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Luxembourg
 
[Austrian
                                    Flag]
            8 May 1713 -  15 Dec 1792;
            28 Apr 1793 -  1 Oct 1795 
 
[French
                                    flag]
             15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793;
               1 Oct 1795 - 1 Feb 1815 
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
            16 Mar 1815 - 12 Jul 1845
 
 
[Flag of
                                    Luxembourg]
                  Adopted 12 Jul 1845 
          (Officially adopted 16 Aug 1972)
 
[Ensign
                                    of Luxembourg]
         Ensign Adopted 23 Jun 1972
    Civil & Merchant Ensign 9 Nov 1990


 Map of Luxembourg  Hear National Anthem
"Ons Heemecht"
formerly "Ons Hémécht"
(Our Motherland)
Adopted 1895
Hear Royal Anthem
"De Wilhelmus"
Adopted 1919
Constitution
(17 Oct 1868)
Capital: Luxembourg
Currency: Euro (EUR);
to 1 Jan 2002 Luxembourg
Franc (LUF)
National Holiday: 23 Jun (1896)
National Day
(Birthday of Grand
Duchess Charlotte)
Population: 514,862 (2013)
GDP: $42.67 billion (2013)
Exports: $15.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $23.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Luxemburger 60.4%, Portuguese 14.8%,
French 5%, Italian 4.1%, Belgian 3.5%, German 2.3%,
English 1%, other European and other 8.9% (2005)
Total Active Armed Forces: 900 (2010)
Merchant marine: 49 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 90.6%, Protestant 2.1%,
other Christian 1.1%, Muslim 1%, non-religious 3.7%,
Jewish, others 1.5% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB (nonregional), AfDB, AG, APM, Benelux, BIS, BTWC, CCM, CE, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD (signatory), ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Luxembourg
Index
Chronology

17 Apr 963                 Area of modern Luxembourg acquired from the 
                             abbots of St. Maxim at Trier; title used by
                             the rulers Graf im Moselgau und den Ardennen.
 6 Jul 1083                Title of Count of Luxembourg adopted 
                             (Graf von Lützelburg).
26 Jul 1199                Treaty concluded between Thibaut de Bar,
                             Baudouin de Flandre
, and Philippe de Namur
                             who
agree to recognize Ermesindis as ruler.
13 Mar 1354                Duchy of Luxembourg; formal separation from
                             Lorraine/Lothringen.
26 Feb 1388                The duchy is pledged by Wenceslas II to Jost
                             (Jobst/Josse/Jodok), and from this date to 23 Nov
                             1457 there are side by side the hereditary duke
                             (duc héréditaire) and the actually governing
                             "duke by pledge" (duc par engagère).
 4 Oct 1441                
Elisabeth von Görlitz sells Luxembourg to Philippe
                             de Bourgogne
, but only to succeed upon her death.
22 Nov 1443 - 15 Jun 1467  Administered by Burgundy.
23 Nov 1457                Upon the death of hereditary duke Ladislas,
                             "Postumus" of Austria, the ducal line is claimed
                             by the Burgundian branch of the house of Valois;
                             Anna, sister of Ladislas, and her husband
                             continue to claim to be the rightful heirs
.
20 Mar 1459                Wilhelm II von Thüringen sells claims to Luxembourg
                             
to France which is not recognized by Burgundy.
25 Mar 1462                France waives claim to Luxembourg by declaration.
13 Nov 1462 - 1467         Upon the death of Anna von Österreich, her sister,
                             
Elisabeth von Habsburg and her husband continue
                             to claim Luxembourg.

