World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 





 



The Netherlands
 
[Dutch
                                    17 Provinces flag, 1556-1579]
                    1556 - 1579


 
[Republic of the United
                                    Netherlands flag, 1579-1581]
                     1579 - 1581
 
[Dutch flag 1581-1596 Prince
                                    flag]
1581 - c.1596 (de facto) (de jure to 19 Feb 1937)
    (recognized by NSB as national flag 
           14 May 1940 - 5 May 1945)
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
                c.1596 - 15 Feb 1795; 
             21 Sep 1806 - 13 Jul 1810
[Flag
                                    of the Batavian Republic]
            15 Feb 1795 - 21 Sep 1806
   
 
[French
                                    Flag]
            13 Jul 1810 - 21 Nov 1813
 
 
[Dutch flag 1813-1816 Prince
                                    flag]
            21 Nov 1813 - 16 Mar 1816

[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
              Re-adopted 16 Mar 1816
          (officially adopted 19 Feb 1937)

Map of The Netherlands
Hear National Anthem
"Wilhelmus van Nassouwe"
(William of Nassau)
from 1626, Adopted 10 May 1932
Former National Anthem
"Wien Neerlandsch Bloed"
(Who is of Dutch Blood)
(1815-10 May 1932)
Constitution
(1815, 17 Feb 1983)
Capital: Amsterdam
 Seat of Government: The Hague
Currency: Euro (EUR);
to 1 Jan 2002 Netherlands
Guilder (NLG)
National Holiday: 27 Apr (1967)
King's Day
Population: 16,805,037 (2013)
GDP: $696.3 billion (2013)
Exports: $551 billion (2013)
Imports: $477.8 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Dutch 80.7%, other European 5%,
Indonesian 2.4%, Turkish 2.2%, Surinamese 2%,
Moroccan 2%, Caribbean 0.8%, other 4.8% (2008)
Total Armed Forces: 61,302 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 451 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 744 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 30%, Protestant 20% (Dutch Reformed
 [NHK] 11%, Calvinist 6%, other Protestant 3%),
Muslim 5.8%, other 2.2%, none 42% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (associate), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, Benelux, BIS, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), DLU, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SEGIB (observer), SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
The
Netherlands
Index
Chronology

1018                       County of Holland.
19 Jul 1425                Burgundian rule.
23 Dec 1482                Under Habsburg rule (Austrian to 1556; then 
                             to Spanish branch).
16 Jan 1556                Part of the Spanish Netherlands.
 7-10 Aug 1566             Anti-church icon riots soon spread into a general
                             Protestant revolt against Spanish rule.
 5 Jan 1579                Catholic League or Union of Arras (Artois, Hainaut
                             and Douay).
23 Jan 1579                Union of Protestant states "Union of Utrecht"
                             (Brabant, Gelder, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland,
                             Friesland, Mechelen and Utrecht).
26 Jul 1581                The Staten-Generaal (Estates-General, usually
                             mistranslated States-General) becomes the
                             supreme authority of the United Netherlands; 
                             from c.1648 in regular non-official use
                             Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic
                             of the United Provinces. Formal declaration of 
                             independence from Spain "Oath of Abjuration."
24 Oct 1648                Independence recognized by Spain.
19 Mar 1702 - May 1747     Stadholderate vacant in Holland, Zeeland and 
                             Utrecht.
13 May 1747                Hereditability of the office of stadholder in all 
                             provinces enacted; style becomes General 
                             Hereditary Stadholder of the United Netherlands
19 Jan 1795 - 13 Jul 1810  Occupied by France.
16 Feb 1795                Office of stadholder abolished by Staten-Generaal
                             now styled Algemene Staten (General Estates).
 
1 Mar 1796                Batavian Republic (in informal official use 
                             from 19 Jan 1795; from 17 Oct 1801 also Batavian
                             Commonwealth).
29 Apr 1805                Batavian Commonwealth
 
9 Jun 1806                Kingdom of Holland (proclaimed in Paris 5 Jun 1806)
13 Jul 1810 - 20 Nov 1813  Annexed to France.
20 Nov 1813                United Netherlands
16 Mar 1815                Kingdom of The Netherlands (includes Belgium to 
                             4 Oct 1830, Limburg, and Luxembourg to 
                             23 Nov 1890).
19 Apr 1839 - 11 May 1867  Duchy of Limburg a separate polity in personal
                             union with Netherlands.
10 May 1940 -  5 May 1945  Occupied by Germany (Reichskomissariat 
                             Niederlanden).
23 Apr 1949 - 11 Aug 1963  Annexation of certain German border areas 
                             to The Netherlands (see under Germany).

Provinces
German Occupation
(1940-1945)
Resistance
(1940-1945)
Limburg
(1839-1867)
  Thorn
(1691-1795)
Former States
in Brabant


Bergen-op-Zoom

(1633-1795)
Breda
(1650-1795)
Cuyk (Kuyk)
(1584-1795)
Gemert
(1558-1794)
Megen
(1644-1794)
Historical Maps
of the Netherlands
 
 

Governor and Captain-General
25 Jan 1586 - 17 Dec 1587  Robert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester   (b. 1532 - d. 1588)
Governors, (and from 9 Jul 1672 Stadholders), Captain-Generals and Admirals  

1587 - 23 Apr 1625         Mauritz, prins van 
Oranje,         (b. 1567 - d. 1625)
                             graaf van Nassau         
23 Apr 1625 - 14 Mar 1647  Frederick Hendrick, prins van
     (b. 1584 - d. 1647)
                             Oranje, graaf van Nassau    
14 Mar 1647 -  6 Nov 1650  Wilhem, 
prins van Oranje, graaf    (b. 1626 - d. 1650)
                             van Nassau    
 6 Nov 1650 -  9 Jul 1672  Vacant 

 9 Jul 1672 - 19 Mar 1702  Wilhem Hendrick,
prins van Oranje  (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
                             en Nassau     
19 Mar 1702 - 13 May 1747  Vacant  

