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Slovenia
 
[Austria-Hungary Land
                                    landesfarben of Carniola/Krain]
     1848 - 31 Oct 1918 Duchy of Carniola Land Flag
 
[Flag of
                                    Slovenia]
                       Adopted 27 Jun 1991
 
Map of Slovenia
Hear National Anthem
"Zdravljica" (A Toast) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 27 Sep 1989
Constitution
 (23 Dec 1991)
Capital: Ljubljana
(Lubiana 1941-1943;
Laibach 1335-1809, 1813-1918;

Illyria: Laybach 1809-1813;
Krain [Kranj] ...-1335)

Currency: Euro (EUR);
Tolar (SIT) (8 Oct 1991 -
31 Dec 2006)

National Holiday: 25 Jun (1991)
Independence Day
(Statehood Day)
Population: 1,992,690 (2013)
GDP: $56.5 billion (2013)
Exports: $28.29 billion (2013)
Imports: $28.02 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Slovene 91.2%, Serb 2.2%, Croat 2%,
Bosniak 1.8%, other or unspecified 2.8% (2002) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,200 (2010)
Merchant marine: 24 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%,
Eastern Orthodox 2.3%, Protestant 0.8%,
non-religious 10.2%,
other or unspecified 26.5% (2002) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), AG, APM, BIS, BTWC, CCM, CE, CEI, CERN (observer), CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Slovenia Index
Chronology

6th cent.                  Slavic ancestors of present-day Slovenes settle in
                             the East Alpine area (at the time under Langobard
                             [Lombard] suzerainty). Eventually a polity based
                             on Carinthia and encompassing Slovenia is formed.
c.745                      Carinthia voluntarily submits to Duchy of Bavaria
                             in exchange for protection against the Avars.
Oct 788                    Frankish rule in Bavaria, thereby replacing
                             Bavarian suzerainty with Frankish suzerainty,
                             represented by the margrave of Friuli.

Feb 828                    Carinthia annexed as
Carantanian March
                             (Marca Carantana)
, native rulers replaced by
                             Frankish margraves attached to Bavaria.
Aug 843                    Along with Bavaria, part of East Frankish kingdom.
Nov 876 - Mar 882          Part of independent Frankish kingdom of Bavaria.

Mar 882                    East Frankish rule restored.
Jul 976                    Carinthia, and Slovenia with it, separated from 
                             Bavaria as the
Duchy of Carinthia.
1040/54                    Slovenia separated from Carinthia as two marches -
                            
March of Carniola (Marca Carniolae/Creina marcha)
                             and the
Windic Mark (Marca Vendica) - that are
                             soon combined.

11 Jun 1077 - 1245         Territories of Friuli in the east and Carniola are
                             placed under suzerainty of
Aquileia Patriarchate,
                             (with interruptions). Separate margraves are
                             still appointed until 1122.

1112                       First record mentions Ljubljana as Castrum Laibach.
 
5 Apr 1229 - 15 Jun 1246  Fiefs of the bishop of Freising in possession of
                             the duke of Austria, who from 1230 styles
                             himself Carniolae dominus ("Lord of Carniola").

Nov 1270                   Part of the lands of Austria.
1279 -  2 Apr 1335         Pledged to the Counts of Tirol and Görz.
27 Dec 1282                Habsburg dynasty established (Habsburg-Lothringen
                             dynasty
from 29 Nov 1780).
27 Jul 1365
                Duchy of Carniola (Herzogtum Krain).
 
9 Nov 1456                Princely County of Cilli (Celje) inherited by the
                             Habsburgs.
23 May 1809                French occupation.

14 Oct 1809                Annexed by France.
25 Dec 1809                Divided into provinces of Laybach (Laibach)
                             Neustadt (Novo Mesto) and Adelsberg (Postoina)
                             as part of the Illyrian Provinces.
15 Apr 1811                Provinces abolished; creation of Intendance
                             Carniole.
29 Sep 1813                Austria occupies
Laibach.
30 May 1814                Krain formally restored to Austria.
 3 Aug 1816                Part of Illyrian Kingdom (Königreich Illyrien)
                             within Austria as part of Landesgubernium in dem
                             Königreiche Illyrien zu Laibach (see Austrian
                             crownlands).
 1 Jan 1850                Krain a separate crownland.

