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Italy
 
[Kingdom of Italy flag
                                    1861-1946]
           17 Mar 1861 - 18 Jun 1946

[Kingdom of
                                  Italy Naval Ensign 1861-1946]
  17 Mar 1861 - 18 Jun 1946 Naval Ensign
[Italy
                                    Naval Ensign from 1947]
      Adopted 9 Nov 1947 Naval Ensign

[Italy
                                    flag]
                Adopted 18 Jun 1946
 


Map of Italy Hear National Anthem
"Il Canto degli Italiani"
(The Song of the Italians
or "Inno di Mameli"
[Mameli's Hymn]) 
Text of  National Anthem
Adopted 12 Oct 1946 (provisional to 17 Nov 2005)
 Constitution
   (1 Jan 1948)
Map of Administrative
Divisions
Former Royal Anthem
"Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza"
 (Royal March of Ordinance)
(17 Mar 1861-12 Jun 1946)
Former Fascist Anthem
"Giovinezza" (The Youth)(1922-24 Jul 1943
Constitution
("Statuto")
(4 Mar 1848 - 2  Jun 1946)
Capital: Rome
(Brindisi 9 Sep 1943-Feb 1944;
Florence 1865-31 Dec 1870;
Turin 1861-1865)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1862 - 1 Jan 2002 Lira (ITL)
National Holiday: 2 Jun (1946) 
Republic Day
------------------------------------------
Former Holiday: 11 Nov (1869)
Birthday of King Vittorio 
Emanuele III
Population: 61,482,297 (2013)
45,387,000 (1942)
GDP: $1.80 trillion (2013)
Exports: $474 billion (2013)
Imports: $435.8 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Italian 96%, North African Arab 0.9%,
Italo-Albanian 0.8%, Albanian 0.5%, German 0.4%,
Austrian 0.4%, Italo-Greek, French and other 1% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 180,270 (2012)
U.S. Military Forces: 11,950 (2012)
Merchant marine: 681 ships (2012)
Religions: Roman Catholic 79.6%, nonreligious 13.2%,
Muslim 1.2%, Protestant, Jewish and other  6% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS (observer), CCM, CDB (nonregional), CE, CEI, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, PIF (partner), SEGIB (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Italy Index
Chronology
508 BC                     Roman Republic
27 BC                      Roman Empire
17 Jan 395                 Divided de jure into Eastern Roman Empire 
                             (Byzantium) and Western Roman Empire. 
 4 Sep 476                 Last Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus,
                             is forced to abdicate by Odovacar (Odoacer).
 4 Sep 476 -  5 Mar 493    Odovacar rules as Italian king. 
 5 Mar 493                 Kingdom of Ostrogoths, capital at Ravenna.
May 540 -  3 Sep 569       Part of Eastern Roman Empire.
 3 Sep 569                 Kingdom of the Lombards, capital at Pavia.
 5 Jun 774                 Frankish kingdom of Italy, capital at Pavia.
Jul 817                    Italian Kingdom, capital at Pavia.
14 May 1004 - 10 May 1796  Holy Roman Emperors hold the title king of Italy.
26 Jun 1802                Italian Republic (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna), 
                             with French First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte as
                             President (see under Lombardy).
18 Mar 1805                Kingdom of Italy (Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna and
                             Venetia), with Napoléon I, Emperor of the French
                             as King of Italy (see under Lombardy).
Apr 1814                   Restoration of the independent states.
17 Mar 1861                Kingdom of Italy
20 Sep 1870                Rome annexed from the Papal State.
 7 Jun 1929                State of Vatican City established.
 9 May 1936 - 19 May 1941  Ethiopia annexed.
 6 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943  Albania in personal union with (de facto
                             annexation) Italy.
 1 May 1943 - 17 Sep 1947  Allied Military occupation.
10 Sep 1943 -  2 May 1945  Northern Italy occupied by Germany 
                             (Italian Social Republic; in opposition).
10 Sep 1943 -  2 May 1945  Northern Italy occupied by Germany; Trento, 
                             Bolzano, Belluno, Gorizia, Trieste, and Istria
                             administered by Germany (see Tirol 
                             and Carinthia).
23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945  Italian Social Republic in opposition to kingdom.
18 Jun 1946                Italian Republic.
10 Feb 1947                Peace treaty cedes Fiume and Zadar to Yugoslavia; 
                             Tende, La Brigue, and other villages to France;
                             restores Sazan Island to Albania; and cedes
                             Free Territory of Trieste to the Allie
27 Jun 2003                Republic of Italy (date of communication to United
                             Nations about change in English version; Italian
                             name unchanged).
Italy 476-1004
Regions
States before 1861
A- N and P -V

Allied Military
Govt. (AMGOT)
 (1943-1947)
 Italian Social
Republic (Salo)
(1943-1945)
Partisan Republics
(1944)
Trieste
(1382-1954)
French
Establishments
Historic Maps
of Italy
Maps of Italy
(c.1400) and
(1860-1924)
 