 1 Sep 1542 - 10 Sep 1542  French occupation.
12 Sep 1543 -  6 Aug 1544  French occupation.
16 Jan 1556 -  8 May 1713  Under Spanish rule as as part of the Spanish 
                             Netherlands (see Belgium).  
 4 Jun 1684 - 28 Jan 1698  French 
occupation.
1701 - 26 Jun 1713         French occupation.
 8 May 1713                As a consequence of the War of the Spanish
                             Succession, Luxembourg becomes part of the 
                             Austrian Netherlands (see Belgium)
26 Jun 1713 -  7 Jan 1715  Under Hessian administration.
 7 Jan 1715                Austrians take possession.
15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793  Annexation by France (arrondissement de Luxembourg)
21 Nov 1794 -  7 Jun 1795  Under siege by France.
12 Jun
1795                French occupy Luxembourg.
 1 Oct 1795 -  1 Feb 1814  Annexation by France (becomes département
                             des Forêts 18 Nov 1795).
15 Feb 1814 -  9 Mar 1814  Under Gouvernement-général de la Belgique 
                             (see Belgium).
10 Mar 1814 - 12 May 1815  Under Gouvernement-général du Rhin Moyen 
                             (from 10 Jun 1814, Bas-Rhin et Rhin Moyen).
16 Mar 1815                Style of duke restored for Willem I of 
                             the Netherlands (Duchy of Luxembourg).
 9 Jun 1815                Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
16 Oct 1830                Belgian provisional government declares
                             Luxembourg an integral part of Belgium
                             (Arlon district defects to the revolutionaries 
                             19 Oct 1830; district of Luxembourg (excluding
                             fortress of Luxembourg) on 22 Oct 1830).
22 Oct 1830 - 19 Jan 1839  Belgian occupation/administration of Luxembourg 
                             (except the fortress-city of Luxembourg).
17 Feb 1831                Upon separation of Belgium from the Kingdom of 
                             the Netherlands, the already diminished 
                             territory of Luxembourg is divided into the 
                             (larger) Belgian province of Luxembourg and
                             the (smaller) surviving Grand Duchy. 
19 Jun 1839                Division acquiesced to by the King/Grand-duke.
23 Nov 1890                End of the personal union with the Netherlands.
 2 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupied by Germany (de facto to 20 Nov 1918).
10 May 1940 - 11 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany (administered from Belgium 4
                             Jun 1940 - 2 Aug 1940; part of the Nazi party Gau
                             Koblenz-Trier [from Feb 1941 Moselland]) 
                             from 20 Aug 1940).
 4 May 1919                Referendum favors continuation of the monarchy.
14 Aug 1940                Luxembourg constitution voided - all references
                             to the "Grand Duchy" or "State of Luxembourg"
                             in official documents prohibited by Germany.
11 Sep 1944 - 12 Apr 1945  Allied occupation.
16 Dec 1944 - 28 Jan 1945  Northern third of Luxembourg re-occupied by 
                             Germany during the Battle of the Bulge.

Resistance
(1944-1945)
Republican
rebellions

(1918, 1919)
 Historical Maps
of Luxembourg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Counts of Ardenne
87. - 897                  Odacar                             (b. 85. - d. 90.) 
897 - c.918                Wigerich                           (b. 87. - d. c.918)
c.918 - 19 Oct 942         Gozelo                             (b. c.914 - d. 942)
19 Oct 942 - 963           Giselbert                          (b. c.915 - d. 963)
963 - 28 Oct 998           Siegfried                          (b. c.916 - d. 998)
28 Oct 998 - 27 Feb 1026   Heinrich I (in Ardennengau)        (b. c.960 - d. 1026) 
                             (co-ruler from 993)
                             (Heinrich V of Bavaria)
28 Oct 998 - 18 May 1004   Giselbert I                        (b. c.960 - d. 1004)
                             (co-ruler in Moselgau)
18 May 1004 -  6 Oct 1019  Friedrich                          (b. c.970 - d. 1019) 
                             (co-ruler in Moselgau)
27 Feb 1026 - 14 Oct 1047  Heinrich II                        (b. c.1005 - d. 1047)
                             (Heinrich VI of Bavaria)
14 Oct 1047 - 14 Aug 1059  Giselbert II                       (b. c.1007 - d. 1059)
14 Aug 1059 -  6 Jul 1083  Konrad (Conrad)                    (b. c.1030 - d. 1086)
Counts of Luxembourg
 6 Jul 1083 -  8 Aug 1086  Konrad I                           (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1086 - 1096         Heinrich III                       (b. c.1060 - d. 1096)
1096 - 23 Jan 1130         Wilhelm I                          (b. c.1070 - d. 1130)
23 Jan 1130 - 1136         Konrad II                          (b. c.1106 - d. 1136)
1136 - 14 Aug 1196         Heinrich IV                        (b. 1111 - d. 1196)
1196 - 1197                Otto (in dispute with following)   (b. 1167 - d. 1200)
14 Aug 1196
 - 12 Feb 1247  Ermesinde -Countess                (b. 1186 - d. 1247)
                             (Ermensindis)   
14 Aug 1196
- 13 Feb 1214  Thibaut, comte de Bar -Regent      (b. 1160? - d. 1214)
                             (husband of Ermesinde, styled Count of Luxembourg)
Apr? 1214 - Jun/Jul 1226   Walram Herzog von Limburg -Regent  (b. c.1175 - d. 1226)
                             (Valerien III, duc de Limbourg;
                             husband of Ermesinde, styled Count of Luxembourg)
12 Feb 1247 - 24 Dec 1281  Heinrich V                         (b. 1216 - d. 1281)
                             (Hendrik IV of Limburg; Henri III of Namur)
24 Dec 1281 -  5 Jun 1288  Heinrich VI                        (b. 1250 - d. 1288)
 5 Jun 1288 - Jun 1310     Heinrich VII                       (b. 1274 - d. 1313)
Jun 1310 - 26 Aug 1346     Johann I (John "the Blind")        (b. 1296 - d. 1346)
26Aug1346-15Nov/19Dec 1353 Karl I (Charles I)                 (b. 1316 - d. 1378)
15Nov/19Dec1353-13Mar 1354 Wenczlaw (Wenceslas)               (b. 1337 - d. 1383)
Dukes

