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German States to 1918  A-E


Note: The list below is only complete for those polities that survived beyond 1806.  Within 
the Holy Roman Empire, there existed countless minor states (ecclesiastical states, imperial
cities, imperial villages, lordships, counties, baronies, principalities, etc.), which
are nearly impossible to list with even partial accuracy.  A major reorganization was
brought about by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, when more than 100 polities were abolished.¹  Polities listed prior to 1806 are a sample of the major or most well known
polities of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine.  After 1806, all the
polities that survived the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna are listed.
 
For the sake of providing a division between eras, after the republican revolutions 
of 1918, which overthrew the last German monarchies, remaining states are listed under
German states since 1918; these include the states and provinces of the Weimar Republic, Third Reich, and the modern period.  The provinces of Prussia are listed in a separate section following the entry for Prussia (Prussian provinces to 1946). Statistical data is given only for those polities that survived to 1918.
 ¹among them the bishoprics of Augsburg, Bamberg, Berchtesgaden, Corvey, Eichstätt, Freising, Fulda, Hildesheim, Konstanz, Lübeck, Münster, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Passau, Würzburg; the imperial cities of Aalen, Biberach, Bopfingen, Buchau, Buchhorn, Dinkelsbühl, Dortmund, Esslingen, Friedberg, Gengenbach, Giengen, Goslar, Hall am Kocher, Heilbronn, Isny, Kaufbeuren, Kempten, Leutkirch, Lindau, Memmingen, Mühlhausen, Nordhausen, Nördlingen, Offenburg, Pfullendorf, Ravensburg, Regensburg, Reutlingen, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Rottweil, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Schweinfurt, Überlingen, Ulm, Wangen, Weil der Stadt, Weissenburg, Wetzlar, Wimpfen, Windsheim, and Zell am Harmersbach; the imperial villages of Gochsheim, Holzhausen, Leutkircher Heide, Sennfeld, Soden, and Sulzbach; and the imperial valley of Harmersbach.

Noble titles: Edler/Edle = Noble; Erzherzog/Erzherzogin = Archduke/Archduchess;  Freiherr/Freifrau = Baron/Baroness; Fürst/Fürstin = Prince/Princess; Gefürsteter Graf/Gräfin = Princely Count/Countess; Graf/Gräfin = Count/Countess; Grossherzog/Grossherzogin = Grand Duke/Duchess; Herr/Herrin = Lord/Lady; Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess; Kaiser/Kaiserin = Emperor/Empress; Köing/Königin = King/Queen; Kurfürst/Kurfürstin = Prince/Princess Elector; Landgraf/Landgräfin = Landgrave/Landgravine; Markgraf/Markgräfin = Margrave/Margravine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin = Count/Countess Palatine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein = Count/Countess Palatine of the Rhine; Prinz/Prinzessin = Prince/Princess; Reichsfreiherr = Imperial Baron; Reichsgraf/Reichsgräfin = Imperial Count/Countess; Rheingraf/Rheingräfin = Rhinegrave/Rhinegravine; Ritter = Knight; Wildgraf = Wildgrave.
Ecclesiastical titles: Äbt/Äbtissin = Abbot/Abbess; Bischof = bishop; Erzbischof = Archbishop; Fürstabte = Prince-Abbot; Fürstabtissin = Princess-Abbess; Fürstbischof = Prince-bishop.

Maps showing some of the major territorial changes: Historical Map of Germany in 1660;
Historical map of Germany in 1789; Historical map of Germany in 1803; Map of Germany in 1812;
Map of German Confederation 1815; Map of German Empire 1871

Aachen 

[Aachen Free City]

1306                       Imperial City of Aachen (Reichsstadt Aachen); two "succession
                             lines" can be distinguished.
15 Dec 1792 -  2 Mar 1793  Occupied by France.
23 Sep 1794                Occupied by France.
18 Oct 1797                Ceded to France.
16 Mar 1798                French abolish the free city government.
 9 Mar 1801 - 1813         Annexed to France as Aix-la-Chapelle, part of département
                             Roer (see under Germany).
1813 - 1814                Allied (Prussian) occupation.
14 Feb 1814                Part of Prussia.

Bürgermeister
 - Line 1 -
1698 - 1699                Tilman Schroeder (2nd time)        (b. 1645 - d. 1706)
1699 - 1700                Werner von Broich (7th time)       (b. 1636 - d. 1731)
1700 – 1706                Vacant
1706 – 1709                Werner von Broich (8th time)       (s.a.)
1709 - 1710                Dietrich Joseph Speckhewer         (b. 1659 - d. 1714)
                             (1st time)
1710 - 1711                Werner von Broich (9th time)       (s.a.)
1711 - 1712                Dietrich Joseph Speckhewer         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)    
1712 - 1713                Werner von Broich (10th time)      (s.a.)
1713 - 1714                Winand Theodor von Wilre zur Worm  (b. 1665 - d. 1717)
                             (1st time)
1714 - 1715                Werner von Broich  (11th time)     (s.a.)
1715 - 1716                Winand Theodor von Wilre zur Worm  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1716 - 1717                Franz Hermann Brauman (1st time)   (b. 1686 - d. 1750)
1717 - 1718                Leonhard Joseph Franz Hieronimus   (b. 1686 - d. 1764)
                             Freiherr von Lamberts zu
                             Cortenbach (1st time)
1718 - 1719                Franz Hermann Brauman (2nd time)   (s.a.)   
1719 - 1720                Leonhard Joseph Franz Hieronimus   (s.a.)
                             Freiherr von Lamberts zu
                             Cortenbach (2nd time)
1720 - 1721                Franz Hermann Brauman (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1721 - 1722                Leonhard Joseph Franz Hieronimus   (s.a.)
                             Freiherr von Lamberts zu
                             Cortenbach (3rd time)
1722 - 1723                Johann Werner von Broich (1st time)(b. 1675 - d. 1747)
1723 - 1724                Johann Theodor Richterich          (b. 1650 - d. 1728)
                             (1st time)
1724 – 1725                Johann Werner von Broich (2nd time)(s.a.)
1725 - 1726                Johann Theodor Richterich          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1726 - 1727                Johann Werner von Broich (3rd time)(s.a.)
1727 - 1728                Johann Theodor Richterich          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1728 - 1729                Johann Werner von Broich (4th time)(s.a.)
1729 - 1730                Alexander Theodor Oliva (1st time) (b. 1691 - d. 1767)
1730 - 1731                Johann Werner von Broich (5th time)(s.a.)
1731 - 1732                Alexander Theodor Oliva (2nd time) (s.a.)
1732 - 1733                Johann Werner von Broich (6th time)(s.a.)
1733 - 1734                Alexander Theodor Oliva (3rd time) (s.a.)
1734 - 1735                Johann Werner von Broich (7th time)(s.a.)
1735 - 1736                Alexander Theodor Oliva (4th time) (s.a.)
1736 - 1737                Johann Werner von Broich (8th time)(s.a.)
1737 - 1738                Alexander Theodor Oliva (5th time) (s.a.)
1738 - 1739                Johann Werner von Broich           (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
1739 - 1740                Alexander Theodor Oliva (6th time) (s.a.)
1740 - 1741                Johann Werner von Broich           (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1741 - 1742                Alexander Theodor Oliva (7th time) (s.a.)
1742 - 1743                Johann Werner von Broich           (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
1743 - 1744                Alexander Theodor Oliva (8th time) (s.a.)
1744 - 1745                Johann Werner von Broich           (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1745 - 1746                Alexander Theodor Oliva (9th time) (s.a.)
1746 - 1747                Johann Werner von Broich           (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1747 - 1748                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1748 - 1749                Franz von Fürth (1st time)         (b. 1695 - d. 1773)
1749 - 1750                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
1750 - 1751                Franz von Fürth (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1751 - 1752                Alexander Theodor on Oliva         (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1752 - 1753                Franz von Fürth (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1753 - 1754                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
1754 - 1755                Franz von Fürth (4th time)         (s.a.)
1755 - 1756                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (14th time)
1756 - 1757                Friedrich Wilhelm Beelen           (b. 1732 - d. 1766)
1757 - 1758                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (b. 1719 - d. 1786)
                             (1st time)
1758 - 1759                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (15th time)
1759 - 1760                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)   
1760 - 1761                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (16th time)
1761 - 1762                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1762 - 1763                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (17th time)
1763 - 1764                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1764 - 1765                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (18th time)
1765 - 1766                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (5th time) 
1766 - 1767                Alexander Theodor von Oliva        (s.a.)
                             (19th time)
1767 - 1768                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
16 Jan 1768 - 1769         Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (b. 1707 - d. 1793) 
                             (1st time)
1769 - 1770                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
1770 - 1771                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1771 - 1772                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
1772 - 1773                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1773 - 1774                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
1774 - 1775                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1775 - 1776                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
1776 - 1777                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1777 - 1778                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1778 - 1779                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
1779 - 1780                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
1780 - 1781                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
1781 - 1782                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1782 - 1783                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
1783 - 1784                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
1784 - 1785                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
1785 - 1786                Joseph Xaver von Richterich        (s.a.)
                             (14th time)  
1786 - 1787                Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1787 - 31 Jul 1788         Johann Nepomuk Martin von Oliva    (b. 1738 - d. 1816)
31 Jul 1788 -  4 Sep 1789  Johann Jacob Freiherr von Wilre    (s.a.) 
                             (11th time)
 4 Sep 1789 - 1797         Caspar Joseph von Clotz            (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
- Line 2 -
1698 - 1699                Matthias von Maw (or Mau)(2nd time)(b. 1642 - d. 1709)
1699 - 1700                Balthasar Fiebus (2nd time)        (b. 1646 - d. 1415)
1700 - 1701                Matthias von Maw (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1701 - 1702                Balthasar Fiebus (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1702 - 1703                Matthias von Maw (4th time)        (s.a.)
1703 - 1704                Balthasar Fiebus (4th time)        (s.a.)
1704 - 1705                Matthias von Maw (5th time)        (s.a.)
1705 - 1706                Balthasar Fiebus (5th time)        (s.a.)
1706 - 1707                Matthias von Maw (6th time)        (s.a.)
1707 - 1708                Balthasar Fibus (6th time)         (s.a.)
1708 - 1709                Matthias von Maw (7th time)        (s.a.)
1709 - 1710                Balthasar Fiebus (7th time)        (s.a.)
1710 - 1711                Michael Bodden                     (b. 1667 - d. 1711)
1711 - 1712                Balthasar Fiebus (8th time)        (s.a.)
1712 - 1713                Arnold Heitgens (1st time)
1713 - 1714                Balthasar Fiebus (9th time)        (s.a.)
1714 - 1715                Arnold Heitgens (2nd time)
1715 - 1716                Lambert Xaver Lamberts
1716 - 1717                Theodor Richterich (1st time)      (b. 1650 - d. 1728)
1717 - 1718                Cornelius de Fays zu Uersfeld      (d. 1728)
                             (1st time)
1718 - 1719                Theodor Richterich (2nd time)      (s.a.)   
1719 - 1720                Cornelius de Fays zu Uersfeld      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1720 - 1721                Peter Dahmen                       (b. 1647 - d. 1736)
1721 - 1722                Johann Kaspar Deltour (1st time)   (b. 1651 - d. 1733)
1722 - 1723                Cornelius de Fays zu Uersfeld      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1723 - 1724                Johann Kaspar Deltour (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1724 - 1725                Cornelius de Fays zu Uersfeld      (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1725 - 1726                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (b. 1690 - d. 1756) 
                             (1st time)
1726 - 1727                Cornelius de Fays zu Uersfeld      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1727 - 1728                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1728 - 1729                Johann Kaspar Deltour (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1729 - 1730                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
1730 – 23 Jun 1730         Johann Kaspar Deltour              (s.a.)
                             (to 23 Jun 1730)
23 Jun 1730 – 1731         Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
1731 - 1732                Jacob Niclas (1st time)            (b. 1678 - d. 1755)
1732 - 1733                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1733 - 1734                Jacob Niclas (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1734 - 1735                Martin Lambert von Lonenux         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
1735 - 1736                Jacob Niclas (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1736 - 1737                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
1737 - 1738                Jacob Niclas (4th time)            (s.a.)
1738 - 1739                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
1739 - 1740                Jacob Niclas (5th time)            (s.a.)
1740 - 1741                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.) 
                             (9th time)
1741 - 1742                Jacob Niclas (6th time)            (s.a.)
1742 - 1743                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
1743 - 1744                Jacob Niclas  (7th time)           (s.a.)
1744 - 1745                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
1745 - 1746                Jacob Niclas (8th time)            (s.a.)
1746 - 1747                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
1747 - 1748                Jacob Niclas (9th time)            (s.a.)
1748 - 1749                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
1749 - 1750                Jacob Niclas (10th time)           (s.a.)
1750 - 1751                Martin Lambert von Lonneux         (s.a.) 
                             (14th time)
1751 - 1752                Jacob Niclas (11th time)           (s.a.)
1752 - 1753                Martin Lambert de Loneux           (s.a.) 
                             (15th time)
1753 - 1754                Jacob Niclas (12th time)           (s.a.)
1754 - 1755                Martin Lambert de Loneux           (s.a.)
                             (16th time)
1755 - 1756                Jacob Niclas (13th time)           (s.a.)
1756 - 1757                Johann von Wispien (1st time)      (b. 1700 - d. 1759)
1757 - 1758                Peter Balthasar Strauch (1st time) (b. 1728 - d. 1802)
1758 - 1759                Johann von Wispien (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1759 - 1760                Peter Ballhasar Strauch (2nd time) (s.a.)
1760 - 1761                Franz Augustin de Broe (1st time)
1761 - 1762                Peter Balthasar Strauch (3rd time) (s.a.)
1762 - 1763                Franz Augustin de Broe (2nd time)
1763 - 1764                Johann Lambert Kahr (1st time)     (b. 1710 - d. 1776)
1765 - 1766                Johann Lambert Kahr (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1766 - 1767                Cornelius Chorus (2nd time)        (s.a.)
1767 - 1768                Johann Lambert Kahr (3rd time)     (s.a.)
25 May 1768 - 1769         Cornelius Chorus (3rd time)        (s.a.)
1769 - 1770                Johann Lambert Kahr (4th time)     (s.a.)
1770 - 1771                Cornelius Chorus (4th time)        (s.a.)
1771 - 1772                Johann Lambert Kahr (5th time)     (s.a.)
1772 - 1773                Cornelius Chorus (5th time)        (s.a.)
1773 - 1774                Johann Lambert Kahr (5th time)     (s.a.)
1774                       Cornelius Chorus (6th time)        (s.a.)
                             (to ... 1774)
1775 - 1776                Johann Lambert Kahr (6th time)     (s.a.)
1776 - 1777                Stephan Dominikus Dauven (1st time)(b. 1732 - d. 1797)
1777 - 1778                Heinrich Joseph von Thimus-        (b. 1719 - d. 1789)
                             Zieverich (1st time)
1778 - 1779                Stephan Dominikus Dauven (2nd time)(s.a.)
1779 - 1780                Heinrich Joseph von Thimus-        (s.a.)
                             Zieverich (2nd time)
1780 - 1781                Stephan Dominikus Dauven (3rd time)(s.a.)
1781 - 1782                Heinrich Joseph Freiherr           (s.a.)
                             von Thimus-Zieverich (3rd time)
1782 - 1783                Stephan Dominikus Dauven (4th time)(s.a.)
1783 - 1784                Heinrich Joseph Freiherr           (s.a.)
                             von Thimus-Zieverich (4th time)
1784 - 1785                Stephan Dominikus Dauven (5th time)(s.a.)
1785 - 1786                Leonhard Brammerz
1786 – 26 Jun 1786         Stephan Dominikus Dauven (6th time)(s.a.)
1787 - 31 Jul 1788         Franz de Broe von Diepenbeud
31 Jul 1788 -  4 Sep 1789  Franz Carl Nellessen               (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
 4 Sep 1789 - 1797         Johann Michael Kreitz
Mayors (Bürgermeister)
1797 - 22 Sep 1797         Philipp Freiherr de Witte de       (b. 1743 - d. 1799)
                             Limminghe
22 Sep 1797                Wilhelm Houben (refused office)
22 Sep 1797 - 18 Mar 1798  Andreas Monheim                    (b. 1750 - d. 1804)
Presidents of the Municipality (Munizipalpräsident)
1798                       Jakob Friedrich Kolb               (b. 1748 - d. 1813)
1798 - 1800                Johann Friedrich Jacobi            (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
Mayors
1800 - 1804                Jakob Friedrich Kolb               (s.a.)
1804 - 1808                Johann Wilhelm Gottfried Franz     (b. 1743 - d. 1810)
                             Maria Freiherr von Mommessem
1808 - 1814                Cornelius Maria Paulus von Guaita  (b. 1766 - d. 1821)


Aargau: see Swiss Cantons
Alsace: see under France


Anhalt

[Analt
                          Landesfarben c.1863-1918]
           c.1863 - 12 Nov 1918 Civil flag
Anhalt State
                          flag c.1871-1918
    c.1871 - 12 Nov 1918 State flag

Map of Anhalt National Anthems
"Anhalt-Lied" (Anhalt Song) and "Dessauer Marsch"
Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
Capital: Dessau
Population: 328,007 (1905)

1250                       Principality of Anhalt
10 Jul 1603                Partitioned into 5 principalities (Anhalt-Bernburg,
                             Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Plötzkau,
                             and Anhalt-Zerbst).
30 Aug 1863                Duchy of Anhalt unified.
12 Nov 1918                Free State of Anhalt (see German states since 1918).

