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Belgium 
 
Austrian Netherlands 17th cent
                                    - 1781
             17th cent. - 24 Sep 1781 
             Austrian Netherlands flag
 
Austrian Netherlands 1781-1787
           24 Sep 1781 - 31 Dec 1786 
             Austrian Netherlands flag
 
[Civil Flag
                                    of Austrian First Republic]
            31 Dec 1786 - 24 Oct 1789;
            7 Dec 1790 - 27 Jul 1794
 
United Belgian States 1789
          24 Oct 1789 - 11 Jan 1790
              United Belgian States
 
[1790
                                    United Belgian States flag]
             11 Jan 1790 -  7 Dec 1790
               United Belgian States
[French
                                    flag]
          19 Nov 1792 - 15 Feb 1814
 
 
[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
             16 Mar 1815 - 24 Sep 1830
 
Belgium
                                    Provisional flag 1830
            24 Sep 1830 - 23 Jan 1831 
 
[Flag of
                                    Belgium]
               Adopted 23 Jan 1831
 
Map of Belgium Hear National Anthem
"La Brabançonne"
(The Song of Brabant)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Sep 1830
(Lyrics 1860/1921)
Constitution
(7 Feb 1831)
Capital: Brussels
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1831 - 1 Jan 2002 Belgian
 Franc (BEF);
1940-1944 German
 Reichsmark (DER);
1915-1918 Belgian Franken (BEF)
National Holiday: 21 Jul (1831)
Ascension to Throne of
King Leopold I 
Population: 10,444,268 (2013)
GDP: $421.7 billion (2013)
Exports: $295.3 billion (2013)
Imports: $310.2 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Flemish 53.7%, Walloon 31.6%, Italian 2.6%,
French 2%, Arab 1.8%, German 1.5%, Berber 0.9%,
other 5.9% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 37,000 (2006)
U.S. Forces: 1,281 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 87ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 46.7%, Muslim 3.9%, other
Christian 2.6%, non-religious/secular/other 46.8% (2001)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, Benelux, BIS, BTWC, CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC (observer), DLU (associate), EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PA (observer), PCA, SEGIB (observer), SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Belgium Index
Chronology
   
10th - 11th cent.          Counties of Louvain (Brabant), Antwerp, Malines,
                             Looz, Hainaut (900), Namur, Liège, Stavelot-
                             Malmedy, Limburg (c.1030), Montaigu, La
                             Roche, Durbuy, Chiny, Arlon, Vianden, Bouillion 
                             and Luxembourg.
bf.1139                    Duchy of Lower Lotharingia (Lorraine)(north of 
                             Lotharingia; all states except Liège-Bouillon,
                             Stavelot and Flanders).
1458                       County of Flanders.
1467                       Personal union of Flanders and principalities of
                             Lotharingia under the Valois dukes of Burgundy.
26 Jun 1548                Under the Habsburg dynasty.
16 Jan 1556                Spanish Netherlands, under the kings of the
                             Spanish monarchy.
13 Jun 1584 - 20 Sep 1604  Ostend under Dutch (and English) occupation.
1703 - 1706                French occupation (in Namur and Luxembourg
                             to 1714).
12 Sep 1703                Limburg under Austrian rule.
Jul 1706                   Brabant and Flanders under allied administration 
                             ("conference of the high powers"), Hainaut and 
                             Namur under Bavarian administration. 
 8 May 1713                As a consequence of the War of the Spanish 
                             Succession, the Spanish Netherlands passes to 
                             the Archdukes of Austria (Austrian 
                             Netherlands)(also see Luxembourg).
May 1745 - 18 Oct 1748     Occupied by France.
11 Jan 1790                United Belgian (or Netherlands) States (United 
                             States of Belgium or United Belgian States
                             [Republiek der Verenigde Nederlandse Staten]);
                             Luxembourg remains under Austrian control.
 7 Dec 1790                Austrian rule restored.
19 Nov 1792 -  9 Mar 1793  Occupied by France.
27 Jul 1794                Occupied by France.
15 Oct 1794                Central and Superior Administration of Belgium
                             (covering all areas except except Bouillon).
31 Aug 1795                Belgian territory is divided into nine departments
 1 Oct 1795                Belgian departments annexed by France.
18 Aug 1797                Officially ceded to France by Austria.
15 Feb 1814                Belgian territory separated from France,
                             provisional government headed by Gouverneur-
                             général de la Belgique installed under authority
                             of the Allies- Belgium (Provinces de la Belgique,
                             Provinces Belges also in official use).
21 Jul 1814                Act on transfer of sovereignty to the Sovereign
                             Prince of the Netherlands is signed, on
                             assumption of authority in Belgium 1 Aug 1814
16 Mar 1815                Incorporation of the Belgian lands and Liège into
                             the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
24 Sep 1830                Administrative Commission established by Belgian
                             revolutionary forces.
 4 Oct 1830                Proclamation of independence by provisional
                             government (confirmed by decree of the National
                             Congress of 18 Nov 1830) (Belgium [Belgique]).
 3 Feb 1831                Congress proclaims Louis-Charles-Philippe-Raphaël
                             d'Orléans, duc de Nemours, son of King 
                             Louis-Philippe of the French, to be king; his
                             father refuses in his name.
25 Feb 1831                Kingdom of Belgium 
 4 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupied by Germany (in Brussels 20 Aug 1914),
                             except for a small area behind the Yser River.
22 Dec 1917 - 25 Jun 1918  Independent State of Flanders proclaimed.
21 Mar 1917                In preparation for a possible division into two
                             separate autonomous or independent polities, 
                             Belgium was divided into two administrative
                             regions: Flandern, capital Brussels and
                             Wallonien, capital Namur. 
20 Sep 1920                Eupen-Malmedy, and Moresnet formally annexed.
10 May 1940 -  3 Sep 1944  Germany occupies Belgium (in Brussels 17 May 1940)
                             and administers it together with Nord and Pas 
                             de Calais departments of France.
29 Jul 1940 - 1944         Eupen, Malmedy and Moresnet annexed to Germany.
Jul 1944                   German military administration replaced by a
                             civilian one as a prelude to integration into
                             the German Reich. Dec 1944 Belgium is nominally
                             divided into three parts: Distrikt Brüssel,
                             remaining under the Reichskommissar; Reichsgau
                            
Flandern, capital Antwerpen; and Reichsgau
                             Wallonien, capital Liège.
 3 Sep 1944 - 21 Sep 1944  Allied occupation.
Dec 1944 - Jan 1945        Brief German reoccupation of parts of the 
                             provinces of Liège and Luxembourg.
Regions and
Communities

Provinces
French
Départements

(1793-1814)
Independent Flanders
(1917-1918)
Eupen-Malmedy
(1918-1925)
Bouillon
(1695-1795,
1814-1815)
Liège
(1694-1795)
Fagnolle (Ligne)
(1765-1793)
Limburg Duchy
(1703-1795)
Neutral Moresnet
(1817-1920)
Nivelles
(1668-1795)
Reckheim
(1623-1795)
Stavelot-Malmedy
(1682-1794) 
Historical Maps
of Belgium

Map of Belgium
1559-1794


 