13 Mar 1354 -  8 Dec 1383  Wenczlaw I                         (s.a.)
 8 Dec 1383 - 26 Feb 1388  Wenczlaw II                        (b. 1361 - d. 1419)
- hereditary dukes; styled heir of the duchy of Luxembourg
26 Feb 1388 - 16 Aug 1419  Wenczlaw II                        (s.a.)
16 Aug 1419 -  9 Dec 1437  Sigismund                          (b. 1368 - d. 1437)
                             (Zsigmond of Hungary)
 9 Dec 1437 - 19 Dec 1442  
Elisabeth I -Duchess               (b. 1409 - d. 1442)
                           - together with the following -
 9 Dec 1437 - 27 Oct 1439  Albrecht                           (b. 1397 - d. 1439)
                             (Albrecht V of Austria)
22 Feb 1440 - 23 Nov 1457  Ladislaus "Postumus"               (b. 1440 - d. 1457)

23 Nov 1457 - 20 Mar 1459
  Anna von Österreich -Duchess       (b. 1432 - d. 1462)
23 Nov 1457 - 20 Mar 1459
  Wilhelm II von Thüringen -Regent   (b. 1425 - d. 1482)
                             (husband of Anna, styled Duke of Luxembourg)
20 Mar 1459 - 25 Nov 1462  Philippe "le Bon" -Governor        (b. 1396 - d. 1467)

13 Nov 1462 - 1467         Elisabeth II von Habsburg -Duchess (b. 1437 - d. 1505)
                             (claimed followed death of
Anna)
13 Nov 1462 - 1467         Casimir
Jagiello                   (b. 1427 - d. 1492)
                             (Kazimierz IV Jagiellonczyk of Poland)
                             (husband of Elisabeth II, styled Duke of Luxembourg)

- dukes by pledge/duc par engagère; styled dukes of Luxembourg - 
26 Feb 1388 - 15 Sep 1402  Jost (1st time)                    (b. 1354 - d. 1411)
                             (Josse de Luxembourg/Jobst von Mähren)
15 Sep 140
2 - 23 Nov 1407  Louis, duc d'Orléans -Governor     (b. 1372 - d. 1407)
23 Nov 1407 - 18 Jan 1411  Jost (2nd time)                    (s.a.)
18 Jan 1411 - 22 Nov 1443  Elisabeth von Görlitz -Duchess     (b. 1390 - d. 1451)
18 Jan 1411 - 25 Apr 1415  Antonie de Bourgogne -Regent       (b. 1384 - d. 1415)
                             (Antonie of Brabant and Limburg)
                             (husband of Elisabeth, styled Duke of Luxembourg)

 9 Jun 1419 -  6 Jan 1425  Johann II -Regent                  (b. 1374 - d. 1425)
                             (husband of Elisabeth, styled Duke of Luxembourg)
                             (Johann III of Bavaria)

 1 May 1441 -  4 Oct 1441  Jakob von Sierck -Governor         (b. 1398 - d. 1456)
                             (Archbishop of Trier Jakob I)
                             (not allowed to take office)
22 Nov 1443 - 15 Jun 1467
 Philippe (I) "le Bon" -Governor    (s.a.)
                             (Philippe III of Burgundy)
                             (nominally for Elisabeth von Görlitz
                             until her death 3 Aug 1451, then 
                             continuing after death of Ladislaus)
- hereditary dukes - 
15 Jun 1467 -  5 Jan 1477  Charles II                         (b. 1433 - d. 1477)
                             (Charles I of Burgundy)
 5 Jan 1477 - 27 Mar 1482  Maria -Duchess                     (b. 1457 - d. 1482)
                             (Marie "la Riche" of Burgundy)
27 Mar 1482 - 25 Sep 1506  Philippe II                        (b. 1478 - d. 1506)
                             (Philippe IV of Burgundy; Felipe I of Spain)
25 Sep 1506 - 25 Oct 1555  Charles III                        (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (Carlos I of Spain; Holy Roman
                             Emperor as Karl V)
26 Jun 1548 - 25 Oct 1555  Maria von Habsburg (f) -Regent     (b. 1505 - d. 1558)
25 Oct 1555 - 13 Sep 1598  Philippe III                       (b. 1527 - d. 1598)

                             (Felipe II of Spain) 