Stadholders

13 May 1747¹- 22 Oct 1751  Willem IV Karel Hendrik Friso,     (b. 1711 - d. 1751)
                             prins van Oranje en Nassau   
22 Oct 1751 - 16 Feb 1795  Willem V Batavus, prins van        (b. 1748 - d. 1806)
                             Oranje en Nassau          
                            (in exile from 18 Jan 1795; rule interrupted 
                             in parts of the Netherlands Jun 1785 - Sep 1787)
22 Oct 1751 - 12 Jan 1759  Anna van Brunswyk-                 (b. 1709 - d. 1759)
                             Lunenburg (f) -Regent     
12 Jan 1759 -  9 Apr 1765  Maria Louisa von Hessen-           (b. 1688 - d. 1765)
                             Cassel (f) -Regent
12 Jan 1759 -  8 Mar 1766  Ludwig Ernst von Braunschweig-
     (b. 1718 - d. 1788)
                             Wolfenbüttel -Regent
 9 Apr 1765 -  8 Mar 1766  Wilhelmina Carolina d'Orange van   (b. 1743 - d. 1787)
                             Nassau (f) -Regent
Presidents of the Staten-Generaal (General Estates)
18 Jan 1795 - 25 Jan 1795  François Pierre Guillaume van
     (b. 1767 - d. 1818)
                             Schuylenburgh       
25 Jan 1795 -  1 Feb 1795  ....
 1 Feb 1795 -  8 Feb 1795  ....
 8 Feb 1795 - 15 Feb 1795  Cornelis Taaij (
Taay)              (b. 1753 - d. 1808)  
15 Feb 1795 - 22 Feb 1795  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (b. 1761 - d. 1822)  Uni   
                             (1st time)
22 Feb 1795 -  1 Mar 1795  Jacob Verheije van Citters         (b. 1753 - d. 1823)   
 1 Mar 1795 -  8 Mar 1795  Paulus Hubert Adriaan Jan Strick  
(b. 1769 - d. 1819)
                             van Linschoten   
 8 Mar 1795 - 15 Mar 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber (1st time)(b. 1750 - d. 1826)  Fed
15 Mar 1795 - 22 Mar 1795  Gerrit David Jordens (1st time)    (b. 1734 - d. 1803)  Fed  
22 Mar 1795 - 29 Mar 1795  Albert Johan de Sitter (1st time)  (b. 1748 - d. 1814)  Fed 
29 Mar 1795 -  5 Apr 1795  Gerrit Willem
ridder van Zuylen    (b. 1756 - d. 1814)  Pat
                             van Nievelt  
 5 Apr 1795 - 12 Apr 1795  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (s.a.)               Uni 
                             (2nd time)
12 Apr 1795 - 19 Apr 1795  Bonifacius Matthias Pous (1st time)(b. 1744 - d. 1797)   
19 Apr 1795 - 26 Apr 1795  Pieter
Pijpers (Pÿpers)(1st time)  (b. 1749 - d. 1805)  Pat       
26 Apr 1795 -  3 May 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber (2nd time)(s.a.)               Fed
 3 May 1795 - 10 May 1795  Gerrit David Jordens (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Fed   
10 May 1795 - 17 May 1795  Albert Johan de Sitter (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Fed   
17 May 1795 - 24 May 1795  Carel Gerard Hultman               (b. 1752 - d. 1820)  Mod   
24 May 1795 - 31 May 1795  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (s.a.)               Uni  
                             (3rd time)
31 May 1795 -  7 Jun 1795  Bonifacius Matthias Pous (2nd time)(s.a.)   
 7 Jun 1795 - 14 Jun 1795  Pieter 
Pijpers (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Pat  
14 Jun 1795 - 21 Jun 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber (3rd time)(s.a.)               Fed
21 Jun 1795 - 28 Jun 1795  Hendrik Knijpinga Cramer           (b. 1754 - d. 1815)   
28 Jun 1795 -  5 Jul 1795  Jacobus van der Steege (1st time)  (b. 1746 - d. 1811)  
 5 Jul 1795 - 12 Jul 1795  Herman Jacob Dyckmeester (1st time)(b. 1771 - d. 1850) 
12 Jul 1795 - 19 Jul 1795  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaar       (b. 1752 - d. 1812)  Uni  
                             (1st time)
19 Jul 1795 - 26 Jul 1795  Bonifacius Matthias Pous (3rd time)(s.a.)  
26 Jul 1795 -  2 Aug 1795  Pieter Pijpers (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Pat      
 2 Aug 1795 -  9 Aug 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber (4th time)(s.a.)               Fed  
 9 Aug 1795 - 16 Aug 1795  Johan Antony Zwier van Ysselmuyden
(b. 1760 - d. 1810)  
                             tot Paeslo (1st time)       
16 Aug 1795 - 23 Aug 1795  Albert Johan de Sitter (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Fed 
23 Aug 1795 - 30 Aug 1795  Jan Willem Hendrik Conrady         (b. 1768 - d. 1844)  
30 Aug 1795 -  6 Sep 1795  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaar       (s.a.)               Uni  
                             (2nd time)
 6 Sep 1795 - 13 Sep 1795  Bonifacius Matthias Pous (4th time)(s.a.) 
13 Sep 1795 - 20 Sep 1795  Pieter Pijpers (4th time)          (s.a.)
20 Sep 1795 - 27 Sep 1795  
Thomas Philippus Joha (1st time)   (b. 1750 - d. 1812)   
27 Sep 1795 -  4 Oct 1795  Lambert Christiaan Hendrik
                             Strubberg   
 4 Oct 1795 - 11 Oct 1795  Albert Johan de Sitter (4th time)  (s.a.)  
11 Oct 1795 - 18 Oct 1795  Herman Jacob Dyckmeester (2nd time)(s.a.)  
18 Oct 1795 - 25 Oct 1795  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaar       (s.a.
)               Uni 
                             (3rd time)
25 Oct 1795 -  1 Nov 1795  Joan van Kuffeler                  (b. 1755 - d. 1811)  
 1 Nov 1795 -  7 Nov 1795  Pieter Pijpers (5th time)          (s.a.)               Pat  
 8 Nov 1795 - 14 Nov 1795  Johannes Lambertus Huber (5th time)(s.a.)               Fed
15 Nov 1795 - 21 Nov 1795  Gerrit David Jordens (3rd time)    (s.a.)               Fed
22 Nov 1795 - 28 Nov 1795  Albert Johan de Sitter (5th time)  (s.a.)               Fed 
29 Nov 1795 -  5 Dec 1795  Herman Jacob Dyckmeester (3rd time)(s.a.) 
 6 Dec 1795 - 12 Dec 1795  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaar       (s.a.)               Uni
                             (4th time)
13 Dec 1795 - 19 Dec 1795  Nicolaas Cornelis Lambrechtsen     (b. 1752 - d. 1823)  
20 Dec 1795 - 26 Dec 1795  Pieter 
Pijpers (6th time)          (s.a.)               Pat     
27 Dec 1795 -  2 Jan 1796  Thomas Philippus Joha (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Fed   
 3 Jan 1796 -  9 Jan 1796  Johan Antony Zwier van Ysselmuyden
(s.a.) 
                             tot Paeslo (2nd time)       
10 Jan 1796 - 16 Jan 1796  Jacobus van der Steege (2nd time)   (s.a.)
17 Jan 1796 - 23 Jan 1796  Augustinus Geukama                 (b. 1732 - d. 1801) 
24 Jan 1796 -  2 Feb 1796  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaar       (s.a.)               Uni 
                             (5th time)
 3 Feb 1796 -  6 Feb 1796  Adriaan François Lammens           (b. 1767 - d. 1847)
 7 Feb 1796 - 13 Feb 1796  Pieter Pijpers (7th time)  
       (s.a.)               Pat   
14 Feb 1796 - 20 Feb 1796  Johannes Lambertus Huber (5th time)(s.a.)               Fed 
21 Feb 1796 - 27 Feb 1796  Gerard Willem van Marle            (b. 1752 - d. 1799)  Fed  
28 Feb 1796 - 29 Feb 1796  Jacobus van der Steege (3rd time)  (s.a.)
Presidents of the Nationale Vergadering (National Assembly)
(often styled National Convention in imitation
of French parallel)
 1 Mar 1796 - 17 Mar 1796  Pieter Paulus                      (b. 1754 - d. 1796)  Mod
 
7 Mar 1796 -  2 Apr 1796  Pieter Leonard van de Kasteele     (b. 1748 - d. 1810)  Rad
                             (acting for Paulus to 18 Mar 1796)
                             (1st time)
 2 Apr 1796 - 16 Apr 1796  Albert Johan de Sitter             (s.a.)               Fed
17 Apr 1796 - 30 Apr 1796  Jan Bernd Bicker (1st time)        (b. 1746 - d. 1812)  Fed
 
1 May 1796 - 14 May 1796  Daniël Cornelis de Leeuw           (b. 1747 - d. 1834)  Uni
15 May 1796 - 28 May 1796  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, heer  (b. 1761 - d. 1825)  Mod
                             van Nijenhuis, Peckedam en
                             Gallicum (
1st time) 
29 May 1796 - 11 Jun 1796  Joan Arend de Vos van Steenwijk,   (b. 1746 - d. 1813)  
                             heer van Nijerwal, Oldenhof,
                             Welland en Serooskerke
12 Jun 1796 - 25 Jun 1796  Jacob George Hieronymus Hahn       (s.a.)               Uni
26 Jun 1796 -  9 Jul 1796  Paulus Hartog                      (b. 1735 - d. 1805)  Mod
10 Jul 1796 - 23 Jul 1796  Willem Aernout de Beveren          (b. 1749 - d. 1820)  Fed
25 Jul 1796 -  6 Aug 1796  Ludovicus Timon de Kempenaer       (s.a.)               Uni
 
7 Aug 1796 - 20 Aug 1796  Jan Pieter van Wickevoort          (b. 1763 - d. 1837)  Uni
                             Crommelin 
21 Aug 1796 -  3 Sep 1796  Paulus Emmanuel Anthony de la      (b. 1760 - d. 1848)  Uni
                             Court 
 
4 Sep 1796 - 17 Sep 1796  Jacob Jan Cambier                  (b. 1756 - d. 1831)  Mod
18 Sep 1796 -  1 Oct 1796  Jacobus Kantelaar                  (b. 1759 - d. 1821)  Fed
 