15 Nov 1860 - 25 Apr 1861  Administered by the governor of Küstenland.
21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian
                             Monarchy (i.e. of the "Kingdoms and Lands 
                             Represented in the Imperial Diet").
29 Oct 1918                Proclamation of the establishment of the State of
                             the Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
31 Oct 1918                End of Austrian rule; autonomous Slovene state
                             government (to Jul 1921).
 1 Dec 1918                Part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and 
                             Slovenes (later Yugoslavia).
29 May 1919 -  5 Jun 1919  Prekmurje declares independence from Hungary.
10 Sep 1919                Austria formally renounces claim to Slovenia by
                             Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye.
 4 Oct 1929                Part of Dravska banovina (Banate of the Drava),
                             within Yugoslavia.
 8 Apr 1941                Italy, Germany and from 11 Apr 1941 Hungary invade.
 8 Apr 1941 -  9 May 1945  Germany occupies Maribor and northern Slovenia (the
                             German area is attached to, but not annexed to,
                             the states of Kärnten and Steiermark).
11 Apr 1941 - 19 Mar 1944  Prekmurje area annexed to Hungary, from 19 Mar 1944
                             it is occupied by Germany.
 5 May 1941 -  9 Sep 1943  Italian occupied Ljubljana area is annexed to
                             Italy as Lubiana province.
 9 Sep 1943 -  9 May 1945  Italian Lubiana is occupied by Germany, and on 
                             22 Sep 1943, it is organized as Laibach province
                             (which is subordinated the Operationszone
                             Adriatisches Küstenland).

29 Nov 1943                Re-incorporation into Yugoslavia declared in
                             opposition to occupation.
19 Feb 1944                Declared part of Yugoslavia (Slovenia).
 3 May 1945 -  9 May 1945  National State of Slovenia declared, as part of
                             Yugoslavia (not recognized by German occupiers).
29 Nov 1945                Part of Yugoslavia (Slovenia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Slovenia (name change approved
                             by act of Slovenian legislature 20 Feb 1946).
 7 Apr 1963                Socialist Republic of Slovenia
 8 Mar 1990                Republic of Slovenia
 2 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
25 Jun 1991                Independence declared.
 8 Jul 1991 -  8 Oct 1991  Independence suspended.

Socialist Republic of
Slovenia
(1943-1990)
Prekmurje Republic
(1919)

Historic Maps
of Slovenia
Map of
Krain (Carniola)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Lords (title Carniolae Dominus/Herr ze Chrain)
Nov 1270 - 27 Jul 1365
    the rulers of Austria
Dukes
(title Dux
Carniolae/Herzog zu Krain)
27 Jul 1365 -  1 Dec 1918  the rulers of Austria
Landeshauptleute (State captains)
1245 - 1261                Alexander II von Grimschitz
1261 - 1270                Rudelinus von Birnbaum (Pirnbaum)
1270 - 1271                Ulrich von Towers (Taufers)
1271 - 1273                Ulrich von Dürrenholz             (d. 1273)
1273 - 1277                Ulrich Schenk von Habsbach
1277 - 1278                Meinhard Graf von Görz und        (b. 1238 - d. 1295)
                             Tirol
1278 - 1300                Ulrich Graf von Hainburg
1300 - 1309                Meinhard I Graf von Ortenburg
1309 - 1331                Stefan von Frangepan (Frankopan) 
                             Graf zu Vegel, Modrusch und Zengg
1331 - 1335                Meinhard II Graf von Ortenburg
1335 - 1350                Friedrich von Sanneck (Seunegk)   (b. c.1300 - d. 1359/60)
                             (from 1341, Friedrich I Graf von Cilli)
1350 - 1351                Herdegen (Hardeg) I von Pettau    (d. 1352)
1351 - 1353                Johann (II) Ribi von Lenzburg,    (b. 1310/20 - d. 1374)
                             Bischof von Gurk      
1353 - 1355                Hartnid IV von Weisseneck
1355 - 1358                Rudolf von Liechtenstein
1358 - 1360                Otto IV Graf von Ortenburg        (d. 1370)
1360 - 1365                Leuthold II von Stadeck (Stattegg)(d. 1367)
1365 - 1367                Ulrich I Graf von Cilli (Cilly)   (b. 1331 - d. 1368)
1367 - 1385                Conrad II Kraygh (or Kreigh)
1385 - 1389                Hugo von Tybein (Duino)
1389 - 1390                Wilhelm Graf von Cilli (Cilly)    (d. 1392)
1390 - 1400                Hermann II Graf von Cilli (Cilly) (b. c.1365 - d. 1435)
1400 - 1405                Hans Neudecker
1405 - 1407                Seifried von Gallenberg
1407 - 1412                Jacob von Stubenberg
1412 - 1414                Wilhelm von Rabenstein
Feb 1414 - 1422            Ulrich Schenk von Osterwitz       (d. 1429)
                             (1st time)
1422 - 1425                Heinrich IV Graf von Görz         (b. c.1375 - d. 1454)
1425 - 1428                Georg von Auersperg               (d. 1428)
1428 - 1429                Ulrich Schenk von Osterwitz       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1429 - 1437                Jobst (Jost) Schenk von Osterwitz (d. af.1455)
1437 - 1443                Stephan III Graf von Frangepan    (b. 140. - d. 1481?)
                             (Frankopan)
1443 - 1444                Ulrich III Graf von Schaunberg    (d. 1484)
                             (1st time)
1444 - 1449                Trojan Graf von Frangepan
 