13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621  Philippe IV                        (b. 1578 - d. 1621)
                             (Felipe III of Spain)
31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665  Philippe V                         (b. 1605 - d. 1665)
                             (Felipe IV of Spain)
17 Sep 1665 -  4 Jun 1684  Charles IV (1st time)              (b. 1661 - d. 1700)
                             (Carlos II of Spain)
 4 Jun 1684 - 20 Sep 1697  Louis-Dieudonné "le Grand"         (b. 1638 - d. 1715)                              (Louis XIV of France)
20 Sep 1697 -  1 Nov 1700  Charles IV (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1700 - 16 Nov 1700  Interregnum: under the authority 
                           of the Governing Board in Spain
16 Nov 1700 - 25 May 1711  Philippe VI                        (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                             (Felipe V of Spain)
25 May 1711 -  8 May 1713  Maximilien Marie Emmanuel          (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
                             (Maximilian II of Bavaria)
 8 May 1713 -  7 Jan 1715  Interregnum: Hessian administration
 7 Jan 1715 - 20 Oct 1740  Charles IV                         (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                             (Karl III of Austria)
20 Oct 1740 - 29 Nov 1780  Maria Theresa -Duchess             (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
                             (Maria Theresia of Austria)
29 Nov 1780 - 20 Feb 1790  Joseph (Joseph II of Austria)      (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
20 Sep 1790 -  1 Mar 1792  Leopold                            (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
                             (Leopold II of Austria)
 5 Jul 1792 - 12 Dec 1792  François (1st time)                (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                             (Franz I of Austria)
15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793  Annexed to France
28 Apr 1793 -  1 Oct 1795  François (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1795 -  1 Feb 1814  Annexed to France
Commissioners
15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793  ....
1793 - 12 Jun 1795         Blasius Columban Freiherr von      (b. 1714 - d. 1798)
                             Bender -Austrian military governor
1795                       Bernard Stévenotte                 (b. 1752 - d. 18..)
                            (president of the administration)
1795 - May 1798            Nicolas Vincent L
egier             (b. 1754 - d. 1827)
                            (Agent National; from Oct 1795, Commissioner of the Executive
                             Power; from 1796, Commissioner of the Directory)
12 May 1798 - 24 Dec 1798
  Jacques Louis Failly               (b. 1764 - d. ....)
Dec 1798 - 1799            Jean-Baptiste Bernard Arnoul       (b. 1761 - d. 1838)
1799 - 1800                François Pierre Sébastien Delattre (b. 1749 - d. 1834)
Prefects of Forêts
 2 Mar 1800 - 1800         Johannes Birnbaum                  (b. 1763 - d. 1832)
                             (J
ohann Michael Franz Birnbaum)
30 Nov 1800 - 1808         Jean-Baptiste Lacoste              (b. 1756 - d. 1821)
18 May 1808 - 1814         André Joseph Jourdan               (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
                             (from 11 Jun 1810, André Joseph, baron Jourdan)
Governor-general (on behalf of the Allied powers)
15 Feb 1814 -  9 Mar 1814  part of Gouvernement-Général de la
                           Belgique (see Belgium)
10 Mar 1814 - 12 May 1815  Johann August von Sack             (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
Duke¹
16 Mar 1815 -  9 Jun 1815  Guillaume I                        (b. 1772 - d. 1848)
Grand Dukes¹  
 9 Jun 1815 -  7 Oct 1840  Guillaume I                        (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1840 - 17 Mar 1849  Guillaume II                       (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
17 Mar 1849 - 23 Nov 1890  Guillaume III                      (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
24 Oct 1850 - 13 Jan 1879  Prince Henri -Regent               (b. 1820 - d. 1879)
11 Apr 1889 -  3 May 1889  Duke Adolphe -Regent               (b. 1817 - d. 1905)
 6 Nov 1890 - 23 Nov 1890  Duke Adolphe 
-Regent               (s.a.)
23 Nov 1890 - 17 Nov 1905  Adolphe                            (s.a.)
14 Apr 1902 - 17 Nov 1905  Prince Guillaume -Regent           (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
17 Nov 1905 - 25 Feb 1912  Guillaume IV                       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1908 - 25 Feb 1912  Maria Ana de Bragança (f) -Regent  (b. 1861 - d. 1942)
Grand Duchess¹
25 Feb 1912 - 15 Jan 1919  Marie-Adélaïde                     (b. 1894 - d. 1924)
25 Feb 1912 - 14 Jun 1912  Maria Ana de Bragança (f) -Regent  (s.a.)
German Military Commanders

 2 Aug 1914 - 22 Jan 1915  Albrecht Maria Alexander Herzog    (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
                             von Württemberg 
22 Jan 1915 - 20 Nov 1918  Richard Karl von Tessmar           (b. 1853 - d. 1928)
Grand Duchess
¹
15 Jan 1919 - 12 Nov 1964  Charlotte                          (b. 1896 - d. 1985)
                            (9 May 1940 - 14 Apr 1945 in exile [France; from 
                             Aug 1940, London; from 4 Oct 1940, New York; 
                             from Nov 1940, Montreal])
German Military Commanders
10 May 1940 - 22 May 1940  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt     (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
22 May 1940 - 24 May 1940  Otto Gullmann (acting)             (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
25 May 1940 -  4 Jun 1940  Friedrich Schumacher (acting)      (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
Military Governor
 4 Jun 1940 -  6 Aug 1940  Alexander Freiherr von             (b. 1878 - d. 1966)
                             Falkenhausen
Chief of civil administration (from Aug 30 1942, also Gauleiter of Moselland)
 6 Aug 1940 -  9 Sep 1944  Gustav Simon (fled 1-3 Sep 1944)   (b. 1900 - d. 1945)  NSDAP
 1 Sep 1944 -  3 Sep 1944  Curt Souchay (acting for Simon)    (b. 1893 - d. 1978)  Mil     

Grand Dukes
¹
 4 May 1961 - 12 Nov 1964  Prince Jean -Regent                (b. 1921)
12 Nov 1964 -  7 Oct 2000  Jean                               (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1998 -  7 Oct 2000  Prince Henri -Regent               (b. 1955)
 7 Oct 2000 -              Henri                              (s.a.)
 