2 Oct 1796 - 15 Oct 1796  Tammo Adriaan ten Berge            (b. 1756 - d. 1830)  Fed
16 Oct 1796 - 29 Oct 1796  Bernardus Blok                     (b. 1756 - d. 1818)  Uni
30 Oct 1796 - 12 Nov 1796  Gerrit David Jordens               (s.a.)               Fed
13 Nov 1796 - 26 Nov 1796  Abraham Gijsbertus Verster         (b. 1751 - d. 1841)  Fed
27 Nov 1796 - 10 Dec 1796  Ijsbrand van Hamelsveld            (b. 1743 - d. 1812)  Dem
11 Dec 1796 - 24 Dec 1796  Cornelis van Lennep                (b. 1751 - d. 1813)  Mod
25 Dec 1796 -  7 Jan 1797  Jan Hendrik Stoffenberg            (b. 1749 - d. 1838)  Fed
 
8 Jan 1797 - 21 Jan 1797  Lambert Engelbert van Eck          (b. 1754 - d. 1803)  Mod
22 Jan 1797 -  4 Feb 1797  Willem Queysen                     (b. 1754 - d. 1817)  Fed
 
5 Feb 1797 - 18 Feb 1797  Carel de Vos van Steenwijk, heer   (b. 1759 - d. 1830)  Fed
                             van Dikninge en de Hogenhof
19 Feb 1797 -  4 Mar 1797  Hendrik van Castrop                (b. 1736 - d. 1806)  Mod
 5 Mar 1797 - 18 Mar 1797  Meinardus Siderius                 (b. 1754 - d. 1829)  Fed
19 Mar 1797 -  1 Apr 1797  Cornelis Wilhelmus de Rhoer        (b. 1751 - d. 1821)  Fed
 
2 Apr 1797 - 15 Apr 1797  Jan Couperus                       (b. 1755 - d. 1833)  Uni
16 Apr 1797 - 29 Apr 1797  Jacob Abraham de Mist              (b. 1749 - d. 1823)  Fed
30 Apr 1797 - 13 May 1797  Jan Bernd Bicker (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Fed
14 May 1797 - 27 May 1797  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, heer  (s.a.)               Mod
                             van Nijenhuis, Peckedam en
                             Gellicum (
2nd time) 
28 May 1797 - 10 Jun 1797  Gerard Willem van Marle            (s.a.)               Fed
14 Jun 1797 - 27 Jun 1797  Herman Hendricus Vitringa          (b. 1757 - d. 1801)  Fed
25 Jun 1797 -  8 Jul 1797  Johan Herman de Lange              (b. 1759 - d. 1818)  Fed
 
9 Jul 1797 - 22 Jul 1797  Ambrosius Justus Zubli             (b. 1751 - d. 1820)  Mod
23 Jul 1797 -  5 Aug 1797  Willem Hendrik Teding van Berkhout,(b. 1745 - d. 1809)  Mod
                             heer van Noord-Scharwoude
 
6 Aug 1797 - 19 Aug 1797  Scato Trip                         (b. 1742 - d. 1822)  Fed
20 Aug 1797 - 31 Aug 1797  Pieter Leonard van de Kasteele     (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Sep 1797 - 16 Sep 1797  Jan David Pasteur                  (b. 1753 - d. 1804)  Uni
17 Sep 1797 - 30 Sep 1797  Adrianus Ploos van Amstel          (b. 1749 - d. 1816)  Uni
 
1 Oct 1797 - 14 Oct 1797  Joachim Nuhout van der Veen        (b. 1756 - d. 1833)  Uni
15 Oct 1797 - 28 Oct 1797  Hugo Gevers                        (b. 1765 - d. 1852)  Mod
29 Oct 1797 - 11 Nov 1797  Jacob van Manen                    (b. 1752 - d. 1822)  Uni
12 Nov 1797 - 25 Nov 1797  Pieter Vreede                      (b. 1750 - d. 1837)  Rad
26 Nov 1797 -  9 Dec 1797  Stefanus Jacobus van Langen        (b. 1758 - d. 1847)  Uni
10 Dec 1797 - 23 Dec 1797  Jacobus Blaauw                     (b. 1756 - d. 1829)  Dem
24 Dec 1797 -  6 Jan 1798  Joan Bernard Auffmorth             (b. 1744 - d. 1831)  Uni
 
7 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus van   (b. 1755 - d. 1816)  Uni
                             Hooff
21 Jan 1798 - 22 Jan 1798  Johannes Henricus Midderigh        (b. 1753 - d. 1800)  Rad
President of the
Constituerende Vergadering (Constituent Assembly)
22 Jan 1798 - 25 Jan 1798  Johannes Henricus Midderigh        (s.a.)               Rad

Chairmen of the Uitvoerend bewind
(literally: Executive Authority; usually translated
as Executive Directory, in imitation of French parallel) (provisional to 20 May 1798)
25 Jan 1798 - 28 Feb 1798  Pieter Vreede                      (s.a.)               Rad
 1 Mar 1798 - 31 Mar 1798  Wybo Fijnje (Fynje)                (b. 1754 - d. 1796)  Rad
 