                            (Frankopan)
1449 - 1451                Georg von Tschernembl
1451 - 1463                Ulrich III Graf von Schaunberg    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1463 - 1466                Sigmund von Sebriach (1st time)   (d. 1482)
1466 - 1469                Andreas von Hohenwart             (d. 1469)
1469 - 1482                Sigmund von Sebriach (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1482 - 1503                Wilhelm von Auersperg             (b. 145. - d. 1506)
1503 - 1527                Johann von Auersperg              (b. 1480 - d. 1529)
1527 - 1529                Veit von Thurn und Valsassina,    (b. 1471 - d. 1547)
                             Freiherr zu Creutz
1529 - 1529                Joseph Freiherr von Lamberg       (b. 1489 - d. 1554) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
1529 - 1530                Christoph von Rauber, Bischof     (b. c.1466 - d. 1536)
                             zu Laibach       
1530 - 30 Jan 1538         Hans Katzianer (Cazianer),        (b. 1491 - d. 1539)
                             Freiherr zu Katzenstein     
30 Jan 1538 - 1538         Georg von Mündorff (acting)  
1538 - 1544                Niclas Juritschitz, Freiherr zu   (b. 1490 - d. 1545?)
                             Günss (Güntz) (= Nikola Jurišić)
1544 - 20 Oct 1554         Joseph von Lamberg Freiherr von   (s.a.)
                             Ortenegg (Ornek) und Ottenstein
                             (2nd time)
20 Oct 1554 - 1554         Jacob von Lamberg (acting)        (b. 15.. - d. 1569?)
1554 - 1557                Johann Weltzer von Spiegelberg    (b. 14.. - d. 1557)
1557 - 1566                Jacob von Lamberg                 (b. 15.. - d. 1566)
                             (acting to 1 Aug 1558)
1566 - 22 Sep 1575         Herbard (Herwart) Freiherr zu     (b. 1528 - d. 1575)
                             Auersperg
22 Sep 1575 - 1576         Hanns (Johann) Joseph Freiherr
                             von Eck (acting)
1576 -  7 Aug 1581         Weickard (Weikhard) Freiherr zu   (b. 1533 - d. 1581)
                             Auersperg 
 7 Aug 1581 - 1585         Christoph Freiherr zu Auersperg   (b. 1550 - d. 1592)
                             (acting)
1585 - 1592                Johann Ambros Graf von Thurn und  (b. 1537 - d. 1621)
                             Valsassina
1592 - 1593                Johann Freiherr von Cobentzl zu   (d. 1598?)
                             Prossegk (Cobenzl zu Prossegg) 
1593 -  8 Jun 1601         Georg Freiherr von Lenkowitsch    (b. 15.. - d. 1601)
                             (= Juraj Lenković)
 8 Jun 1601 - 1602         Johann Gutmann (acting)
1602 - 18 Oct 1634         Johann Ulrich Freiherr von        (b. 1568 - d. 1634)
                             Eggenberg (from 31 Aug 1623,
                            
Fürst zu Eggenberg; also from 
                             15 Apr 1628,
Herzog zu Krumau)
18 Oct 1634 - 1635         Heinrich Paradeiser (acting)
1635 - 19 Feb 1649         Johann Anton I Fürst zu           (b. 1610 - d. 1649)
                            
Eggenberg, Herzog zu Krumau
19 Feb 1649 - 28 Apr 1673  Wolfgang Engelbrecht Graf von
    (b. 1610 - d. 1673)
                             Auersperg (acting to 1649)   
28 Apr 1673 - 17 May 1674  Eberhard Leopold Ursini Graf von  (b. 1614 - d. 1680)
                             Blagay (acting)
17 May 1674 - 16 Nov 1692  Johann Seifried Fürst von         (b. 1644 - d. 1713)
                             Eggenberg                
16 Nov 1692 - 16 Jan 1715  Johann Anton II Joseph Fürst von  (b. 1669 - d. 1716)
                             Eggenberg (from 5 Oct 1713 Fürst
                             zu
Eggenberg, Herzog zu Krumau)
16 Jan 1715 - May 1722     Johann Caspar Graf von Cobenzl    (b. 1664 - d. 1742)
May 1722 - 21 Feb 1734     Wolf Weikhard Graf von Gallenberg (b. 1669 - d. 1734)
                             (acting to 18 Mar 1723)
21 Feb 1734 - 23 Nov 1734  Franz Anton Josef Valentin Graf   (b. 1696 - d. 1762)
                             von Auersperg
(1st time)(acting)
23 Nov 1734 - 1742         Corbinian Graf von Saurau         (b. 1692 - d. 1761)
 7 Jan 1743 - 1759         Franz Anton Josef Valentin Graf   (s.a.)
                             von Auersperg
(2nd time)
Präsident der Repräsentation und Kammer
(President of representation and chamber)
1747 - 1760                Johann Graf von Herberstein       (b. 1706 - d. 1771)