French Governors
 1 Sep 1542 - 10 Sep 1542  Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise   (b. 1496 - d. 1550)
12 Sep 1543 - 1544         François d'Anglure                 (b. c.1490 - d. 1544)
1544 -  6 Aug 1544         François de Clèves, duc de Nevers  (b. 1516 - d. 1562)
Spanish Governors and Captains-general
 2 Jul 1545 - 23 May 1604  Peter Ernst Graf von Mansfeld      (b. 1517 - d. 1604)
                            (French prisoner
22 Jun 1552 - 18 May 1557)
22 Jun 1552 - 18 May 1557  acting successively f
or Mansfeld
                           - Lamoral, comte d'Egmont          (b. 1522 - d. 1568)
                           - Martin van Rossem, maréchal de   (b. 1478 - d. 1555)
                              Gueldre (to 1555)
                           - Charles de Brimeu, comte de      (b. 1524/25 - d. 1572)
                              Menghen

Sep 1576 - Feb 1577        Jean de Naves, sieur de Sivry
                             (acting for
Mansfeld)
Jun 1604 - 1626            Florent, comte de Berlaimont       (b. 1546 - d. 1626)
Apr 1627 - 1636            Christoph Graf Emden von
           (b. 1569 - d. 1636)
                             Ostfriesland          
1636 - 1642                Philippe-Thierry, comte de
        (b. 1596 - d. 1653)
                             Manderscheid-Blankenheim
                           + Andrea Cantelmo                  (b. 1587 - d. 1645)
                           (Aug 1637 - Nov 1637)
Jan 1638 - 1638            Claude de Lannoy, comte de la
     (b. 1578 - d. 1643)
                             Motterie (acting)            
18 Jan 1642 - 1648         Jean de Beck                       (b. 1588 - d. 1648)
15 Jan 1646 - Nov 1646     Alonso, marchese Strozzi
                             (acting for Beck)
1648 - 19 Jun 1650         Philippe-François de Croÿ,         (b. 1610 - d. 1650)
                             duc d'Havré 
1650                       Gilles, marquis de Moulinguin
                             (acting)
Aug 1650 - 1652            Alfonso di Lorenzo
, marchese       (d. 1657)
                             Strozzi (acting)
1652 - 1654                Francisco Sanchez-Garrido Pardo    (b. 1598 - d. 1679)
                             (acting)
24 Jan 1654 - 12 Jan 1675  Philippe de Ligne-Arenberg, prince 

                             
de Chimay et de Croy d'Arenberg  (b. 1619 - d. 1675)
1675                       Jean-Charles-Chrétien de Sandas et
                             Louvegnies, baron de Grandcourt
                             (acting)
1676                       Charles de Watteville et de Joux,  (b. 1628 - d. 1699)  
                             marquis de Conflans (acting)
1675 - 1680                Johann-Franz-Desiderius Fürst von  
(b. 1626 - d. 1699)
                             Nassau-Siegen                  
1680 - 1684                Ernest-Alexandre Dominique de 
    (b. 1643 - d. 1686)
                             Ligne-Arenberg Croÿ, prince        
                             de Chimay et de Cro
ÿ d'Arenberg
French Governors
12 Jun 1684 - Jul 1686     Henri de Lambert, marquis de       (b. 1631 - d. 1686)
                             Lambert et de Saint Bris,
                             baron de Citry 
                            (governor and lieutenant-general)
10 Aug 1686 - Jul 1687     Louis-François, duc de Boufflers   (b. 1644 - d. 1711)
 