2 Apr 1798 - 30 Apr 1798  Stefanus Jacobus van Langen        (s.a.)               Uni
 
1 May 1798 - 31 May 1798  Berend Wildrik                     (b. 1754 - d. 1831)  Uni
 
1 Jun 1798 - 12 Jun 1798  Johan Pieter Fokker                (b. 1751 - d. 1831)  Uni
Chairmen of the Intermediair uitvoerend bewind (Interim Executive Authority)
12 Jun 1798 - 14 Jun 1798  Intermediair Bestuur (Interim Government)
                           - Jacobus Spoors                   (b. 1751 - d. 1833) 
                           - Gerrit Jan Pijman (Pyman)        (b. 1750 - d. 1839) 
                           - Isaäk Jan Alexander Gogel        (b. 1765 - d. 1821)  Uni
                           - Reinier Willem Tadama            (b. 1771 - d. 1812)  Uni
                           - Abraham Jacques La Pierre        (b. 1750 - d. 1837)  Mod
14 Jun 1798 - 20 Jun 1798  Jacobus Spoors (1st time)
         (s.a.) 
21 Jun 1798 - 27 Jun 1798  Gerrit Jan Pijman (Pyman)(1st time)(s.a.) 
28 Jun 1798 -  4 Jul 1798  Isaäk Jan Alexander Gogel          (s.a.)               Uni
                             (1st time)
 4 Jul 1798 - 11 Jul 1798  Reinier Willem Tadama (1st time)   (s.a.)               Uni
12 Jul 1798 - 18 Jul 1798  Abraham Jacques La Pierre          (s.a.)               Mod
                             (1st time)
19 Jul 1798 - 25 Jul 1798  Jacobus Spoors (2nd time)          (s.a.) 
26 Jul 1798 - 31 Jul 1798  Gerrit Jan Pijman (Pyman)(2nd time)(s.a.) 
 1 Aug 1798 -  7 Aug 1798  Isaäk Jan Alexander Gogel          (s.a.)               Uni
                             (2nd time)
 8 Aug 1798 - 14 Aug 1798  Reinier Willem Tadama (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Uni
14 Aug 1798 - 17 Aug 1798  Abraham Jacques La Pierre          (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Uitvoerend bewind
(literally: Executive Authority; usually translated
as Executive Directory, in imitation of French parallel)
17 Aug 1798 - 16 Sep 1798  Albert Willem Hoeth (1st time)     (b. 1758 - d. 1827)  Mod
17 Sep 1798 - 16 Oct 1798  Johannes Willem van Hasselt        (b. 1752 - d. 1833)  
                             (1st time)              
17 Oct 1798 - 16 Nov 1798  François Ermerins (1st time)       (b. 1753 - d. 1840)  
17 Nov 1798 - 16 Dec 1798  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (b. 1756 - d. 1830)  Fed  
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (1st time)                    
17 Dec 1798 - 16 Jan 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus       (s.a.)               Uni
                             van Hooff (1st time)     
17 Jan 1799 - 16 Feb 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 Feb 1799 - 16 Mar 1799  Johannes Willem van Hasselt        (s.a.)               
                             (2nd time)              
17 Mar 1799 - 16 Apr 1799  François Ermerins (2nd time)       (s.a.)              
17 Apr 1799 - 16 May 1799  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)              
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (2nd time)                  
17 May 1799 - 16 Jun 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus       (s.a.)               Uni
                             van Hooff (2nd time)     
17 Jun 1799 - 16 Jul 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 Jul 1799 - 16 Aug 1799  Augustijn Gerhard Besier (Bezier)  (b. 1758 - d. 1829) 
                             (1st time)           
17 Aug 1799 - 16 Sep 1799  François Ermerins (3rd time)       (s.a.)              
17 Sep 1799 - 16 Oct 1799  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)              
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (3rd time)         
17 Oct 1799 - 16 Nov 1799  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus       (s.a.)               Uni
                             van Hooff (3rd time)  
17 Nov 1799 - 16 Dec 1799  Albert Willem Hoeth (4th time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 Dec 1799 - 16 Jan 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)              
                             (2nd time)            
17 Jan 1800 - 16 Feb 1800  François Ermerins (4th time)       (s.a.)              
17 Feb 1800 - 16 Mar 1800  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)              
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (4th time) 
17 Mar 1800 - 16 Apr 1800  Joannes Franciscus Rudolphus       (s.a.)               Uni
                             van Hooff (4th time)
17 Apr 1800 - 16 May 1800  Albert Willem Hoeth (5th time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 May 1800 - 16 Jun 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)               
                             (3rd time)           
17 Jun 1800 - 16 Jul 1800  François Ermerins (5th time)       (s.a.)            
17 Jul 1800 - 16 Aug 1800  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)               
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (5th time)              
17 Aug 1800 - 16 Sep 1800  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (1st time) (b. 1746 - d. 1823)  
17 Sep 1800 - 16 Oct 1800  Albert Willem Hoeth (6th time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 Oct 1800 - 16 Nov 1800  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)            
                             (4th time)        
17 Nov 1800 - 16 Dec 1800  François Ermerins (6th time)       (s.a.)            
17 Dec 1800 - 16 Jan 1801  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)             
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (6th time)      
17 Jan 1801 - 16 Feb 1801  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (2nd time) (s.a.)               
17 Feb 1801 - 16 Mar 1801  Albert Willem Hoeth (7th time)     (s.a.)               Mod
17 Mar 1801 - 16 Apr 1801  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)              
                             (5th time) 
17 Apr 1801 - 16 May 1801  François Ermerins (7th time)       (s.a.)              
17 May 1801 - 16 Jun 1801  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)             
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (7th time)         
17 Jun 1801 - 16 Jul 1801  Jan Hendrik van Swinden (3rd time) (s.a.)               
17 Jul 1801 - 16 Aug 1801  Gerrit Jan Pijman                  (s.a.)               
17 Aug 1801 - 16 Sep 1801  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)              
                             (6th time)     
17 Sep 1801 - 18 Sep 1801  François Ermerins (8th time)       (s.a.)          
18 Sep 1801 - 19 Sep 1801  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)              
                             (7th time)    
19 Sep 1801 - 17 Oct 1801  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert
    (s.a.)              
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden
                             (8th time)                    
Chairmen of the Staatsbewind
(literally: State Authority, usually translated
as State Council)
17 Oct 1801 - 31 Jan 1802  Willem Aernout de Beveren          (s.a.)               Fed 
                             (1st time) 
 1 Feb 1802 - 30 Apr 1802  Egbert van Burmania Rengers        (b. 1745 - d. 1806)  Org
 1 May 1802 - 31 Jul 1802  Samuel van Hoogstraten, heer van   (b. 1756 - d. 1830)  Mod
                             Heicup, Boeicup, Woubrugge, Sint
                             Jacobswoude en Rodenburg
 1 Aug 1802 - 31 Oct 1802  Gerrit Jan Pijman                  (s.a.)              
 1 Nov 1802 - 31 Jan 1803  Johannes Baptista Verheyen         (b. 1746 - d. 1814)  
 1 Feb 1803 - 30 Apr 1803  Jacobus Spoors                     (s.a.)              
 1 May 1803 - 31 Jul 1803  Campegius Hermanus Gockinga        (b. 1748 - d. 1823)  Mod
 1 Aug 1803 - 31 Oct 1803  Daniël Cornelis de Leeuw           (s.a.)               Uni
 1 Nov 1803 - 31 Jan 1804  Augustijn Gerhard Besier           (s.a.)            
 1 Feb 1804 - 30 Apr 1804  Anthony Frederik Robbert Evert     (s.a.)               Fed
                             van Haersolte, heer van Staverden 
 1 May 1804 - 31 Jul 1804  Gerard Brantsen                    (b. 1734 - d. 1809)  Org
 1 Aug 1804 - 31 Oct 1804  Willem Queysen                     (s.a.)               Fed
 1 Nov 1804 - 31 Jan 1805  Willem Aernout de Beveren          (s.a.)               Fed
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Feb 1805 - 29 Apr 1805  Jan Bernd Bicker                   (s.a.)               Fed
Pensionaries of the Council (Raadpensionaris, usually translated Grand Pensionaries)
29 Apr 1805 -  5 Jun 1806  Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, heer  (s.a.)               Mod
                             van Nijenhuis, Peckedam en
                             Gallicum

 5 Jun 1806 -  9 Jun 1806  Carel de Vos van Steenwijk, heer   (s.a.)               Fed

                             van Dikninge en de Hogenhof
                             (acting) 

Kings²
 9 Jun 1806 -  1 Jul 1810  Lodewijk I Napoleon                (b. 1778 - d. 1846)
                            (Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) 
 1 Jul 1810 - 13 Jul 1810  Napoleon Lodewijk II               (b. 1804 - d. 1831)
                            (Napoléon Louis Bonaparte) 
 
3 Jul 1810 - 13 Jul 1810  Paulus van der Heim -Regent        (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
                            (acting chairman of provisional council of regency
)
Governor-general

13 Jul 1810 - 20 Nov 1813  Charles-François Lebrun,           (b. 1739 - d. 1824)
                             duc de Plaisance
                            (Lieutenant-general to 31 Dec 1810)

Sovereign Prince²
20 Nov 1813 -  2 Dec 1813  General Government in the name of the
                           Prince of Oranje-Nassau
                           - Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp     (b. 1762 - d. 1834)
                           - Adam François Jules Armand van   (b. 1771 - d. 1848)
                               der Duyn, vrijheer van 's
                               Gravenmoer, heer van Maasdam,
                               Benthorn en Hinkelenoord

 2 Dec 1813 - 16 Mar 1815  Willem VI Frederik                 (b. 1772 - d. 1848)
Kings² (also Grand dukes of Luxembourg 1815-1890)
16 Mar 1815 -  7 Oct 1840  Willem I                           (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1840 - 17 Mar 1849  Willem II                          (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
17 Mar 1849 - 23 Nov 1890  Willem III                         (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
Queen²
23 Nov 1890 -  4 Sep 1948  Wilhelmina                         (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                            (13 May 1940 - 13 Mar 1945 in London exile)
23 Nov 1890 - 31 Aug 1898  Emma Wilhelmina Theresia, prinses  (b. 1858 - d. 1934)
                             van Waldeck en Pyrmont (f) -Regent
13 May 1940 - 15 May 1940  Henri Gerard Winkelman             (b. 1876 - d. 1952)  Mil
                            (Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy;
                             Supreme Authority in the Netherlands)
Military Governors
15 May 1940 - 16 May 1940  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)  Mil
16 May 1940 - 29 May 1940  Alexander von Falkenhausen         (b. 1878 - d. 1966)  Mil
                            (military governor of Netherlands and Belgium)
Reichskommissar
29 May 1940 -  6 May 1945  Arthur von Seyss-Inquart           (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
Queens²
14 Oct 1947 - 30 Nov 1947  Juliana (f) -Regent (1st time)     (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
14 May 1948 - 30 Aug 1948  Juliana (f) -Regent (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 4 Sep 1948 - 30 Apr 1980  Juliana                            (s.a.)
30 Apr 1980 - 30 Apr 2013  Beatrix                            (b. 1938)
King²
30 Apr 2013 -              Willem-Alexander                   (b. 1967)
 