Landeshauptleute   
1760 - 1773                Heinrich Graf von Auersperg       (b. 1721 - d. 1793)
1760 - 1773                Joseph Freiherr von Brigido       (b. 1733 - d. 1817)
                             (acting for Auersperg)
1773 - 1774                Vinzenz Orsini Graf von Rosenberg (b. 1722 - d. 1794)
1774 - 1776                .... (acting)
1776 - 1781                Franz Adam Graf von Lamberg       (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
1782 - 30 Dec 1791         Joseph Maria Graf von Auersperg   (b. 1729 - d. 1793)
30 Dec 1791 - 19 Sep 1795  Johann Jakob Graf von Gaisruck    (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
19 Sep 1795 -  1 Oct 1796  Joseph Freiherr van der Mark   
 1 Oct 1796 -  7 Jul 1803  Georg Jacob Graf Hohenwart zu     (b. 1724 - d. 1808)
                             Gerlachstein (acting)
 7 Jul 1803 - 28 Mar 1808  Johann Nepomuk Graf zu            (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
                             Trauttmannsdorf-Weinsberg
1808                       Franz Xaver Freiherr von
                             Lichtenberg-Janeschitz (acting)
1808 - 1809                Bernhard Anton Maria Vincenz      (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
                            
Freiherr von Rossetti zu
                             Roseneck (Rosenegg)

1809 - 23 May 1809         Johann Nepomuk Graf von Brandis   (b. 1753 - d. 18..)
French Commanders
23 May 1809 -  3 Jun 1809  Jacques-Étienne-Joseph-Alexandre  (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
                             MacDonald
 3 Jun 1809 - 1809         Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de 
                             Marmont, duc de Raguse          (b. 1774 - d. 1852)
Governor-general (of the provinces of Carinthia, Carniola, and Istria and the
territories of Fiume and Trieste)
28 Jul 1809 - 1809         Louis, comte Baraguey d'Hilliers  (b. 1764 - d. 1813)
Intendants of Basse-Carniole

1809 - 1810                Achille Charles Stanislas Emile   (b. 1781 - d. 1869)
                             Le Tonnelier de Breteuil      
1810 - 1811                Auguste Petit de Beauverger       (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
Intendants of Haute-Carniole
14 Jul 1809 - Sep 1810     François-Marie Fargues            (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
Sep 1810 - 1811            Johann Baptist Anton Maria Thomas
                             Freiherr Baselli von Süssenberg (b. 1763 - d. 1843)
Intendants of Carniole
27 Jun 1811 - 1812         Louis Toussaint de La Moussaye    (b. 1779 - d. 1854)
 9 Apr 1812 - 29 Sep 1813  Alexandre Jean Denis Rouen des    (b. 1779 - d. 1871)
                             Mallets
Austrian Commanding general of the Inner Austrian army
29 Sep 1813 - 13 Oct 1813  Johann Karl Freiherr von Hiller   (b. 1748 - d. 1819)
Austrian Provisional Civil and Military Governor of Illyria
13 Oct 1813 - 18 Mar 1815  Christoph Freiherr von Lattermann (b. 1753 - d. 1835)
Landes-Gouverneure in dem Königreiche Illyrien zu Laibach
1815 -  3 Jan 1817         Franz Xaver Ritter Frad von       (b. 1767 - d. 18..)
                             Fradeneck (Fraydenegg) (acting)
 3 Jan 1817 - 20 Jan 1818  Julius Graf von Strassoldo        (b. 1771 - d. 1830)
                            
(Giulio, conte di Strassoldo)
20 Jan 1818 -  9 May 1818  Franz Seraphin Ritter von Ebenau

                             (acting)  
 9 May 1818 - 26 Apr 1819  Carl Borromäus Graf von Inzaghy   (b. 1777 - d. 1856)
                             (Inzaghi)
26 Apr 1819 - 30 Sep 1822  Joseph Graf Swéerts-Spork (Sporck)(b. 1756 - d. 1823)
 1 Oct 1822 - 24 Dec 1840  Joseph Camillo Freiherr von       (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
                             Schmidburg
24 Dec 1840 - 21 Apr 1841  Carl Joseph Anton Graf zu         (b. 1779 - d. 1873)
                             Welsperg, Raitenau und Primör
                             (acting [for Schmidburg to 24 Dec 1840)
21 Apr 1841 -  9 Jul 1847  Joseph Freiherr von Weingarten    (b. 1786 - d. 1855)
 9 Jul 1847 -  6 Feb 1848  Andreas Graf von Hohenwart        (b. 1794 - d. 1881)
                             (acting)
 6 Feb 1848 - 31 Dec 1849  Leopold Welser Graf von           (b. 1793 - d. 1874)
                             Welserheimb             
Statthalter
 1 Jan 1850 - 14 Nov 1860  Gustav Ignaz Graf Chorinsky       (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
                             Freiherr von Ledske  
15 Nov 1860 - 24 Apr 1861  the Statthalter of Küstenland
Landeschef