25 Jul 1687 - 1690         Nicolas de Catinat, seigneur de    (b. 1637 - d. 1712)
                             Saint Gratien 
                            (from Mar 1690, Lieutenant-general)
1690 - 1697?               Henri, duc de Harcourt             (b. 1654 - d. 1718)
1697                       Louis-François du Parc, marquis    (b. 1647 - d. 1709)
                             de Locmaria
Spanish Governor and captain-general
15 Nov 1697 - 1713         Jean-Frédéric, comte d'Autel       (b. 1645 - d. 1716)
Hessian Governors
1713 - 1714                Reinhardt Vincent, baron Hompesch  (b. 1660 - d. 1733)
 1 Jun 1714 - 1715?        Johan Rabo, baron van Keppel       (b. 1677 - d. 1733)
Austrian Governors
 5 Jan 1715 -  4 Dec 1716  Bertram Anton Freiherr von         (b. 1674? - d. 1720)
                             Wachtendonk  
 4 Dec 1716 - 17 Apr 1719  Johann Franz Graf von Bronkhorst-  (b. 1640 - d. 1719)
                             Gronsveld
1719 - Jul 1720            Maximilian von Pasqualini          (b. 1669 - d. 1720)
1720 - 1722                Adolf Christian Freiherr von Galen (d. 1722)
Mar 1722 - 27 Apr 1727     Johann Wilhelm Freiherr von Unruh  (b. 1668 - d. 1728)
29 May 1727 - Oct 1729     Franz Anton Paul Graf Wallis       (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
Oct 1729 -  7 May 1730     Philippe Henri de Magawly,         (b. 1675 - d. 1756) 
                             baron de Cabry (1st time)(acting)
 7 May 1730 - 22 May 1731  Wilhelm Reinhard Graf Neipperg     (b. 1684 - d. 1774)
                             (1st time)
22 May 1731 - 22 Feb 1732  Philippe Henri de Magawly,         (s.a.)
                             baron de Cabry (2nd time)(acting)
22 Feb 1732 -  5 May 1733  Sigismund Freiherr von Thungen     (b. 1687 - d. 1745)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 5 May 1733 - 22 Jun 1734  Wilhelm Reinhard Graf Neipperg     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
22 Jun 1734 - 30 Jul 1736  Sigismund Freiherr von Thungen     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
30 Jul 1736 - Jan 1737     Wilhelm Reinhard Graf Neipperg     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
Jan 1737 - Apr 1737        Georges Adolphe d'Olizy (1st time) (d. 1739)
                             (acting)
Apr 1737 - May 1737        Jacques Antoine de Peissant,       (b. c.1670 - d. 1748)
                             comte de Rumigny (acting)
May 1737 - Jan 1738        Wilhelm Reinhard Graf Neipperg     (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
Jan 1738 - 16 May 1739     Georges-Adolphe d'Olizy (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1739 - 17 Sep 1742         Carl Urban Graf von Chanclos       (b. 1686 - d. 1761)
                             (acting)
17 Sep 1742 - 1743         Holtzapfel (acting)
1743 - Mar 1744            Melligny (acting)
Mar 1744 - 1753            Wilhelm Reinhard Graf Neipperg     (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1753 - 20 Oct 1755         Eberhard Reichsfreiherr von        (b. 1688 - d. 1767)
                             Gemmingen  (1st time)(acting)
20 Oct 1755 - 1766         Ernst Dietrich Marschall von       (b. 1692 - d. 1771)
                             Burgholzhausen
1756 - 1763                Eberhard Reichsfreiherr von        (s.a.)
                             Gemmingen (2nd time)(acting)
                             (acting for Marschall)
1766 - May 1773            Maximilian Friedrich Ernst Fürst   (b. 1732 - d. 1773)
                             von Salm-Salm
 2 Jan 1767 - 1785         Christian Jacob Freiherr von       (b. 1703 - d. 175)
                             Vogelsang 
                            (acting for Salm-Salm to May 1773)
 1 Sep 1785 -  7 Jun 1795  Johann Blasius Freiherr von Bender (b. 1713 - d. 1798)
                            (in opposition 15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793)
Dutch Commissioner-general
12 May 1815 -  9 Oct 1815  Johan Gijsbert Verstolk van Soelen (b. 1776 - d. 1845)
Governor
 2 Sep 1815 - 31 Dec 1830  Jean Georges Othon Victorin        (b. 1763 - d. 1831)
                             Zacharie Willmar 
Governors-general
 1 Jan 1831 -  4 Mar 1831  Jean Leclerc (acting)              (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
 4 Mar 1831 - 27 May 1831  Carl Bernhard Herzog von Sachsen-  (b. 1792 - d. 1862)
                             Weimar
Dutch Chairman of the Government Commission (in Luxembourg)
27 May 1831 - 23 Jun 1839  Friedrich Wilhelm von Goedecke     (b. 1771 - d. 1857
)  Non-party
Belgian Governors (in Arlon)
 5 Oct 1830 - 19 Jan 1839  the governors of Belgian province Luxembourg
Commissioners      
23 Jun 1839 - 23 Sep 1839  Christian Ernst Stifft             (b. 1780 - d. 1855
)  Non-party
                           + Hans Daniel Ludwig Friedrich     (b. 1794 - d. 1862)  Non-party
                              Hassenpflug    
Chief of the Civil Services within the Grand Duchy
23 Sep 1839 - 26 Oct 1840  Hans Daniel Ludwig Friedrich       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Hassenpflug 
President of the State Government
26 Oct 1840 - 31 Dec 1841  Jean-Baptiste Gellé                (b. 1777 - d. 1847)  Non-party
Governor
 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Jul 1848  Gaspar Théodore Ignace de La       (b. 1787 - d. 1871)  Con+Lib
                             Fontaine (acting to 15 Jun 1842)
Prime ministers (Presidents of the Council of General Administrators to 29 Nov 1857;
then Presidents of the Government to 14 Jul 1989)
 1 Aug 1848 -  2 Dec 1848  Gaspar Théodore Ignace de la       (s.a.)               Con+Lib
                             Fontaine
 2 Dec 1848 - 22 Sep 1853  Jean-Jacques Madelaine Willmar     (b. 1792 - d. 1866)  Lib
22 Sep 1853 - 26 Sep 1860  Charles Mathias Simons             (b. 1802 - d. 1874)  Con+Lib
26 Sep 1860 -  3 Dec 1867  Baron Victor de Tornaco            (b. 1805 - d. 1875)  Lib
 3 Dec 1867 - 26 Dec 1874  Lambert Joseph Emmanuel Servais    (b. 1811 - d. 1890)  Lib
26 Dec 1874 - 23 Feb 1885  Félix, baron de Blochausen         (b. 1834 - d. 1915)  Lib
23 Feb 1885 - 24 Sep 1888  Jules Georges Édouard Thilges      (b. 1817 - d. 1904)  Lib
24 Sep 1888 - 12 Oct 1915  Paul Eyschen                       (b. 1841 - d. 1915)  Lib;1904 LL
12 Oct 1915 -  6 Nov 1915  Mathias Mongenast (acting)         (b. 1843 - d. 1926)  LL
 6 Nov 1915 - 24 Feb 1916  Hubert Loutsch                     (b. 1879 - d. 1946)  PD
24 Feb 1916 - 19 Jun 1917  Victor Thorn                       (b. 1844 - d. 1930)  LL
19 Jun 1917 - 28 Sep 1918  Léon Michel Kauffman               (b. 1869 - d. 1952)  LL
28 Sep 1918 - 19 Mar 1925  Émile Reuter                       (b. 1874 - d. 1973)  PD
19 Mar 1925 - 15 Jul 1926  Pierre Prüm                        (b. 1886 - d. 1950)  PNI
15 Jul 1926 -  5 Nov 1937  Joseph Bech (1st time)             (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  PD
 5 Nov 1937 - 23 Dec 1953  Pierre Dupong                      (b. 1885 - d. 1953) PD; Dec 1944
                             (10 May 1940 - 23 Sep 1944 in London exile)           PCS-CSV
10 May 1940 - 22 Oct 1940  Albert Wehrer                      (b. 1895 - d. 1967)  Non-party
                             (president of the Government [from
                             23 May 1940 Administrative] Commission)
22 Oct 1940 - 25 Nov 1940  Johann (Jean) Metzdorf (acting)                         Non-party
                             (president of the Administrative Commission)
25 Nov 1940 -  1 Jan 1941  Drontsch                                                Non-party
                             (commissioner for the Administration Commission)
23 Dec 1953 - 29 Mar 1958  Joseph Bech (2nd time)             (s.a.)               PCS-CSV
                             (acting to 29 Dec 1953)
29 Mar 1958 -
23 Feb 1959  Pierre Frieden                     (b. 1892 - d. 1959)  PCS-CSV
23 Feb 1959 -  2 Mar 1959  Joseph Bech (3rd time)(acting)     (s.a.)               
PCS-CSV
 2 Mar 1959 - 17 Jun 1974  Pierre Werner (1st time)           (b. 1913 - d. 2002)  PCS-CSV
17 Jun 1974 - 16 Jul 1979  Gaston Thorn                       (b. 1928 - d. 2007)  PD-DP
16 Jul 1979 - 20 Jul 1984  Pierre Werner (2nd time)           (s.a.)               PCS-CSV
20 Jul 1984 - 20 Jan 1995  Jacques Santer                     (b. 1937)            PCS-CSV
20 Jan 1995 -  4 Dec 2013  Jean-Claude Juncker                (b. 1954)            PCS-CS
 4 Dec 2013 -              Xavier Bettel                      (b. 1973)            PD-DP 