State Secretary
22 Oct 1798 - 21 Mar 1801
 Carel Gerard Jan Hultman           (b. 1752 - d. 1820)  Mod
                             (1st time)
21 Mar 1801 - 17 Oct 1801  Vacant
17 Oct 1801 - 29 Apr 1805
 Carel Gerard Jan Hultman           (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
General Secretaries of State (and from 19 Jun 1806, Secretaries of the Cabinet)

29 Apr 1805 - 30 Jun 1806  Carel Gerard Jan Hultman           (s.a.)               Mod   
                             (acting from 19 Jun 1806)
30 Jun 1806 -  8 Jan 1808  Willem Frederik
Roëll              (b. 1767 - d. 1835)  Org
Chief ministers (Presidents of the Council of Ministers)
1809 -  8 Mar 1810         Paulus van der Heim                (s.a.)              
 8 Mar 1810 - 31 Dec 1810  Jacob Jan Cambier                  (s.a.)               Mod
Secretaries of State
31 Dec 1813 - 19 Mar 1818  Anton Reinhard Falck               (b. 1777 - d. 1843)  Con
19 Mar 1819 - 28 Dec 1822  Jean Gijsberto de Mey van          (b. 1782 - d. 1841)  Con
                             Streefkerk (1st time)(acting)
16 Aug 1820 - 15 Nov 1820  Steven Dassevael                  
(b. 1771 - d. 1838)  Con 
                             (acting for Streefkerk)
28 Dec 1822 - 12 Nov 1835  Jean Gijsberto de Mey van          (s.a.)               Con
                             Streefkerk (from 16 Jun 1826,
                             Jean Gijsberto baron de Mey
                             van Streefkerk)(2nd time) 
12 Nov 1835 -  1 Dec 1836  Gerrit graaf Schimmelpenninck      (b. 1794 - d. 1863)  Con
 1 Dec 1836 - 31 Dec 1840  Hendrik Jacob baron van Doorn      (b. 1786 - d. 1853)  Con
                             van Westcapelle
                            (acting for
Schimmelpenninck 22 Sep - 1 Dec 1836) 
Vice-Presidents of the Council of State and Presidents of the Council of Ministers
 6 Apr 1814 -  7 Nov 1816  Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp       (b. 1762 - d. 1834)  Con   
                             Hogendorp (from 28 Aug 1814,
                             Jonkheer
Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp;
                             from 20 Sep 1815,
Gijsbert Karel
                             graaf
van Hogendorp)      
 7 Nov 1816 -  1 Jul 1829  Johan Hendrik Mollerus             (b. 1750 - d. 1834)  Con 
   
                         (from 24 Nov 1816, Jonkheer Johan
                             Hendrik Mollerus
; from 21 Dec 1820,
                             
Johan Hendrik baron Mollerus) 
                             (acting to 10 Feb 1817)
 1 Jul 1829 -  7 Oct 1840  Willem
van Nassau, prins van       (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             
Oranje-Nassau (= Willem II)
 7 Oct 1840 - 31 Dec 1840  
Jonkheer Jan Elias Nicolaas van    (b. 1766 - dd. 1841) Con  
                             Lynden (acting)  
 
1 Jan 1841 - 26 Mar 1848  Hendrik Jacob baron van Doorn      (s.a.)               Con
                             van Westcapelle
Prime ministers (until 23 May 1945, Chairman of the Council of Ministers;
then Minister-President)

26 Mar 1848 - 17 May 1848  Gerrit graaf Schmmelpenninck       (s.a.)               Lib
17 May 1848 -  4 Jun 1849  Dirk Donker Curtius                (b. 1792 - d. 1863)  Lib
 4 Jun 1849 -  1 Nov 1849  Jacob Matthaeus de Kempenaer       (b. 1793 - d. 1870)  Lib
 1 Nov 1849 - 19 Apr 1853  Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (1st time)  (b. 1798 - d. 1872)  Lib
19 Apr 1853 -  1 Jul 1856  Floris Adriaan baron van Hall      (s.a.)               Con-Lib
                             (1st time)
 1 Jul 1856 - 18 Mar 1858  Jastinus Jacob Leonard van der     (b. 1804 - d. 1863)  Con
                             Brugghen
18 Mar 1858 - 23 Feb 1860  Jan Jacob Rochussen                (b. 1797 - d. 1871)  Con
23 Feb 1860 - 23 Feb 1861  Floris Adriaan baron van Hall      (s.a.)               Con-Lib
                             (2nd time) 
23 Feb 1861 - 14 Mar 1861  Schelte baron Heemstra             (b. 1807 - d. 1864)  Lib
                             (1st time)(acting)
14 Mar 1861 - 10 Nov 1861  Jacob Pieter Pompejus baron        (b. 1816 - d. 1890)  Con-Lib
                             van Zuylen van Nijevelt
10 Nov 1861 -  1 Feb 1862  Schelte baron van Heemstra         (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Feb 1862 - 10 Feb 1866  Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Lib
10 Feb 1866 -  1 Jun 1866  Isaäc Dignus Fransen van de Putte  (b. 1822 - d. 1902)  Lib
                             (1st time)
12 Mar 1866 - 19 Apr 1866  Pieter Philip van Bosse            (b. 1809 - d. 1879)  Lib    
                             (acting for van de Putte)
19 May 1866 -  1 Jun 1866  Pieter Philip van Bosse            (s.a.)               Lib 
                             (acting for van de Putte)
 1 Jun 1866 -  4 Jun 1868  Julius Philip Jacob Adriaan        (b. 1819 - d. 1894)  Con
                             graaf van Zuylen van Nijevelt
 4 Jun 1868 -  4 Jan 1871  
Pieter Philip van Bosse (1st time) (s.a.)               Lib
 4 Jan 1871 -  4 Jun 1872  Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (3rd time)  (s.a.)               Lib
 4 Jun 1872 -  6 Jul 1872  Pieter Philip van Bosse (2nd time) (s.a.)               Lib
 6 Jul 1872 - Nov 1872     Gerrit de Vries                    (b. 1818 - d. 1900)  Lib
Nov 1872 - 27 Aug 1874     Isaäc Dignus Fransen van de Pute   (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
27 Aug 1874 -  3 Nov 1877  J
an Abrahamzoon Heemskerk          (b. 1818 - d. 1897)  Con
                             (1st time) 
 3 Nov 1877 - 20 Aug 1879  Johannes Kappeyne van de Coppello  (b. 1822 - d. 1895)  Lib
20 Aug 1879 - 23 Apr 1883  Constantijn Theodoor graaf van     (b. 1826 - d. 1885)  Con
                             Lynden van Sandenburg  
23 Apr 1883 - 21 Apr 1888  Jan Abrahamzoon Heemskerk          (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
21 Apr 1888 - 21 Aug 1891  Aeneas baron Mackay                (b. 1838 - d. 1909)  ARP
21 Aug 1891 - 21 Mar 1894  Gijsbert van Tienhoven             (b. 1841 - d. 1914)  Lib
21 Mar 1894 -  9 May 1894  Johannes Pieter Roetert Tak van    (b. 1829 - d. 1904)  LU 
                             Poortvliet    
 9 May 1894 - 27 Jul 1897  Jonkheer Joan Roëll                (b. 1844 - d. 1914)  Lib
27 Jul 1897 -  1 Aug 1901  Nicolaas Gerard Pierson            (b. 1839 - d. 1909)  LU
 1 Aug 1901 - 17 Aug 1905  Abraham Kuyper                     (b. 1837 - d. 1920)  ARP
17 Aug 1905 - 12 Feb 1908  Theodoor Herman de Meester         (b. 1851 - d. 1919)  LU
12 Feb 1908 - 29 Aug 1913  Theodorus "Theo" Heemskerk         (b. 1852 - d. 1932)  ARP
29 Aug 1913 -  9 Sep 1918  Pieter Willem Adriaan Cort van     (b. 1846 - d. 1935)  Lib
                             der Linden
 9 Sep 1918 -  3 Aug 1925  Jonkheer Charles Joseph Maria Ruys (b. 1873 - d. 1936)  AB
                             de Beerenbrouck (1st time)
 4 Aug 1925 -  8 Mar 1926  Hendrikus Colijn (1st time)        (b. 1869 - d. 1944)  ARP 
 8 Mar 1926 - 10 Aug 1929  Dirk Jan de Geer (1st time)        (b. 1870 - d. 1960)  CHU
10 Aug 1929 - 26 May 1933  Jonkheer Charles Joseph Maria Ruys (s.a.)               RKSP
                             de Beerenbrouck (2nd time)
26 May 1933 - 10 Aug 1939  Hendrikus Colijn (2nd time)        (s.a.)               ARP 
10 Aug 1939 -  3 Sep 1940  Dirk Jan de Geer (2nd time)        (s.a.)               CHU
                             (from 13 May 1940 in London exile)
 3 Sep 1940 - 24 Jun 1945  Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy           (b. 1885 - d. 1961)  ARP
                             (to 23 May 1945 in London exile) 
 6 May 1945 - 23 May 1945  Lodewijk Hendrik Nicolaas Bosch,   (b. 1884 – d. 1953)  CHU
                             ridder van Rosenthal
                             (chairman of the Committee of Trusted
                             Representatives of the Government
)
24 Jun 1945 -  3 Jul 1946  Willem Schermerhorn                (b. 1894 - d. 1977)VDB;1946 PvdA
 3 Jul 1946 -  7 Aug 1948  Louis Joseph Maria Beel (1st time) (b. 1902 - d. 1977)  KVP
 7 Aug 1948 - 22 Dec 1958  Willem Drees                       (b. 1886 - d. 1988)  PvdA
22 Dec 1958 - 19 May 1959  Louis Joseph Maria Beel (2nd time) (s.a.)               KVP
19 May 1959 - 24 Jul 1963  Jan Eduard de Quay                 (b. 1901 - d. 1985)  KVP
24 Jul 1963 - 14 Apr 1965  Victor Marijnen                    (b. 1917 - d. 1975)  KVP
14 Apr 1965 - 22 Nov 1966  Jozef "Jo" Cals                    (b. 1914 - d. 1971)  KVP
22 Nov 1966 -  5 Apr 1967  Jelle Zijlstra                     (b. 1918 - d. 2001)  ARP 
 5 Apr 1967 -  6 Jul 1971  Petrus "Piet" de Jong              (b. 1915)            KVP
 6 Jul 1971 - 11 May 1973  Barend Willem Biesheuvel           (b. 1920 - d. 2001)  ARP
11 May 1973 - 19 Dec 1977  Johannes "Joop" den Uyl            (b. 1919 - d. 1987)  PvdA
19 Dec 1977 -  4 Nov 1982  Andreas "Dries" van Agt            (b. 1931)           KVP;1980 CDA
 4 Nov 1982 - 22 Aug 1994  Rudolphus "Ruud" Lubbers           (b. 1939)            CDA 
22 Aug 1994 - 22 Jul 2002  Willem "Wim" Kok                   (b. 1938)            PvdA
22 Jul 2002 - 14 Oct 2010  Jan Peter Balkenende               (b. 1956)            CDA
14 Oct 2010 -              Mark Rutte                         (b. 1967)            VVD