Dukes
30 Aug 1863 - 22 May 1871  Leopold IV                         (b. 1794 - d. 1871) 
22 May 1871 - 24 Jan 1904  Friedrich I                        (b. 1831 - d. 1904)
24 Jan 1904 - 21 Apr 1918  Friedrich II                       (b. 1856 - d. 1918)
21 Apr 1918 - 13 Sep 1918  Eduard                             (b. 1861 - d. 1918)
13 Sep 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Joachim Ernst                      (b. 1901 - d. 1947)
Sep 1918 - 12 Nov 1918     Aribert Fürst von Anhalt -Regent   (b. 1864 - d. 1933)

Ministers of state
12 Sep 1863 - 1868         Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sintenis  (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
1868 - 1875                Karl August Alfred von Larisch     (b. 1819 - d. 1897)
1875 - 1892                Anton von Krosigk                  (b. 1820 - d. 1892)
1892 - 1902                Kurt von Koseritz                  (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
1903 - 1909                Nikolaus Michael Louis Hans von    (b. 1855 - d. 1919)
                             Dallwitz 
 1 Jan 1910 -  8 Nov 1918  Ernst Laue                         (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
 8 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Max Gutknecht                      (b. 1872 - d. 1946)  Non-party


Anhalt-Bernburg
[Anhalt]
        1830 - 19 Aug 1863
10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg
 8 Apr 1806                Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg
19 Aug 1863                Incorporated into Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg], Graf von Askanien)
 2 Oct 1656 - 14 Feb 1718  Viktor Amadeus                     (b. 1634 - d. 1718)
14 Feb 1718 - 22 Apr 1721  Karl Friedrich                     (b. 1668 - d. 1721)
22 Apr 1721 - 18 May 1765  Viktor Friedrich                   (b. 1700 - d. 1765)
18 May 1765 -  9 Apr 1796  Friedrich Albrecht                 (b. 1735 - d. 1796)
 9 Apr 1796 -  8 Apr 1806  Alexius Friedrich Christian        (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Bernburg], Graf von Askanien)
 8 Apr 1806 - 24 Mar 1834  Alexius Friedrich Christian        (s.a.)
24 Mar 1834 - 19 Aug 1863  Alexander Karl                     (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
 8 Oct 1855 - 19 Aug 1863  Herzogin Friederike Karoline
      (b. 1811 - d. 1902)
                             Juliane (f) -Co-regent        


Presidents of the state government

1810 - 1827                Johann Vollrath Ludwig Freiherr    (b. 1761 - d. 1827)
                             von Salmuth                      (b. 1761 - d. 1827)
1827 - 1831                Wilhelm Ernst Carl Pfau 
           (b. 1775 - d. 1841)
                             (from 12 Jun 1828, Wilhelm Ernst
                             Carl von Pfau)                   
     
1831 - 24 Jul 1848         Friedrich Wilhelm August von       (b. 1773 - d. 1852)
                             Kersten
Ministers of state
24 Jul 1848 -  2 Nov 1848  Friedrich Wilhelm August von       (s.a.)
                             Kersten

 3 Nov 1848 - 14 Dec 1850  Carl Magnus Heinrich von Krosigk   (b. 1789 - d. 1850)
14 Dec 1850 - 17 Apr 1853
  Johann Victor Andreas von Hempel   (b. 1792 - d. 18..)
17 Apr 1853 - 12 Sep 1863  Maximilian Theodor von Schnetzell  (b. 1804 - d. 1879)


Anhalt-Bernburg-Harzgerode

17 Apr 1630                Separated from Anhalt-Bernburg.
14 Dec 1709                Re-incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg-Harzgerode], Graf von Askanien)
17 Apr 1630 - 30 Jun 1670  Friedrich                          (b. 1613 - d. 1670)
30 Jun 1670 - 14 Dec 1709  Wilhelm                            (b. 1643 - d. 1709)


Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym

1707                       Separated from Anhalt-Bernburg.
24 Dec 1812                Re-incorporated into Anhalt-Bernburg.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym], Graf von Askanien)
1707 - 17 May 1727         Leberecht                          (b. 1669 - d. 1727)
17 May 1727 - 15 Apr 1772  Viktor I                           (b. 1693 - d. 1772)
15 Apr 1772 - 20 Aug 1806  Karl                               (b. 1723 - d. 1806)
20 Aug 1806 - 22 Apr 1812  Viktor II                          (b. 1767 - d. 1812)
22 Apr 1812 - 24 Dec 1812  Friedrich                          (b. 1741 - d. 1812)


Anhalt-Dessau
[Anhalt]
         1813 - 2 May 1853
10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Dessau
18 Apr 1807                Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau
 2 May 1853                Merges with Anhalt-Köthen to form Duchy of
                             Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Dessau], Graf von Askanien)
17 Aug 1693 -  9 Apr 1747  Leopold I "der alte Dessauer"      (b. 1676 - d. 1747)
 9 Apr 1747 - 16 Dec 1751  Leopold II                         (b. 1700 - d. 1751)
16 Dec 1751 - 18 Apr 1807  Leopold III                        (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Dessau], Graf von Askanien)
18 Apr 1807 -  9 Aug 1817  Leopold III                        (s.a.)
 9 Aug 1817 -  2 May 1853  Leopold IV                         (b. 1794 - d. 1871)

Heads of the government
18.. - 1831                Wolff Carl August von 
                             Wolfframsdorff                   (b. 1769 - d. 1831)
1831 - 1835                Ludwig von Basedow                 (b. 1774 - d. 1835)
1835 -  5 Apr 1848         Leopold von Morgenstern            (b. 1790 - d. 1848)
Ministers of State
 5 Apr 1848 - Jul 1849     August Eberhardt Habicht           (b. 1805 - d. 1896)
Jul 1849 - 1862            Albert Friedrich von Plötz         (b. 1808 - d. 1862)
1862 - 12 Sep 1863         Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sintenis  (b. 1804 - d. 1868)


Anhalt-Köthen
[Anhalt]
         1813 - 2 May 1853
10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Köthen
23 Apr 1665                Merged with Anhalt-Plötzkau.
 1 Jun 1807                Duchy of Anhalt-Köthen
23 Nov 1847                Jointly administered by Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Bernburg
 2 May 1853                Merges with Anhalt-Dessau to form Duchy of
                             Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Köthen], Graf von Askanien)
18 Nov 1670 - 30 May 1704  Emanuel Lebrecht                   (b. 1671 - d. 1704)
30 May 1704 - 19 Nov 1728  Leopold                            (b. 1694 - d. 1728)
19 Nov 1728 -  6 Aug 1755  August Ludwig                      (b. 1697 - d. 1755)
 6 Aug 1755 - 17 Oct 1789  Karl Georg Ludwig Lebrecht         (b. 1730 - d. 1789)
17 Oct 1789 -  1 Jun 1807  August Christian Friedrich         (b. 1769 - d. 1812)
Dukes (title Herzog zu Anhalt[-Köthen], Graf von Askanien)
 1 Jun 1807 -  5 May 1812  August Christian Friedrich         (s.a.)
 5 May 1812 - 18 Dec 1818  Ludwig II                          (b. 1802 - d. 1818)
 5 May 1812 -  9 Aug 1817  Leopold III of Anhalt-             (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
                             Dessau -Regent
 9 Aug 1817 - 18 Dec 1818  Alexius von Anhalt-Bernburg -Regent(b. 1767 - d. 1834)
18 Dec 1818 - 23 Aug 1830  Friedrich Ferdinand                (b. 1769 - d. 1830)
23 Aug 1830 - 23 Nov 1847  Heinrich                           (b. 1778 - d. 1847)

Conducting Minister
1811 - 1812                Christoph Christian Freiherr von   (b. 1768 - d. 1830)
                             Dabelow
Presidents of the State government
1812 - 1817                Ludwig Lebrecht Vierthaler         (b. 1763 - d. 1818)
1817 - 1835                Lebrecht August Renthe             (b. 1762 - d. 1835)
                             (from 1820, Lebrecht August von Renthe)    
1836 - 1839                Johann David Karl Albert           (b. 1779 - d. 1839)
                             (from 1837, Johann David Karl
                             von Albert)                         
1840 - Apr 1848            Albert Vierthaler                  (b. 1794 - d. 1862)
President of the government
Apr 1848 - 1853            Albert Vierthaler                  (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Common Ministry of State (for Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen)
23 Jul 1848 - 10 Jul 1849  August Eberhardt Habicht           (b. 1805 - d. 1896)
10 Jul 1849 - May 1853     Gustav August von Gossler          (b. 1807 - d. 1869) 


Anhalt-Köthen-Pless

1765                       Principality of Anhalt-Köthen-Pless
 5 Nov 1841                Re-incorporated into Anhalt-Köthen.

Princes
1765 - 12 Dec 1797         Friedrich Erdmann                  (b. 1721 - d. 1797)
12 Dec 1797 - 18 Dec 1818  Friedrich Ferdinand                (s.a.)
18 Dec 1818 - 23 Aug 1830  Heinrich                           (s.a.)
23 Aug 1830 -  5 Nov 1841  Ludwig                             (b. 1783 - d. 1841)


Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen
[Anhalt]
   2 May 1853 - 30 Aug 1863
 2 May 1853                Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen formed by merger of
                             Anhalt-Dessau and Anhalt-Köthen.
30 Aug 1863                After incorporation of Anhalt-Bernburg 19 Aug 1863,
                             the polity becomes the Duchy of Anhalt.

Duke
 2 May 1853 - 30 Aug 1863  Leopold IV                         (b. 1794 - d. 1871)


Anhalt-Zerbst

10 Jul 1603                Principality of Anhalt-Zerbst
 3 Mar 1797                Divided among Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Köthen, Anhalt-Dessau.

Princes (title Fürst zu Anhalt[-Zerbst], Graf von Askanien)
14 Jul 1667 -  3 Nov 1718  Karl Wilhelm                       (b. 1652 - d. 1718)
 3 Nov 1718 -  7 Nov 1742  Johann August                      (b. 1677 - d. 1742)
 7 Nov 1742 -  5 Nov 1746  Johann Ludwig                      (b. 1688 - d. 1746)
                           - jointly with -
 7 Nov 1742 - 16 Mar 1747  Christian August                   (b. 1690 - d. 1747)
16 Mar 1747 -  3 Mar 1793  Friedrich August                   (b. 1734 - d. 1793)
16 Mar 1747 - 1752         Johanna Elisabeth Prinzessin       (b. 1712 - d. 1760)
                             von Holstein-Gottorp (f) -Regent



Ansbach
[Ansbach to 1792]
                        to 1792

21 Jan 1398                Principality of Ansbach (Fürstentum Ansbach).
28 Jan 1792                Annexed to Prussia (see under Bayreuth).
22 Feb 1806 - 27 May 1806  French occupation.
27 May 1806                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Margraves (title Fürst und Markgraf von Ansbach)
16 Oct 1692 - 29 Mar 1703  Georg Friedrich II                   (b. 1678 - d. 1703)
29 Mar 1703 -  7 Jan 1723  Wilhelm Friedrich                    (b. 1686 - d. 1723)
 7 Jan 1723 -  3 Aug 1757  Karl Wilhelm Friedrich               (b. 1712 - d. 1757)
 7 Jan 1723 - 25 Dec 1729  Christiane Charlotte von             (b. 1694 - d. 1729)
                             Württemberg (f) -Regent
 3 Aug 1757 -  2 Dec 1791  Christian Friedrich Karl Alexander   (b. 1736 - d. 1806)
 2 Dec 1791 - 28 Jan 1792  Karl August von Hardenberg -Regent   (b. 1750 - d. 1822)
Governors
28 Jan 1792 -  8 Oct 1806  the governor of Bayreuth
French government Commissioner

22 Feb 1806 - 24 May 1806  Nagler
Military governor
24 May 1806 - 27 May 1806  Jean-Baptiste-Juules Bernadotte      (b. 1763 - d. 1844)


Appenzell: see Swiss Cantons



Arenberg (Aremberg)
 
[Arenburg,
                          c.1771-1801]
               c.1771 - 1801
[Duchy of
                          Arenberg, 1803-1810]
                1803 - 13 Dec 1810

1576                       Princely County of Arenberg
1645                       Duchy of Arenberg (Herzogtum Arenberg).
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed to France.
 1 Dec 1802                Duchy restored at Meppen (Arenberg-Meppen). 
12 Jul 1806                Raised to fully sovereign status.
13 Dec 1810                Annexed to France.
27 Apr 1811                Divided between French départements of Ems-Supérieur 
                             and Lippe (see under Germany).
1813 - 25 May 1815         Allied administration
25 May 1815                Annexed by Prussia, Meppen to Hanover.

Dukes (title Herzog von Arenberg [from 1802] zu Meppen)
25 Aug 1691 -  4 Mar 1754  Leopold                            (b. 1690 - d. 1754)
25 Aug 1691 - 14 Oct 1711  .... -Regent
 4 Mar 1754 - 17 Aug 1778  Karl II                            (b. 1721 - d. 1778)
17 Aug 1778 -  9 Mar 1801  Ludwig Engelbert                   (b. 1750 - d. 1820)
 1 Dec 1802 - 13 Dec 1810  Prosper Ludwig                     (b. 1785 - d. 1861)



Augsburg Bishopric

[Bishopric of Augsburg]

c.582                      Bishopric of Augsburg (Hochstift Augsburg)
bf.923                     Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
15th cent.                 Seat of the Bishops moved to Dillingen.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed by Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Augsburg)
 1 Apr 1690 - 24 Jan 1737  Alexander Sigmund Pfalzgraf am     (b. 1663 - d. 1737)
                             Rhein zu Neuburg
                             (co-adjutor 10 Feb 1681 - 1 Apr 1690)  
24 Jan 1737 - 12 Jun 1740  Johann Franz Graf von Schenk von   (b. 1658 - d. 1740)
                             Stauffenberg 
                             (co-adjutor 20 Aug 1714 - 24 Jan 1737)
18 Aug 1740 - 20 Aug 1768  Joseph Ignaz Philipp Landgraf von
                             Hessen-Darmstadt                 (b. 1699 - d. 1768)
20 Aug 1768 - 27 Apr 1803  Klemens Wenzeslaus Herzog von      (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
                             Sachsen
                             (co-adjutor 5 Nov 1764 - 20 Aug 1768)



Augsburg Free City
[Augusburg Free City]

 9 Mar 1276                Free Imperial City of Augsburg.
24 Apr 1632 - 1635         Occupied by Sweden.
 4 Mar 1806                Annexed to Bavaria.

Stadtpfleger
1675 - 1701                Leonhard Weiss                     (b. 1626 - d. 1701)
1695 - 1717                Joseph Adrian Imhof                (b. 1678 - d. 1717)
1701 - 1716                Gottfried Amman                    (b. 1647 - d. 1716)
1716 - 1726                Paul von Stetten                   (b. 1643 - d. 1729)
1717 - 1725                Ignatius Langenmantel (II)         (b. 1654 - d. 1725)
1725 - 1730                Franz Octavian Langenmantel (II)   (b. c.1670 - d. 1730)
1726 - 1735                Johann von Stetten                 (b. c.1658 - d. 1738)
1730 - 1741                Johann Jakob Holzapfel             (d. 1741)
1735 - 1739                Martin Hieronymus Langenmantel (II)(b. 1683 - d. 1739)
1739 - 1751                Wolfgang Jakob Sulzer              (b. 1685 - d. 1751)
1741 - 1761                Leopold Anton Imhof                (d. 1763)
1751 - 1768                Markus Christoph Koch              (b. 1699 - d. 1768)
1761 - 1774                Franz Joseph Ignaz Rembold         (b. 1700 - d. 1774)
1768 - 1774                David von Stetten                  (b. 1703 - d. 1774)
1774 - 1790                Jakob Wilhelm B. Langenmantel (II) (b. 1720 - d. 1790)
1774 - 1792                Paul Amman                         (d. 1792)
1790 - 1797                Johann Baptist Chr. von Rehlingen  (d. 1797)
1792 - 1806                Paul von Stetten                   (b. 1731 - d. 1808)
1797 - 1806                Joseph Adrian von Imhof            (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
Mayors (Bürgermeister)
1806                       Albrecht von Stetten               (b. 1736 - d. 1817)
1806                       Johann Baptist Peter von Carl      (b. 1761 - d. 1847)


Austria (Österreich): see Austrian Lands
Austrian Netherlands: see Belgium
Baden (county): see under Swiss Cantons



Baden
 
[Baden 1848]
                 1848 - 1862? 
 