Dukes1
26 Jun 1548 - 25 Oct 1555  Charles III                          (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
26 Jun 1548 - 25 Oct 1555  Maria von Habsburg (f) -Regent       (b. 1505 - d. 1558)
25 Oct 1555 - 16 Jan 1556  Philip V                             (b. 1527 - d. 1556)
16 Jan 1556 - 16 Nov 1700  the kings of Spain
- in Hainaut/Henegouwen and Namur/Namen -
16 Nov 1700 -  2 Jan 1712  Philippe                             (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                             (Felipe V of Spain)
May 1712 -  8 May 1713     Maximilien Marie Emmanuel            (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
                             (Maximilian II of Bavaria)
 8 May 1713 - 20 Oct 1740  Charles                              (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                             (Karl III of Austria)
- Limburg/Limbourg -
16 Nov 1700 -  6 Dec 1703  Philippe                             (s.a.) 
 6 Dec 1703 - 20 Oct 1740  Charles                              (s.a.) 
- in Brabant -
16 Nov 1700 -  5 Jun 1706  Philippe                             (s.a.) 
 5 Jun 1706 - 20 Oct 1740  Charles                              (s.a.) 
- Flanders/Vlaanderen -
16 Nov 1700 -  6 Jun 1706  Philippe                             (s.a.) 
 6 Jun 1706 - 20 Oct 1740  Charles                              (s.a.) 
- in Malines, Upper Gelder (to Prussia 1713), Tournai, West-Flanders 
and from 1711, Hainaut (under titular sovereignty of Charles to Feb 1716) -
12 Sep 1703 - 22 Aug 1718  Conference of the High Powers
                           - John Churchill, Duke of            (b. 1650 - d. 1722)
                               Marlborough (to 1707)(U.K.)
                           - William Cadogan (1707 - 1710)      (b. 1675 - d. 1726)
                               (U.K.)
                           - Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery      (b. 1676 - d. 1731)
                               (U.K.)(from 1710)
                           - Frederik Adriaan Baron van Reede,  (b. 1659 - d. 1738)
                               Baron van Renswoude (to 1708) 
                               (United Netherlands)
                           - Johan van den Bergh                (b. 1664 - d. 1755)
                               (from 1708) (United Netherlands)
- all of the Southern Netherlands -
22 Aug 1718 - 17 Oct 1797  the rulers of Austria
                            (interrupted by invasions and occupations listed [s.a.])
Governors-general
26 Jun 1548 - 25 Oct 1555  Maria von Habsburg (f)               (s.a.)
25 Oct 1555 - 27 Jul 1559  Emmanuele Filiberto, duca di Savoia  (b. 1528 - d. 1580)
27 Jul 1559 - 30 Dec 1567  Margarita, duquesa de Parma (f)      (b. 1522 - d. 1586)
30 Dec 1567 - 29 Nov 1573  Fernando Álvarez de Toledo,          (b. 1507 - d. 1582)
                             duque de Alba
 7 Jul 1572 -  8 Nov 1576  Willem, graaf van Nassau,            (b. 1533 - d. 1584)
                             prince d'Orange (in rebellion)
29 Nov 1573 -  5 Mar 1576  Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga           (b. 1528 - d. 1576)
 5 Mar 1576 - 31 Jul 1576  Gerónimo de Roda
                           + Philippe de Croy, duc de Aërschot  (b. 1526 - d. 1595)
                           (acting)
31 Jul 1576 -  3 Nov 1576  Charles Philippe de Croy,            (b. 1549 - d. 1613)
                             marquis de Havré (acting)
 3 Nov 1576 -  1 Oct 1578  Juan de Austria                      (b. 1547 - d. 1578)
                             (acting to 6 May 1577 in Luxembourg)
20 Jan 1578 - 15 Mar 1580  Matthias Erzherzog von Österreich    (b. 1557 - d. 1619)
 1 Oct 1578 -  6 Dec 1592  Alessandro Farnese, duca di Parma    (b. 1545 - d. 1592)
Jun 1580 - Nov 1581        Margarita, duquesa de Parma (f)      (s.a.)
                             (co-ruler, in Namur)
26 Jan 1581 - 26 Jul 1581  Francis Hercule, duc d'Anjou         (b. 1555 - d. 1584)
                             et d'Alençon (in dissidence)
                            (Prince Souverain des Pays-Bas)
1592 - Feb 1594            Peter Ernst Graf von Mansfeld-       (b. 1517 - d. 1604)
                             Heldrungen (acting to 6 Dec 1592)
Feb 1594 - 12 Feb 1595     Ernst Erzherzog von Österreich       (b. 1553 - d. 1595)
12 Feb 1595 - 1596         Pedro Enríquez de Azevedo,           (b. 1525 - d. 1610)
                             conde de Fuentes (interim)
1596 - 1598                Albrecht Erzherzog von Österreich    (b. 1559 - d. 1621)
1598 -  6 May 1598         Andreas Erzherzog von Österreich     (b. 1558 - d. 1600)
 6 May 1598 -  1 Dec 1633  Isabella Clara Eugenia de España (f) (b. 1566 - d. 1633)
                             (Princesse Souveraine des Pays-Bas to 13 Jul 1621)
 5 Sep 1599 - 13 Jul 1621  Albrecht Erzherzog von Osterreich    (b. 1559 - d. 1621)
                             (Prince Souverain des Pays-Bas)
29 Nov 1621 - 1634         Francisco de Moncada, marqués  
      (b. 1586 - d. 1635)
                             de Aytona (interim from 1633)  
1634 -  9 Nov 1641         Fernando, Arzobispo de Toledo        (b. 1609 - d. 1641)
1641 - 1644                Francisco Melo de Portugal y Castro  (b. 1597 - d. 1651)
                             marqués de Villanueva
1644 - 1647                Emanuel de Moura y Corte-Real,       (b. c.1590 - d. 1651)
                             marqués de Castel Rodrigo
1647 - 1656                Leopold Wilhelm Erzherzog von        (b. 1614 - d. 1662)
                             Österreich
1656 - Mar 1659            Juan José d'Austria                  (b. 1629 - d. 1679)
1659 - Sep 1664            Luis de Benavides Carrillo de        (b. 1608 - d. 1668)
                             Toldedo, marqués de Caracena
1664 - Sep 1668            Francisco de Moura-Cortereal,        (b. 1610 - d. 1675)
                             marqués da Castel Rodrigo
1668 - Jul 1670            Íñigo Melchor Fernández de Valesco   (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
                             y Guzmán, duque de Feria
1670 - Feb 1675            Juan Domingo de Zúñiga y Fonseca,    (b. 1640 - d. 1716)
                             conde de Monterrey
1675 - Dec 1677            Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea y Borja,  (b. 1634 - d. 1692)
                             duque de Villahermosa
1678 - 1682                Alessandro Farnese de Parma          (b. 1635 - d. 1689)
1682 - 19 Jun 1685         Ottone Enrico del Carretto,          (b. 1639 - d. 1685)
                             conte di Millesimo
1685 - 1692                Francisco Antonio de Agurto,         (b. 1640 - d. 1702)
                             marques de Gastañaga
1692 - 23 Mar 1701         Kurfürst Maximilian II von Bayern    (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1701 -  7 Oct 1704  Jan van Brouchoven Graf van          (b. 1644 - d. 1725)
                             Bergeyck
 7 Oct 1704 - Jul 1706     Kurfürst Maximilian II von Bayern    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Administrators-general
(governors of Limburg + Liège
)
22 Oct 1703 - 1705         Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Graf           (b. 1671 - d. 1742)
                             Sinzendorff und Thannhausen
                             (1st time)        
19 Oct 1705 - 1707         Johann Peter Graf von Goëss          (b. 1667 - d. 1716)
 6 Nov 1707 - Jul 1709     Francisco Bernardo de Quiros         (b. 1650 - d. 1709)
23 Jul 1709 - 25 Feb 1710  Johann Wenzel Graf von Gallas        (b. 1670 - d. 1719)  
25 Feb 1710 - 27 Oct 1713  Franz Adolf Freiherr von Zinserling
27 Oct 1713 - 14 Dec 1713  Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Graf           (s.a.)
                             Sinzendorff und Thannhausen
                             (2nd time)
Governors (of Limburg)
14 Dec 1713 - 1714         Georg Freiherr Tunderfeld            (b. 1678 - d. 1748)
17 Mar 1714 - 31 Jan 1716  Franz Sigismund Graf Thurn und       (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
                             Valsassina 
Governors-general
31 Jan 1716 - Nov 1716     Joseph Lothar Dominik Graf von       (b. 1673 - d. 1751)
                             Königsegg-Rothenfels (acting)
Nov 1716 - 1717            Ercole Giuseppe Luigi Turinetti      (b. 1658 - d. 1726)
                             marchese di Prié (acting)
1717 - Dec 1724            François Eugéne (Eugenio) Prince de  (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
                             Savoie-Soissons
Dec 1724 -  9 Oct 1725     Wirich Philipp Lorenz Graf Dhaun     (b. 1669 - d. 1741)
                             (acting)
 9 Oct 1725 - 26 Aug 1741  Maria Elisabeth Erzherzogin von      (b. 1680 - d. 1741)
                             Österreich (f) 
26 Aug 1741 - 16 Mar 1743  Friedrich August Gervas Graf Harrach (b. 1696 - d. 1749)
                             zu Rohrau (acting) 
16 Mar 1743 -  8 Jan 1744  Karl Ferdinand Graf von Königsegg-   (b. 1696 - d. 1759)
                             Erps (acting) 
 8 Jan 1744 - 16 Mar 1746  Karl Alexander Prinz von Lothringen  (b. 1712 - d. 1780)
                             und Bar (1st time)
                           - jointly with -
 8 Jan 1744 - 16 Dec 1744  Maria Anna Erzherzogin von           (b. 1718 - d. 1744)
                             Österreich (f) (1st time)
French Military Governor
May 1745 - 18 Oct 1748     Moritz von Sachsen (Marurice de Saxe)(b. 1696 - d. 1750)
Governors-general
Oct 1748 - 23 Apr 1749     Karl Joseph Graf Batthyány (acting)  (b. 1697 - d. 1772)
23 Apr 1749 -  4 Jul 1780  Karl Alexander Prinz von Lothringen  (s.a.)
                             und Bar (2nd time)
28 Jun 1780 - Nov 1480     Georg Adam Fürst von Starhemberg     (b. 1724 - d. 1807)
                             (acting)
Nov 1780 - Jun 1787        Marie Christine Johanna Josepha      (b. 1742 - d. 1798)
                             Antonia Erzherzogin von
                             Österreich (f)(1st time)
                           - jointly with -
Nov 1780 - Jun 1787        Albert Kasimir August Prinz von      (b. 1738 - d. 1822)
                             Sachsen-Teschen (1st time)
Jun 1787 - Nov 1787        Joseph Graf Murray (acting)          (b. 1718 - d. 1802)
Military governor
Nov 1787 - 12 Dec 1789     Richard Graf Alton                   (b. 1732 - d. 1790)
Commander of the Patriotic Army
24 Oct 1789 - 11 Jan 1790  Jan Frans Vonck                      (b. 1743 - d. 1792)
Plenipotentiary of the People of Brabant
24 Oct 1789 - 11 Jan 1790  Hendrik Karel Nicolaas van der Noot  (b. 1731 - d. 1827)
Presidents of the Sovereign Congress of the Belgian States
11 Jan 1790 - Mar 1790     François Corneille de Nélis          (b. 1736 - d. 1798) 
Mar 1790 - Apr 1790        Amour Joseph Philippe Charles Taye,  (b. 1738 - d. 1792)
                             marquis de Wemmel (1st time)

Apr 1790                   Philippe-Joseph, baron de Néverlée 
 (b. 1749 - d. 1829)
                             de Baulet                      
Apr 1790 - May 1790        Louis-Joseph de Haveskercke          (b. 1736 - d. 1812)
May 1790                   
Bonaventure Hyacinthe Joseph de      (b. 1755 - d. 1831)  
                             
Bousies (1st time)
May 1790                   
Amour Joseph Philippe Charles Taye,  (s.a.)
                             marquis de Wemme
l (2nd time)
May 1790 - Jun 1790        
Bonaventure Hyacinthe Joseph de      (s.a.)
                             Bousies (2nd time)
Jun 1790 - Jul 1790        Charles Joseph de Grave              (b. 1736 - d. 1805)
Jul 1790 - Aug 1790        Jean François Gendebien              (b. 1753 - d. 1838)
Aug 1790 - Sep 1790        François Ignace van der Meersch      (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
Sep 1790 - Oct 1790       
Ignace Joseph de La Saulx de         (b. 1734 - d. 1805)
                             
Gulchen, seigneur de Ravede et
                             Sainte-Marie
Oct 1790 - Nov 1790        Baptiste François Xavier Hyacinthe,
  (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                             comte de Baillet                
 8 Nov 1790 - Nov 1790     Hendrik Herman Werner Frans Anton
   (b. 1738 - d. 1811)
                             van Crumpipen                  
Nov 1790 -  2 Dec 1790     Petrus Johannes Simon Visbecque      (b. 1744 - d. 1804)
                             van Eupen                    

Governors-general
 6 Dec 1790 - Jun 1791     Florimond Claude Graf Mercy-         (b. 1722 - d. 1794)
                             Argenteau (acting) 
Jun 1791 - 19 Nov 1792     Marie Christine Johanna Josepha      (s.a.)
                             Antonia Erzherzogin von 
                             Österreich (f) (2nd time)
                           - jointly with -
Jun 1791 - 19 Nov 1792     Albert Kasimir August Prinz von      (s.a.) 
                             Sachsen-Teschen (2nd time) 
Commanders of French forces
19 Nov 1792 - 29 Dec 1792  Charles François du Perrier          (b. 1739 - d. 1823)
                             Dumouriez (1st time)
29 Dec 1792 -  2 Feb 1793  Francisco de Miranda (acting)        (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
 2 Feb 1793 -  9 Mar 1793  Charles François du Perrier          (s.a.)
                             Dumouriez (2nd time)
Austrian Governors-general
 9 Mar 1793 - 24 Mar 1793  Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk, Graf      (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
                             von Metternich zu Winneburg (acting)
24 Mar 1793 -  2 Aug 1794  Karl Ludwig Erzherzog von Österreich (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
French Commander
27 Jul 1794 - 15 Oct 1794  Jean Charles Pichegru                (b. 1761 - d. 1804)
                            (from 9 Feb 1794, commander of the Armée du Nord)
Presidents of the Central and Superior Administration of Belgium
(Président de l'administration centrale et supérieure de la Belgique)
Oct 1794 - Dec 1794        Jacques Laurent Béthune              (b. 1713 - d. 1799)
Dec 1794 - Jan 1795        Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts    (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
                             (1st time)
Jan 1795 - Feb 1795        Jean Baptiste Joseph Delabuisse      (b. 1754 - d. 1809)
Feb 1795 - Mar 1795        Charles Lambert Doutrepont           (b. 1746 - d. 1809)
Mar 1795 - Apr 1795        Antoine Delval-Lagache               (b. 1748 - d. 1823)
Apr 1795 - May 1795        Jacques Guillaume Meyer              (b. 1760 - d. 1805)
May 1795 - Jun 1795        Henri Denier
Jun 1795 - Jul 1795        
Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jul 1795 - Aug 1795        Nicolas Bonaventure                  (b. 1753 - d. 1831)
Aug 1795 - Sep 1795        Charles Louis Michel
29 Sep 1795 - Oct 1795     Jacques Joseph Chapel
Chairmen of council of government
13 Oct 1795 - 27 Oct 1795  Julien Urbain François Marie Riel
    (b. 1757 - d. 1816)
                             Lefebvre de Nantes            
                           + Jacques Charles Giroust            (b. 1749 - d. 1836)
Oct 1795 - 22 Nov 1795     Louis François René Portiez de
      (b. 1756 - d. 1810)
                             l'Oise                      
                           + Emmanuel Pérès de la Haute-Garone  (b. 1752 - d. 1833)
                           + Claude Roberjot (did not arrive)   (b. 1752 - d. 1799)
French Commissioner of the Directory