German and Allied Occupation 1940-1945

German Military commanders
10 May 1940 - 16 May 1940  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
16 May 1940 - 29 May 1940  Alexander Freiherr von             (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
                             Falkenhausen 
29 May 1940 -  6 May 1945  Friedrich Christiansen             (b. 1879 - d. 1972)
14 Dec 1942 -  5 May 1945  Anton Adriaan Mussert              (b. 1894 - d. 1946)  NSB
                             (with German authorized honorific
                             style Leider van het Nederlandse Volk 
                             ["Leader of the Netherlands People"])
Dutch Chief of the General Staff, Military Authority for the Liberated Areas

14 Sep 1944 -  6 Mar 1946  Hendrik Johan Kruls (Netherlands)  (b. 1902 - d. 1975)

The Resistance 1940-1945

Note: Until 1944 the different resistance movements acted separately under the supervision of the Bureau Bijzondere Opdrachten (Bureau Special Missions) of the Netherlands government in exile. In 1944 they were united into the Nederlandse Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten (Netherlands Forces of the Interior).

Commander
 3 Sep 1944 - 13 Sep 1945  Bernhard Leopold Frederik,         (b. 1911 - d. 2004) 
                             prins der Nederlanden

French Residents 1795-1805

French Envoys
 5 Sep 1795 - Dec 1797     François-Joseph Noël               (b. 1755 - d. 1841)
Dec 1797 - Jun 1798        Charles Delacroix                  (b. 1741 - d. 1805)
Jun 1798                   Claude Roberjot                    (b. 1752 - d. 1799)
Jun 1798 - Oct 1798        Louis Champigny-Aubin (acting)     (b. 1756 - d. 1847)
Oct 1798 - Jul 1799        Vincent Lombard de Langres         (b. 1765 - d. 1830)
Jul 1799                   Joseph Fouché de Nantes            (b. 1763 - d. 1820)
29 Jul 1799 -  2 Nov 1799  Guiot de Saint-Florent             (b. 1735 - d. 1834)
Nov 1799                   François-Louis Deforgues           (b. 1759 - d. 1840)
Dec 1799                   Henri-François Perrochel           (b. 1751 - d. 1810) 
30 Dec 1799 -  1 Feb 1805  Charles-Louis Huguet de Sémonville (b. 1759 - d. 1839)

 ¹Willem IV became stadholder as Willem II in Friesland 1 Sep 1711, in Groningen 13 Oct 1718; as Willem III in in Drenthe 19 Mar 1722, Gelderland 2 Nov 1722; as Willem IV in in Zeeland 28 Apr 1747, in Utrecht 3 May 1747, in Holland en Westfriesland 4 May 1747, and in Overijssel 10 May 1747.

 ²The full style of the rulers:
(a) 5 Jun 1806 - 13 Jul 1810: Door de Gratie Gods en de Constitutie des Koninkrijks, Koning van Holland ("by the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Kingdom, King of Holland");
(b) 2 Dec 1813 - 16 Mar 1815: Bij de Gratie Gods, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, Souverein Vorst der Verenigde Nederlanden, enz., enz., enz. ("by the Grace of God, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands, etc., etc., etc.");
(c) 16 Mar 1815 - 23 Nov 1890: Bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, Groothertog van Luxemburg, enz., enz., enz. ("by the Grace of God, King of the The Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, etc, etc, etc.");
(d) 23 Nov 1890 - 30 Apr 2013: Bij de Gratie Gods, Koningin der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, enz., enz., enz. ("by the Grace of God, Queen of The Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, etc., etc., etc.");
(e) from 30 Apr 2013: Bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden, Prins van Oranje-Nassau, enz., enz., enz. ("by the Grace of God, King of The Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, etc., etc., etc.").
 

Noble titles: baron = baron; graaf/gravin = count/countess; heer = owner (of an estate); hertog/hertogin = duke/duchess; jonkheer = lord, esquire; koning/koningin = king/queen; markies/markiezin = margrave/margravine; prins/prinses = prince/princess; ridder = knight.

Party Abbreviations: CDA = Christen Democratisch Appèl (Christian-Democratic Appeal, christian-democratic, center-right, est.11 Oct 1980 by merger of KVP, ARP, & CHU); PvdA = Partij van de Arbeid (Labor Party, social-democratic, center-left, est.9 Feb 1946 by merger of SDAP, VDB, & Christelijk Democratische Unie [CDU]); VVD = Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, conservative liberal, center-right, est.24 Jan 1948); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: AB = Algemeene Bond van Roomsch-Katholieke Kiesverenigingen (General General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses, confessionalist [catholic], 1904-26, merged into RKSP);
ARP = Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (Anti-Revolutionary Party, confessionalist [protestant], 1879-1980, merged into CDA); CHU = Christelijk-Historische Unie (Christian Historical Union, 1908-80, merged into CDA); Con = Conservatief (Conservative); Con-Lib = Conservatief-Liberaal (Conservative-Liberal); Dem = Democratisch Unitariër (Democratic Unitarian, 1798-1810); Fed = Federalist (supported federal state, 1795-98); KVP = Katholieke Volkspartij (Catholic People's Party, confessionalist [catholic], 1945-80, merged into CDA); Lib = Liberaal (Liberal); LU = Liberale Unie (Liberal Union, liberal, 1885-1921); Mod = Moderaat (Moderate, in between Org and Pat/Uni, 1795-98); NSB = Nationaal Socialistische Beweging (National Socialist Movement, Dutch fascist party, pro-Nazi-German, 1931-45); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); Org = Orangist (royalist, pro-House of Orange); Pat = Patriot (republican, pro-provincial autonomy, trade-oriented policies, anti-Org., to 1796); PvdV = Partij van de Vrijheid (Freedom Party, liberal, 1946-48, merged into VVD); Rad = Radikaal Unitariër (Radical Unitarian, 1798-1810); RKSP = Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij (Roman Catholic States Party, confessionalist [catholic], 1926-45, from 1945 KVP); SDAP = Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (Social Democratic Worker's Party, socialist, 1894-1946, merged into PvdA); Stat = Staatsen (Stateist, republican, anti-Org., predecessor of Pat); Uni = Unitariër (Unitarian, supported pro-unitary state, 1798-1810); VDB = Radicale Partij/Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond (Radical Party/Free Democratic League, liberal, 1901-46, merged into PvdA)