25 Apr 1861 - 23 Jul 1862  Karl Alexander Ullepitsch Edler   (b. 1811 - d. 1862)
                             von Krainfels  
23 Jul 1862 - 30 Oct 1862  Josef Roth (acting)
Statthalter

30 Oct 1862 - 19 Nov 1865  Johann Nepomuk Freiherr von       (b. 1809 - d. 1883)
                             Schloissnigg
19 Nov 1865 -  9 May 1867  Eduard Freiherr von Bach (acting) (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
Landespräsidenten
(Slovene Deželni predsedniki)
 9 May 1867 - Jun 1871     Sigmund Conrad Edler von          (b. 1821 - d. 1898)
                             Eybesfeld 
Jun 1871 - 10 Jul 1872     Karl Wurzbach von Tannenberg      (b. 1806 - d. 1886)
                             (from 27 Jun 1872, Karl Freiherr Wurzbach von Tannenberg)
10 Jul 1872 - 19 Mar 1874  Alexander Graf Auersperg          (b. 1834 - d. 1874)
26 Jan 1874 - 20 Jul 1874  Klemens Wenzel Lothar Prinz von   (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
                             Metternich-Winneburg
                             (acting [for Auersperg to 19 Mar 1874])
20 Jul 1874 - 18 Dec 1877  Bohuslav Ritter von Widmann       (b. 1836 - d. 1888)
                             (acting to 1 Jun 1875)
18 Dec 1877 - 23 Apr 1878  Anton Ritter Schöppl von         
                             Sonnwalden (1st time)(acting)
23 Apr 1878 -  8 Apr 1880  Franz Ritter Kallina von Urbanow  (b. 1820 - d. 1880)
 8 Apr 1880 -  4 May 1880  Anton Ritter Schöppl von         
                             Sonnwalden (2nd time)(acting)
 
4 May 1880 - 26 Oct 1892  Andreas von Winkler               (b. 1825 - d. 1916)
                             (from 8 May 1883, Andreas Freiherr von Winkler)
26 Oct 1892 - Oct 1905     Viktor Freiherr von Hein          (b. 1850 - d. 1914)
                             (acting to 1893)
Oct 1905 - May 1916        Theodor Freiherr Schwarz von      (b. 1854 - d. 1932)
                             Karsten
May 1916 - 31 Oct 1918     Heinrich Graf Attems Freiherr     (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
                             auf Heiligenkreuz
President of the National Government of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in Ljubljana
31 Oct 1918 - 24 Jan 1919  Josip Pogačnik                    (b. 1866 - d. 1932)  SLS
Presidents of the Regional Government of Slovenia

24 Jan 1919 -  6 Nov 1919  Janko Brejc (1st time)            (b. 1869 - d. 1934)  SLS
 7 Nov 1919 - 25 Feb 1920  Gregor Žerjav                     (b. 1882 - d. 1929)  JDS
25 Feb 1920 - 14 Dec 1920  Janko Brejc (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Dec 1920 - 26 Feb 1920  Leonidas Pitamic (acting)         (b. 1885 - d. 1971)  SLS
26 Feb 1920 -  2 Aug 1921  Vilko Baltič                      (b. 1878 - d. 1959)  JDS
Governor