22 Nov 1795 - 20 Jan 1797  Louis Ghislain de Bouteville-Dumetz  (b. 1746 - d. 1821)
 1 Oct 1795 - 30 Jan 1814  Annexed to France (see departments below)
Governors-general (on behalf of the Allied Powers)
30 Jan 1814 - 11 Feb 1814  Allied Military Commanders
                           - Karl August Herzog von Sachsen-    (b. 1757 - d. 1828)
                               Weimar
                           - Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von     (b. 1755 - d. 1816)
                               Bülow, Graf von Dennewitz
                           - Ferdinand Freiherr von             (b. 1770 - d. 1818)
                               Wintzigerode
11 Feb 1814 - 18 Mar 1814  Allied Commissioners
                           - Justus Adolf Philipp Wilhelm       (b. 1774 - d. 1845)
                               Ludwig Freiherr von Wolzogen
                              (to 15 Feb 1814)
                           - Leopold Hermann Ludwig von Boyen   (b. 1771 - d. 1848)
                              (to 15 Feb 1814)
                           - Daniel Heinrich Delius             (b. 1773 - d. 1832)
                              (from 15 Feb 1814)
                           - Carl Friedrich Heinrich Graf von   (b. 1767 - d. 1841)
                              Wylich und Lottum
(from 15 Feb 1814)
15 Feb 1814 - 19 Mar 1814  Frédéric Auguste Alexandre, duc de   (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
                             Beaufort-Spontin
15 Feb 1814 - 18 Feb 1814  Eugène Jean-Baptiste, comte de       (b. 1741 - d. 1820)
                             Robiano (acting for Beaufort-Spontin)
19 Mar 1814 -  5 May 1814  August Friedrich Karl Hermann
       (b. 1780 - d. 1861)
                             Freiherr von der Horst       
 5 May 1814 - 31 Jul 1814  Nicholas Charles, baron de Vincent   (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
                            (Nikolaus Karl Freiherr von Vincent)
                            (Gouverneur-général militaire de
                             la Belgique et du pays de Liège)
 1 Aug 1814 - 12 May 1815  Willem Frederik van Oranje-Nassau    (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
                           declined to serve and appointed a Lieutenant:
                           Godert Alexander Gerard Philip,
                             baron van der Capellen, heer van   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
                             Berkenwoude en Agterbroek
24 Sep 1830 - 25 Feb 1831  Administrative Commission (from 26 Sep
                           1830, Provisional Government)
                           - Emmanuel Constant Prismes          (b. 1782 - d. 1866)  Con
                               Ghislain van der Linden,
                               baron d'Hooghvorst 
                              (to 14 Feb 1831)
                           - Charles Latour Rogier              (b. 1800 - d. 1885)  Lib
                              (signs as chairman on 25 Sep 1830, but never again)
                           - Philippe Félix Balthazar Othon     (b. 1791 - d. 1857)  Con
                               Ghislain, comte de Mérode
                              (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - Alexandre Joseph Célestin          (b. 1789 - d. 1869)  Lib
                               Gendebien (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - Jean Sylvain van de Weyer          (b. 1802 - d. 1874)  Lib
                              (from 26 Sep 1830)
                           - André Édouard Jolly                (b. 1799 - d. 1831)  Mil
                           - Feuillen Charles Marie Joseph,     (b. 1800 - d. 1887)  Con
                               baron de Coppin de Falaën 
                           - Joseph van der Linden(Vanderlinden)(b. 1764 - d. 18..)
                           - Louis Joseph Antoine de Potter     (b. 1786 - d. 1859)  Con
                              (28 Sep - 13 Nov 1830)
                           - Jean Nicolay (Nicolaï)             (d. 1842)
                              (25 Sep - 10 Oct 1830)
 5 Oct 1830 - 26 Oct 1830  Willem Frederik, prins van Oranje-   (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
                             Nassau (Netherlands provisional Governor-
                             general of Southern provinces, in Antwerp)
    
Regent

25 Feb 1831 - 21 Jul 1831  Érasme Louis, baron Surlet de        (b. 1769 - d. 1839)  Lib
                             Chokier
Kings2
21 Jul 1831 - 10 Dec 1865  Léopold I                            (b. 1790 - d. 1865)
                             (king-elect from 4 Jun 1831)
10 Dec 1865 - 17 Dec 1865  Charles Latour Rogier                (s.a.)               PL
                             (acting Head of State)
17 Dec 1865 - 17 Dec 1909  Léopold II                           (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
17 Dec 1909 - 23 Dec 1909  Frans Victor Marie Ghislain          (b. 1851 - d. 1917)  CP
                             Schollaert (acting Head of State)
23 Dec 1909 - 17 Feb 1934  Albert I                             (b. 1875 - d. 1934)
                            (at La Panne, Belgium Oct 1914 - 21 Nov 1918)
German military commanders
 4 Aug 1914 -  2 Sep 1914  Alexander Heinrich Rudolf von Kluck  (b. 1846 - d. 1934)  Mil
                           + Karl Wilhelm Paul von Bülow        (b. 1846 - d. 1921)  Mil
                           + Max Clemens Lothar Freiherr von    (b. 1846 - d. 1922)  Mil
                             Hausen 
Governors-general (under German occupation)
 2 Sep 1914 -  3 Dec 1914  Wilhelm Leopold Colmar Freiherr      (b. 1843 - d. 1916)  Mil
                             von der Goltz       
 3 Dec 1914 - 18 Apr 1917  Moritz Ferdinand Freiherr von        (b. 1844 - d. 1917)  Mil
                             Bissing
18 Apr 1917 -  3 May 1917  Johann von Zwehl (acting)            (b. 1851 - d. 1926)  Mil
 3 May 1917 - 11 Nov 1918  Ludwig Freiherr von Falkenhausen     (b. 1844 - d. 1936)  Mil
King
2

17 Feb 1934 - 23 Feb 1934  Charles Marie Pierre Albert,         (b. 1860 - d. 1940)  CP
                             comte de Broqueville    
                            (acting Head of State)
23 Feb 1934 - 16 Jul 1951  Léopold III                          (b. 1901 - d. 1983)
                            (German prisoner 28 May 1940 - 8 May 1945; 
                             in exile in Switzerland 8 May 1945 - 22 Jul 1950)
German Military Governors
10 May 1940 - 31 May 1940  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt       (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
                           + Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)  Mil
 1 Jun 1940 - 18 Jul 1944  Alexander Freiherr von Falkenhausen  (b. 1878 - d. 1966)  Mil
                            (military governor for occupied Netherlands and Belgium
                             to 29 May 1940, then for Belgium and northern France)
Reichskommissar
Belgien-Nordfrankreich

18 Jul 1944 -  3 Sep 1944  Joseph Grohé (1st time)              (b. 1902 - d. 1988)  NSDAP
Dec 1944 - Jan 1945        Joseph Grohé (2nd time)              (s.a.)               NSDAP
Allied Military Commanders
 3 Sep 1944 - 21 Sep 1944  Omar Nelson Bradley (U.S.)           (b. 1893 - d. 1981)  Mil
                           + Bernard Law Montgomery (U.K.)      (b. 1887 - d. 1976)  Mil
Kings2
21 Sep 1944 - 18 Jul 1950  Charles Théodore Henri Antoine       (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
                             Meinrad, comte de Flandre,
                             prince de Belgique -Regent 
11 Aug 1950 - 16 Jul 1951  Baudouin Albert Charles Léopold      (b. 1930 - d. 1993)
                             Axel Marie Gustave, duc de Brabant,
                             prince de Belgique -Regent 
16 Jul 1951 - 17 Jul 1951  Clovis Louis Marie Emmanuel Joseph   (b. 1884 - d. 1968)  CVP-PSC
                             Pholien
(acting Head of State)
17 Jul 1951 - 31 Jul 1993  Baudouin I                           (s.a.)
                             (declared incapacitated at own request, 4-5 Apr 1990)
 4 Apr 1990 -  5 Apr 1990  Wilfried Martens                     (b. 1936 - d. 2013)  CVP 
                             (acting Head of State)
31 Jul 1993 -  9 Aug 1993  Jean Luc Joseph Marie Dehaene        (b. 1940 - d. 2014)  CVP 
                             (acting Head of State)
 9 Aug 1993 - 21 Jul 2013  Albert II                            (b. 1934)
21 Jul 2013                Elio di Rupo
(acting Head of State)  (b. 1951)            PS
21 Jul 2013 -              Philippe                             (b. 1960)


Presidents of the Supreme Council of the Netherlands (in Vienna)
 1 Apr 1717 - 25 Jun 1729  José Ceverio Folch Prince de Cardona (b. 1651 - d. 1729)
25 Jun 1729 - 20 Nov 1740  Juan Antonio de Baxador, vizconde 
                             de Roccaberti, conde de Savalla    (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
                             (acting to Aug 1729)
20 Nov 1740 - 12 Dec 1740  Karl Ferdinand Graf von Königsegg-   (s.a.)
                             Erps (acting) 
12 Dec 1740 - 1757         Manoel Tellez de Menezes e Castro,   (b. 1696 - d. 1771)
                             duque de Sylva, conde de Tarouca
1757 - 31 Mar 1757         Melchior Relles Giron, marques de    (d. 1763)
                             Pacheco (acting)
French Intendant of Justice, Police et Finances
May 1745 - 18 Oct 1748     Jean Moreau de Séchelles             (b. 1690 - d. 1760)
Joint Provisional Government-general of the Netherlands
Oct 1748 - 23 Apr 1749     Leopold Philipp Carl Joseph Herzog   (b. 1690 - d. 1754)
                             von Arenberg, Herzog von Aërschot
                             und Croy 
                           + Augustin Dieudonné de Steenhault   (b. 1672 - d. 1758)
                           + Ambroise-Joseph, marquis de        (b. 1680 - d. 1759)
                             Herzelles

                           + Herman de Crumpipen
                           + Jean Daniel Antoine Scockart,      (b. 1698 - d. 1756)
                             comte de Thirimont
Niederländischer Referendar
(in Vienna)
 1 Apr 1757 - 27 Apr 1766  Johann Anton Jakob van Dorn          (b. 1722 - d. 1766)
27 Apr 1766 - 20 Oct 1766  Vacant
Conductor of the Netherlands departments (in Vienna)
20 Oct 1766 -  1 Mar 1793  August Gottlob Freiherr von Lederer  (b. 1723 - d. 1795)
Prime minister of the Belgian States
11 Jan 1790 -  2 Dec 1790  Hendrik Karel Nicolaas van der Noot  (s.a.)
Hofrat der Niederländischen Hofkanzlei (in Vienna)
 1 Mar 1793 -  5 Sep 1795  August Gottlob Freiherr von Lederer  (s.a.)
Chief secretary of the Belgian States Secretariat
 1 Aug 1814 - Sep 1815     Pieter Lodewijk Joseph Servaes 
                             van Gobbelschroy                   (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
Presidents of the Council of Ministers
26 Feb 1831 - 27 Feb 1831  Albert Joseph Goblet (1st time)      (b. 1790 - d. 1873)  Uni/Lib
27 Feb 1831 - 15 Mar 1831  Étienne Constantin de Gerlache       (b. 1785 - d. 1871)  Uni/Con
Cabinet Chiefs
15 Mar 1831 - 23 Mar 1831  Étienne Constantin de Gerlache       (s.a.)               Uni/Con