Limburg

[Flag Limburg 19th century]

Aug 1815                   Netherlands province of Limburg established by the merger
                             of several territories that had been part of France from
                             1795 to 1814 (Meuse-Inférieure département).
 4 Oct 1830                Administration by Belgium established (except in Maastricht).
19 Apr 1839                Final Act of the London Conference divides the province:
                             part becomes Belgian, the rest becomes the Duchy of Limburg,
                             in personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
 5 Sep 1839                Duchy of Limburg accepted as a member state of the German
                             Confederation (This polity is not a successor polity to the
                             pre-1792 Duchy of Limburg [Duché de Limbourg/Hertogdom Limburg]).
11 May 1867                Following the dissolution of the German Confederation,
                             Limburg is incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands;
                             Hertogdom Limburg continues in some official use to 1906,
                             while the style Hertog van Limburg remains incorporated
                             (tacitly, as part of enz., enz., enz.) into the royal style
                             until 4 Sep 1948.

Dukes 
19 Apr 1839 - 11 May 1867  the kings of the Netherlands (s.a.)



Thorn

992                        Benedictine Abbey of Thorn (Stift Thorn)
1292                       Abbesses also Princesses of the Empire.
 1 Oct 1795 - 15 Feb 1814  Annexed by France.
15 Feb 1814 - 16 Mar 1815  Allied administration.
16 Mar 1815                Part of the Netherlands.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Thorn)
(from 15 Oct 1726, also princess-abbesses of Essen; resident in Essen)
15 Mar 1691 -  6 Oct 1706  Eleonora von Löwenstein-           (b. 1656 - d. 1706)
                             Rochefort
 7 Dec 1706 - 12 Jan 1717  Anna Juliana Helena von            (b. 1665 - d. 1717)
                             Manderscheid-Blankenheim
30 Mar 1717 - 16 Jul 1776  Franziska Christine Pfalzgräfin    (b. 1696 - d. 1776)
                             von Sulzbach
16 Jul 1776 -  1 Oct 1795  Maria Kunigunde Herzogin zu        (b. 1749 - d. 1826)
                             Sachsen

Meiers (Intendants) of Thorn
1687 - 1705                Joannes Meyers
1705 - 1721                Christianus Hermans
1724 - 1749                J. Parren
1750 - 1759                D. Weiler
1761 - 1763                Jan Guillaume Joseph de Stolzen
1763                       D.H. Fabrij
1763 - 1785                de Borman
1786 - 1795                Jacob Norbertus van der Schoor     (b. 1748 - d. 1847)
1795                       Comans


States in Brabant 

Bergen-op-Zoom

[Bergen-op-Zoom]

22 Jun 1287                The Lordship of Bergen-op-Zoom separated from Breda, under
                             nominal overlordship of the Duchy of Brabant.
1559                       Margraviate of Bergen-op-Zoom (Markiezaat van Bergen op Zoom).
1567 - 1577                Spanish administration.
1577                       Partition of the marquisate between Staats Bergen-op-Zoom
                             (occupied by the Dutch Republic) and the territory of the
                             legitimate rulers.
1609 - 1621                Staats Bergen-op-Zoom restored to legitimate rulers.
1648                       Staats Bergen-op-Zoom restored to legitimate rulers.
1672 - 1678                Occupied by Dutch Republic.
1688 - 1697                Occupied by Dutch Republic.
16 Sep 1747 - 1748         Occupied by France.
 9 Oct 1794 - 1801         Occupied by France.
1795                       Arrondissement provisional of Bergen-op-Zoom, under French 
                             occupation formed from Bergen-op-Zoom, Prinsenland, the
                             extreme south-west of Staats-Brabant and part of Zeeland.
1801                       Incorporated into Batavian Republic (later Holland/Netherlands),
                             part of Noord-Brabant.
1809 - 1814                Along with Holland annexed to France.
1814                       Incorporated into The Netherlands.

Margraves/Margravines (title Markies/Markiezin van Bergen-op-Zoom/
Markgraf/Markgrafin von Bergen-op-Zoom
)

1633 - 1650                Albert II van den Bergh            (b. 1607 - d. 1656)
                           - in opposition to -
1635 - 29 Nov 1671         Maria Elisabeth II (f)             (b. 1631 - d. 1671)
                           - jointly with -
1635 - 11 Jul 1661         Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-  (b. 1601 - d. 1661)
                             Hechingen
1672 - 17 Oct 1698         Henriette Francisca (f)            (b. 1642 - d. 1698)
                           - jointly with -
1672 - 17 Oct 1698         Frédéric Maurice, comte d'Auvergne (b. 1642 - d. 1707)
17 Oct 1698 - 27 Jul 1710  François Egon, prince de la Tour   (b. 1675 - d. 1710)
                             d'Auvergne  
27 Jul 1710 - 28 Jul 1728  Marie Anne Henriette Leopoldine (f)(b. 1708 - d. 1728)
27 Jul 1710 - 1722         Marie Anne von Arenberg (f)-Regent (b. 1689 - d. 1736)
                           - jointly with -
1722 - 28 Jul 1728         Johann Christian Joseph Prinz      (b. 1700 - d. 1733)
                             von der Pfalz-Sulzbach 
28 Jul 1728 - 1795         Karl Philipp Theodor Pfalzgraf     (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
                            (Elector of Pfalz from 1742 and 
                             Elector of Bavaria from 1777)
1728 - 1742                Maria Enrietta del Caretto di      (b. 1671 - d. 1744)
                             Savona e Grana (f) -Regent
Commissioners of Provisional Arrondissement of Bergen-op-Zoom
1795 - 1801                ....

Governors (of the Margraves)
1696 - 1708                Jacques-Louis, comte de Noyelles   (d. 1708)
                             et Falais                        
1704 - 1706                Abraham (or Niklaus?) Tscharner
                             (acting)
1708 - 1710                van der Heijden
1710 - 1714                Conraad Willem van Dedem           (b. 1644 - d. 1714)
20 Feb 1714 -  4 Nov 1719  Willem baron van Wassenaer         (b. 1670 - d. 1719)
1719 -  3 Nov 1730         Frederik Sirtema baron van         (b. 1668 - d. 1730)
                             Grovestins
1730 - 1733                Johan Rabo baron van Keppel        (b. 1677 - d. 1733)
24 Jun 1733 - 1744         Reinhard baron van Reede-Ginckel   (b. 1678 - d. 1747)
Aug 1744 - Jun 1746        Philips Willem baron van der Duyn  (b. 1687 - d. 1756)
1746 - 1748?               Wilhelm Ludwig Prinz von Hessen-   (b. 1680 - d. 1760)
                             Philippsthal
1748? - 1760               Andries August graaf van Praetorius
1760 - 1765                Karl Christian von Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1733 - d. 1788)
1765 - 1773                Berend Lewe van Aduard             (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
1773 - 16 Aug 1784         Gideon Salomon Dentz               (d. 1784)
1784?                      Wolter Godfried von Neukirchen     (b. 1719 - d. 1805)
1784 - 1791?               Jan Adolf baron van Hardenbroek    (b. 1721 - d. 1791)
20 Apr 1791 -  9 Oct 1794  Wilhelm Landgraf von Hessen-       (b. 1726 - d. 1810)
                             Philippsthal



Breda

[Breda (The Netherlands)]

c.1100                     The Lordship of Breda was founded as a fief of the 
                             Duchy of Brabant. 
1287                       Partitioned into itself, Lordship (later Marquisate) of
                             Bergen-op-Zoom and the Common Land of Steenbergen.
1326 - 1339                Duchy of Brabant administration.
14..                       Barony of Breda.
1567 - 1577                Spanish administration.
1581 - 1590                Administered by Spanish Netherlands.
1590 - 1625                Occupied by Dutch Republic.
1618                       Fief of the land of Breda held from Council of Brabant in The Hague
1625 - 1637                Administered by Spanish Netherlands.
1637 - 1794                Administered by Dutch Republic.
23 Feb 1793 -  3 Apr 1793  French occupation.
1795                       Arrondissement provisional of Breda, under French occupation;
                             formed from Breda and middle-west of Staats-Brabant.
16 May 1795                Incorporated into Batavian Republic (later Holland/Netherlands),
                             part of Noord-Brabant.
1809 - 1814                Along with Holland annexed to France.
1814                       Incorporated into The Netherlands.