[Baden, 1871?]
                   1862? - 1871 
 
[Baden, 1871]
                   1871 - 17 Dec 1891 
 
[Baden 1891]
                   17 Dec 1891 - 1918
 
Map of Baden National Anthem
"Badnerlied"
(Song of Baden)
Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
(22 Aug 1818-1904;
26 Aug 1904-1918
in German)
Capital: Karlsruhe Population: 2,000,000 (1905 est.)

27 Apr 1112                Margraviate of Baden (Markgrafschaft Baden) established.
24 Aug 1535                Polity split into Upper Margraviate of Baden, usually called
                             Baden-Baden, and Lower Margraviate of Baden, usually called
                             Baden-Durlach, after the later choices of capitals.
21 Oct 1771                Baden-Baden line extinct; Baden-Durlach reunites both
                             polities into a single Margraviate of Baden.
25 Jul 1803                The ruler is made into a prince-elector and the polity is
                             styled Electorate of Baden (Kurfürstentum Baden).
25 Jul 1806                Grand Duchy of Baden (Grossherzogtum Baden).
14 May 1849 - 25 Jun 1849  Rebellion; establishes Republic of Baden 1 Jun 1849.
22 Nov 1918                Republic of Baden (see German states since 1918).

Baden-Baden

Margraves (title Markgraf von Baden)
22 May 1677 -  4 Jan 1707  Ludwig Wilhelm "der Türkenlouis"   (b. 1655 - d. 1707)
 4 Jan 1707 - 22 Oct 1761  Ludwig Georg Simpert               (b. 1702 - d. 1761)
 4 Jan 1707 -  7 Jun 1727  Franziska Sibylla Augusta von
                             Sachsen-Lauenburg (f) -Regent    (b. 1675 - d. 1733)
                           - jointly with -
 4 Jan 1707 -  8 Apr 1716  Johann Wilhelm Pfalzgraf von       (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
                             Rhein -Regent 
 8 Apr 1716?-  7 Jun 1727  Leopold Herzog von Lorraine -Regent(b. 1679 - d. 1729)
22 Oct 1761 - 21 Oct 1771  August Georg Simpert               (b. 1706 - d. 1771)


Baden-Durlach

Margraves (title Markgraf von Baden)
10 Feb 1677 - 25 Jun 1709  Friedrich VII "der Grosse"         (b. 1647 - d. 1709)
25 Jun 1709 - 12 May 1738  Karl III Wilhelm                   (b. 1679 - d. 1738)
12 May 1738 - 30 Oct 1742  Magdalene Wilhelmine von           (b. 1677 - d. 1742)
                             Württemberg (f) -Regent
12 May 1738 - 22 Nov 1746  Carl August -Regent                (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
                           - jointly with -
30 Oct 1742 - 22 Nov 1746  Carl Wilhelm Eugen -Regent         (b. 1713 - d. 1783)
12 May 1738 - 21 Oct 1771  Karl IV Friedrich                  (b. 1728 - d. 1811)


Baden (Reunited)

Margrave (title Markgraf von Baden)
21 Oct 1771 - 27 Apr 1803  Karl IV Friedrich                  (s.a.)
Margrave and Elector (title Markgraf von Baden, Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen Reiches,
Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, etc.)
27 Apr 1803 - 25 Jul 1806  Karl Friedrich                     (s.a.)
Grand dukes (title Grossherzog von Baden)
25 Jul 1806 - 10 Jun 1811  Karl Friedrich                     (s.a.)
10 Jun 1811 -  8 Dec 1818  Karl Ludwig Friedrich              (b. 1786 - d. 1818)
 8 Dec 1818 - 30 Mar 1830  Ludwig I                           (b. 1763 - d. 1830)
30 Mar 1830 - 24 Apr 1852  Leopold I                          (b. 1790 - d. 1852)
14 May 1849 - 25 Jun 1849  Lorenz Peter Brentano              (b. 1813 - d. 1891)
                            (chairman Executive of the People's Societies to 1 Jun 1849,
                            then chairman Provisional Government of the Republic)
24 Apr 1852 -  5 Sep 1856  Ludwig II                          (b. 1824 - d. 1858)
 5 Sep 1856 - 28 Sep 1907  Friedrich I                        (b. 1826 - d. 1907)
                            (24 Apr 1852 - 5 Sep 1856 regent for Ludwig II)
28 Sep 1907 - 22 Nov 1918  Friedrich II                       (b. 1857 - d. 1928)

Chief Ministers
1774 -  6 Dec 1793         Wilhelm Freiherr von Edelsheim     (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
1793 - 1808                Georg Ludwig Freiherr von          (b. 1740 - d. 1814)
                             Edelsheim
1803 - 27 Dec 1806         Wolfgang Heribert Tobias Otto      (b. 1750 - d. 1806) 
                             Maria Johann Nepomuk Freiherr 
                             von Dalberg
27 Dec 1806 - Jul 1808     ....
Jul 1808 - 1808            Emmerich Joseph Freiherr von       (b. 1773 - d. 1833)
                             Dalberg 
                             (provisional cabinet director)
1808 - 1809                Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von          (b. 1764 - d. 1817)
                             Marschall von Bieberstein
Ministers of State
1809 - Mar 1810            Sigismund Karl Freiherr von        (b. 1766 - d. 1847)
                             Reitzenstein 
Mar 1810 - 1810            Conrad Karl Friedrich Freiherr     (b. 1776 - d. 1839)
                             von Andlau-Birseck (acting)
1810 - 13 Jan 1812         Christian Heinrich Freiherr        (b. 1743 - d. 1812)
                             Gayling von Altheim
                            (president of the ministers
                             conference to 26 Sep 1811)
1812 - 1817                Karl Christian Freiherr von        (b. 1774 - d. 1849)
                             Berckheim 
1817 - 1818                Sigismund Karl Freiherr von        (b. 1766 - d. 1847)
                             Reitzenstein
Presidents of the Ministry of State
Dec 1818 - 1831            Wilhelm Ludwig Leopold Reinhard    (b. 1769 - d. 1837)
                             Freiherr von Berstett
                             (acting to 8 Oct 1819)
 8 Oct 1832 - 1832         Sigismund Karl Freiherr von        (b. 1766 - d. 1847)
                             Reitzenstein 
1833 - 27 Mar 1838         Georg Ludwig Winter                (b. 1778 - d. 1839)
1838 - 1839                Karl Friedrich Nebenius (1st time) (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
1839 - Nov 1843            Friedrich Landolin Karl Freiherr   (b. 1792 - d. 1861)
                             von Blittersdorf
Nov 1843 - Mar 1845        Christian Friedrich von Boeckh     (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
Mar 1845 - 19 Dec 1846     Karl Friedrich Nebenius (2nd time) (s.a.)
19 Dec 1846 -  9 Mar 1848  Johann Baptist Bekk                (b. 1797 - d. 1855)
 9 Mar 1848 -  1 Jul 1849  Karl Georg Hoffmann                (b. 1796 - d. 1865)
Ministers of State
 1 Jul 1849 - May 1856     Friedrich Adolf Klüber             (b. 1791 - d. 1858)
May 1856 -  2 Apr 1860     Franz Freiherr von Stengel         (b. 1803 - d. 1870)
 2 Apr 1860 - 27 Jul 1866  Anton von Stabel                   (b. 1806 - d. 1880)
Presidents of the Ministry of State
27 Jul 1866 -  3 Feb 1868  Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Mathy       (b. 1806 - d. 1868)
12 Feb 1868 - 24 Sep 1876  Julius August Isaak Jolly          (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
24 Sep 1876 -  7 Mar 1893  Ludwig Karl Friedrich Turban       (b. 1821 - d. 1898)
 7 Mar 1893 - Jun 1901     Franz Wilhelm Nokk                 (b. 1832 - d. 1903)  NLP
Jun 1901 -  8 Mar 1905     Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Arthur von     (b. 1845 - d. 1926)
                             Brauer 
 8 Mar 1905 - 22 Dec 1917  Alexander Freiherr von Dusch       (b. 1851 - d. 1923)  NLP
22 Dec 1917 - 14 Nov 1918  Heinrich Freiherr von und zu       (b. 1851 - d. 1929)  NLP
                             Bodman

Party abbreviation: NLP = Nationalliberale Partei (National Liberal Party, liberal, 1867-1918)



Baindt

1227                       Cistercian Abbey of Baindt (Kloster Baindt)
1241                       Placed directly under the protection of the Emperor.
1263                       Declared free of any Guardianship (confirmed 1309).
1376                       Abbesses also Princesses of the Empire (Gefürstete Damenstift
                             Baindt). 
Nov 1802                   Occupied by prince von Leyen.
25 Feb 1803                Secularized and given to Aspremont-Lynden dynasty formerly
                             of Reckheim.
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Württemburg.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Baindt)
1672 - 1688                Barbara II Sauther
1688 - 1722                Anna IX Tanner
1722 - 1723                Anna X Haug
1723 - 1751                Magdalena von Dürrheim
1751 - 1768                Cäcilia Seitz
1768 - 1802                Maria Bernarda von Markdorf       
1802 - 1803                Maria Xaveria Lohmiller             (b. 17.. - d. 1836)
Prince (title Fürst von Baindt)
25 Feb 1803 - 12 Jul 1806  Johan Nepomuk Gobert II             (b. 1757 - d. 1819)



Bamberg

[ Bishopric of Bamberg to
                1803]

1008                       Bishopric of Bamberg (Hochstift Bamberg)
c.1242                     Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbishof zu Bamberg)
16 Nov 1693 - 30 Jan 1729  Lothar Franz Graf von Schönborn (b. 1655 - d. 1729)
13 Dec 1708 - 26 Jul 1746  Friedrich Karl Graf von         (b. 1674 - d. 1746)
                             Schönborn (co-adjutor to 30 Jan 1729)
26 Sep 1746 -  3 Jun 1753  Johann Philip Anton Freiherr    (b. 1695 - d. 1753)  
                             von Frankenstein
23 Jul 1753 -  6 Mar 1757  Franz Konrad Graf von Stadion   (b. 1679 - d. 1757)
                             und Thannhausen 
21 Apr 1757 - 18 Feb 1779  Adam Friedrich Graf von         (b. 1708 - d. 1779)
                             Seinsheim 
12 Apr 1779 - 14 Feb 1795  Franz Ludwig Freiherr von Erthal(b. 1730 - d. 1795)
 7 Apr 1795 - Nov 1802     Christoph Franz Freiherr von    (b. 1724 - d. 1805)
                             Buseck       


Bar: see Lorraine under French provinces


Basle (bishopric): see under Jura Swiss Cantons
Basel (free city): see Swiss Cantons


Bavaria
 
[Bavaria 1340
                          (Germany)]
                 1388 - 13 Nov 1918 
             Wittelsbach Dynasty flag 
 
[Bavaria
                          Electoral 1688 (Germany)]
   1688 - c.1700 Electors Flag 
 
 
[Bavaria 1700,
                          1886]
             c.1700 - 1820 Unofficial 
 
 
[Bavaria 1820]
                   1820 - 1848 Unofficial
 
 
[Bavaria 1848,
                          1860]
                1848 - 1878  Unofficial 
 
[Bavaria since
                          1878 (Germany)]
     Adopted  11 Sep 1878 - 19 Nov 1918
 

 

 
Map of Bavaria
Hear National Anthem
"Für Bayern" (For Bavaria)
Text of National Anthem
(1861- 7 Nov 1918)
Constitution
(26 May 1818; in German)
Capital: Munich
Population: 6,500,000 (1905 est.)
c.500                      Dukes of the Baiuvars 
Aug 788                    Conquered by the Franks.
806                        Carolingian Kingdom of Bavaria.
24 Sep 911                 Carolingian dynasty ends.
911                        Dukes of Bavaria (but polity styled Fürstentum und Land zu
                             Bayern).
16 Sep 1180                Wittelsbach dynasty begins.
28 Mar 1255 - 30 Jul 1505  Numerous dynastic divisions (all rulers styled Herzog von
                             Bayern).
30 Jul 1505                Polity reunited, ruler styled Herzog beider Bayern.
25 Feb 1623                Upon forfeit of the Palatinate to the king, the ruler of
                             Bavaria is elevated to the lapsed electorate 
                             (Kurfürstentum Bayern).
14 Aug 1704 -  6 Mar 1714  München under Imperial occupation.
29 Apr 1706 -  6 Mar 1714  Divided between Austria and the Palatinate.
 6 Mar 1714                Independence restored; office of archsteward (as part of the
                             electoral dignity) in dispute with the Palatinate.
30 Dec 1777                The elector palatine inherits Bavaria upon the extinction of
                             the ruling Wittelsbach line, thus terminating the electoral
                             dispute; the ruler sometimes uses the abbreviated 
                             style Kurfürst von Pfalzbayern.
27 Apr 1803                Palatinate incorporated into Bavaria.
 1 Jan 1806                Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern).
 7 Nov 1918                Free State of Bavaria (see German states since 1918).
Dukes and Electors (title Herzog beider Bayern, Erztruchsess und Kurfürst des
Heiligen Römischen Reiches - Duke of both Bavarias, Archsteward and Prince-elector 
of the Holy Roman Empire)
26 May 1679 - 29 Apr 1706  Maximilian II (1st time)           (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
29 Apr 1706 -  6 Mar 1714  divided between Austria and Palatinate
 6 Mar 1714 - 26 Feb 1726  Maximilian II (2nd time)           (s.a.)
26 Feb 1726 - 20 Jan 1745  Karl Albrecht                      (b. 1697 - d. 1745)
20 Jan 1745 - 30 Dec 1777  Maximilian III                     (b. 1727 - d. 1777)
30 Dec 1777 - 16 Feb 1799  Karl Philipp Theodor               (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
16 Feb 1799 -  1 Jan 1806  Maximilian IV Joseph               (b. 1756 - d. 1825)
Kings (title König von Bayern)
 1 Jan 1806 - 13 Oct 1825  Maximilian I Joseph                (s.a.)
13 Oct 1825 - 21 Mar 1848  Ludwig I                           (b. 1786 - d. 1868)
21 Mar 1848 - 10 Mar 1864  Maximilian II                      (b. 1811 - d. 1864)
10 Mar 1864 - 13 Jun 1886  Ludwig II                          (b. 1845 - d. 1886)
13 Jun 1886 -  5 Nov 1913  Otto I                             (b. 1848 - d. 1916)
10 Jun 1886 - 12 Dec 1912  Prince Luitpold -Regent            (b. 1821 - d. 1912) 
                            (regent for incapacitated Ludwig II 
                             and for insane Otto)
12 Dec 1912 -  5 Nov 1913  Prince Ludwig -Regent              (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
                            (regent for insane Otto)
 5 Nov 1913 - 13 Nov 1918  Ludwig III                         (s.a.)