23 Mar 1831 - 26 Jul 1831  Jean Louis Joseph Lebeau (1st time)  (b. 1794 - d. 1865)  Uni/Lib
26 Jul 1831 - 17 Sep 1832  Félix Armand, comte de Mûelenaere    (b. 1794 - d. 1862)  Uni/Con
17 Sep 1832 - 20 Oct 1832  Albert Joseph Goblet (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Uni/Lib
                             (acting)
20 Oct 1832 -  4 Aug 1834  
Charles Latour Rogier (1st time)     (s.a.)               Uni/Lib
 4 Aug 1834 - 18 Apr 1840  Barthélemy Théodore, chevalier       (b. 1794 - d. 1874)  Uni/Con
                             de Theux de Meylandt (1st time) 
                            (from 18 Mar 1840, Barthélemy Théodore,
                             comte de Theux
de Meylandt)
18 Apr 1840 - 13 Apr 1841  Jean Louis Joseph Lebeau (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Uni/Lib
13 Apr 1841 - 30 Jul 1845  Jean Baptiste, baron Nothomb         (b. 1805 - d. 1881)  Uni/Con
30 Jul 1845 - 31 Mar 1846  Jean Sylvain van de Weyer            (s.a.)               Uni/Con
31 Mar 1846 - 12 Aug 1847  Barthélemy Théodore, comte           (s.a.)               CP
                             de Theux de Meylandt (2nd time) 
12 Aug 1847 - 31 Oct 1852  Charles Latour Rogier (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PL
31 Oct 1852 - 30 Mar 1855  Henri Ghislain Joseph Marie de       (b. 1801 - d. 1891)  PL
                             Brouckère       
30 Mar 1855 -  9 Nov 1857  Pierre Jacques François de Decker    (b. 1812 - d. 1891)  CP
10 Nov 1857 -  3 Jan 1868  Charles Latour Rogier (3rd time)     (s.a.)               PL
 3 Jan 1868 -  2 Jul 1870  Hubert Joseph Walthère Frère-Orban   (b. 1812 - d. 1896)  PL
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 1870 -  7 Dec 1871  Jules Joseph, baron d'Anethan        (b. 1803 - d. 1888)  CP
 7 Dec 1871 - 21 Aug 1874  Barthélemy Théodore, comte de Theux  (s.a.)               CP
                             de Meylandt (3rd time)  
21 Aug 1874 - 18 Jun 1878  Jules Édouard François Xavier Malou  (b. 1810 - d. 1886)  CP
                             (1st time)             
19 Jun 1878 - 16 Jun 1884  Hubert Joseph Walthère Frère-Orban   (s.a.)               PL
                             (2nd time)
16 Jun 1884 - 26 Oct 1884  Jules Édouard François Xavier Malou  (s.a.)               CP
                             (2nd time)              
26 Oct 1884 - 26 Mar 1894  Auguste Marie François Beernaert     (b. 1829 - d. 1912)  CP
26 Mar 1894 - 25 Feb 1896  Jules Philippe Marie de Burlet       (b. 1844 - d. 1897)  CP
25 Feb 1896 - 24 Jan 1899  Paul Joseph de Smet de Nayer         (b. 1843 - d. 1913)  CP
                             (1st time)   
24 Jan 1899 -  5 Aug 1899  Jules Henri Pierre François          (b. 1843 - d. 1917)  CP
                             Vandenpeereboom            
 5 Aug 1899 -  2 May 1907  Paul Joseph de Smet de Nayer         (s.a.)               CP
                             (from 26 May 1900, Paul comte de Smet de Nayer)
                             (2nd time) 
 2 May 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Julius Hendrik Maria Gislenus de
     (b. 1857 - d. 1907)  CP
                             Trooz                  
31 Dec 1907 -  9 Jan 1908  Vacant
 9 Jan 1908 - 17 Jun 1911  Frans Victor Marie Ghislain
         (s.a.)               CP
                             Schollaert                  
17 Jun 1911 -  1 Jun 1918  Charles Marie Pierre Albert,         (s.a.)               CP
                             baron de Broqueville      
                             (17 Aug - 7 Oct 1914 in Antwerp; from
                             13 Oct 1914 in Le Havre, F
rance exile)
 2 Sep 1914 -  4 Jul 1917  Maximilian Karl von Sandt            (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Non-party
                             (chief of civil administration)
 1 Jun 1918 - 21 Nov 1918  Gérard François Marie Cooreman       (b. 1852 - d. 1926)  CP
                             (in Le Havre, France exile)
 4 Jul 1917 - 11 Nov 1918  Alexander Schaible                   (b. 1870 - d. 1933)  Non-party
                             (
chief of civil administration of Flemish Administrative Region)
 4 Jul 1917 - 11 Nov 1918  Karl Haniel                          (b. 1877 - d. 1944)  Non-party
                             (chief of civil administration of Walloon
Administrative Region)
10 Nov 1918 - 16? Nov 1918 Hugo Freund                          (b. 1890 - d. 1974) 
                             (
chairman of Executive Committee of the Central
                             
Soldiers' Council, in rebellion)
Prime ministers

21 Nov 1918 - 20 Nov 1920  Léon Frédéric Gustave Delacroix
      (b. 1867 - d. 1929)  CP
20 Nov 1920 - 16 Dec 1921  Henri Victor Marie Ghislain,         (b. 1869 - d. 1951)  CP
                             comte Carton de Wiart       
16 Dec 1921 - 13 May 1925  Georges Emile Pierre Léonard Theunis (b. 1873 - d. 1944)  CP
                             (1st time)          
13 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1925  Aloïs Jean Marie Joseph van de       (b. 1871 - d. 1961)  CP
                             Vyvere
17 Jun 1925 - 20 May 1926  Prosper Antoine Marie Joseph,        (b. 1871 - d. 1935)  CP
                             vicomte Poullet          
20 May 1926 -  5 Jun 1931  Henri Jaspar                         (b. 1870 - d. 1939)  CP
 5 Jun 1931 - 22 Oct 1932  Jules Laurent Jean Louis Renkin      (b. 1862 - d. 1934)  CP
22 Oct 1932 - 20 Nov 1934  Charles Marie Pierre Albert, comte   (s.a.)               CP
                             de Broqueville       
20 Nov 1934 - 25 Mar 1935  Georges Emile Pierre Léonard Theunis (s.a.)               CP
                             (2nd time)          
25 Mar 1935 - 24 Nov 1937  Paul Guillaume van Zeeland           (b. 1893 - d. 1973)  CP
24 Nov 1937 - 15 May 1938  Paul-Émile Janson                    (b. 1872 - d. 1944)  PL
15 May 1938 - 20 Feb 1939  Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (1st time)  (b. 1899 - d. 1972)  POB-BWP
21 Feb 1939 - 12 Feb 1945  Hubert Marie Eugène Pierlot          (b. 1883 - d. 1963)  PCS-KVV
                            (25 May 1940 - 8 Sep 1944 in exile [first in
                             France, from 25 Oct 1940 in London])
Presidents of the Committee of Secretaries-general (under occupation)
16 May 1940 -  2 Sep 1940  Alexandre Louis Joseph Delmer        (b. 1879 - d. 1974)  Non-party
                             (1st time)       
 3 Sep 1940 - 31 Jan 1941  Antoine Ernst, baron de Bunswyck     (b. 1874 - d. 1943)  Non-party
 3 Feb 1941 - 31 Mar 1941  Alexandre Louis Joseph Delmer        (s.a.)               Non-party
                            
(2nd time)         
 4 Apr 1941 -  5 Sep 1944  Oscar Endé Plisnier                  (b. 1885 - d. 1952   Non-party
 8 Dec 1944 - May 1945     Léon Degrelle (in Germany exile)     (b. 1906 - d. 1994)  Rex
                             (Reichsstatthalter
Wallonien, Chef-du-Peuple Wallon
15 Dec 1944 - May 1945     Jef Van de Wiele (in Germany exile)  (b. 1902 - d. 1979)  Devlag
                             (Reichsstatthalter
Flandern,
                            
Landsleider van het Vlaamsche Volk)
Prime ministers

12 Feb 1945 - 13 Mar 1946  Achille Honoré van Acker (1st time)  (b. 1898 - d. 1975)  BSP-PSB
13 Mar 1946 - 31 Mar 1946  Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (2nd time)  (s.a.)               BSP-PSB
31 Mar 1946 -  3 Aug 1946  Achille Honoré van Acker (2nd time)  (s.a.)               BSP-PSB
 3 Aug 1946 - 20 Mar 1947  Jean Joseph Camille Huysmans         (b. 1871 - d. 1968)  BSP-PSB
20 Mar 1947 - 11 Aug 1949  Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (3rd time)  (s.a.)               BSP-PSB
11 Aug 1949 -  8 Jun 1950  Gaston François Marie Eyskens        (b. 1905 - d. 1988)  CVP-PSC
                             (1st time)         
 8 Jun 1950 - 15 Aug 1950  Jean Pierre Armand Ghislain Marie    (b. 1900 - d. 1977)  CVP-PSC
                             Duvieusart                   
16 Aug 1950 - 15 Jan 1952  Clovis Louis Marie Emmanuel Joseph   (s.a.)               CVP-PSC
                             Pholien                     
15 Jan 1952 - 23 Apr 1954  Jean Marie Joseph van Houtte         (b. 1907 - d. 1991)  CVP-PSC
23 Apr 1954 - 26 Jun 1958  Achille Honoré van Acker (3rd time)  (s.a.)               BSP-PSB
26 Jun 1958 - 25 Apr 1961  Gaston François Marie Eyskens        (s.a.)               CVP-PSC
                             (2nd time)           
25 Apr 1961 - 28 Jul 1965  Théodore Joseph Albéric Marie        (b. 1914 - d. 1973)  CVP-PSC
                             Lefèvre
28 Jul 1965 - 19 Mar 1966  Pierre Charles José Marie Harmel     (b. 1911 - d. 2009)  CVP-PSC
19 Mar 1966 - 17 Jun 1968  Paul Emile François Henri Vanden     (b. 1919 - d. 2001)  CVP-PSC
                             Boeynants (1st time)
17 Jun 1968 - 26 Jan 1973  Gaston François Marie Eyskens        (s.a.)               CVP 
                             (3rd time)          
26 Jan 1973 - 25 Apr 1974  Edmond Jules Isidore Leburton        (b. 1915 - d. 1997)  BSP-PSB
25 Apr 1974 - 20 Oct 1978  Léo Clemence Tindemans               (b. 1922)            CVP
20 Oct 1978 -  3 Apr 1979  Paul Emile François Henri Vanden     (s.a.)               CVP 
                             Boeynants (2nd time)   
 3 Apr 1979 -  6 Apr 1981  Wilfried Achiel Emma Martens         (s.a.)               CVP 
                             (1st time)       
 6 Apr 1981 - 17 Dec 1981  Marc Maria Frans Eyskens             (b. 1933)            CVP 
17 Dec 1981 -  7 Mar 1992  Wilfried Achiel Emma Martens         (s.a.)               CVP 
                             (2nd time)        
 7 Mar 1992 - 12 Jul 1999  Jean Luc Joseph Marie Dehaene        (s.a.)               CVP
12 Jul 1999 - 20 Mar 2008  Guy Maurice Marie-Louise Verhofstadt (b. 1953)            VLD
20 Mar 2008 - 30 Dec 2008  Yves Camille Désiré Leterme          (b. 1960)            CD&V
                             (1st time)
30 Dec 2008 - 25 Nov 2009  Herman Achille
Van Rompuy            (b. 1947)            CD&V
25 Nov 2009 -  6 Dec 2011  Yves Camille Désiré Leterme         
(s.a.)               CD&V
                             (2nd time)             

 6 Dec 2011 - 11 Oct 2014  Elio Di Rupo                         (s.a.)               PS
11 Oct 2014 -              Charles Michel                       (b. 1975)            MR

 ¹Full style: Duke/Duchess of Lothier, Brabant, Limbourg, Gueldre and Luxembourg, Count/Countess of Flanders, Hainaut, Namur and Chiny, Lord/Lady of Malines and Tournai, Marquis/Marchioness of Anvers and of the Holy Roman Empire.