 2 Aug 1921 - 29 Mar 1923  Ivan Hribar                       (b. 1851 - d. 1941)  Non-party
Bans of the
the Drava
 9 Oct 1929 -  4 Dec 1930  Dušan Sernec                      (b. 1882 - d. 1952)  SLS
 4 Dec 1930 -  8 Feb 1935  Drago Marušič                     (b. 1884 - d. 1964)  Non-party
 8 Feb 1935 - 10 Sep 1935  Dinko (Dominik) Puc               (b. 1879 - d. 1945)  DS
10 Sep 1935 - 16 Apr 1941  Marko Natlačen                    (b. 1886 - d. 1942)  SLS
German Chiefs of the Civil administration of Lower Styria (
Untersteiermark)
 8 Apr 1941 - 14 Apr 1941  Hans-Wolfgang Reinhard            (b. 1888 - d. 1950)  Mil
                             (commander of LI Army Corps 2nd Army)
15 Apr 1941 -  8 May 1945  Siegfried Uiberreither            (b. 1908 - d. 1984)  NSDAP
German Chiefs of the Civil administration in the occupied formerly
formerly Austrian territories of Carinthia and the Carniola
(Kärntens und der Krain)
15 Apr 1941 - 27 Nov 1941  Wladimir von Pawlowski            (b. 1891 - d. 1961)  NSDAP
28 Nov 1941 -  7 May 1945  Friedrich Rainer                  (b. 1903 - d. 1947)  NSDAP
Italian Commander (of the 11th Corps 2nd Army)(in Lubiana)
11 Apr 1941 -  5 May 1941  Mario Robotti                     (b. 1882 - d. 1955)  Mil
High Commissioners (to 5 May 1941 Civil Commissioner) of Lubiana Province 
20 Apr 1941 - 15 Jun 1943  Emilio Grazioli                   (b. 1899 - d. 1969)  PNF
15 Jun 1943 - 12 Aug 1943  Giuseppe Lombrassa                (b. 1906 - d. 1966)  PNF
12 Aug 1943 -  9 Sep 1943  Riccardo Moizo                    (b. 1877 - d. 1962)  Mil
                             (German prisoner to 10 Oct 1943; dismissed by PNF 1 Oct 1943)
German Commander (of the 71st Infantry division)
 9 Sep 1943 - 21 Sep 1943  Wilhelm Raapke                    (b. 1896 - d. 1970)  Mil
President of the German Provincial Administration of Laibach
22 Sep 1943 -  5 May 1945  Leon "Leo" Rupnik                 (b. 1880 - d. 1946)  Non-party
President of the National Committee for Slovenia
 3 May 1945 -  9 May 1945  Jože Basaj (in dissidence)        (b. 1887 - d. 1973)  SLS   
Presidents
10 May 1990 - 22 Dec 2002  Milan Kučan                       (b. 1941)            Non-party
                             (President of the Presidency to 23 Dec 1992)
23 Dec 2002 - 22 Dec 2007  Janez Drnovšek                    (b. 1950 - d. 2008)  LDS;2006 Ind
23 Dec 2007 - 22 Dec 2012  Danilo Türk                       (b. 1952)            Non-party
23 Dec 2012 -              Borut Pahor                       (b. 1963)            SD


Landeshauptleute (Slovene: Deželni Glavarji
15 Nov 1860 -  6 Apr 1861  Karl Sigmund Graf Hohenwart       (b. 1824 - d. 1899)
 6 Apr 1861 - 19 Nov 1866  Anton Freiherr von Codelli von    (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
                             Fahnenfeld         
19 Nov 1866 -  7 Jun 1871  Karl Wurzbach von Tannenberg      (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1871 - 14 Sep 1871  Johann Bleiweis (1st time)(acting)(b. 1808 - d. 1881)  NK
14 Aug 1871 - 18 Dec 1871  Radoslav Razlag                   (b. 1826 - d. 1880)  NL
18 Dec 1871 -  3 Jul 1872  Alexander Graf Auersperg          (s.a.)               VP
 3 Jul 1872 -  5 Nov 1872  Johann Bleiweis (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)               NK
 5 Nov 1872 - 30 Apr 1881  Friedrich Ritter Kaltenegger von  (b. 1820 - d. 1892)
                             Riedhorst
30 Apr 1881 - 22 Sep 1881  Karl Deschmann (Karel Dežman)     (b. 1821 - d. 1889)  VP
                             (acting)

22 Sep 1881 - 23 Jul 1888  Gustav Graf Thurn und Valsassina  (b. 1836 - d. 1888)
23 Jul 1888 -  3 Sep 1888  Johann Murnik (Ivan Murnik)       (b. 1839 - d. 1913)
                            
(1st time)(acting)
 3 Sep 1888 - 17 Mar 1891  Joseph Poklukar (Josip Poklukar)  (b. 1837 - d. 1891)
17 Mar 1891 - 12 Aug 1891  Johann Murnik (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
12 Aug 1891 - 27 Mar 1908  Otto von Detela                   (b. 1839 - d. 1917)  SLS
                             (from 1898, Otto Edler von Detela)
27 Mar 1908 - 29 Dec 1911  Franz Edler von Šuklje            (b. 1849 - d. 1935)  SLS
29 Dec 1911 - 17 Jan 1912  Eugen Lampe (acting)              (b. 1874 - d. 1918)  SLS?
17 Jan 1912 - 25 Oct 1918  Ivan Šusteršič                    (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  SLS
25 Oct 1918 - 31 Oct 1918  Karl Triller (acting)             (b. 1862 - d. 1926SLS?
Chairman of the National Council for Slovenia and Istria
17 Aug 1918 - 31 Oct 1918  Josip Pogačnik (in dissidence)    (s.a.)               SLS
Prime ministers
 8 Mar 1990 - 16 May 1990  Dušan Šinigoj                     (b. 1933)            SDP 
                             (chairman of the executive council)              
16 May 1990 - 14 May 1992  Alojz "Lojze" Peterle             (b. 1948)            SKD
                             (chairman of the executive council to 23 Jan 1992)
14 May 1992 -  7 Jun 2000  Janez Drnovšek (1st time)         (s.a.)               LDS
 7 Jun 2000 - 30 Nov 2000  Andrej Bajuk                      (b. 1943 - d. 2011)  SLS;
                                                                                  Aug 2000 NSi
30 Nov 2000 - 19 Dec 2002  Janez Drnovšek (2nd time)         (s.a.)               LDS
19 Dec 2002 -  3 Dec 2004  Anton "Tone" Rop                  (b. 1960)            LDS
 3 Dec 2004 - 21 Nov 2008  Janez Janša (1st time)            (b. 1958)            SDS
21 Nov 2008 - 10 Feb 2012  Borut Pahor                       (s.a.)               SD
10 Feb 2012 - 20 Mar 2013  Janez Janša (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SDS
20 Mar 2013 -              Alenka Bratušek (f)               (b. 1970)            PS;2014 ZAB