Chancellor of the Privy Council (Kanzler des Geheimen Rats)
1694 - 1704                Johann Rudolf von Wämpl            (b. 1638 - d. 1704)
Imperial Administrator
1704 - 1714                Maximilian Karl Albrecht Fürst    
(b. 1656 - d. 1718)
                             von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort
Chancellor of the Privy Council (Kanzler des Geheimen Rats)
1714 -  3 Mar 1726         Vacant

 3 Mar 1726 -  6 Mar 1749  Franz Xaver Joseph Unertl          (b. 1675 - d. 1750)
1749 - 1758                Franz Andreas Freiherr von         (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
                             Praidlohn

20 Sep 1758 - 21 Oct 1790  Wiguläus Xaverius Aloysius         (b. 1705 - d. 1790)
                             Freiherr von Kreittmayr
Ministers of the Royal House and External Affairs
1745 - 18 Nov 1777         Franz Joseph Freiherr und Graf     (b. 1702 - d. 1777)
                             von Berchem
18 Nov 1777 - 21 Feb 1799  Karl Matthäus Graf von Vieregg     (b. 1719 - d. 1802)
21 Feb 1799 -  2 Feb 1817  Maximilian Joseph Graf von         (b. 1759 - d. 1838)
                             Montgelas
Presidents of the council of ministers
 2 Feb 1817 - Oct 1825     Heinrich Aloys Graf von
            (b. 1770 - d. 1865)
                             Reigersberg  
Oct 1825 -  2 Jan 1832     Georg Friedrich Freiherr von
       (b. 1752 - d. 1835)
                             Zentner       
 2 Jan 1832 -  1 Nov 1837  Friedrich August Koch
              (b. 1783 - d. 1860)
                             Reichsfreiherr von Gise 
 1 Nov 1837 -  1 Mar 1847  Karl Abel 
                        (b. 1788 - d. 1859)
                             (from 12 Mar 1844, Karl von Abel) 
 1 Mar 1847 -  1 Dec 1847  Friedrich August Karl Maria
        (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
                             Philipp Joseph Freiherr von
                             Zu Rhein 
 1 Dec 1847 - 14 Mar 1848  Ludwig Fürst von
                   (b. 1791 - d. 1870)
                             Öttingen-Wallerstein     
14 Mar 1848 - 29 Apr 1848  Klemens August Graf von Waldkirch  (b. 1806 - d. 1858)
                             (acting)
29 Apr 1848 - 18 Apr 1849  Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von
        (b. 1807 - d. 1899)
                             Bray-Steinburg (1st time)   
18 Apr 1849 -  1 May 1859  Karl Ludwig Heinrich Freiherr
      (b. 1811 - d. 1880)
                             von der Pfordten (1st time)  
 1 May 1859 -  4 Oct 1864  Karl Freiherr von Schrenck von     (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                             Nozing
 4 Oct 1864 -  4 Dec 1864  Max von Neumayr (acting)           (b. 1810 - d. 1881)

 4 Dec 1864 - 31 Dec 1866  Karl Ludwig Heinrich Freiherr      (s.a.)
                             von der Pfordten (2nd time)
31 Dec 1866 -  7 Mar 1870  Chlodwig Carl Victor Fürst zu      (b. 1819 - d. 1901) 
                             Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst,
                            
Prinz von Ratibor und Corvey 
 8 Mar 1870 - 21 Aug 1871  Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von        (s.a.)
                             Bray-Steinburg (2nd time)
21 Aug 1871 -  2 Jun 1872  Friedrich Adam Justus Graf von     (b. 1810 - d. 1872)
                             Hegnenberg-Dux 
 1 Oct 1872 -  4 Mar 1880  Adolph von Pfretzschner            (b. 1820 - d. 1901)
 4 Mar 1880 -  1 Jun 1890  Johann von Lutz                    (b. 1826 - d. 1890)
                             (from 28 Dec 1883, Johann Freiherr von Lutz) 
 1 Jun 1890 -  1 Mar 1903  Krafft Freiherr von Crailsheim     (b. 1841 - d. 1926)
                             (from 12 Mar 1901, Krafft Graf von Crailsheim)
 1 Mar 1903 -  9 Feb 1912  Klemens Freiherr von               (b. 1850 - d. 1922)

                             Podewils-Dürnitz 
                             (from 1911, Klemens Graf von Podewils-Dürnitz)
 9 Feb 1912 - 11 Nov 1917  Georg Freiherr von Hertling        (b. 1843 - d. 1919)  Zen
                             (from 17 Jan 1914, Georg Graf von Hertling) 
11 Nov 1917 -  8 Nov 1918  Otto Ritter von Dandl              (b. 1868 - d. 1942)

Party abbreviations: Zen = Zentrum (Center Party)



Bayreuth

[Arms of Bayreuth
                (Germany)]

1248                       Under Nürnberg.
21 Jan 1398                Principality of Bayreuth, under the
                             Hohenzollern dynasty (Fürstentum Bayreuth).
11 Jun 1420 - 20 Sep 1440  Under Nürnberg.
1457 - 11 Mar 1486         Administered by Ansbach.
26 Feb 1495 - 1515         Administered by Ansbach.
 8 Jan 1557 - 26 Apr 1603  Administered by Ansbach.
28 Jan 1792                Administered by Prussia.
 8 Oct 1806                French administration.
11 Jun 1807 - 17 Jul 1807  Austrian administration.
17 Jul 1807                French administration.
28 Feb 1810                Annexed to Bavaria.

Princes (title Fürst von Bayreuth)
 9 Jun 1655 - 10 May 1712  Christian Ernst                      (b. 1644 - d. 1712)
 9 Jun 1655 - 1664         Georg Albrecht von Brandenburg-      (b. 1619 - d. 1666)
                             Bayreuth zu Kulmbach -Regent 
10 May 1712 - 18 Dec 1726  Georg Wilhelm                        (b. 1678 - d. 1726)
18 Dec 1726 - 17 May 1735  Georg Friedrich Karl                 (b. 1688 - d. 1735)
17 May 1735 - 26 Feb 1763  Friedrich III                        (b. 1711 - d. 1763)
26 Feb 1763 - 20 Jan 1769  Friedrich Christian                  (b. 1708 - d. 1769)
20 Jan 1769 -  2 Dec 1791  Christian Friedrich Karl             (b. 1736 - d. 1806)
                             Alexander Markgraf von 
                             Ansbach
 2 Dec 1791 - 28 Jan 1792  Karl August von Hardenberg -Regent   (b. 1750 - d. 1822)
Governors
28 Jan 1792 - 1795         Friedrich Eugen Herzog von           (b. 1732 - d. 1797)
                             Württemberg
1795 - 1800                Friedrich Ludwig Alexander Herzog    (b. 1756 - d. 1818)
                             von Württemberg                
1800 - 1804                Vacant
 4 Sep 1804 -  8 Oct 1806  Friedrich Ludwig Fürst von           (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
                             Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen  
French military governor
 8 Oct 1806 - 18 Nov 1806  Étienne Le Grand de Mercey           (b. 1755 - d. 1828)
Intendant
15 Nov 1806 - 11 Jun 1809  Philippe Camille Marcellin Casimir,  (b. 1778 - d. 1833)
                             comte de Tournon-Simiane
Austrian military governor
11 Jun 1809 - 13 Jun 1809  Johann Nepomuk Graf Nostitz-Rieneck  (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
Intendants
13 Jun 1809 - 29 Jun 1809  Johann Erzherzog von Kutschera       (b. 1766 - d. 1832)
29 Jun 1809 - 17 Jul 1809  Karl Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (b. 1787 - d. 1856)
French military governor
17 Jul 1809 - 22 Jul 1809  Jean-Andoche Junot, duc d'Abrantès   (b. 1771 - d. 1813)
Indendants
22 Jul 1809 - 20 Sep 1809  Dardieu
20 Sep 1809 - 30 Jun 1810  Georges Combe-Sieyès                 (b. 1785 - d. 1864)

Kammerpräsident
1791 - 1807                Caspar Friedrich von Schuckmann      (b. 1755 - d. 1834)



Bentheim

1146 - 1182                Under the Bishopric of Utrecht.
1182                       County of Bentheim (Grafschaft Bentheim).
1277                       County of Bentheim-Bentheim
                             (Grafschaft Bentheim-Bentheim).
1468                       Bentheim an immediate fief.
13 Dec 1530 - 10 Feb 1643  To Steinfurt.
21 May 1753                Bentheim mortgaged to Hanover (pleged on 22 May 1752).
12 May 1804                Annexed to Steinfurt (Bentheim-Steinfurt).
12 Jul 1806 - 10 Dec 1810  Bentheim annexed to Berg, Steinfurt to Prussia.
13 Dec 1810                Annexed to France.
14 Nov 1813 - 20 Dec 1813  Hanover administration (see Osnabrück).
20 Dec 1813                Bentheim annexed to Hanover.

Counts (title Graf zu Bentheim-Bentheim)
26 Aug 1693 - 29 Apr 1701  Arnold Moritz Graf von Steinfurt     (b. 1663 - d. 1701)
29 Apr 1701 - 29 Nov 1731  Hermann Friedrich                    (b. 1693 - d. 1731)
29 Nov 1731 - 21 May 1753  Friedrich Karl Philipp               (b. 1725 - d. 1803)



Berchtesgaden

1102                       Augustinian Abbey of Berchtesgaden founded
                             (Stift Berchtesgaden).
1380                       Abbots also Princes of the Empire.
 8 Oct 1611 - 22 Oct 1611  Occupied by the Prince-Bishop of Salzburg.
1704 - 1704                Occupied by Austria.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Salzburg.
26 Dec 1805                Annexed to Austria.
14 Oct 1809                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Povosts (title Fürst, Pröpste, und Herr zu Berchtesgaden)
1688 - 12 Nov 1723         Joseph Clemens Kajetan von Bayern      (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
                             (administrator)
1723 - 19 Jun 1732         Julius Heinrich Freiherr von Rehlingen (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
                             -Radau  
1732 -  4 Jul 1752         Cajetan Anton Freiherr Notthafft von   (b. 1670 - d. 1752)
                             Weissenstein
1752 - 1768                Michael Balthasar Graf von             (b. 1706/10 - d. 1768)
                             Christalnigg
1768 -  6 Mar 1780         Franz Anton Josef Freiherr von Hausen- (b. 17.. - d. 1780)
                             Gleichenstorff
1780 -  4 Apr 1803         Joseph Konrad Freiherr von             (b. 1743 - d. 1803)
                             Schroffenberg-Mös  



Berg and Cleves
 
[Berge and
                          Cleves 1806-1808]
           15 Mar 1806 - 15 Jul 1808 
[French Flag]
             15 Jul 1808 - 10 Nov 1813

c.1003                     County of Jülich (Grafschaft Jülich).
1092                       County of Cleves (Grafschaft Kleve).
1101                       County of Berg (Grafschaft Burg)
 3 Apr 1348                Julich united with Berg.
1356                       Jülich raised to a duchy (Herzogtum Jülich).
1368                       Berg united with Cleves.
1393 - 1423                Jülich in union with Guelders.
24 May 1380                Berg raised to a Duchy (Herzogtum Burg).
 4 Apr 1417                Cleves raised to a Duchy (Herzogtum Kleve).
25 Jun 1423                Jülich amalgamated with the Berg.
14 Aug 1437                Berg inherited by Ducke of Jülich.
 7 Sep 1511                Berg inherited by Duke of Cleves.
15 Mar 1521                Cleves united with Berg and Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich-Kleve-Buurg).
25 Mar 1609                Duke Johann Wilhelm of Jülich-Cleves-Berg dies without legitimate
                             heirs, as result both the Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg and Elector
                             Johann Sigismund of Brandenburg claim succession.
1609 -  2 Sep 1610         Imperial occupation of Jülich.
10 Jun 1609                Joint condominium of Palatinate-Neuburg and Brandenburg.
12 Nov 1614                Protestant territories (Cleves, Mark and Ravensburg) passed to
                             Brandenburg-Prussia and the Catholic lands (Jülich and Berg)
                             being awarded to Palatinate-Neuburg by Treaty of Xanten.
26 May 1685                Jülich and Berg, along with the Palatinate, is inherited by Philip
                             Wilhelm, Count of Palatinate-Neuburg. 
 2 Sep 1690                Julich and Berg in union with the Electoral Palatinate.
18 Jan 1701                Cleves ruler, the duke of Brandenburg, becomes King of Prussia.
31 Dec 1742                Karl Theodor of Palatinate-Sulzbach, Elector Palatinate
                            (from 30 Dec 1777, also Duke of Bavaria), inherits Jülich & Berg.
12 Oct 1794                Jülich (French: Juliers) occupied by France.
1795                       Cleves left of the Rhine and Wesel occupied by France.
 9 Mar 1801                Former duchies of Jülich and Cleves annexed to France, part
                             of département Roer. 
27 Mar 1803                Elector of Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph, the heir of Palatinate-
                             Neuburg, separated the remaining Duchy of Berg from his other
                             Bavarian territories and granted it to his cousin Wilhelm von 
                             Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen.
15 Dec 1805                Cleves on right bank of Rhine is ceded by Prussia to France.
15 Mar 1806                Berg is ceded by Bavaria to France.
15 Mar 1806                Duchy of Clèves and Berg (Herzogtum Kleve und Burg).
12 Jul 1806                Grand Duchy of Berg (Grossherzogtum Berg), subdivided
                             into départements from 14 Nov 1808. 
21 Jan 1808                Prussia cedes additional territories to Clèves-Berg.
21 Aug 1808                City of Wesel is annexed by France and incorporated 
                             into the département Roer (see under Germany).
13 Dec 1810                Berg's département Ems annexed by France.
 1 Jan 1811                Annexed to France; part of département Lippe.
                             (see under Germany).
10 Nov 1813 - 15 Jun 1814  Allied administration.
15 Jun 1814                Annexed to Prussia, as part of province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.  
 

Duke (title Herzog von Burg)
27 Mar 1803 - 15 Mar 1806  Wilhelm Herzog in Bayern und Pfalzgraf (b. 1752 - d. 1837)
                             von Birkenfeld
Dukes (title Herzog von Kleve und Burg)
15 Mar 1806 - 24 Mar 1806  Johann Franz von Rappard (acting)      (b. 1759 - d. 1822) 
24 Mar 1806 - 12 Jul 1806  Joachim Murat                          (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
Grand Dukes (title Grossherzog von Burg)
12 Jul 1806 - 15 Jul 1808  Joachim Murat                          (s.a.)
15 Jul 1808 -  2 Mar 1809  Napoléon I                             (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
 3 Mar 1809 - 10 Nov 1813  Karl Ludwig Napoléon                   (b. 1804 - d. 1831)
                             (Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte)
 3 Mar 1809 - 10 Nov 1813  Napoléon I -Regent                     (s.a.)
Commissioner
 7 Aug 1808 - 13 Nov 1813  Jacques Claude Beugnot                 (b. 1761 - d. 1835)
                             (from 24 Feb 1810, Jacques Claude, comte de Beugnot)
Allied military governors

10 Nov 1813 - 25 Nov 1813  ....
Allied Governors-general
25 Nov 1813 - 31 Jan 1814  Karl Justus Gruner (1st time)          (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
 1 Feb 1814 - 14 Jun 1814  Alexander zu Solms-Lich                (b. 1763 - d. 1830)
15 Jun 1814 - 14 Apr 1815  Karl Justus Gruner (2nd time)          (s.a.)


General commissioner

 5 Apr 1806 - 24 Apr 1806  Johann Franz von Rappard               (s.a.)
Chief ministers 
24 Apr 1806 -  7 Aug 1808  Jean Antoine Michel Agar de Mercuez    (b. 1771 - d. 1844)
 7 Aug 1808 - 13 Nov 1813  Jacques Claude Beugnot                 (s.a.)
24 Apr 1806 -  3 Jun 1806  Johann Engelbert von Fuchsius          (b. 1754 - d. 1828)
 3 Jun 1806 - 13 Nov 1813  Johann Franz Joseph Graf von           (b. 1755 - d. 1824)
                             Nesselrode-Reichenstein


Départements of Grandy Duchy of Berg 1808-1813

Ems

 1 Jan 1811 - 1813         Annexed to France.

Prefects
1809 -  1 May 1809         Anton Graf von Spee                    (b. 1781 - d. 1839)
 1 May 1809 -  1 Jan 1811  Karl Joseph Freiherr von Mylius        (b. 1778 - d. 1838)


Rheinland

Prefects
Apr 1809 - Mar 1812        Friedrich Heinrich Graf von Borcke     (b. 1776 – d. 1825)
Mar 1812 - 1814           
Anton Graf von Spee                    (s.a.)