 2Full style of the ruler:
(a) from 21 Jul 1831: Roi des Belges (French); Koning der Belgen (Dutch; official from 25 May 1898); König der Belgier (German; official from 11 Nov 1991)("King of the Belgians"). Under the constitution of the Kingdom of Belgium there was initially no official language, but French was legally authoritative; French and Dutch became official jointly from 25 May 1898, joined by German from 11 Nov 1991. 
  A peculiarity of the Constitution of Belgium is the provision that "[the King] does not ascend the throne until he has taken the oath." Thus between a demise of the crown by death or abdication and the taking office of the next king the provisions for a vacancy or incapacity take over: "The constitutional powers of the King are exercised, in the name of the Belgian people, by the Ministers meeting in Council." The entity acting as head of state in these circumstances is thus the council of ministers.

Party abbreviations: CDH = Centre Démocrate Humaniste (Democratic Humanist Center, Francophone, centrist, ex-PSC, est.2002); CD&V = Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (Christian-Democratic and Flemish, christian-democratic, Flemish, ex-CVP, est.2001); MR = Mouvement Réformateur (Reformist Movement, social liberal, union of PFF, FDF [to 2011], PRL, and MCC, est.2002); PS = Parti Socialiste (Socialist Party, social-democratic, Francophone, ex-BSP, est.1978); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BSP-PSB = Parti Socialiste Belge/Belgische Socialistische Partij (Belgian Socialist Party, 1945-1980, divided into PS and SP); Con = Conservative; CP = Confessionnel Catholique Parti/Confessionele Katholieke Partij (Confessional Catholic Party, 1869-1921, then as Union Catholique/Katholieke Unie [Catholic Union], catholic, conservative, 1921-1936); CVP = Christelijke Volkspartij (Christian People's Party, Flemish, christian-democratic, Flanders, 1968-2001, renamed CD&V); CVP-PSC = Christelijke Volkspartij/Parti Social-chrétien (Christian People's Party-Social Christian Party, 1945-1972, divided into CVP and PSC); Devlag = Duitschen-Vlaamsche Arbeidsgemeenschap/Deutsch-Vlämische Arbeitsgemeinschaft (German-Flemish Workers Community, Flemish fascist, pro-union with Germany, 1935-1945); Lib = Liberal; PL/LP = Parti Libéral/Liberale Partij (Liberal Party, liberal, 1846-1961, then PVV-PLP); PSC = Parti Social Chrétien (Social Christian Party, center-right, in Wallonia and Brussels, 1972-2002, renamed CDH); PCS-KVV = Parti Catholique Social/Katholieke Vlaamsche Volkspartij (Social Catholic Party-Catholic Flemish People's Party, catholic federated parties, 1937-1945); POB-BWP = Parti Ouvrier Belge/Belgische Werklieden Partij (Belgian Worker's Party, socialist, 1885-1945, renamed BSP-PSB); PVV-PLP = Partij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang/Parti pour la Liberté et la Prosperité (Party for Freedom and Prosperity, liberal, divided 1971 in PVV [in Flanders and Brussels] and PLP [in Wallonia and Brussels], 1961-1992); Rex = Parti Rexiste (Rexist Party, officially Rex, Walloon fascist, corporatist, 1936-1945); SP = Socialistische Partij (Socialist Party, social-democratic, Flemish, 1980-2001, renamed Socialistische Partij.Anders); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi German fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); Uni = Union/Unie (Union, "Unionist," coalition of Lib and Con supporting Belgian independence, 1828-1846); VLD = Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (Flemish Liberals and Democrats, conservative liberal, Flanders, former PVV, 1992-2007, renamed Open VLD)


Independent State of Flanders

[Flag of Flanders]

22 Dec 1917                The Council of Flanders, believing that the German occupiers
                             would encourage secession, proclaims independence.
25 Jul 1918                Terminated by German occupation authorities.

President of the Council of Flanders
22 Dec 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Willem de Vreese                     (b. 1869 - d. 1938)  Non-party

President of the Commission of Plenipotentiaries
22 Dec 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Pieter Lodewijk Tack                 (b. 1870 - d. 1943)  Non-party



Eupen and Malmedy
[Flag of Belgium]
  12 Aug 1919 - 10 Jun  1925
Population: 60,924 (1919)
  
 1 Oct 1795                Annexed to France.
25 Dec 1813                Occupied by Allied (Swedish and Prussian) troops.
 6 Mar 1815                Malmedy (Malmédy) part of Prussia (from 1871, Germany
                             (fully incorporated 1822).
 1 Dec 1918 -  1 Jan 1920  Allied occupation (British to 12 Aug 1919).
28 Jun 1919                Ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles.
12 Aug 1919                Belgian troops occupy the area.
 1 Jan 1920                Formally ceded to Belgium (East Cantons).
20 Sep 1920                Eupen, Malmédy and Sankt-Vith annexed.
10 Jun 1925                Fully incorporated into Belgium, part of province of Liège.
29 Jul 1940 - Feb 1945     Eupen, Malmédy and Sankt-Vith annexed to Germany, and along 
                             with former Neutral Moresnet (they are part of the 
                             Prussian Rhine province as part of Aachen Regierungsbezirk).

Commanders of Allied Forces
1918 - 1919                Hysler (U.K.)
1919 - 1920                Auguste Édouard, baron Michel       (b. 1855 - d. 1951) 
                             du Faing d'Aigremont (Belgium) 
Belgian Royal High Commissioner and Governor of the Eastern Cantons
10 Jan 1920 -  1 Jun 1925  Herman Baltia                       (b. 1863 - d. 1938)
                             (from 28 Aug 1920, Herman baron Baltia)  
Regierungspräsident of Aachen
1940 - 1944                Franz Vogelsang                     (b. 1899 - d. 1979)  NSDAP 


Former Polities in Belgium

Bouillon

[Flag of Duchy of
                Bouillon]
                 to 25 Oct 1795

Map of Bouillon
(to 1795)
Capital: Bouillon
Population: N/A

1095                       Lordship of Bouillon part of the Bishopric of Liège.
1129 - 1141                Count Renaud of Bar captures Bouillon castle.
1155                       The Holy Roman Emperor confirms the bishop's rights to Bouillon.
1291                       First recorded style of the Bishop Liège as Duke
                             of Bouillon.
1456                       Title Duke of Bouillon a permanent part of the prince-bishop's 
                             style (although merely titular during certain periods noted).
31 Aug 1482 - 1521         Bouillon under the La Marck dynasty, contested by
                             the Bishops of Liège. 
1521 - 1552                Part of the Bishopric of Liège.
1552 -  3 Apr 1559         French occupation, under the La Marck dynasty.
 3 Apr 1559                Part of the Bishopric of Liège.
 3 Apr 1559 -  1 May 1678  The La Marck dynasty and its successor La Tour d'Auvergne 
                             dynasty maintain its claims to the Duché de Bouillon and
                             their style of duc/duchesse de Bouillon is recognized by
                             France, possibly with technical regard to some fragments of
                             the territory still in their possession.
 8 May 1594                Claim to Bouillon passed to the de La Tour d'Auvergne dynasty.
30 Sep 1676 -  1 May 1678  French occupation.
 1 May 1678                The King of France establishes the La Tour d'Auvergne 
                             dynasty in full sovereignty over the Duchy of Bouillon
                             under French protectorate.
26 May 1790                General Assembly abolishes manorial and feudal rights.
 1 May 1792                Bouillon becomes a constitutional monarchy.
19 Nov 1792                French occupation.
10 Dec 1793                Duke is deprived of rents from his estates by French decree.
24 Apr 1794                With the Duke imprisoned in France, administration under
                             the General Assembly which however, did not explicitly
                             abolish the ducauté. This period is often erroneously
                             called the République Bouillonnaise (Republic of Bouillon).
25 Oct 1795                Annexed to France; incorporated into département of Ardennes.
30 May 1814 -  1 Jan 1815  Allied administration (see under Belgium).
Mar 1815 - 1815            French occupation.
22 Jul 1815                Part of Luxembourg.
 7 Feb 1831                Part of Belgium.

Dukes
31 Jan 1696 - 16 May 1730  Emmanuel-Théodose                  (b. 1668 - d. 1730)
16 May 1730 - 24 Oct 1771  Charles-Godefroy                   (b. 1706 - d. 1771)
24 Oct 1771 -  3 Dec 1792  Godefroy-Charles-Henri             (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
 3 Dec 1792 - 24 Apr 1794  Jacques-Léopold-Charles-Godefroy   (b. 1746 - d. 1802)
                             (French prisoner from 7 Feb 1794)
24 Apr 1794 - 25 Oct 1795  Executive Committee
                           - Claude-Pierre Jobard
                           - Remacle Poncelet
                           - François-Gérard Pirson           (b. 1765 - d. 1850)
                              (chairman Oct - Dec 1794)
                           - Nicolas(?) Renault
                              (chairman Dec 1794 - c.Jan 1795)
                           - Pierre Castilhon
                           - Perot (chairman Apr - Jun 1795)
                           - Rénéaume-Latache
                           - Dominique Millard
                           - Jean-Joseph Nannan
                              (chairman Jul 1795)

 1 Jan 1815 - Mar 1815     Philippe                           (b. 1754 - d. 1816)
                             (Philip d'Auvergne)
18 Aug 1814 - Mar 1815     Antoine, baron de Vauthier de      (b. 1749 - d. 1839) 
                             Baillamont -Governor (for Philippe)
Mar 1815 -  1 Dec 1815     Clement Bonichon -Governor         (b. 1773 - d. 18..)
                             (for Napoléon, then Louis XVIII)

Presidents of the Assembly
 7 Mar 1790                Jacques Barhélémy (acting)
                           + François-Gérard Pirson           (s.a.)
Chairman of the Committee of Action
 7 Mar 1790 - 19 Apr 1790  Richard Chauchet-Bourgeois         (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
Presidents of the Constituent Assembly
19 Apr 1790 -  4 Jun 1790  Richard Chauchet-Bourgeois         (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1790 - 12 Mar 1791  Philippe Aubry
1791                       Gérard Gérard
1791 - 24 Jan 1792         .... 
24 Jan 1792                Nicholaas Nannan (acting)
24 Jan 1792 - 27 Jan 1792  François-Gérard Pirson             (s.a.)
Presidents of the General Legislative Assembly
27 Jan 1792 - 22 Nov 1793  François-Gérard Pirson             (s.a.)
22 Nov 1793 - 20 Feb 1794  Joseph Maignaud
20 Feb 1794 - 1794         Claude-Pierre Jobard (1st time)
c.Jun 1794 - c.Sep 1794    Remacle Poncelet
c.Sep 1794 - c.Dec 1794    Claude-Pierre Jobard (2nd time)
c.Dec 1794 - c.Apr 1795    Pierre Castilhon
c.Apr 1795 - c.Jul 1795    Dominique Millard
1795 - 25 Oct 1795         G. Philippe


Liège

Flag of Bishopric of Liege
                      (to 1789/92)                     to 1789/92

[Liege
                      flag after 1789/1792]           1789/92 - 27 Jul 1794

Map of Bishopric of Liège
(to 1794)
Capital: Liège
Population: 400,000 (18th cent.)