Territorial Disputes
: Since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia.

Party abbreviations: Ind = Independent; LDS = Liberalna Demokracija Slovenije (Liberal Democracy of Slovenia, liberal, est.1994); NSi = Nova Slovenija - Krščanska Ljudska Stranka (New Slovenia - Christian People's Party, christian democratic, split from SKD, est.4 Aug 2000); PS = Pozitivna Slovenija (Positive Slovenia, center-left, former LZJ-PS, est.21 Jan 2012); SD = Socialni Demokrati (Social Democrats, social democratic, former SDP, 1993-2005 named Združena Lista Socialnih Demokratov [United List of Social Democrats], est.1993); SDS = Slovenska Demokratska Stranka (Slovenian Democratic Party, social-democratic, est.1989); SLS = Slovenska Ljudska Stranka (Slovenian People's Party, conservative, 1905-1945, 1988-2000, united with SKD as SLS-SKD 15 Apr 2000-2002; from May 2002 as SLS); SNS = Slovenska Nacionalna Stranka (Slovenian National Party, populist, Slovene nationalist, est.1991); ZAB = Zavezništvo Alenke Bratušek (Alliance of Alenka Bratušek, center-left, Alenka Bratušek personalist, split from PS, est.31 May 2014); Mil = Military;
- Former Parties: DS = Demokratska Stranka (Democratic Party, liberal, 1924-1945); JDS = Jugoslovanska Demokratska Stranka (Yugoslav Democratic Party, liberal, 1918-1924, then DS); LZJ-PS = Lista Zorana Jankovića–Pozitivna Slovenija (Zoran Jankovic List – Positive Slovenia, center-left, 2011-21 Jan 2012, renamed PS); NK = National-klerikal (National Clerical, Austrian conservative); NL = National-liberal (National Liberal, Austrian conservative liberal); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German Nazi fascist, 1920-1945, only legal party in Laibach 1941-1945); PFR = Partito Fascista Repubblicano (Republican Fascist Party, Italian fascist, former PNF, only legal party in Italian Social Republic, Sep 1943-May 1945); PNF = Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian fascist, nationalist, authoritarian, 1921-1943, only legal party in Lubiana Apr 1941-25 Jul 1943); SDP = Stranka Demokratične Prenove (Party of Democratic Renewal, former ZKS, Feb 1990-1993); SKD = Slovenski Krščanski Demokrati (Slovene Christian Democrats, 1988-15 Apr 2000, united with SLS); VP = Verfassungspartei (Constitution Party, Austrian constitutional liberal, 1861-1896); ZKS = Zveza Komunistov Slovenije (League of Communists of Slovenia, former KPS, 1952-Feb 1990, renamed SDP)



Socialist Republic of Slovenia

[Flag of SR Slovenia]
                     18 Jan 1947 - 27 Jun 1991

19 Feb 1944                Slovenia (also in official use: Federal Slovenia).
31 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Slovenia (name change approved
                             by an act of Slovenian legislature 20 Feb 1946).

 7 Apr 1963                Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Slovenia
(from 1952, League of Communists of Slovenia)
1943 - 1946                France "Luka" Leskošek             (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
1946 - 1948                Edvard Kardelj                     (b. 1910 - d. 1979)
1948 - 1966                Miha Marinko                       (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
1966 - 1968                Albert Jakopič-Kajtimir            (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
Mar 1969 - Apr 1982        France Popit                       (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
Apr 1982 - May 1986        Andrej Marinc                      (b. 1930)
May 1986 - Dec 1989        Milan Kučan                        (b. 1941)
Dec 1989 - May 1990        Ciril Ribičič                      (b. 1947)