Sieg

Prefect
 7 Apr 1809 - Nov 1813     Johann Anton Schmitz                   (b. 1770 - d. 1857)


Ruhr (Roer)

Prefect
10 Mar 1809 - 1813         Freiherr Gisbert von Romberg           (b. 1773 - d. 1859)
                             zu Brünninghausen       


Bergen-op-Zoom: see under Netherlands
Bern: see Swiss Cantons
Biel (Bienne): see under Swiss Cantons


Birkenfeld: see under Oldenburg
Birstein: see Isenburg-Birstein
Bludenz: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands

Blumenegg: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands
Bohemia (Böhmen): see Czech Republic

Bömelburg

1800                       Barony of Bömelburg (Freiherrschaft Bömelburg)
1806                       Dissolved.

Baron (title Freiherr zu Bömelburg)
1800 - 1806                Ignaz


Bouillon: see under Belgium

Brandenburg: see Prussia
Breda: see under Netherlands
Bregenz: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands

Breisgau: see Vorderösterreich under Austrian Lands

Bremen
 
[Bremen 1891]
  Adopted 1692, 13 Nov 1891 Civil Ensign
 
[Bremen 1891 (State
                      flag)]
     13 Nov 1891 - Nov 1918 State Flag
 
Map of Bremen
National Anthem
"Der Bremer Schluessel"
(The Key of Bremen)
Text of National Anthem
(1870-1918)
Constitution
Capital: Bremen
Population: 263,426 (1905)

c.788                      Bremen founded.
12th cent.                 City independent from the Archbishop.
1358 - 1669                Member of Hanseatic League.
 1 Jun 1646                Free Imperial City; four mayors to 1853;
                             four "succession lines" can be distinguished.
13 Dec 1810                Part of the France; département Bouches-du-Weser
                             created 1 Jan 1811 (see under Germany).
 6 Nov 1813                Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (restored).
                             (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
1690 - 1721                Friedrich Casimir Tilemann gen.    (b. 1638 - d. 1721)
                             Schenk
1721 - 1725                Johann von Rheden                  (b. 1648 - d. 1725)
Sep 1725 -  1 Sep 1728     Liborius von Line II               (b. 1668 - d. 1728)
1728 - 1731                Hieronymus Alers                   (b. 1655 - d. 1731)
16 Jun 1731 - 1736         Heinrich Smidt                     (b. 1655 - d. 1736)
1736 - 1749                Daniel von Büren IV                (b. 1693 - d. 1749)
1749 - 1781                Volkhard Mindemann                 (b. 1705 - d. 1781)
1781                       Albrecht Gröning
1781 - 1782                Martin Eelking                     (b. 1715 - d. 1782)
24 Dec 1782 - 1798         Gerhard von dem Busch              (b. 1725 - d. 1799)
11 Apr 1798 - 21 Aug 1803  Jakob Breuls                       (b. 1749 - d. 1803)
26 Aug 1803 - 31 Dec 1810  Heinrich Lampe (1st time)          (b. 1746 - d. 1817)
 6 Nov 1813 - 15 Dec 1817  Heinrich Lampe (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1817 - 18 Feb 1822         Christian Hermann Schöne           (b. 1763 - d. 1822)
1822 - 23 Jan 1847         Simon Hermann Nonnen               (b. 1777 - d. 1847)
1847 -  3 Aug 1853         Isaak Hermann Albrecht Schumacher  (b. 1780 - d. 1853)
- Line 2 -
17 Apr 1689 -  1 Jul 1712  Melchior Schweling                 (b. 1629 - d. 1712)
 6 Jul 1712 -  7 Oct 1737  Werner Köhne                       (b. 1656 - d. 1737)
14 Oct 1737 - 19 Apr 1741  Jakob Hüneken                      (b. 1666 - d. 1741)
1741 - 1745                Kaspar von Rheden                  (b. 1681 - d. 1745)
13 Dec 1745 - 21 Mar 1756  Heinrich Lampe I                   (b. 1680 - d. 1756)
27 Mar 1756 - 13 Mar 1767  Heinrich Köhne I                   (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
1767 - 1787                Dietrich Smidt                     (b. 1711 - d. 1787)
19 Jan 1787 - 13 Nov 1792  Heinrich Köhnen II                 (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
20 Nov 1792 - 31 Dec 1810  Christian Abraham Heineken         (b. 1752 - d. 1818)
                             (1st time)
 6 Nov 1813 - 20 Jul 1818  Christian Abraham Heineken         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jul 1818 - 14 Apr 1821  Arnold Dietrich Tiedemann          (b. 1756 - d. 1821)
1821 - 1853                Johann Smidt                       (b. 1773 - d. 1857)
- Line 3 -
1693 - 1711                Heinrich von Aschen                (b. 1638 - d. 1711)
1711 - 1716                Wilhelm von Bentheim               (b. 1647 - d. 1717)
1716 - 1742                Johann Holler
1742 - 1751                Dietrich Meier I                   (b. 1687 - d. 1751)
1751 - 1766                Heinrich Gerhard Schumacher        (b. 1695 - d. 1766)
1766 - 1775                Isaak von Meinertzhagen
1775 - 1787                Johann Pundsack                    (d. 1787)
28 Nov 1787 - 26 May 1802  Justin Friedrich Wilhelm Iken      (b. 1726 - d. 1805)
28 May 1802 - 31 Dec 1810  Daniel Klugkist (1st time)         (b. 1748 - d. 1814)
 6 Nov 1813 - 20 Sep 1814  Daniel Klugkist (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1814 - 1821                Georg Gröning                      (b. 1745 - d. 1825)
1821 - 29 Mar 1839         Heinrich Gröning                   (b. 1774 - d. 1839) 
1839 -  8 Mar 1852         Johann Daniel Noltenius            (b. 1799 - d. 1852)
- Line 4 -

1696 - 1718                Hermann Doverhagen                 (b. 1650 - d. 1718)
1718 - 1720                Konrad von Berchem
1720 - 1747                Heinrich Meier II                  (b. 1678 - d. 1747)
1747 - 1757                Christian Schönel
20 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1773  Hieronymus Klugkist                (b. 1711 - d. 1776)
 5 May 1773 - 1776         Hermann von Line                   (b. 17.. - d. 1786)
1776 - 1794                Daniel Tindemann
19 Dec 1794 -  2 Dec 1802  Dietrich Meier II                  (b. 1748 - d. 1802)
10 Dec 1802 - 16 Sep 1808  Liborius Dietrich Post             (b. 1748 - d. 1811)
17 Sep 1808 - 10 Dec 1810  Franz Tiedemann (1st time)         (b. 1752 - d. 1836)
 6 Nov 1813 - 23 Dec 1824  Franz Tiedemann (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1824 - 14 Sep 1845         Michael Duntze                     (b. 1779 - d. 1845)
1845 - 1853                Dietrich Meier III                 (b. 1787 - d. 1857)
First mayors
1853 - 31 Dec 1856         Johann Smidt (acting)              (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1863  Arnold Duckwitz                    (b. 1802 - d. 1881)
 1 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1867  Karl Friedrich Gottfried Mohr
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1803 - d. 1888)
 1 Jan 1868 -  3 Oct 1871  Johann Daniel Meier                (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
 3 Oct 1871 - 31 Dec 1871  Karl Friedrich Gottfried Mohr
                             (2nd time) (acting)              (s.a.)
1871 - 31 Dec 1875         Otto Gildemeister (1st time)       (b. 1823 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1876 - 12 Apr 1879  Friedrich Moritz Christian
                             Pfeiffer                         (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
12 Apr 1879 - 31 Dec 1879  Otto Gildemeister (2nd time)
                             (acting)                         (s.a.)
1879 - 1882                Friedrich Ludwig Grave             (b. 1815 - d. 1885)
1882 - 31 Dec 1882         Otto Gildemeister (3rd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1884  Otto Gildemeister (4th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1886  Otto Gildemeister (5th time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1887  Stephan August Lürmann (1st time)  (b. 1820 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1888 - 31 Dec 1888  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1889  Stephan August Lürmann (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1890  Karl Friedrich Christian Buff
                             (4th time)                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1891  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (1st time)  (b. 1827 - d. 1915)
 1 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1892  Stephan August Lürmann (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1893  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1894 - 31 Dec 1894  Stephan August Lürmann (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1895  Albert Gröning (1st time)          (b. 1839 - d. 1903)
 1 Jan 1896 - 31 Dec 1896  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897  Albert Gröning (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1898 - 31 Dec 1898  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1899  Friedrich August Schultz (1st time)(b. 1835 - d. 1905)
 1 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1900  Albert Gröning (3rd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1901  Friedrich August Schultz (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Jan 1902 - 31 Dec 1902  Albert Gröning (4th time)          (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1903  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (5th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1904 - 31 Dec 1904  Carl Georg Barkhausen (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1917)
 1 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1905  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (6th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1906 - 31 Dec 1906  Carl Georg Barkhausen (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907  Victor Wilhelm Marcus (1st time)   (b. 1848 - d. 1911)
 1 Jan 1908 - 31 Dec 1908  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (7th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1909  Victor Wilhelm Marcus (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1910  Alfred Dominicus Pauli (8th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Carl Georg Barkhausen (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1912 - 31 Dec 1912  Victor Wilhelm Marcus (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1913  Carl Georg Barkhausen (4th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1914 - 31 Dec 1914  Karl Friedrich Heinrich Stadtländer(b. 1844 - d. 1916)
 1 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1915  Clemens Carl Buff (1st time)       (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 1 Jan 1916 - 31 Dec 1916  Carl Georg Barkhausen (5th time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Clemens Carl Buff (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1918 - 10 Jan 1919  Hermann Christian Ferdinand        (b. 1849 - d. 1939)  1919: DDP
                             Hildebrand

Party abbreviations: DDP = Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party)        



Bremen-Verden
[Flag of Sweden]
    15 Feb 1645 - 1702; 1704 - 1712
775                        Bishopric of Verden (Hochstift Verden) founded.
787                        Bishopric of Bremen (Hochstift Bremen) founded.
848 - 1072                 In personal union with Bishopric of Hamburg.
1072                       Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzhstift Bremen).
1180                       Bishops of Verden also Prince of the Empire.
1186                       Bremen city independent from the Archbishops.
1220                       Archbishops of Bremen made Princes of the Empire.
1566                       Establishment of Lutheran rule in Bremen and Verden.
1626 - 1631                Verden occupied by the Catholic League.
15 Feb 1645                Bishopric of Verden occupied by Sweden.
24 Oct 1648                Former Archbishopric of Bremen and the adjoining
                             Bishopric of Verden, Swedish possessions, as the
                             secular Duchy of Bremen and Principality of Verden 
                             (Herzogtum Bremen und Fürstentum Verden).
1676 - 1679                Verden occupied by Denmark, Brandenburg, Münster and
                             Calenberg-Göttingen (Hanover).
 7 Sep 1712 -  7 Jun 1715  Occupied by Denmark. 
 7 Jun 1715                Sold to Hanover.
20 Nov 1719                Incorporated into Hanover.
Apr 1801 - Oct 1801        Occupied by Prussia.
18 Jun 1803 - 26 Oct 1805  Occupied by France.
26 Oct 1805 -  1 Apr 1806  Occupied by Prussia.
12 Nov 1806                Occupied by France.
13 Dec 1810 - 27 Mar 1813  Annexed to France; part of département Bouches-du-Weser.
27 Mar 1813 - 20 Dec 1813  Hanoverian administration.
20 Dec 1813                Re-incorporated into Hanover.
1823                       Administrative autonomy abolished.
 3 Oct 1866                Annexed to Prussia.

Dukes and Princes 
24 Oct 1648 - 20 Nov 1719  the Kings of Sweden
20 Nov 1719 - 13 Dec 1810  the Duke-Electors of Hanover
Governors-general
(in Stade)
15 Feb 1645 - 20 Feb 1663  Hans Kristoffer greve von         (b. 1600 - d. 1663)
                             Königsmarck 
                            (to 18 Jun 1645, military governor)
1663 - 27 Feb 1666         Gustav Evertsson friherre Horn    (b. 1614 - d. 1666)
1668 - 22 Feb 1693         Henrik Henriksson friherre Horn   (b. 1618 - d. 1693)
1693 - 1696                Erik Jönsson greve Dahlberg       (b. 1625 - d. 1703)
1696 - 1698                Jürgen von Mellin                 (b. 1633 - d. 1713)
1698 - 1710                Nils Carlsson greve Gyllenstierna (b. 1648 - d. 1720)
                             af Fogelvik
1710 - 1712                Mauritz greve Vellingk            (b. 1651 - d. 1727)
1712 - 1715                Jobst von Scholten                (b. c.1644 - d. 1721)
                             (Danish governor)  
1715 - 1719                von Rantzow -Commander
Hanoverian Government Commissioner
27 Mar 1813 - 20 Dec 1813  Engelbert Johann von Marschalck   (b. 1766 - d. 1845)

Presidents of the Royal Privy Council for Governing of Bremen and Verden
1715 – 1716                Cord Plato von Schloen            (b. 1661 – d. 1723)
1716 – 1730                Johann Friedrich von Staffhorst   (b. 1653 – d. 1730)
1730 - 1739                Vacant
1739 – 1759                Philipp Adolf von Münchhausen     (b. 1694 - d. 1762)
1759 – 1782                Bodo Friedrich von Bodenhausen    (b. 1719 – d. ....)
1782 – 1798                Gotthelf Dietrich von Ende        (b. 1726 – d. 1798)
1798 - 1800                Vacant
1800 – 1810                Christian Ludwig von Hake         (b. 1745 – d. 1818)
1810 - 1813                Vacant                
1813 – 1823                Engelbert Johann von Marschalck   (s.a.)



Bretzenheim 

1790                       Principality of Bretzenheim (Fürstentum Bretzenheim).
1801 - 1803                Occupied by France.
27 Apr 1803                Bretzenheim annexed to Hesse-Darmstadt, but the Prince 
                             is granted the County of Lindau am Bodensee in exchange.
14 Mar 1804                Lindau ceded to Austria.

Prince (title Fürst von Bretzenheim [from 1804] und Graf zu Lindau)
1790 - 14 Mar 1804         Karl August Fürst von Bretzenheim  (b. 1768 - d. 1828)
                             von Regecz


Brixen: see Italian states to 1860


Brunswick (Braunschweig)
 
[Brunswick until 1814 (Germany)]                   bf.1748 -  1814  
 
[Brunswick 1814-1830 (Germany)]                   1814 - 21 Jul 1831
 
[Duchy
                      of Brunswick 1831-1918 (Germany)]                 21 Jul 1831 - 1918
 
Map of Brunswick
National Anthem
"Heil unserm Herzog, Heil!"
(Hail to our Duke, Hail!)

Text of  National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Brunswick
Population: 485,655 (1905)

955                        Bruno I, founder of the Brunonen dynasty, becomes count
                             (Graf).
1136                       Heinrich "der Stolze," duke of Bavaria and Saxony, becomes
                             count.
1180                       Heinrich "der Löwe," duke of Bavaria and Saxony, becomes duke
                            (the name Braunschweig [Brunswick] becomes gradually
                             attached to the polity).
21 Aug 1235                The polity is officially Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg;
                             the style of the ruler is Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg;
                             in theory, the entire polity retains this style, as do all the
                             rulers despite the divisions.
1269                       Division into Principality of Brunswick (Fürstentum
                             Braunschweig) and Principality of Lüneburg.
1286                       Fürstentum Grubenhagen (extinct 14 Apr 1596) and Fürstentum
                             Göttingen detached from Brunswick.
23 Nov 1432                Fürstentum Calenberg detached from Brunswick.
28 Aug 1807 - 30 Oct 1813  Incorporated into Kingdom of Westphalia.
30 Oct 1813 -  6 Nov 1813  Allied administration.
 6 Nov 1813                Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig).
 8 Nov 1918                Free State of Brunswick (see German states since 1918).