343                        Traditional date of founding of the Bishopric of Liège
                             (Hochstift Lüttich).
14 Apr 972                 Bishop becomes a Prince of the Empire, an immediate
                             vassal of the king.
21 Sep 1366                Counties of Looz and Horn annexed (de facto from 5 Apr 1361).
1550                       Marquisate of Franchimont under the Prince-Bishops.
18 Aug 1789                Liégeoise revolution begins.
30 Nov 1789 - 16 Apr 1790  Occupied by Prussia.
12 Jan 1791 - 28 Nov 1792  Occupied by Austria.
28 Nov 1792 -  4 Mar 1793  Occupied by France.
 5 Mar 1793 - 27 Jul 1794  Re-occupied by Austria.  
 8 May 1793                The French National Convention decrees the incorporation
                             of Liège into France (ineffective at the time).
27 Jul 1794                Occupied by France, and treated as if incorporated,
                             together with the Belgian provinces as arrondissement de Liège.
 1 Oct 1795                Formal annexation to France; part of départements of Ourthe 
                             and Meuse-Inférieure (see below). Thereafter Liège undergoes 
                             the same developments as the rest of Belgium.

Prince-Bishops (title Prince-évêque de Liège [Fürstbischof zu Lüttich], comte de Looz,
marquis de Franchimont, etc.)
25 Oct 1694 - 12 Nov 1723  Joseph Clément, duc de Bavière     (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
12 Nov 1723 -  7 Dec 1724  François Lambert, baron de Sélys
                            (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
 7 Dec 1724 -  5 Dec 1743  Georges II Louis de Berghes        (b. 1662 - d. 1743)
 5 Dec 1743 - 10 Mar 1744  Jean-Louis d'Oyenbrugge, 
                             comte de Duras, baron d'Elderen
                            (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
10 Mar 1744 - 27 Jan 1763  Jean XI Théodore, duc de Bavière   (b. 1703 - d. 1763)
27 Jan 1763 -  8 Apr 1763  Guillaume Marie, baron de          (b. 1709 - d. 1770)
                             Coudenhove de Fraiture 
                            (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
 8 Apr 1763 - 22 Oct 1771  Charles Nicolas Alexandre, comte
                             d'Oultremont                     (b. 1716 - d. 1771)
22 Oct 1771 - 14 Mar 1772  Charles Damien Boos de Waldeck 
                            (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
14 Mar 1772 - 30 Apr 1784  François-Charles, comte de         (b. 1719 - d. 1784)
                             Vellbrueck             
15 Aug 1784 - 13 Sep 1790  César Constantin François, comte
                             de Hoensbroek (1st time)         (b. 1724 - d. 1792)
13 Sep 1790 - 10 Jan 1791  Ferdinand Maximilien Mériadec de
                             Rohan, prince de Guémenée,
                             archevêque de Cambrai -Regent    (b. 1738 - d. 1813)
11 Jan 1791 -  3 Jun 1792  César Constantin François, comte
                             de Hoensbroek (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1792 - 16 Aug 1792  Alexandre Constantin Joseph de     (b. 1738 - d. 1804)
                             Nassau, comte de Corroy    
                            (Grand Dean of the Cathedral Chapter)
16 Aug 1792 - 28 Nov 1792  François Antoine Marie Constantin,
                             comte de Méan et de Beaurieux    (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
                             (1st time)
Chairmen of the Council of the City of Liège 
 3 Dec 1792 -  8 Jan 1793  Jacques-Joseph Fabry               (b. 1722 - d. 1798)
 8 Jan 1793 - 16 Feb 1793  Jean-Baptiste Winant Digneffe      (b. 1761 - d. 18..)
President of the National Convention
16 Feb 1793 -  4 Mar 1793  Jacques-Joseph Fabry               (s.a.)
Imperial administrator 
 5 Mar 1793 - 21 Apr 1793  Friedrich Josias, Prinz von und zu (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                             Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld        
Prince-Bishop
21 Apr 1793 - 20 Jul 1794  François Antoine Marie Constantin, (s.a.)
                             comte de Méan et de Beaurieux
                             (2nd time) 
President of the Emergency Committee
27 Jul 1794 - 21 Aug 1794  Bouchet
President of the Commune of Liège
21 Aug 1794 - 12 Sep 1794  Jacques-Joseph Fabry               (s.a.)
Presidents of Provisional Central Administration
12 Sep 1794 - 22 Sep 1794  Thomas-Joseph Jehin                (b. 1732 - d. 1806)
22 Sep 1794 - 1794         Jean Nicolas Bassenge l'aîné       (b. 1758 - d. 1811)
12 Oct 1794 - 1794         Nicolas Vanderheyden à Hauzeur     (b. 1741 - d. 1807)
Oct 1794 -  4 Dec 1794     Pierre Joseph Henkart              (b. 1761 - d. 1815)
Agent National of the Administration of Arrondissement de Liège
Dec 1794 -  1 Oct 1795     Louis Ghislain de Bouteville       (b. 1746 - d. 1821)


Council of the City of Liège 
27 Aug 1789 - 13 Sep 1790  Burgomaster-regents of Liège
                           - Jacques-Joseph Fabry             (s.a.)
                           - Jean-Remi, baron Chestret        (b. 1739 - d. 1809)



Fagnolle (Ligne)

[Flag of the Princes of
                Ligne (Fagnolle) Belgium]

Map of Fagnolle
Capital: Fagnolle
Population: N/A

1765                       County of Fagnolle (Grafschaft Fagnolle).
 8 Mar 1789                County of Ligne (Grafschaft Ligne).
19 Nov 1792                Occupied by France.
12 May 1793                Annexed by France; incorporated into département Ardennes.
1803                       Counts acquire former abbey of Edelstetten in Swabia;
                             which in 1805 is sold to Prince Esterhazy.
15 Feb 1814                Part of Belgian territory separated from France.
16 Mar 1815                Incorporation into United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
 4 Oct 1830                Part of independent Belgium.

Counts (title Fürst von Ligne und Graf zu Fagnolle
1765 -  7 Apr 1766         Claudius Lamoral II             (b. 1685 - d. 1766)
 7 Apr 1766 - 12 May 1793  Charles Joseph                  (b. 1735 - d. 1814)
                             (in name only to 14 Sep 1814) 



Limburg

[Flag Limburg 19th
                  century]
 
Map of Limburg
(1648-1795)
Capital: Limburg
Population: N/A

13 May 1106                Duchy of Limburg
 7 Sep 1632 -  1 Nov 1635  Dutch occupation.
1672 - 1678                French occupation.
10 Dec 1703                The Austrian Habsburg rulers become Dukes of Limburg.
11 Jan 1790 -  2 Dec 1790  Part of the United Belgian States (s.a.).
15 Dec 1792                Annexed to France.
28 Apr 1793                Habsburg rule restored.
 1 Oct 1795                Annexed to France (Ourthe département).
15 Feb 1814                Part of the "Belgian" Netherlands (province of Liège).
 4 Oct 1830                Part of Belgium (province of Liège).

Dukes
10 Dec 1703 - 11 Jan 1790  the archdukes of Austria
 2 Dec 1790 - 15 Dec 1792  the archdukes of Austria
28 Apr 1793 -  1 Oct 1795  the archdukes of Austria

Stadholders of Limburg and the Lands over the Maas (Landen van Overmaas)
27 Mar 1665 - 1684         Johan Frans Desideratus, prins      (b. 1627 - d. 1699)
                             van Nassau-Siegen
28 Jan 1685 -  8 Feb 1702  Henri Louis Lamoral Prince de Ligne (b. 1644 - d. 1702) 
 8 Oct 1702 - 1703         Franz Sigismund von Thurn und Taxis (b. 1655 - d. 1710)
                             Graf von Valsassina
22 Oct 1703 - 1705         Philipp Ludwig Wenzel
Graf          (b. 1671 - d. 1742)
                             Sinzendorff und Thannhausen
                             (1st time)        
19 Oct 1705 - 1707         Johann Peter Graf von Goëss         (b. 1667 - d. 1716)
 6 Nov 1707 - Jul 1709     Francisco Bernardo de Quiros        (b. 1650 - d. 1709)
23 Jul 1709 - 25 Feb 1710  Johann Wenzel Graf von Gallas       (b. 1670 - d. 1719)  
25 Feb 1710 - 27 Oct 1713  Franz-Adolf Freiherr von Sinzerling
27 Oct 1713 - 14 Dec 1713  Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Graf          (s.a.)
                             Sinzendorff und Thannhausen
                             (2nd time)
14 Dec 1713 - 1714         
Georg Freiherr Tunderfeld           (b. 1678 - d. 1748)
17 Mar 1714 - 1723         Franz Thurn und Taxis, Graf von     (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
                             Valsassina  
1723 - 1725                Vacant
1725 - 10 May 1727         Alexander Otto Graf von Vehlen      (b. 1657 - d. 1727) 
20 May 1728 - 17 Sep 1754  Wolfgang Willem van Bournonville,   (b. 1670 - d. 1754)  
                             markgraaf Van Sars, baron Van
                             
Capres, heer Van Fleignies
Drossard (Chief Justice)
1754 - 1794                Philippe Joseph Dieudonné,          (b. 1711 - d. 1797) 
                             graaf van Woestenraedt
Commissioner of Arrondissement
de Maestricht
30 Oct 1794 - 1795         Charles Clément Roemers             (b. 1748 - d. 1838) 



Neutral Moresnet
[Flag Neutral Moresnet 1883-1919]
           1883/85 - 27 Jun 1915
Map of Neutral Moresnet
Capital: Moresnet
Unofficial Anthem
“Amikejo-march”
Adopted 1908
Border Treaty of Aachen
(26 Jun 1816; in French)

GDP: $N/A
Demilitarized by Treaty
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Currencies: French Franc
 (FRF);
1831-1920 Belgian
Franc (BEF);
1871-1918
 German Mark (DED);
1816-31
Dutch Guilder (NLG)
Population: 3,596 (1919)
256 (1816), 500 (1830),
2,572 (1858)
International Organizations/Treaties: None

26 Jun 1816                Part of Moresnet, claimed by both The Netherlands and
                             Prussia, is "temporarily neutralized" and put under
                             a common administration. 
23 Sep 1818                Border demarcation markers formally installed.
22 Sep 1830                Belgium replaces Netherlands as claimant and administrator
                             (recognized by the Netherlands 22 Jun 1839).
 8 Aug 1914                German occupation.
27 Jun 1915                Administration by Prussia only.
Nov 1918                   Administration by Belgium only.
28 Jun 1919                Ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles.
10 Jan 1920                Annexed to Belgium (as municipality of Kelmis/La Calamine).
29 Jul 1940 - 10 Sep 1944  Annexed by Germany.
10 Sep 1944                Restored to Belgium.
Dec 1944 - Jan 1945        Brief German reoccupation.

