptist (Protestant) government.
23 May 1802                Occupied by Prussia.
27 Apr 1803                Part of northern area annexed to Oldenburg; southern area
                             partitioned between Croy-Dülman, Rheina-Wolbeck, Salm-Horstmar,
                             Salm-Salm, and Prussia.
 6 Sep 1809                Annexed to Berg and Cleves.
13 Dec 1810                Annexed to France; part of département Lippe.
                            (see under Germany).
18 Nov 1813 - 25 May 1815  Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Southern part to Prussia, northern part to Hanover.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Münster)
19 Jul 1688 - 12 Nov 1723  Joseph Clemens Herzog von Bayern    (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
12 Nov 1723 -  6 Feb 1761  Clemens August Herzog von Bayern    (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
 6 Apr 1761 - 15 Apr 1784  Maximilian Friedrich Graf von       (b. 1708 - d. 1784)
                             Königsegg und Rotenfels
15 Apr 1784 - 27 Jul 1801  Maximilian Franz Erzherzog von      (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
                             Österreich 
 7 Aug 1801 -  4 Dec 1801  Anton Victor Joseph Johann Raimund  (b. 1779 - d. 1835) 
                             Erzherzog von Österreich (only titular)
President of the Spezialorganisationskommission Münster
 3 Aug 1802 - 1804         Maximilian Friedrich Boner







© Ben Cahoon