Dukes (title Herzog von Braunschweig und Fürst von Wolffenbütel)
27 Sep 1666 - 26 Jan 1704  Rudolf August                      (b. 1627 - d. 1704)
                           - jointly with -
1685 - 18 Feb 1702         Anton Ulrich (1st time)            (b. 1633 - d. 1714)
26 Jan 1704 - 27 Mar 1714  Anton Ulrich (2nd time)            (s.a.)
27 Mar 1714 - 23 Mar 1731  August Wilhelm                     (b. 1662 - d. 1731)
23 Mar 1731 -  1 Mar 1735  Ludwig Rudolf                      (b. 1671 - d. 1735)
 1 Mar 1735 -  3 Sep 1735  Ferdinand Albrecht                 (b. 1680 - d. 1735)
 3 Sep 1735 - 26 Mar 1780  Karl I                             (b. 1713 - d. 1780)
26 Mar 1780 - 10 Nov 1806  Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand             (b. 1735 - d. 1806)
10 Nov 1806 - 28 Aug 1807  Friedrich Wilhelm
                             "der schwarze Herzog" (1st time) (b. 1771 - d. 1815)
Governors
26 Oct 1806 - 1807         P.F.J.G. comte Bisson              (b. 1767 - d. 1811)
1807                       Rivaud
 6 Nov 1813 - 13 Nov 1813  Ludwig Georg Thedel Graf von       (b. 1769 - d. 1862)

                             Wallmoden-Gimborn 
Dukes (title Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg)
 6 Nov 1813 - 16 Jun 1815  Friedrich Wilhelm
                             "der schwarze Herzog" (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (returns 22 Dec 1813)
13 Nov 1813 - Dec 1813     Johann Elias Olfermann             (b. 1776 - d. 1822) 
                             (Commissioner)
16 Jun 1815 - 20 Apr 1831  Karl II                            (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
16 Jun 1815 - 30 Oct 1823  Georg August Friedrich -Regent     (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
20 Apr 1831 - 18 Oct 1884  Wilhelm                            (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
                            (regent to 25 Apr 1831)
Regencies (the ducal line being inhibited by its British connections)
20 Apr 1884 -  2 Nov 1885  Wilhelm Otto Hans Hermann,         (b. 1819 - d. 1889)
                             Görtz-Wrisberg Graf von Schlitz
                             (president of Regency Council)
 2 Nov 1885 - 13 Sep 1906  Albrecht Fürst von                 (b. 1837 - d. 1906)
                             Prussen -Regent 
13 Sep 1906 -  5 Jun 1907  Albert von Otto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1921)
                            (president of Regency Council)
 5 Jun 1907 -  1 Nov 1913  Johann Albrecht Herzog von
                             Mecklenburg-Schwerin -Regent     (b. 1857 - d. 1920)
Duke (title Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg)
 1 Nov 1913 -  8 Nov 1918  Ernst August                       (b. 1887 - d. 1953)
Aug 1914 -  8 Nov 1918     Viktoria Luise von Prussen (f)     (b. 1892 - d. 1980)
                             (acting)

Chief Ministers 
1721 - 1731                Johann Friedrich von Stain         (b. 1681 - d. 1735)
1731 - 1740                ....
1740 - 1744                von Cramm
1744 - 1754                ....
16 Feb 1754 - 19 Jul 1773  Heinrich Bernhard Schrader von     (b. 1706 - d. 1773)
                             Schliestedt
23 Jul 1773 -  1 May 1786  Georg Septimius Andreas von Praun  (b. 1701 - d. 1786)
1786 - 1790                Karl August Freiherr von           (b. 1750 - d. 1822)
                             Hardenberg 
13 Oct 1790 - 1806         Carl von Praun                     (b. 1732 - d. 1808)
1806 - 1807                Gustav Adolf Graf von Wolffradt    (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
Chairman of the government commission

27 Dec 1813 - Mar 1814     Karl Friedrich Gebhard Graf von
                             der Schulenburg-Wolfsburg        (b. 1763 - d. 1818)
Directing ministers 
Mar 1814 - 1815            Karl Friedrich Mens                (b. 1764 - d. 1836)
21 Oct 1815 - 25 Dec 1818  Karl Friedrich Gebhard Graf von
                             der Schulenburg-Wolfsburg        (s.a.)
25 Dec 1818 - Jan 1820     Vacant
Jan 1820 - 30 Oct 1823     Johann August Ernst Graf           (b. 1758 - d. 1827)
                             von Alvensleben
30 Oct 1823 - 17 Oct 1826  Wilhelm Justus Eberhard von        (b. 1763 - d. 1831)
                             Schmidt-Phiseldeck
17 Oct 1826 - 16 Oct 1830  Gottfried Philipp von Bülow        (b. 1770 - d. 1850)
                             (acting)
16 Oct 1830 - 31 Dec 1832  Werner Graf von Ventheim           (b. 1785 - d. 1860)
Ministers of state
31 Jan 1843 - 16 Mar 1848  Werner Graf von Ventheim           (s.a.)
16 Mar 1848 - 22 Mar 1848  Johann Georg Christian von Koch    (b. 1790 - d. 1861)
22 Mar 1848 -  3 Nov 1856  Wilhelm Johann Karl Heinrich
                             Freiherr von Schleinitz          (b. 1794 - d. 1856)
 3 Nov 1856 - 26 Nov 1861  August von Geyso                   (b. 1801 - d. 1861)
 1 Dec 1861 - 14 Oct 1874  Asche Burckhard Carl Ferdinand     (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
                             von Campe
14 Oct 1874 -  1 Oct 1883  Johann Christian Wilhelm Schulz    (b. 1806 - d. 1888)
 1 Oct 1883 - 22 Feb 1889  Wilhelm Otto Hans Görtz-Wrisberg   (b. 1819 - d. 1889)
 1 Apr 1889 -  1 May 1911  Albert von Otto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1921)
 1 May 1911 - 10 Jan 1914  Leonhard Christoph Adolf von       (b. 1849 - d. 1914)
                             Hartwieg
16 Jan 1914 -  8 Nov 1918  Karl Wolff                         (b. 1856 - d. 1935)



Buchau

c.770                      Abbey of Buchau (Damenstift Buchau)
1447                       Abbesses also Princesses of the Empire. 
1625                       Lordship of Strassberg acquired.
27 Apr 1803                Secularized and given to Prince of 
                             Thurn und Taxis.
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Württemburg; Strassberg to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Buchau)
1669 - 1692                Maria-Theresia I von Sultz         (b. 1634 - d. 1692) 
1692 - 1693                Maria-Franziska II Truchsess von   (b. 1630 - d. 1793) 
                             Zeil-Wurzach
1693 - 1742                Maria-Theresia II von Montfort     (b. 1663 - d. 1742) 
1742 - 1774                Maria Karolina von Reichsgräfin    (b. 1707 - d. 1774)
                             von Königsegg-Rothenfels
1775 - 27 Apr 1803         Maria Maximiliana von Stadion      (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
Prince (title Fürst von Thurn und Taxis, Fürst zu Buchau)
27 Apr 1803 - 12 Jul 1806  Karl Alexander                     (b. 1770 - d. 1827)


Carinthia (Kärnten): see Austrian Lands


Carniola (Krain): see Slovenia
Chur (Coire): see Graubünden under Swiss Cantons


Cisrhenian Republic
[Cisrhenian Republic
                  1797 (Germany)]
        28 Aug 1797 - Nov 1797
28 Aug 1797                Cisrhenian Republic proclaimed covering the French
                             occupied territories on left bank of Rhine, including
                             Trier, Mainz, Cologne, Palatine, Julich, and the Saarland.
18 Oct 1797                Treaty of Campo Formio cedes de facto Rhineland territories 
                             to France.
 4 Nov 1797                A French commissioner is appointed to supervise and organize
                             the territories into départements (not yet considered to be
                             part of France); Roer, Sarre, Mont Tonnerre, Rhin-et-Moselle
                             (see under Germany).
 9 Feb 1801                By the Treaty of Lunéville the Rhienland is de jure annexed 
                             to France.
30 Jun 1802                Rhine départements become regular départements of France.
 

Protectors of the Cisrhenian Republic
1797 - 19 Sep 1797         Lazare Hoche                     (b. 1768 - d. 1797)
1797 - Nov 1797            Pierre François Charles Augereau (b. 1757 - d. 1816)

Central Bureau (from 15 Sep 1797, Intermediary Commission)
 5 Sep 1797 - Nov 1797     Members
                           - J.N. Becker
                           - J. Gorres                      (b. 1776 - d. 1848)
                           - J.J. Haan
                           - H. Wyttenback
                           - Destez (to Nov 1797)
                           - Rudler (from Nov 1797)
                           - F. Lassaulx
                           - et. al.
Commissioners of the Directory
 5 Nov 1797 - Feb 1799     François-Joseph Rudler           (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
Mar 1799 - Aug 1799        J.J. Marquis
Aug 1799 - Dec 1799        Joseph Lakanal                   (b. 1762 - d. 1845)
Dec 1799 - Oct 1800        Henri Shée                       (b. 1739 - d. 1820)
Oct 1800 - Feb 1801        Jean-Baptiste-Moïse Jollivet     (b. 1753 - d. 1818)
Feb 1801 - 23 Sep 1802     André Jean-Bon Saint-André       (b. 1749 - d. 1813)



Cologne (Köln) Free City

[Cologne (Germany)]