Netherlands Royal Commissioners
 8 Dec 1817 -  2 Dec 1823  Werner Jacob
 2 Dec 1823 - 1830         Joseph Brandès
1830 - 1835                Vacant
Belgian Royal Commissioners
(from 1889, also district commissioners of Verviers)
 8 Jun 1835 - 1840         Lambert Ernst                       (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
 1 Feb 1840 - 1889         Mathieu Crémer                      (b. 1805 - d. 1889)
30 Nov 1889 - 27 Mar 1915  Fernand Jacques Bleyfuesz (1st time)(b. 1858 - d. 1935)
27 Mar 1915 - 27 Jun 1915  Bayer (acting)
                             (clerk of the German military administration)
27 Jun 1915 - Nov 1918     Vacant
Nov 1918 - 10 Jan 1920     Fernand Jacques Bleyfuesz (2nd time)(s.a.)

Prussian Royal Commissioners (from 1854, also districts commissioners of Eupen) 
 6 Aug 1817 - 1819         Wilhelm Hardt                       (b. 1755 - d. 1831)
22 Apr 1819 - 26 Nov 1835  Johann Martin Daniel Mayer          (b. 1769 - d. 1835)
 9 Jul 1836 -  9 Nov 1853  Heinrich Martins
11 Aug 1852 -  7 Jan 1866  Peter Benedict Joseph Armand        (b. 1813 - d. 1866)
                             von Harenne
                             (head of police administration to 16 Jan 1854)
12 Dec 1866 - 10 Jul 1867  August Freiherr von der Heydt       (b. 1825 - d. 1867)
1868 - 24 Oct 1870         Edwin Gülcher                       (b. 1822 - d. 1870)
18 Jun 1871 - 1893         Theodor Alfred Sternickel           (b. 1825 - d. 1894)
18 Apr 1893 -  1 Jan 1909  Alfred Jakob Bernhard Theodor       (b. 1849 - d. 1922)
                             Gülcher
13 Jan 1909 - 1913         Walter Karl Maria The Losen         (b. 1880 - d. 1919)
 2 Nov 1913 - Nov 1918     Spiess (acting)
Nov 1918 - 10 Jan 1920     Vacant

Mayors
1817 - 21 Feb 1859         Arnold Timothée de Lasaulx (acting) (b. 1774 - d. 1861) 
21 Feb 1859 - 30 May 1859  Adolf Hubert van Scherpenzeel-Thim  (b. 1824 - d. 1877)
 1 Jul 1859 -  7 Feb 1882  Joseph Kohl
 7 Feb 1882 - 20 Jun 1885  Oskar Anton Bilharz                 (b. 1831 - d. 1917)
20 Jun 1885 - 15 Mar 1915  Hubert Schmetz                      (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
29 Mar 1915 -  7 Dec 1918  Wilhelm Kyll                        (b. 1876 - d. af.1956)
 7 Dec 1918 - 10 Jan 1920  Pierre Grignard



Nivelles

647                        Benedictine Abbey of Nivelles (Stift Nivelles)
....                       Abbesses made Princesses of the Empire.
 1 Oct 1795                Annexed by France.
15 Feb 1814                Part of Belgian territory separated from France.
16 Mar 1815                Incorporation into United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
 4 Oct 1830                Part of independent Belgium.

Princess-Abbesses (title Abbesse-Princesse d'Empire de Nivelles/
Fürstabtissin zu Nivelles)
23 Mar 1668 -  9 Nov 1705  Madeleine Thérèse de Noyelles        (b. 16.. - d. 1705)
 4 Jan 1706 - 26 Nov 1724  Marie Françoise Josephine de Berghes (b. 1678 - d. 1724)
25 Jun 1725 -  4 Mar 1743  Caroline Charlotte de Berlaimont     (d. 1743)
                            (
or Berlaymont)
 7 Sep 1743 - 28 Feb 1774  Ursule Antoinette van Berlo de       (d. 1774) 
                             Francdouaire
 8 Aug 1774 -  1 Oct 1795  Marie Félicité Philippine van der    (b. 1731 - d. 1799)
                             Noot


Reckheim (Rekem)

1108                       First lord of Reckheim mentioned.
1590                       Reckheim a free lordship (Herrschaft Reckheim), directly under
                             the Emperor.
31 Mar 1623                Reckheim an imperial county (Grafschaft Reckheim).
1793                       French occupation, annexed 1 Oct 1795 and formally ceded to France
                             on 9 Feb 1801. From this point
Reckheim follows the history of
                             Belgian Limburg.
25 Feb 1803 - 12 Jul 1806  d'Aspremont-Lynden dynasty granted Baindt as compensation for
                             the loss of Reckheim.

Counts (title Graf von Reckheim)
1623 - 24 Aug 1636         Ernst                               (b. 1583 - d. 1636)
24 Aug 1636 - 24 Aug 1665  Ferdinand                           (b. 1611 - d. 1665)
24 Aug 1665 - 1703         Maximiliaan Frans Gobert            (b. 1649 - d. 1703)
1665 - 1673                Regents
                           - Franz Egon von Fürstenberg        (b. 1626 - d. 1682)
                           - Isabella Henrietta d'Aspremont-   (b. 1615 - d. 1686)
                             Lynden, Abbesse Munsterbilzen (f)
1703 -  1 Feb 1708         Ferdinand Gobert                    (b. 1643 - d. 1708)
 1 Feb 1708 - 1720         Jozef Gobert
1720 - 24 Nov 1749         Karel Gobert Frans                  (b. 1703 - d. 1749)
24 Nov 1749 - 1792         Johan Nepomuk Gobert I              (b. 1732 - d. 1792)
1792 -  1 Oct 1795         Johan Nepomuk Gobert II             (b. 1757 - d. 1819)



Stavelot-Malmédy/Stablo-Malmedy

c.632                      Benedictine Abbey of Stablo-Malmedy (Klöster Stablo und Malmedy).
....                       Abbots also Princes of the Empire.
2/4 Mar 1793 - 1793        Occupied by France.
16 Sep 1794                Occupied by France.
 
1 Oct 1795                Annexed by France; Stavelot is merged with Franchimont as
                             an arrondissement of
département of Ourthe (see below).
15 Feb 1814                Allied administration.
 6 Mar 1815                Malmedy (Malmédy) part of Prussia (from 1871 Germany). 
16 Mar 1815                Stavelot part of the Netherlands.
 4 Oct 1830                Stavelot Part of Belgium.
30 Sep 1920                Malmédy incorporated into Belgium (see Eupen and Malmédy).

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Stablo-Malmedy/Abbé-Prince d'Empire de Stavelot-Malmedy)
1682 - 10 Apr 1704         Wilhelm III Egon Graf von Fürstenberg/       (b. 1629 - d. 1704) 
                             Guillaume-Egon, comte de Furstenberg
                             (appointed 1682, confirmed 15 Jul 1683)
30 May 1704 - 27 Jul 1715  Franz II Anton Herzog von Lothringen/        (b. 1689 - d. 1715)
                             François-Antoine, duc de Lorraine 
                             (elected 1704, cofirmed 22 Dec 1704)
1704 - 1708                Jacob Godding/ 
                             Jacques Godding -Administrator
                             (acting for the Duke of Lorraine) 
                             (confirmed 22 Dec 1704)
15 Oct 1715 - 26 Jul 1731  Johann IV Ernst Graf von Löwenstein/
                             Jean-Ernest, comte de Loewenstein          (b. 1667 - d. 1731)
                             (elected 1715, confirmed 16 Dec 1715,
                             sworn in 26 Apr 1716)
16 Aug 1731 -  3 May 1737  Nikolaus II Massin/                          (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                             Nicolas de Massin
                             (elected 16 Aug 1731, confirmed 29 Dec 1731)
 3 Aug 1737 - 14 Jun 1741  Deodat Drion/
                             Dieudonné de Drion                         (d. 1741)
                             (elected 3 Aug 1737, confirmed 3 Oct 1737)
14 Sep 1741 - 16 Sep 1753  Joseph de Nollet-Bourdon/                    (b. 1672 - d. 1753)
                             Joseph de Nollet a Bourdon 
                             (elected 14 Sep 1741, confirmed 27 Nov 1741,
                             invested 13 Mar 1747)
14 Dec 1753 -  2 Oct 1766  Alexander Delmotte/                          (d. 1766)
                             Alexandre Delmotte
                             (elected 14 Dec 1753, confirmed 1 Apr 1754)
27 Nov 1766 - 22 Dec 1786  Jacob Hubin/                                 (b. 1705 - d. 1786)
                             Jacques de Hubin 
 4 Jan 1787 - 21 Jul 1794  Célestin Thys                                (b. 1730 - d. 1796)
                             (elected 4 Jan 1787, confirmed 23 Apr 1787,
                             invested 17 Dec 1787, in Hanau exile to 1 Oct 1796)
Administrator
Jul 1794 - 26 Sep 1794     the magistrate of Malmédy



Ostend under Dutch rule

13 Jun 1584                Ostend occupied by Dutch forces.
20 Sep 1604
               City surrendered to Spanish Netherlands.

Governors

13 Jun 1584 - 1585         Guillaume de Blois, dict Treslong         (b. 1529 - d. 1594)
                             (Willem Bloys van Treslong
)
Mar 1585 - 1586            Guillaume de Hertaing, sieur de Marquette (b. 15.. - d. 1586)
                             (Willem de Hertaing De Marquette
)
1586 - Jan 1587            Sir Thomas Knollys (Knolles)              (b. c.1555 - d. c.1596)
12 Jan 1587 - 11 Aug 1590  John Conway                               (b. 1535 - d. 1603)

 7 Sep 1590 - Sep 1599     Sir Edward Norris (Norreys)
              (b. c.1565 - d. 1603)
1599 - 1600                Jean Piron
1600 - 1601                Maximiliaan van Cruyningen                (b. 1556 - d. 1612)
1601                       Charles van der Noot, heer van            (b. 15.. - d. 1614)
                             Hoogwoud en Aartswoud (1st time)

 9 Jul 1601 - 7 Mar 1602   Sir Francis Vere                          (b. 1560 - d. 1609)
                             (led defense of the city)
 7 Mar 1602 - 13 Jul 1603  Frederik van Dorp                         (b. 1547 - d. 1612)
Jul 1603 - Dec 1603        
Charles van der Noot, heer van            (s.a.)
                             Hoogwoud en Aartswoud (2nd time)

Dec 1603 - 21 Mar 1604     Pierre (Jean?) de Ghistelles
21 Mar 1604 - 25 Mar 1604  Johan van Loon                            (b. 15.. - d. 1604)
25 Mar 1604 -  6 Jun 1604  Jacques van der Meer, baron de            (b. 15.. - d. 1604)
                             Berendrecht
 6 Jun 1604 - 17 Jun 1604  Antonie van Uytenhoove
Jun 1604 - 20 Sep 1604     Daniel de Hertaing, sieur de Marquette    (b. 15.. - d. 1625)



French Départements in Belgium  1793 - 1814

Map of French Netherlands

Deux-Nèthes

 1 Oct 1795                French département of Deux-Nèthes formed from southern 
                             Brabant and Lordship of Malines (Mechelen).
Apr 1810                   Breda ceded by Kingdom of Holland and incorporated into
                             Deux-Nèthes.
1814                       End of French rule; incorporated into Belgium (under
                             Netherlands rule).
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.