 

Dutch Secretary (from 14 Aug 1838, Privy Councillor) for the Affairs of
the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
(in The Hague)
 1 Jan 1831 - 14 Nov 1841  Christian Ernst Stifft             (s.a.)
Chancellors of State for
the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (in The Hague)
15 Nov 1841 -  3 Apr 1848  Friedrich Georg Prosper Freiherr   (b. 1802 - d. 1886)
                             von Blochausen
                             (acting to 18 Jul 1844)

 3 Apr 1848 - 26 Apr 1848  Henri Guillaume Joseph Grégoire    (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
                             (acting)
26 Apr 1848 - 31 Aug 1849  Jean François Xavier Würth-Paquet  (b. 1800 - d. 1874) 

                             (acting)
Secretaries for the Affairs of the Grand Duchy 
of Luxembourg (in The Hague)
 1 Sep 1849 - 31 Mar 1882  Gustave Adolphe Henri d'Olimart    (b. 1821 - d. 1896)
 1 Apr 1882 - 23 Nov 1890  Hippolyte Émile, comte de Villers  (b. 1843 - d. 1920)

Resistance and Allied Occupation 1944-1945

23 Mar 1944                Letzeburger Patriote Liga, Letzeburger Róde Léf and Letzeburger
                             Volléks-Legóin resistance movements, set up previously, 
                             unite into a new organization called Unión vun de Letzeburger
                             Freihéts-organisation
(UNION).
 1 Sep 1944                Letzeburger Freihéts-Bewegong joins UNION.
13 Sep 1944 - 23 Apr 1945  Allied occupation.