1216                       Cologne city council (rat) mentioned for first time.
1288                       Bishops of Cologne are excluded from city administration.
1358 - 1475                Member of Hanseatic League.
14 Sep 1396                Imperial City of Cologne (Reichsstadt Köln); two "succession
                             lines" can be distinguished.
26 Oct 1794                Occupied by France.
18 Oct 1797                Ceded to France.
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed to France, part of département Roer (see under Germany).
Feb 1814 - 1815            Allied occupation.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
- Line 1 -
24 Jun 1686 - 24 Jun 1687  Johann Jacob Huigen (1st time)     (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
24 Jun 1687 - 24 Jun 1688  Bartholomäus Verhorst (1st time)   (b. 1625 - d. 1690)
24 Jun 1688 - 24 Jun 1689  Johann von Imstenrath (1st time)   (b. 1645 - d. 1711)
24 Jun 1689 - 24 Jun 1690  Hermann von Mylius (1st time)      (b. 1638 - d. 1698)
24 Jun 1690 - 24 Jun 1691  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (b. 1643 - d. 1727)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1691 - 24 Jun 1692  Johann von Imstenrath (2nd time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1692 - 24 Jun 1693  Hermann von Mylius (2nd time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1693 - 24 Jun 1694  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1694 - 24 Jun 1695  Johann von Imstenrath (3rd time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1695 - 24 Jun 1696  Hermann von Mylius (3rd time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1696 - 24 Jun 1697  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1697 - 24 Jun 1698  Johann von Imstenrath (4th time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1698 - 24 Jun 1699  Hermann von Mylius (4th time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1699 - 24 Jun 1700  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1700 - 24 Jun 1701  Johann von Imstenrath (5th time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1701 - 24 Jun 1702  Johann Ivo von den Hoevel          (b. 1654 - d. 1711)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1702 - 24 Jun 1703  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1703 - 24 Jun 1704  Johann von Imstenrath (6th time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1704 - 24 Jun 1705  Johann Ivo von den Hoevel          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1705 - 24 Jun 1706  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1706 - 24 Jun 1707  Johann von Imstenrath (7th time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1707 - 24 Jun 1708  Johann Ivo von den Hoevel          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1708 - 24 Jun 1709  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1709 - 24 Jun 1710  Johann von Imstenrath (8th time)   (s.a.)
24 Jun 1710 - 24 Jun 1711  Johann Ivo von den Hoevel          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1711 - 24 Jun 1712  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
24 Jun 1712 - 24 Jun 1713  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (b. 1647 - d. 1722)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1713 - 24 Jun 1714  Franz de Groote (1st time)         (b. 1661 - d. 1721)
24 Jun 1714 - 24 Jun 1715  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
24 Jun 1715 - 24 Jun 1716  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1716 - 24 Jun 1717  Franz de Groote (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1717 - 24 Jun 1718  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
24 Jun 1718 - 24 Jun 1719  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1719 - 24 Jun 1720  Franz de Groote (3rd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1719 - 24 Jun 1720  Johann Heinrich von Wintzeler      (b. 1648 - d. 1721)
24 Jun 1720 - 24 Jun 1721  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
24 Jun 1721 - 23 Feb 1722  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1721 - 24 Jun 1722  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (1st time) (b. 1656 - d. 1733)
24 Jun 1722 - 24 Jun 1723  Hermann Joseph von Wedige(1st time)(b. 1668 - d. 1734)
24 Jun 1723 - 24 Jun 1724  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
24 Jun 1724 - 24 Jun 1725  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1725 - 24 Jun 1726  Hermann Joseph von Wedige(2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1726 - 15 May 1727  Peter Nikolaus von Krufft          (s.a.)
                             (13th time)
May 1727 - 24 Jun 1727     Johann Arnold Joseph von Mylius    (b. 1676 - d. 1731)
24 Jun 1727 - 24 Jun 1728  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (3rd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1728 - 24 Jun 1729  Hermann Joseph von Wedige(3rd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1729 - 24 Jun 1730  Johann Peter von Herwegh (1st time)(b. 1686 - d. 1755)
                             (1st itme)
24 Jun 1730 - 24 Jun 1731  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (4th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1731 - 24 Jun 1732  Hermann Joseph von Wedige(4th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1732 - 24 Jun 1733  Johann Peter von Herwegh (2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1733 - 24 Jun 1734  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (d. 1753)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1734 - 16 Jul 1734  Hermann Joseph von Wedige(5th time)(s.a.)
16 Jul 1734 - 24 Jun 1735  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (b. 1687 - d. 1771)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1735 - 24 Jun 1736  Johann Peter von Herwegh (3rd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1736 - 24 Jun 1737  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1737 - 24 Jun 1738  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1738 - 24 Jun 1739  Johann Peter von Herwegh (4th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1739 - 24 Jun 1740  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1740 - 24 Jun 1741  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1741 - 24 Jun 1742  Johann Peter von Herwegh (5th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1742 - 24 Jun 1743  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1743 - 24 Jun 1744  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1744 - 24 Jun 1745  Johann Peter von Herwegh (6th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1745 - 24 Jun 1746  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1746 - 24 Jun 1747  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1746 - 24 Jun 1747  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (1st time) (b. 1693 - d. 1772)
24 Jun 1747 - 24 Jun 1748  Johann Peter von Herwegh (7th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1748 - 24 Jun 1749  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1749 - 24 Jun 1750  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1750 - 24 Jun 1751  Johann Peter von Herwegh (8th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1751 - 24 Jun 1752  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1752 - 24 Jun 1753  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1753 - 24 Jun 1754  Johann Peter von Herwegh (9th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1754 - 24 Jun 1755  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (b. 1701 - d. 1775)
                             Mülheim (1st time)
24 Jun 1754 - 30 Oct 1754  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (b. 1696 - d. 1754)
1754 - 24 Jun 1755         Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (b. 1709 - d. 1774)
24 Jun 1755 - 24 Jun 1756  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1756 - 24 Jun 1757  Johann Caspar Joseph zum Pütz      (b. 1708 - d. 1770)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1757 - 24 Jun 1758  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (2nd time)
24 Jun 1758 - 24 Jun 1759  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
24 Jun 1759 - 24 Jun 1760  Johann Caspar Joseph zum Pütz      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1760 - 24 Jun 1761  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (3rd time)
24 Jun 1761 - 24 Jun 1762  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (9th time)
24 Jun 1762 - 24 Jun 1763  Johann Caspar Joseph zum Pütz      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1763 - 24 Jun 1764  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (4th time)
24 Jun 1764 - 24 Jun 1765  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (10th time)
24 Jun 1765 - 24 Jun 1766  Johann Caspar Joseph zum Pütz      (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1766 - 24 Jun 1767  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (5th time)
24 Jun 1767 - 24 Jun 1768  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (11th time)
24 Jun 1768 - 1769         Johann Caspar Joseph zum Pütz      (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
1769 - 24 Jun 1769         Evert Joseph von Herweg            (d. 1777)
24 Jun 1769 - 24 Jun 1770  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (6th time)
24 Jun 1770 - 24 Jun 1771  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (12th time)
24 Jun 1771 - 24 Jun 1772  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (b. 1721 - d. 1792)
                             Groote (1st time)
24 Jun 1772 - 24 Jun 1773  Johann Balthasar Joseph von        (s.a.)
                             Mülheim (7th time)
24 Jun 1773 - 24 Jun 1774  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (b. 1737 - d. 1794)
                             Herrestorff (1st time)
24 Jun 1774 - 24 Jun 1775  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (b. 1721 - d. 1792)
                             Groote (1st time)
24 Jun 1775 - 24 Jun 1776  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (b. 1720 - d. 1797)
                            (1st time)
24 Jun 1776 - 24 Jun 1777  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff (2nd time)
24 Jun 1777 - 24 Jun 1778  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (2nd time)
24 Jun 1778 - 24 Jun 1779  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1779 - 24 Jun 1780  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff (3rd time)
24 Jun 1780 - 24 Jun 1781  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (3rd time)
24 Jun 1781 - 24 Jun 1782  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1782 - 24 Jun 1783  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff (4th time)
24 Jun 1783 - 24 Jun 1784  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (4th time)
24 Jun 1784 - 24 Jun 1785  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1785 - 24 Jun 1786  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff  (5th time)
24 Jun 1786 - 24 Jun 1787  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (5th time)
24 Jun 1787 - 24 Jun 1788  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1788 - 24 Jun 1789  Johann Franz Friedrich von Beywegh (b. 1730 - d. 1790)
24 Jun 1789 - 24 Jun 1790  Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (b. 1754 - d. 1823)
                             Wittgenstein (1st time)
24 Jun 1790 - 24 Jun 1791  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1791 - 24 Jun 1792  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff (6th time)
24 Jun 1792 - 24 Jun 1793  Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (s.a.)
                             Wittgenstein (2nd time)
24 Jun 1793 - 24 Jun 1794  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1794 - 11 Dec 1794  Franz Caspar Joseph von            (s.a.)
                             Herrestorff (7th time)
Dec 1794 - 24 Jun 1795     Johann Nicolaus Dumont             (b. 1743 - d. 1816)
24 Jun 1795 - May 1796     Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (s.a.)
                             Wittgenstein (3rd time)
- Line 2 -
24 Jun 1687 - 24 Jun 1688  Johann von Hounthumb (1st time)    (b. 1634 - d. 1698)
24 Jun 1688 - 24 Jun 1689  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1689 - 24 Jun 1690  Johann Jacob Huigen (1st time)     (s.a.)
24 Jun 1690 - 24 Jun 1691  Johann von Hounthumb (2nd time)    (s.a.)
24 Jun 1691 - 24 Jun 1692  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1692 - 24 Jun 1693  Johann Jacob Huigen (2nd time)     (s.a.)
24 Jun 1693 - 24 Jun 1694  Johann von Hounthumb (3rd time)    (s.a.)
24 Jun 1694 - 24 Jun 1695  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1695 - 24 Jun 1696  Johann Jacob Huigen (3rd time)     (s.a.)
24 Jun 1696 - 24 Jun 1697  Johann von Hounthumb (4th time)    (s.a.)
24 Jun 1697 - 24 Jun 1698  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1698 - 24 Jun 1699  Johann Jacob Huigen (4th time)     (s.a.)
24 Jun 1699 - 24 Jun 1700  Johann Balthasar von Mülheim       (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
24 Jun 1700 - 24 Jun 1701  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1701 -  6 Oct 1701  Johann Jacob Huigen (5th time)     (s.a.)
Oct 1701 - 24 Jun 1702     Johann zum Pütz (1st time)         (b. 1651 - d. 1708)
24 Jun 1702 - 24 Jun 1703  Johann Arnold von Beywegh          (b. 1659 - d. 1716)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1703 - 24 Jun 1704  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1704 - 24 Jun 1705  Johann zum Pütz (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1705 - 24 Jun 1706  Johann Arnold von Beywegh          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1706 - 24 Jun 1707  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1707 - 24 Jun 1708  Johann zum Pütz (3rd time)         (s.a.)
24 Jun 1708 - 24 Jun 1709  Johann Arnold von Beywegh          (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1709 - 24 Jun 1710  Philipp Wilhelm von Möckel         (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
24 Jun 1710 - 24 Jun 1711  Hendrich von Junckerstorff         (b. 1659 - d. 1716)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1711 - 24 Jun 1712  Johann Arnold von Beywegh          (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1712 - 24 Jun 1713  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (1st time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1713 - 24 Jun 1714  Hendrich von Junckerstorff         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1714 - 24 Jun 1715  Johann Arnold von Beywegh          (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1715 - 24 Jun 1716  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1716 - 24 Jun 1717  Johann Heinrich von Wintzeler      (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1717 - 24 Jun 1718  Theodor Dullmann                   (b. 1654 - d. 1720)
24 Jun 1718 - 24 Jun 1719  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (3rd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1719 - 24 Jun 1720  Johann Heinrich von Wintzeler      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1720 - 24 Jun 1721  Johann Peter von Herwegh (1st time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1721 - 24 Jun 1722  Andreas von Weidenfeldt (4th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1722 - 24 Jun 1723  Nicolaus de Groote (1st time)      (b. 1671 - d. 1739)
24 Jun 1723 - 24 Jun 1724  Johann Peter von Herwegh (2nd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1724 - 24 Jun 1726  Nicolaus de Groote (2nd time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1726 - 24 Jun 1727  Johann Peter von Herwegh (3rd time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1727 - 24 Jun 1728  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1728 - 24 Jun 1729  Nicolaus de Groote (3rd time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1729 - 24 Jun 1730  Johann Arnold Joseph von Mylius    (s.a.)
24 Jun 1730 - 24 Jun 1731  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1731 - 24 Jun 1732  Nicolaus de Groote (4th time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1732 - 24 Jun 1733  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (b. 1688 - d. 1756)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1733 - 24 Jun 1734  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1734 - 24 Jun 1735  Nicolaus de Groote (5th time)      (s.a.)
24 Jun 1735 - 24 Jun 1736  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1736 - 24 Jun 1737  Johann Nicolaus von Krufft         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1737 - 24 Jun 1738  Franz Joseph von Herrestorff       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1738 - 24 Jun 1739  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1739 - 24 Jun 1740  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1740 - 24 Jun 1741  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (1st time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1741 - 24 Jun 1742  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1742 - 24 Jun 1743  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1743 - 24 Jun 1744  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1744 - 24 Jun 1745  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1745 - 24 Jun 1746  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1746 - 24 Jun 1747  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (3rd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1747 - 24 Jun 1748  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1748 - 24 Jun 1749  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1749 - 24 Jun 1750  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (4th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1750 - 24 Jun 1751  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
24 Jun 1751 - 24 Jun 1752  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1752 - 24 Jun 1753  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (5th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1753 - 24 Jun 1754  Ferdinand Joseph von Beywegh       (s.a.)
                             (8th time)
24 Jun 1754 - 30 Oct 1754  Melchior Rutger von Kerich         (s.a.)
                             (7th time)
1754 - 24 Jun 1755         Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1755 - 24 Jun 1756  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (6th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1756 - 24 Jun 1757  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (1st time)
24 Jun 1757 - 24 Jun 1758  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1758 - 24 Jun 1759  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (7th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1759 - 24 Jun 1760  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (2nd time)
24 Jun 1760 - 24 Jun 1761  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1761 - 24 Jun 1762  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (8th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1762 - 24 Jun 1763  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (3rd time)
24 Jun 1763 - 24 Jun 1764  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1764 - 24 Jun 1765  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (9th time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1765 - 24 Jun 1766  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel          (s.a.)
                             Groote (4th time)
24 Jun 1766 - 24 Jun 1767  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1767 - 24 Jun 1768  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (10th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1768 - 24 Jun 1769  Maria Franz Jacob Gabriel de       (s.a.)
                             Groote (5th time)
24 Jun 1769 - 24 Jun 1770  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
24 Jun 1770 - 24 Jun 1771  Franz Caspar von Wymmar (11th time)(s.a.)
24 Jun 1771 - 24 Jun 1772  Evert Joseph von Herweg (1st time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1772 - 24 Jun 1773  Johann Heinrich Arnold von Mylius  (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
24 Jun 1773 - 24 Jun 1774  Everhard Joseph Melchior zum Pütz  (b. 1714 - d. 1777)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1774 - 24 Jun 1775  Evert Joseph von Herweg (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1775 - 24 Jun 1776  Johann Nikolaus Ferdinand Joseph   (b. 1742 - d. 1786)
                             von Kerich (1st time)
24 Jun 1776 -  7 Mar 1777  Everhard Joseph Melchior zum Pütz  (b. 1714 - d. 1777)
24 Jun 1777 - 1777?        Evert Joseph von Herweg (3rd time) (s.a.)
24 Jun 1778 - 24 Jun 1779  Johann Nikolaus Ferdinand Joseph   (s.a.)
                            von Kerich (2nd time)
24 Jun 1779 - 24 Jun 1780  Johann Franz Friedrich von Beywegh (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1780 - 24 Jun 1781  Melchior Dietmar von Wittgenstein  (d. 1784)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1781 - 24 Jun 1782  Johann Nikolaus Ferdinand Joseph   (s.a.)
                             von Kerich (3rd time)
24 Jun 1782 - 24 Jun 1783  Johann Franz Friedrich von Beywegh (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1783 - 24 Jun 1784  Melchior Dietmar von Wittgenstein  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1784 - 24 Jun 1785  Johann Nikolaus Ferdinand Joseph   (s.a.)
                             von Kerich (4th time)
24 Jun 1785 - 24 Jun 1786  Johann Franz Friedrich von Beywegh (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1786 - 24 Jun 1787  Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (s.a.)
                             Wittgenstein (1st time)
24 Jun 1787 - 24 Jun 1788  Franz Jacob Joseph von Hilgers     (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1788 - 24 Jun 1789  Johann Franz Friedrich von Beywegh (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
24 Jun 1789 - 24 Jun 1790  Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (s.a.)
                             Wittgenstein (2nd time)
24 Jun 1790 - 24 Jun 1791  Franz Jacob Joseph von Hilgers     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1791 - 24 Jun 1792  Reiner Joseph Anton von Klespé     (b. 1744 - d. 1818)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1792 - 24 Jun 1793  Heinrich Josef de Groote (1st time)(b. 1762 - d. 1823)
24 Jun 1793 - 24 Jun 1794  Franz Jacob Joseph von Hilgers     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
24 Jun 1794 - 24 Jun 1795  Reiner Joseph Anton von Klespé     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1795 - 28 May 1796  Heinrich Josef de Groote (2nd time)(s.a.)
Mayors
- Line 1 -
28 May 1796 - 23 Jun 1797  Johann Jacob Hermann Joseph von    (s.a.)
                             Wittgenstein (4th time)
                            (president of the municipal council to 21 Mar 1797)
23 Jun 1797 -  5 Sep 1797  Franz Jacob Joseph von Hilgers     (s.a.)
- Line 2 -
21 Mar 1797 - 23 Jun 1797  Heinrich Josef de Groote (3rd time)(s.a.)
23 Jun 1797 - 23 Jul 1797  Johann Arnold Theodor Stattlohn    (s.a.)
23 Jul 1797 -  5 Sep 1797  Goswin Joseph Anton von Heinsberg  (b. 1766 - d. 1830)
Presidents of the Magistrate (Präsident des Magistrats)
 5 Sep 1797 - 16 Sep 1797  Maximilian von Kempis (acting)
16 Sep 1797 -  8 Apr 1798  Peter Joseph Zurhoven              (b. 1750 - d. ....)  
Presidents of the Municipality (Präsident der Munizipalität)
 9 Apr 1798 - 18 Dec 1798  Johann Baptist Fuchs               (b. 1757 - d. 1827)
18 Dec 1798 - 25 Dec 1799  Gerhard Engelbert Simons (1st time)
Mayors
25 Dec 1799 - 17 Feb 1800  Friedrich Heinrich Herstatt        (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
                             (1st time)(provisional)  
17 Feb 1800 - 30 Apr 1801  Gerhard Engelbert Simons (2nd time)
30 Apr 1801 -  3 Apr 1803  Johann Peter Kramer



Archbishopric of Cologne (Köln)

[Cologne (Köln) Electoral
                Principality c1270-1801]
                 c.1270 - 1801

88                         Bishopric of Cologne (Stift Köln) founded, according to legend.
785                        Archbishopric of Cologne (Erzstift Köln)
1031                       Archbishop is Archchancellor for Italy continuously from this date.
1257                       Archbishop recognized continuously from this date as elector, but
                             loses control of the city; episcopal residence moved to Brühl
                             (1262) then to Bonn (1273).
25 Dec 1356                Golden Bull codifies Archchancellor office and electoral status.
 8 Nov 1794                French occupy Bonn.
18 Oct 1797                Ceded to France.
 9 Mar 1801                Territories east of the Rhine annexed to France part of
                             the départements Roer and Rhin-et-Moselle (see under Germany).
27 Apr 1803                Final Act (enactment of Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of
                             25 Feb 1803) abolishes the Electoral Principality of Cologne.
Feb 1814 - 1815            Allied occupation.
1815                       Former territories annexed to Prussia.
 

Archbishops¹
19 Jul 1688 - 12 Nov 1723  Joseph Clemens Herzog von Bayern    (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
12 Nov 1723 -  6 Feb 1761  Clemens August Herzog von Bayern    (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
 6 Apr 1761 - 15 Apr 1784  Maximilian Friedrich Graf von       (b. 1708 - d. 1784)
                             Königsegg und Rotenfels
15 Apr 1784 - 27 Jul 1801  Maximilian Franz Erzherzog von      (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
                             Österreich 
 7 Aug 1801 -  4 Dec 1801  Anton Victor Joseph Johann Raimund  (b. 1779 - d. 1835) 
                             Erzherzog von Österreich
                             (titular only)
 4 Dec 1801 - 27 Apr 1803  Vacant

 ¹Full title: Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire for Italy and Prince-Elector (Erzbischof von Köln und des Heiligen Römischen Reichs Erzkanzler für Italien und Kurfürst).



Constance (Konstanz) Bishopric

[Bishopric of Constance
                (Konstanz)]

517                        Bishopric of Constance (Hochstift Konstanz)(subordinate to
                             Besançon, from the 8th century to Mainz).
1192                       Constance city an Free Imperial City (Reichsstadt Konstanz).
Oct 1526                   Seat of Bishopric relocated to Meersburg.
26 Jan 1549                Free Imperial City of Constance annexed to Austria.
27 Apr 1803                Final Act (enactment of Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of
                             25 Feb 1803) abolishes the Prince-Bishopric.
26 Dec 1805                Annexed by Baden.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Konstanz)
14 Apr 1698 - 10 Jun 1704  Marquard Rudolf Ritter von Rodt   (b. 1644 - d. 1704) 
21 Jul 1704 - 12 Jun 1740  Johann Franz II Graf von Schenk   (b. 1658 - d. 1740)
                             von Stauffenberg
12 Jun 1740 - 19 Aug 1753  Damian Hugo Philipp Cardinal      (b. 1676 - d. 1743)
                             Graf von Schönborn Bushein
 4 Nov 1743 - 29 Aug 1750  Kasimir Anton Freiherr von        (b. 1684 - d. 1750)
                             Sickingen
 9 Nov 1750 - 16 Oct 1775  Franz Konrad Kasimir Ignaz von    (b. 1706 - d. 1775)
                             Rodt
14 Dec 1775 - 17 Jan 1800  Maximilian Augustus Christoph     (b. 1717 - d. 1800)
                             Freiherr von Rodt
17 Jan 1800 - 27 Apr 1803  Karl Theodor Antob Maria          (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
                             Freiherr von Dalberg


Coire: see under Swiss Cantons



Corvey (Korvey)

[Abbey of Corvey]

822                        Benedictine Abbey of Corvey (Kloster Corvey) founded.
 6 Aug 1783                Raised to a status of Bishopric.
27 Apr 1803                Mediatized and given to Prince of Oranje-Nassau as Principality
                             of Corvey, part of Nassau-Orange-Fulda.
 7 Dec 1807                Part of Kingdom of Westphalia.
1813 - 25 May 1815         Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Incorporated into Prussia.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Corvey)
11 Jul 1696 -  4 Feb 1714  Florenz von dem Felde
1714 -  4 Dec 1721         Maximilian von Horrich
18 Jan 1722 -  4 Feb 1737  Karl von Plittersdorf
17 Mar 1737 - 22 Jan 1758  Kaspar II von Böselager-Hohneburg  (b. 1687 - d. 1758)
 6 Mar 1758 - 28 May 1776  Philipp von Spiegel zum Desenberg
18 Jul 1776 -  6 Aug 1783  Theodor Freiherr von Brabeck       (b. 1738 - d. 1794)
Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Corvey)
 6 Aug 1783 - 25 Oct 1794  Theodor Freiherr von Brabeck       (s.a.)
16 Dec 1794 - 19 Mar 1802  Ferdinand Freiherr von Lüning      (b. 1755 - d. 1825)



Croy-Dülmen

[Croy-Dulmen 1803-1806
                (Germany)]

to 1802                    Part of the Bishopric of Münster.
28 Nov 1802                Given to the Dukes of Croy-Solre as 
                             County of Croy-Dülmen (Grafschaft Croy-Dülmen).
12 Jul 1806                Part of Duchy of Arenberg.
13 Dec 1810                Annexed to France.
1813 - 25 May 1815         Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Incorporated into Prussia.

Counts (title Graf zu Croy-Dülmen)
28 Nov 1802 - 16 Dec 1803  Anne Emmanuel                       (b. 1743 - d. 1803)
16 Dec 1803 - 12 Jul 1806  August                              (b. 1765 - d. 1822)


Cuyk: see under Netherlands

Disentis: see under Swiss Cantons
Dombes: see under France
Dorpat Bishopric: see under Estonia



Dortmund 

[Dortmund free city
                (Germany) flag]

c.880                      First mentioned as Throtmanni.
 1 May 1220                Imperial Free City of Dortmund (Dortmund Freie Reichsstadt),
                             from 1295 led by a Proconsules, from 1319 a Bürgermeister.
1320 - c.1330              Free city administers the County of Dortmund.
1343                       Half of the County of Dortmund sold to the free city; the city
                             acquires the remainder with death of the last count in 1504.
13th cent.                 Member of Hanseatic League (Freie Reichs und Hansestadt Dortmund).
 1 Oct 1802                Given to Prince of Oranje-Nassau as County of Dortmund part of   
                              Nassau-Orange-Fulda.
1806 -  1 Mar 1808         Occupied by France.
 1 Mar 1808                Annexed to Grand Duchy of Berg.
 1 Jan 1811                Annexed to France.
1813 - 1815                Allied (Prussian) occupation.
25 May 1815                Annexed by Prussia.