Commissioners
1796 - 31 May 1798         Charles Louis Bruslé de Valsuzenay   (b. 1766 - d. 1825)
1798 -  6 May 1798         De Villers (acting for Bruslé)
31 May 1798 -  9 Jul 1799  Alexandre-François-Narcisse Levêque
 6 Apr 1799 -  3 Jul 1799  Saunier (acting for Levêque)
13 Jul 1799 - 1800         Dominique Ogez
                      (b. 1767 - d. 1839)
Prefects
1800 - 25 Jul 1805         Charles Joseph Fortuné,              (b. 1756 - d. 1829)
                             marquis d'Herbouville
29 Jul 1805 - 29 Mar 1809  Charles Cochon de Lapparent          (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
                            (from 10 Sep 1808, Charles Cochon,
                             chevalier de Lapparent)
1809 - 1813                Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy         (b. 1771 - d. 1842)
                             d'Argenson  
12 Mar 1813 - 1814         Jacques Fortunat, baron Savoye-Rollin(b. 1751 - d. 1823)
Intendant
14 Feb 1814 - 1815         François Louis Joseph, chevalier de  (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
                             Wargny (provisional)


Dyle

 1 Oct 1795                French département of Dyle formed from parts of 
                             Brabant, Counties of Hainaut, Namur, and Flanders
                             and the Bishopric of Liege.
1814                       End of French rule; incorporated into Belgium (under
                             Netherlands rule).
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.

Commissioners
1795 - 14 Sep 1797         Charles Lambrechts                   (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
14 Sep 1797 - 14 Feb 1799
  François-René-Auguste Mallarmé       (b. 1755 - d. 1835) 
14 Feb 1799 - 1800         Nicolas-Jean Rouppe                  (b. 1769 - d. 1838) 
Prefects
 2 Mar 1800 -  1 Feb 1805  Louis Gustave Doulcet de             (b. 1764 - d. 1853)
                             Pontécoulant
 1 Dec 1805 - 1808         François Louis René Mouchard de      (b. 1757 - d. 1814) 
                             Chaban
12 May 1808 - 1813         Frédéric Séraphin de La Tour du      (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
                             Pin-Gouvernet
                             (from 14 Feb 1810, Frédéric Séraphin, 
                             baron La Tour du Pin-Gouvernet)
12 Mar 1813 - 1814         Frédéric Christophe, baron           (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
                             d'Houdetot
Intendant
14 Feb 1814 - 1815         Jacques Joseph Dominique d'Anethan   (b. 1769 - d. 1841)
                            
(provisional)


Escaut

 2 Mar 1793                County of Flanders is annexed by France, but non-integrated.
19 Mar 1793                French lose Flanders.
 1 Oct 1795                French département of Escaut (Dutch: Schelde) formed from parts
                             of County of Flanders and the Dutch Flanders of the States.
1814                       End of French rule; incorporated into Belgium (under
                             Netherlands rule).
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.

Commissioners
18 Nov 1795 -  5 Aug 1799  Reinier-Grégoire Dubosch            (b. 1765 - d. 1842)
 5 Aug 1799 - 24 Mar 1800  Bernard François Joseph van Wambeke (b. 1764 - d. 1841)
Prefects
24 Mar 1800 - 1808         Guillaume Marie Faipoult            (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
18 Sep 1808 - 1813         Frédéric Christophe d'Houdetot      (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
                            (from 18 Jun 1809, Frédéric
                             Christophe, baron d'Houtetot)
25 Mar 1813 - Feb 1814     Antoine François Catherine,         (b. 1757 - d. 1830)
                             baron Desmousseaux de Givré
Intendants
14 Feb 1814 -  1814        Charles Liévin Beaucarne            (b. 1756 - d. 1815)
                             (provisional)
1814 - 1815                Jean-Baptiste d'Hane de Steenhuyse  (b. 1757 - d. 1826)
                             (provisional)


Forêts: see Luxembourg

Jemmapes

12 Mar 1793                Creation of French département of Jemappe formed from County
                             of Hainaut.
23 Mar 1793                Annexation of Bailiwick of Tournai (Doornik).
 2 Apr 1793                Austrians occupy the area of Jemappe.
26 Jun 1794                France recaptures Hainaut and Tournai; département of
                             Jemmape restored.
 3 Aug 1794                French government proclaims that territories newly re-occupied 
                             are considered as "pays conquis" (conquered land), and
                             restoration of département of Jemmappe is suspended;
                             arrondissement of Hainaut.
30 Aug 1795                Restoration of département of Jemmappe.
 1 Oct 1795                Renamed département of Jemmapes.
1814                       End of French rule.
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.


Commissioners
19 Jan 1793 - 25 Mar 1793  Mouchet
                           + Légier
                           + Raphaël Leroy
 2 Jul 1794 -  1 Dec 1794  Jasmin Lamotze

 1 Dec 1794 - 1795         Prudhomme

23 Nov 1795 - 1795         Charles Duvivier

Nov 1795 - 1796            Bazin 
Jan 1796 - May? 1796       Volkerick
May 1796 - Jun 1796        Casimir Varon                        (b. 1761 - d. 1796)
1796                       Dubois
1796                       Aubert
1796                       Houzé

1796 - 1797                Claude-François Gonnet de Fiéville   (b. 1752 - d. 1815)
20 Apr 1797 - 1797         Dewamin
24 Sep 1797 - 1797         P.A. Defacqz
1797 - 1798                Pierre-François-Joseph Delneufcourt  (b. 1756 - d. 1827)
1798                       Charles-Stanislas Troye              (b. 1770 - d. 1844)
Jun 1798 -  3 Jul 1799     Jean-Baptiste-Martial Pradier        (b. 1776 - d. 18..)
 3 Jul 1799 - Apr 1800     Jean-Ambroise De Puydt               (b. 1758 - d. 1836)

Prefects
Apr 1800 - 1805            Jean Baptiste Étienne Garnier        (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
 1 Feb 1805 - 1810         Patrice Charles Ghislain de Coninck  (b. 1770 - d. 1827)
                             d'Outrive 
 7 Aug 1810 -  8 Feb 1812  Jean Baptiste Maximilien, baron      (b. 1773 - d. 1847)
                             Villot de Fréville
 9 Mar 1812 - 1814         Pierre Clément de Laussat            (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
Intendants
14 Feb 1814 - 10 Mar 1814  Bonaventure Hyacinthe Joseph,
       (b. 1755 - d. 1831)
                             chevalier de Bousies (provisional)
10 Mar 1814 - 1815         Auguste, baron de La Motte-Baraffe   (b. 1782 - d. 1852)
     
                            
(provisional)


Lys (Leie)  

 1 Oct 1795                French département of Lys formed from western Austrian 
                             (Belgian) Flanders
1814                       End of French rule.
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.

Commissioners
1795 - 1797                Jacques Devaux                       (b. 1766 - d. 1807)
1797 - 1798                Jean-François Baret                  (b. 1756 - d. 1800)
1798 - Apr 1799            Pierre-Antoine, comte Herwyn de      (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
                             Névèle
1799 - 1800                Fournier
Prefects

 2 Mar 1800 - 1803         François Marie Joseph Justin de      (b. 1736 - d. 1813)
                             Viry
 8 Feb 1803 -  5 Oct 1810  Bernard François,                    (b. 1766 - d. 1832)
                             marquis de Chauvelin 
30 Nov 1810 - 14 Aug 1811  Pierre Amédée Vincent Joseph Marie   (b. 1767 - d. 1811) 
                             Arborio-Biamino
25 Aug 1811 - 1814         Jean François Soult                  (b. 1772 - d. 1823)
Intendants
14 Feb 1814 - 1814         Bernard Van Severen (provisional)    (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
Apr 1814 - 1815            Constantin de Preud'homme d'Hailly
                             de Nieuport
(provisional)          (b. 1748 - d. 1835)


Meuse-Inférieure 

Nov 1794                   French département of Meuse-Inférieure formed from
                             southern Bishopric of Liege, Limburg and parts of Netherlands.
 1 Oct 1795                Annexed to France.
1814                       End of French rule.

Commissioners
30 Oct 1794 - 1795         Charles Clément Roemers             (b. 1748 - d. 1838) 
                            (of Arrondissement de Maestricht)
1795                       André-Charles Membrède              (b. 1758 - d. 1831)
 1 Oct 1795 - 13 Aug 1796  Jean-Louis Rogier
23 Aug 1796 - Jun 1799     Nicholas Girard
13 Jun 1799 - 23 Apr 1800  François-Alexandre Cavenne          (b. 1773 - d. 1856)
Prefects
 2 Mar 1800 - 1800         Chateaugiron (did not take office)
Apr 1800 - 1801            Jean Henri Becays Ferrand, dit      (b. 1736 - d. 1805)
                             Ferrand de Lacaussade
 2 Nov 1801 - 1806         Pierre Loisel                       (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
31 Jan 1806 - 1814         Jean Baptiste Roggieri              (b. 1761 - d. 1827)
Intendant
14 Feb 1814                Joseph Brandès (provisional)
                             (did not take office)


Ourthe

 1 Oct 1795                French département of Ourthe formed from Principality of Stavelot,
                             parts of Bishopric of Liege and Duchy of Luxembourg,
                             and some villages of County of Namur and Duchy of Brabant.
15 Sep 1814                End of French rule.

Commissioners
Sep 1794 - 1795            Provisional administration
1795 - Nov 1795            Louis Ghislain de Bouteville-Dumetz  (b. 1746 - d. 1821)
18 Nov 1795 - 16 Dec 1795  Jean-Baptiste Winant Digneffe        (b. 1761 - d. 18..)
16 Dec 1795 - May 1798     Jean-Nicolas Bassenge                (b. 1758 - d. 1811)
25 May 1798 - Aug 1799     Lambert Bassenge                     (b. 1757 - d. 1821) 
20 Aug 1799 - 30 Mar 1800  Hauzeur-Simonon 
Prefects
30 Mar 1800 -  4 Apr 1806  Antoine François Catherine           (b. 1757 - d. 1830)
                             Desmousseaux de Givré
 7 Apr 1806 - 1814         Charles Emmanuel, baron Micoud       (b. 1753 - d. 1817)
                             d'Umons 


Sambre-et-Meuse

 1 Oct 1795                French département of Sambre-et-Meuse formed from 
                             County of Namur and parts of Luxembourg.
1814                       End of French rule.
1814 - 1815                Allied administration.

Commissioners
Dec 1795 - Feb 1799        Chanteau
11 Feb 1799 - 16 Feb 1799  Maurice Neukomm
16 Feb 1799 - 1800?        Pierre-Gabriel-Pascal Mallarmé       (b. 1746 - d. 1830)
Prefects

 2 Mar 1800 - Jan 1814     Emmanuel Pérès de Lagesse            (b. 1752 - d. 1833)
                            (from 14 Feb 1810, Emmanuel, baron 
                             Pérès de Lagesse)
 2 Jan 1814 - 1814         Alban de Villeneuve-Bargemont        (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
Intendant
14 Feb 1814 - 1815         Gabriel-Amour-Joseph de Bruges de    (b. 1766 - d. 1844)
                             Branchon (provisional)






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