President of UNION
1944 - 1945                François Schammel

Allied Regional Military Government Officers, Luxembourg (all from U.S.)
13 Sep 1944 - 16 Sep 1944  Charles William Matthews           (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
16 Sep 1944 - 13 Nov 1944  Edgar Alonzo Jett II               (b. 1906 - d. 1986)
13 Nov 1944 - 23 Apr 1945  Charles William Matthews           (b. 1904 - d. 1988)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 16 Mar 1815 - 9 Jun 1815: Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi des Pays-Bas, Prince d'Orange-Nassau, Duc de Luxembourg, etc., etc., etc. (French); Von Gottes Gnaden König der Niederlande, Prinz von Oranien-Nassau, Herzog von Luxemburg, etc., etc., etc. (German) ("by the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Duke of Luxembourg, etc., etc, etc.");
(b) 9 Jun 1815 - 23 Nov 1890: Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi des Pays-Bas, Prince d'Orange-Nassau, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg, etc., etc., etc. (French); Von Gottes Gnaden König der Niederlande, Prinz von Oranien-Nassau, Grossherzog von Luxemburg, etc., etc., etc. (German)("by the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, etc., etc, etc.");
(c) 23 Nov 1890 - 7 Oct 2000: Par la grâce de Dieu, Grand-Duc/Grande-Duchesse de Luxembourg, Duc/Duchesse de Nassau, etc., etc., etc. (French); Von Gottes Gnaden Grossherzog/Grossherzogin von Luxemburg, Herzog/Herzogin von Nassau (from 27/28 Jun 1906 - 12 Nov 1964 zu Nassau), etc., etc., etc. (German); Vu Gottes Gnod, Groussherzog vu Lëtzebuerg, Herzog vun Nassau, etc., etc., etc. (Luxembourgish; official from 24 Feb 1984)("by the Grace of God, Grand Duke/Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Duke/Duchess of Nassau, etc., etc., etc.");
(d) from 7 Oct 2000: Grand-Duc de Luxembourg, Duc de Nassau (French); Grossherzog von Luxemburg, Herzog von Nassau (French); Groussherzog vu Lëtzebuerg, Herzog vun Nassau (Luxembourgish)("Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau").

Party abbreviations: PCS-CSVParti Populaire Chrétien Social/Christlich Soziale Volkspartei/ Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei (Christian Social People's Party, christian-democratic, center-right, est.1944); PD-DPParti Démocratique/Demokratische Partei/Demokratesch Partei (Democratic Party, social liberal, center-right, est.1955);
- Former parties: Con = Conservative; Lib = Liberal; LL = Ligue Libérale/Liberalen Liga/Liberal Liga (Liberal League, liberal, secular, 1904-1925, suceeded by DP); PNI = Parti National Indépendant/Unabhängige Nationalpartei/Onofhängeg Nationalpartei (National Independent Party, populist, split from PD, 1918-1931); PDParti de la Droite/ Rechtspartei/ Rietspartei (Party of the Right, conservative, 1914 - Dec 1944, renamed CSV); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945, only legal party in Luxembourg 27 Aug 1940 - 9 Sep 1944)


Attempts to Establish a Republic in Luxembourg 1918-1919

Note: The end of World War I was followed by at chaotic period, as several groups, having
different points of view on the status of post-war Luxembourg opposed each other (partisans of the reigning Grand Duchess of the House of Nassau, of forming a republic, and of annexation to Belgium or France).

 9 Nov 1918 (hours)        First attempt to create a republic at Luxembourg.
11 Nov 1918 (hours)        Second republic revolt at Esch-sur-Alzette.
10 Jan 1919                Some members of the Luxembourgian Chamber declare the House
                             of Nassau deposed and that a Committee of Public Safety
                             (Comité de Salut Public) will govern the "republic."
11 Jan 1919                Chamber members are dispersed by French troops.
 

 9 Nov 1918 (hours)        Luxembourg-City Committee
                           - Aloys Kaiser
                           - Émile Mark                       (b. 1874 - d. 1935)  POS-LSA
                           - Jean Schaak
11 Nov 1918 (hours)        Esch-sur-Alzette Committee
                           - Pierre Kappweiler                (b. 1887 - d. 1931)
                           - Jacques Tillmany
                           - Pierre Schaak                    (b. 1885 - d. 19..)
Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety
10 Jan 1919 - 11 Jan 1919  Émile Servais                      (b. 1847 - d. 1928)  PL

Party abbreviations: POS-LSAParti Ouvrier Socialiste Luxembourgeois/Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei/Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei (Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party, social-democratic, est.1902); PL = Parti Libéral (Liberal Party)







 © Ben Cahoon