Barons (title Baron van Breda/Freiherr von Breda)
14 Nov 1650 - 16 Mar 1702  Willem III Hendrik                 (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
1702 - 1732                the Staten-Generaal
1732 -  1 Jan 1751         Willem IV Karel Hendrik Friso      (b. 1711 - d. 1751)
 1 Jan 1751 - 16 Feb 1795  Willem V Batavus                   (b. 1748 - d. 1806)
French commander
 
23 Feb 1793 -  3 Apr 1793  Louis-Charles de la Motte-Ango,
                             vicomte de Flers                 (b. 1756 - d. 1794)
Commissioner of Provisional Arrondissement of Breda
27 Jan 1795 - 1795         Sigouin
President of the municipality of Breda
1795 - 16 Mar 1795         Steven Bernhard Jantzon            (b. 1766 - d. 1828)



Cuyk (Cuijk, Kuyk, Kuijk)

[Cuijk County (The
                Netherlands)]

c.1057                     County of Cuyk (formally the City of Grave and
                             the Land of Cuyk) founded. 
1400 - 1517                Gelderland administration.
1517 - 1602                Spanish administration.
 8 Jul 1584                Personal union with Breda.
1794 - 1795                French occupation.
1794                       Arrondissement provisional of Grave, under French occupation;
                             formed from the extreme-east of Staats-Brabant (area of Cuijk).
16 May 1795                Incorporated into Batavian Republic (later Holland/Netherlands),
                             part of Noord-Brabant.
 

Counts (title Graaf van Cuijk/Graf von Cuyk)
 8 Jul 1584 - 1795         the Barons of Breda
Commissioner of Provisional Arrondissement of Grave
1794 - Jun 1795            Jonkheer Jacob van der Dussen      (b. 1763 - d. 1820)

Ambtman (representing the Barons of Breda)
1588 - 1609                Jonkheer Anthonis heer van Berchem
1609 - 1652                Jonkheer Godevaert van Steenhuijs,
                             heer van Oploo
1652 - 1679                Ludolf van Steenhuijs heer van Oploo
1673 - Jun 1674            Adolph Engelbrecht baron de Kerkhem
                             te Gratem
                             (appointed by the French)
1679 - 1722                Walraad baron van Steenhuijs,
                             vrijheer van Heumen
1722 - 1754                Adriaan baron van Lijnden,         (b. 1677 - d. 1754)
                             burggraaf van het Rijk van
                             Nijmegen
1754 - 1770                Sigismund Coenraad Roeleman        (b. 1729 - d. 1770)
                             graaf van Bylandt
1770 - 1780                M.C. Pasques de Chavonne
1780 - 1791                Pasques de Chavonne, baron van
                             Heekeren tot Weersen
1791 - 1795                Jonkheer Jacob van der Dussen      (s.a.)



Gemert

[Gemert (Netherlands) city seal]

11th cent.                 Free Imperial Lordship of Gemert. 
1198/1249                  Partitioned between itself and the Teutonic Order; Gemert
                             hereafter ruled as a condominium until 1366 with two separate
                             administrations but joint jurisdiction.
1364 - 1366                Gemert a fief of Brabant.
1366                       Free Sovereign Domain and Commandery Gemert of the Teutonic Order
                             (subordinated to commandery of Alden Biesen).
1649 - 24 Jun 1662         Dutch occupation. 
1794 - 1800                French occupation.
 8 Mar 1800                Incorporated into Batavian Republic (later Holland/Netherlands),
                             part of Noord-Brabant.
1810 - 1814                Annexed to France.
1814                       Incorporated into The Netherlands.

Commanders (Landkomtur)
(from 1720, affairs conducted by the Bailiffs of Alden Biesen;
Gemert commanders from 1720 were titular did not reside in Gemert)
1558 - 1570                Wijnand van Eynatten               (d. 1570)
                             (acting to 1660)
1570 - 1598                Goyart van Aer (or Ahr)            (d. 1598)
1598 - 1630                Henrick van Holtrop                (d. 1630)
1630 - 1635                Vacant
1635 - 1655                Caspar Ulrich baron van Hoensbroek (d. 1655)
1656 - 1684                Ambrosius van Virmundt             (d. 1684)
                             (acting to 1661)
Dec 1684 - 1691            Hendrik van Wassenaer tot          (b. 1642 - d. 1709)
                             Warmond
 6 Mar 1691 - 21 Mar 1712  Bertram Wessel baron van Loë       (b. 1644 - d. 1712)
                             tot Wissen
1712 - 1716                Vacant
 3 Jun 1716 -  2 Mar 1720  Bertram Anton Freiherr von         (b. 1674? - d. 1720)
                             Wachtendonk
1720 - 1744                Vacant
1744 - 30 Nov 1763         Johan Jozef van der Noot           (b. 1707 - d. 1763)
1763 - 1770                Vacant
1770 - 1771                Nicolas Bernard de Borchgrave      (b. 1715 - d. 1777)
1771 - 1778                Vacant
1778 - 1794                Clemens August von Plettenberg     (b. 1719 - d. 1796)

Rentmeester/drossaard

bf.1720 - 1734             Godefoy Cox
1734 - 1760                Jean François van der Gheest
1760 - 1792?               Petrus Adriaan de la Court         (b. 1725 - d. 1792)



Megen

[Megen County
                (Netherlands)]

721                        First mentioned as Meginum.
1145                       Free Imperial County of Megen (Graafschap Megen/Grafschaft Megen)
                             first mentioned; county included the city of Megen and villages
                             of Haren, Macharen and Teeffelen.
1420                       Purchased by Henric Dicbier.
1429                       Sold to Guy Brimeu.
1610                       Passed to the Croÿ dynasty.
1648 - 1671                Disputed between Croÿ family and the Dutch Staten-Generaal.
1697                       Passed to Neuburg line of the Wittelsbach dynasty.
1728                       Under the Schall family.
1794 - 1800                French occupation.
 8 Mar 1800                Incorporated into Batavian Republic (later Holland),
                             part of Noord-Brabant.
1810 - 1814                Annexed to France.
1814                       Incorporated into The Netherlands.

Counts (title Graaf van Megen/Graf zu Megen)
1644 – 1666                Albert François de Croÿ            (b. c.1615 - d. 1674)
1666 – 10 Oct 1675         Alexander von Vehlen               (b. 1599 - d. 1675) 
1675 –  7 Jul 1685         Ferdinand Gottfried von Vehlen     (d. 1685)  
 7 Jul 1685 – 1697         Alexander Otto von Vehlen          (b. 1657 - d. 1727)
1697 –  8 Jun 1716         Johann Wilhelm Joseph von der      (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                             Pfalz 
 8 Jun 1716 – 1728         Karl Philipp von der Pfalz         (b. 1661 - d. 1742)
1728 –  4 Feb 1741         Maximilian Damian Schall von Bell  (b. 1681 - d. 1741)
1741 – 1781                Ferdinand Schall von Bell          (d. 1783)
1781 – 1794                Karl II Schall von Bell            (b. 1747 - d. 1832)







© Ben Cahoon