Chairman of the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People
 3 Oct 1943 - 19 Feb 1944  Josip Vidmar                       (b. 1895 - d. 1992)  OFS
President of the Slovenian People's Liberation Council
19 Feb 1944 - 18 Nov 1946  Josip Vidmar                       (s.a.)               OFS
Presidents of the People's Constituent Assembly
18 Nov 1946                Josip Vidmar                       (s.a.)               OFS
18 Nov 1946 - 19 Nov 1946  Oton Župančič (acting)             (b. 1878 - d. 1949) 
OFS
19 Nov 1946                Bogdan Osolnik (acting)            (b. 1920)            OFS
19 Nov 1946 - 20 Nov 1946  Ferdo Kozak                        (b. 1894 - d. 1957)  OFS
President of the Presidium of the People's Constituent Assembly
20 Nov 1946 - 16 Jan 1947  Josip Vidmar                       (s.a.)               OFS  
President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly

16 Jan 1947 - 30 Jan 1953  Josip Vidmar                       (s.a.)               OFS
Presidents of the People's Assembly
30 Jan 1953 - 15 Dec 1953  Ferdo Kozak                        (s.a.)               OFS
15 Dec 1953 -  9 Jun 1962  Miha Marinko                       (s.a.)               KPS
 9 Jun 1962 - 25 Jun 1963  Vida Bernot Tomšić (f)             (b. 1913 - d. 1998)  ZKS
Presidents of the Assembly
25 Jun 1963 - 29 Apr 1965  Ivan "Matija" Maček                (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  ZKS
29 Apr 1965 -  9 May 1967  Janko Rudolf                       (b. 1914 - d. 1997)  ZKS
 
9 May 1967 -  9 May 1974  Sergej Kraigher                    (b. 1914 - d. 2001)  ZKS
Presidents of the Presidency
 
9 May 1974 - 23 May 1979  Sergej Kraigher                    (s.a.)               ZKS
23 May 1979 -  7 May 1982  Viktor "Rudi" Avbelj               (b. 1914 - d. 1993)  ZKS
 7 May 1982 -  6 May 1988  France Popit                       (s.a.)               ZKS
 
6 May 1988 - 10 May 1990  Janez Stanovnik                    (b. 1922)           ZKS;1990 SDP

Minister for Slovenia (part of Yugoslav government)
 7 Mar 1945 - 10 May 1945  Edvard Kocbek                      (b. 1904 - d. 1981)  OFS
President of the People's Government
10 May 1945 - 30 Jan 1946  Boris Kidrič                       (b. 1912 - d. 1953)  KPS
Prime ministers

30 Jan 1946 - 17 Jun 1946  Boris Kidrič                       (s.a.)               KPS
17 Jun 1946 - 30 Jan 1953  Miha Marinko                       (s.a.)              KPS;1952 ZKS
Chairmen of the Executive Council
30 Jan 1953 - 15 Dec 1953  Miha Marinko                       (s.a.)               ZKS
15 Dec 1953 - 25 Jun 1962  Boris Kraigher                     (b. 1914 - d. 1967)  ZKS
25 Jun 1962 - 29 Apr 1965  Viktor "Rudi" Avbelj               (s.a.)               ZKS
29 Apr 1965 -  9 May 1967  Janko Smole                        (b. 1921 - d. 2010)  ZKS
 
9 May 1967 - 27 Nov 1972  Stane Kavčić                       (b. 1919 - d. 1987)  ZKS
27 Nov 1972 - 9 May 1978   Andrej Marinc                      (s.a.)               ZKS
 
9 May 1978 - Jul 1980     Anton Vratuša                      (b. 1915)            ZKS
Jul 1980 - 23 May 1984     Janez Zemljarič                    (b. 1928)            ZKS
23 May 1984 - 16 May 1990  Dušan Šinigoj                      (b. 1933)           ZKS;1990 SDP

Party abbreviations: ZKS = Zveza Komunistov Slovenije (League of Communists of Slovenia, 1952-Feb 1990, renamed SDP); SDP = Stranka Demokratične Prenove (Party of Democratic Renewal, former ZKS, Feb 1990-1993);
- Former parties: KPS = Komunistična Partija Slovenije (Communist party of Slovenia, from 1945 only legal party, 1919-1921, 1937-1952, renamed ZKS); OFS = Osvobodilna Fronta Slovenskega Naroda (Liberation Front of the Slovene Nation, Slovene anti-Fascist resistance, 1941-1953)



Prekmurje

Dec 1918                   Prekmurje briefly occupied by the  Serb-Croat-Slovene State, but
                             it is then restored to Hungary.
29 May 1919                Independence proclaimed as Republic of Prekmurje (Republika
                             Prekmurje; also in use Republika Murska and Republika Slovenska
                             okroglina
).

 5 Jun 1919                Dissolved by Hungary.
12 Aug 1919                Incorporated into Serb-Croat-Slovene State, later Yugoslavia
                             (from this era follows Slovenia).

President
29 May 1919 -  5 Jun 1919  Viljem Tkalec (Vilmos Tkálecz)     (b. 1894 - d. 1950)





© Ben Cahoon