Mayors (Bürgermeister)
1698 - 22 Feb 1803         ....
22 Feb 1803 - 30 Jun 1803  Kaspar Heinrich Schäffer           (b. 1742 - d. 1805)
 1 Mar 1808 -  7 Feb 1812  Johann Arnold Caspar Brügmann      (b. 1750 - d. 1815)
17 Mar 1812 - 1832         Franz Mallinckrodt                 (b. 1760 - d. 1832) 


 Drei Bünde (The Three Leagues): see Graubünden under Swiss Cantons



East Frisia

[East Frisia (Lower Saxony,
                Germany)]

19 Nov 1430                Frisian League of Freedom (Friesischer Bund der Freiheit)
                             founded.
23 Dec 1464                The leader of the League takes the style Graf zu Norden,
                             Emden und Emisgonien in Ostfriesland; the abbreviation Graf
                             von Ostfriesland (Count of East Frisia) is in almost universal
                             official use.
28 Apr 1662                The count takes the style Fürst von Ostfriesland (prince of
                             East Frisia) - it had been held as a personal distinction once
                             before - and the polity is styled Fürstentum Ostfriesland
                             (Principality of East Frisia); this style is officially
                             acquired, not by formal adoption, but by prescription
                             (Observanz und Verjährung).
 7 Jul 1807                East Frisa, Kniphausen (Knyphausen) and Jever ceded
                             to France by Prussia and Russia respectively.
11 Nov 1807                Incorporated into Kingdom of Holland to form
                             the département Oost-Friesland (which includes East Frisia, 
                             Jever, and Kniphausen).
 1 Jan 1811                Incorporated into France as département Ems-Oriental.
 8 Nov 1813 - Nov 1813     Occupied by Russia.
Nov 1813 -  9 Jun 1815     Under Prussian administration.
 9 Jun 1815                Incorporated into Hanover.

Princes (title Fürst von Ostfriesland)
18 Apr 1662 -  6 Jun 1665  Georg Christian                    (b. 1634 - d. 1665)
 6 Jun 1665 - 1690         Christine Charlotte Herzogin von   (b. 1645 - d. 1699)
                             Württemberg (f) -Regent
                           - jointly with - 
 6 Jun 1665 -  1 Jan 1668  Edzard Ferdinand -Regent           (b. 1636 - d. 1668)
11 Oct 1665 - 30 Jun 1708  Christian Eberhard                 (b. 1665 - d. 1708)
30 Jun 1708 - 12 Jun 1734  Georg Albrecht                     (b. 1690 - d. 1734)
12 Jun 1734 - 25 May 1744  Karl Edzard                        (b. 1716 - d. 1744)
25 May 1744 -  7 Jul 1807  the kings of Prussia
Prussian Commissioners
1744 - 28 Apr 1748         Caspar Heinrich Bügel              (d. 1748)
1748 - 15 Jun 1751         Carl Daniel Lentz                  (b. 1695 - d. 1768)
Kammerpräsidenten

15 Jun 1751 - Nov 1767     Carl Daniel Lentz                  (s.a.)
Nov 1767 - Jun 1768        Ernst Bogislav von Wegnern
Jun 1768 - 1797            Peter von Colomb                   (b. 1719 - d. 1797)
1797 - Oct 1803            Friedrich Karl Heinrich Graf von   (b. 1768 - d. 1805)
                             Schwerin (1st time)
Oct 1803 - 20 Nov 1804     Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp
                             Freiherr von Vincke              (b. 1774 - d. 1844)
1804 - 29 May 1805         Friedrich Karl Heinrich Graf von   (s.a.)
                             Schwerin (2nd time)
1805 - 25 Oct 1806         Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von       (b. 1757 - d. 1832)
                             Bernuth
Governors (subordinated to the governors-general of Westphalia) 
Oct 1806 - 24 Nov 1806     Broux
24 Nov 1806 -  1 Jun 1807  Henri Damas Bonhomme               (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
 1 Jun 1807 - 13 Jun 1807  Pitcaire (acting)
Commissioner-general
13 Jun 1807 -  5 Feb 1808  Johan Frederik Rudolph van Hoof    (b. 1755 - d. 1816) 
Landdrost
 5 Feb 1808 - 22 Dec 1808  Godert Alexander Gerard Philip     (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
                             van der Capellen
22 Dec 1808 - 25 Feb 1811  Willem Queysen (arrived 1 Jan 1809)(b. 1754 - d. 1817)
Prefect
25 Feb 1811 -  8 Nov 1813  Sébastien Louis Joseph Jannesson   (b. 1779 - d. 1864)
                             (arrived 1 Mar 1811)
Military governor
 8 Nov 1813 - Nov 1813     Kirill Mikhailovich Naryshkin      (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
Landesdirektor
Nov 1813 - 16 Dec 1815     Johann Friedrich Wilhelm von       (s.a.)
                             Bernuth

Chancellor
27 Jun 1744 - 20 May 1761  Sebastian Anton von Homfeld        (b. 1689 - d. 1761)
Regierungspräsidenten
11 Oct 1751 - 1785         Christoph Friedrich von Derschau   (b. 1714 - d. 1799)
1785 - 1793                Friedrich Wilhelm von Benicke      (b. 1752 - d. 1793)
1793 - 1806                Reinhard Friedrich von             (b. 1739 - d. 1818)
                             Schlechtendahl


Ebringen: see Saint Gall under Swiss Cantons

Eichstätt

22 Oct 741                 Bishopric of Eichstätt (Hochstift Eichstätt)
908                        Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
29 Nov 1802                Occupied by Bavaria.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Eichstätt)
16 Jan 1697 -  6 Dec 1704  Johann Martin Ritter von Eyb        (b. 1630 - d. 1704)
 9 Feb 1705 - 27 Apr 1725  Johann Anton I Freiherr von Knebel  (b. 1646 - d. 1725)
                             von Katzenelnbogen 
 3 Jul 1725 - 19 Sep 1736  Franz Ludwig Freiherr von Schenk    (b. 1671 - d. 1736)
                             von Castell
 5 Dec 1736 - 30 Apr 1757  Johann Anton II Freiherr von        (b. 1674 - d. 1757)
                             Fryberg-Hoperferau
 5 Jul 1757 - 13 Jan 1781  Raimund Anton Graf von Strasoldo    (b. 1718 - d. 1781)
27 Mar 1781 - 23 Jun 1790  Johann Anton III Freiherr von       (b. 1715 - d. 1790)
                             Zehmen
21 Sep 1790 - 29 Nov 1802  Joseph Graf von Stubenberg          (b. 1740 - d. 1824)


Einsiedeln: see Schwyz under Swiss Cantons



Elchingen

1128                       Benedictine Abbey of Elchingen (Kloster Elchingen
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince Abbot-Provosts (title Reichsabt und Pröpst zu Elchingen)
1685 - 1706                Meinrad Hummel
1706 - 1740                Coelestin Riederer                (d. 1740)
1740 - 1763                Amandus Schindele
21 Apr 1763 - 16 Feb 1766  Gregor Pfeifer
 6 Mar 1766 - 1793         Robert I Kolb                     (d. 1793)
1793 - 1801                Paul II Groebl
31 Aug 1801 - 1803         Robert II Plersch
(Nominal) Duke (Duc d'Elchingen)
 6 Jun 1808 - Oct 1813     Michel Ney                        (b. 1769 - d. 1815)
                             (from 25 Mar 1813, prince de la Moskowa)



Ellwangen

[Abbey of Ellwangen]

764                        Benedictine Abbey of Ellwangen (Kloster Ellwangen)
1215                       Abbots become princes of the Empire.
1460                       Converted into a college of secular canons.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Württemberg.

Princely-Provosts (title Fürstliche Pröpste zu Ellwangen)
22 Aug 1689 -  4 May 1694  Ludwig Anton von Pfalz-Neuburg     (b. 1660 - d. 1694)
 8 Jun 1694 - 18 Apr 1732  Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg     (b. 1664 - d. 1732) 
1732 - 18 Jan 1756         Franz Georg Reichsgraf von         (b. 1682 - d. 1756)
                             Schönborn-Buchheim
 8 Sep 1756 - 25 Feb 1787  Anton Ignaz Reichsgraf von Fugger- (b. 1711 - d. 1787)
                             Glött
1787 - 27 Apr 1803         Clemens Wenzeslaus von Sachsen     (b. 1739 - d. 1812)



Elten
 
970                        Chapter of Elten (Stift Elten) founded.
1129                       Becomes and imperial abbey (Reichsstift)
                             (Imperial Cloister of Elten).
1390                       Abbess appointed Princess of the Empire
                             (Princely Chapter of Elten).
 3 Aug 1802                Occupied by Prussia.
27 Apr 1803                Secularized and annexed to Prussia.
1805                       King of Prussia names his nice as princess-abbess.
15 Mar 1806                Annexed to Berg.
1806                       Joachim Murat, Duke of Cleves and Berg, names his
                             daughter as princess-abbess.
14 Mar 1808                French
imperial decree confirms restoration.
14 Mar 1811                Annexed to France; part of département Lippe.
                             (see under Germany).
10 Nov 1813 - 15 Jun 1814  Allied administration.
15 Jun 1814                Annexed to Prussia.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Elten)
1675 –  9 Mar 1708         Maria Franziska I von
                             Manderscheid-Blankenheim          (b. 1634 - d. 1708)
1708 – 12 Jan 1717         Anna Juliana von Manderscheid-
                             Blankenheim                       (b. 1665 - d. 1717)
1717 – 19 Oct 1727         Maria Eugenie von Manderscheid-
                             Blankenheim                       (b. 1679 - d. 1727)
1727 – 16 Apr 1740         Maria Eleonora Ernestine von
                             Manderscheid                      (b. 1674 - d. 1740)
1740 – 11 Mar 1784         Maria Franziska II von Manderscheid (b. 1699 - d. 1784)
1772 - 1777                Jeanette von Manderscheid-
                             Blankenheim -Co-adjutor
1784 – 16 Nov 1789         Walburga Maria Truchsess von
                             Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach             (b. 1730 - d. 1789)
1789 – 23 Jun 1796         Josepha Maria zu Salm-
                             Reifferscheid-Bedburg             (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
1796 – 1803                Maximiliana Franziska de Paula
                             zu Salm-Reifferscheid             (b. 1765 - d. 1805)
1803 - 1805                Post abolished
1805 - 1806                Friederike Luise von Radziwill      (b. 1803 - d. 1834)
1806 – 14 Mar 1811         Marie Laetitia Josephine Murat      (b. 1802 - d. 1859)
                             (confirmed 14 Mar 1808)


Engelberg: see under Swiss Cantons


Erfurt

1250                       Free Imperial City
1430                       Member of Hanseatic League.
 1 Apr 1632 - Sep 1635     Swedish occupation.
Dec 1636 - Aug 1650        Swedish occupation.
12 Oct 1664                Incorporated into Mainz.
21 Aug 1802                Annexed to Prussia.
17 Oct 1806                Occupied by France.
 4 Aug 1807                Annexed to France as "a domain reserved for the emperor"
 6 Jan 1814 - 21 Jun 1815  Occupied by Prussia
 7 May 1814                Last French troops depart.
21 Jun 1815                Annexed to Prussia.
28 Sep 1815                Some lands (Blankenheiner) ceded to
                             Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

Governor
 2 Oct 1631 -  1 Apr 1632  Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen,        (b. 1598 - d. 1662)
                             Fürst zu Weimar 
Swedish City Commandants
 1 Apr 1632 - 1634         Alexander Freiherr Erskein         (b. 1598 - d. 1656)
1634 - 1637                ....
1637 - 1640                Christoph Heinrich von Goltz       (b. 1599 - d. 1643)
1640 - 1648                Caspar Ermes                       (b. 1592 - d. 1648)
1648 - Aug 1650            ....
Mayors (Bürger und Ratsmeister)
1650 - 1654                Johann Balhöfer
1654 - 1664                ...
Statthalter

12 Oct 1664 - 1667         Philipp Ludwig Freiherr von        (b. c.1615 - d. 1686)
                             Reiffenberg
1667 - 1674                Friedrich von Greiffenclau         (b. 1606 - d. 1682) 
1675                       Johann Heinrich Daniel Ritter von
                             Groenestein
1675 - 1679                Anselm Franz Freiherr von          (b. 1634 - d. 1695)
                             Ingelheim
1679 - 1697                Johann Jakob Waldbott von          (b. 16. - d. 1697)
                             Bassenheim
1699 - 1702                Gottlieb Philipp Joseph Faust von  (b. 16.. - d. 1702)
                             Stromberg
1702 - 1717                Philipp Wilhelm Reichsgraf von     (b. 1656 - d. 1717)
                             Boineburg                    
1717 - 1732                Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von     (b. 1679 - d. 1760)
                             Bricken
16 Feb 1732 - 26 Apr 1760  Anselm Franz Ernst Freiherr von    (b. 1680 - d. 1760)
                             Warsberg
1760 - 1763                Vacant
1763 - 20 Jan 1766         Karl Joseph Adolf Lukas Freiherr   (b. 1717 - d. 1766)
                             Schenk von Schmidtburg
20 Jan 1766 - 1776         Karl Wilhelm Joseph Adam Freiherr  (b. 1714 - d. 1770)
                             von Breidbach zu Bürresheim
1776 - 21 Aug 1802         Karl Theodor Anton Maria Freiherr  (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
                             von Dalberg 
Prussian governor
21 Aug 1802 - 1806         Leopold Alexander von Wartesleben  (b. 1745 - d. 1822)
Imperial Commissioner - Intendant (Commissaire Impérial-Intendant du pays
d'Erfurt et de Blankenhayn)
16 Oct 1806 - 1813         Pierre Jean Louis de Vismes        (b. 1772 - d. 1826)
French Military governors

16 Oct 1806 - 26 Oct 1806  Henry Jacques Guillaume Clarke     (b. 1765 - d. 1818)
26 Oct 1806 -  2 Nov 1806  Pierre Thouvenot                   (b. 1757 - d. 1817)
 2 Nov 1806 - 180.         Jean-Philippe Dorsner              (b. 1750 - d. 1829)
 8 May 1807 -  8 Jul 1808  Etienne Brouard                    (b. 1765 - d. 1833)
 7 Sep 1808 - 24 Apr 1809  Victor Oudinot, duc de Reggio      (b. 1767 - d. 1847)
1809 - 18..                Antoine-Jean-Baptiste du Bosc      (b. 1760 - d. 1851)  
                             Dutaillis                 
Commanders of Fortified Town of Erfurt
19 Jul 1812 - Aug 1812     François-Joseph-Pamphile Lacroix   (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
 1 Feb 1813 - 13 Jul 1813  Pierre Doucet                      (b. 1761 - d. 1834)
13 Jul 1813 -  7 May 1814  Alexandre, comte d'Alton           (b. 1776 - d. 1859)



Essen

c.850                      Benedictine Abbey of Essen (Stift Essen)
1216                       Emperor Friedrich II designated the Abbess as Princess.
1661                       Abbesses made Princesses of the Empire.

 3 Aug 1802                Occupied by Prussia.
27 Apr 1803                Annexed to Prussia.
23 Aug 1806 -  3 Nov 1806  Joint condominium of Prussia and Berg.
 3 Nov 1806                Annexed to Berg.
13 Nov 1813 - 25 May 1815  Allied administration. 
25 May 1815                Restored to Prussia.

Princess-Abbesses (title from 1661, Des heiligen römishen Reichs Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen; Princess and Abbess of the Holy Roman Realm and Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen)(1726-1795 also princess-abbesses of Thorn)
 4 Nov 1688 - 15 Mar 1691  Anna Salome II Gräfin von Manderscheid- (b. 1628 - d. 1691)
                             Blankenheim
 5 Apr 1691 - 14 Aug 1726  Bernhardine Sophia Gräfin von           (b. 1654 - d. 1726) 
                             Ostfrisland und Rietberg
15 Oct 1726 - 16 Jul 1776  Franziska Christine Pfalzgräfin         (b. 1696 - d. 1776)
                             von Sulzbach
16 Jul 1776 -  3 Aug 1802  Maria Kunigunde Herzogin zu Sachsen     (b. 1749 - d. 1826)
President of the Berg-Prussia Government Commission
23 Aug 1806 -  3 Nov 1806  Maximilian Graf von und zu Westerholt   (b. 1772 - d. 1854)


Etival: see under France provinces






© Ben Cahoon