Kings¹
17 Mar 1861 -  9 Jan 1878  Vittorio Emanuele II               (b. 1820 - d. 1878)
 9 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900  Umberto I                          (b. 1844 - d. 1900)

29 Jul 1900 -  9 May 1946  Vittorio Emanuele III              (b. 1869 - d. 1947) 
 5 Jul 1944 -  9 May 1946  Umberto di Savoia, principe        (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
                             di Piemonte -Regent
                            (Lieutenant General of the Realm)
 9 May 1946 - 18 Jun 1946  Umberto II                         (s.a.)
Provisional Heads of State
18 Jun 1946 -  1 Jul 1946  Alcide De Gasperi (acting)         (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  DC
 1 Jul 1946 -  1 Jan 1948  Enrico De Nicola                   (b. 1877 - d. 1959)  PLI
Presidents
 1 Jan 1948 - 12 May 1948  Enrico De Nicola                   (s.a.)               PLI
12 May 1948 - 11 May 1955  Luigi Einaudi                      (b. 1874 - d. 1961)  PLI
11 May 1955 - 11 May 1962  Giovanni Gronchi                   (b. 1887 - d. 1978)  DC
11 May 1962 -  6 Dec 1964  Antonio Segni                      (b. 1891 - d. 1972)  DC
 6 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1964  Cesare Merzagora (acting)          (b. 1898 - d. 1991)  DC
29 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1971  Giuseppe Saragat                   (b. 1898 - d. 1988)  PSDI
29 Dec 1971 - 15 Jun 1978  Giovanni Leone                     (b. 1908 - d. 2001)  DC
15 Jun 1978 -  9 Jul 1978  Amintore Fanfani (acting)          (b. 1908 - d. 1999)  DC
 9 Jul 1978 - 29 Jun 1985  Alessandro "Sandro" Pertini        (b. 1896 - d. 1990)  PSI
29 Jun 1985 - 28 Apr 1992  Francesco Maurizio Cossiga         (b. 1928 - d. 2010)  DC
                             (acting to 3 Jul 1985)
28 Apr 1992 - 28 May 1992  Giovanni Spadolini (acting)        (b. 1925 - d. 1994)  PRI
28 May 1992 - 15 May 1999  Oscar Luigi Scalfaro               (b. 1918 - d. 2012) DC;1994 None
15 May 1999 - 18 May 1999  Nicola Mancino (acting)            (b. 1931)            DS
18 May 1999 - 15 May 2006  Carlo Azeglio Ciampi               (b. 1920)            Non-party
15 May 2006 -              Giorgio Napolitano                 (b. 1925)            DS
 
 
Prime ministers (presidents of the Council of Ministers)
17 Mar 1861 -  6 Jun 1861  Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour     (b. 1810 - d. 1861)  Des
                             (from 21 Jan 1860 prime minister of Sardinia)
 6 Jun 1861 - 12 Jun 1861  Marco Minghetti (1st time)(acting) (b. 1818 - d. 1886)  Des
12 Jun 1861 -  3 Mar 1862  Bettino Ricasoli, conte Brolio     (b. 1809 - d. 1880)  Des
                             (1st time) 
 3 Mar 1862 -  8 Dec 1862  Urbano Rattazzi (1st time)         (b. 1808 - d. 1873)  Sin
 8 Dec 1862 - 24 Mar 1863  Luigi Carlo Farini                 (b. 1812 - d. 1866)  Des
24 Mar 1863 - 28 Sep 1864  Marco Minghetti (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Des
28 Sep 1864 - 17 Jun 1866  Alfonso Ferrero della Marmora      (b. 1804 - d. 1878)  Des
17 Jun 1866 - 10 Apr 1867  Bettino Ricasoli, conte Brolio     (s.a.)               Des
                             (2nd time)
10 Apr 1867 - 27 Oct 1867  Urbano Rattazzi (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Sin
27 Oct 1867 - 14 Dec 1869  Luigi Federico, conte Menabrea     (b. 1809 - d. 1896)  Des
14 Dec 1869 - 10 Aug 1873  Giovanni Lanza                     (b. 1810 - d. 1882)  Sin
10 Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1876  Marco Minghetti (3rd time)         (s.a.)               Des
25 Mar 1876 - 24 Mar 1878  Agostino Depretis (1st time)       (b. 1813 - d. 1887)  Sin
24 Mar 1878 - 19 Dec 1878  Benedetto Cairoli (1st time)       (b. 1825 - d. 1889)  Sin
19 Dec 1878 - 14 Jul 1879  Agostino Depretis (2nd  time)      (s.a.)               Sin
14 Jul 1879 - 29 May 1881  Benedetto Cairoli (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Sin
28 May 1881 - 29 Jul 1887  Agostino Depretis (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Sin
29 Jul 1887 -  9 Feb 1891  Francesco Crispi (1st time)        (b. 1819 - d. 1901)  Sin
                             (acting to 7 Aug 1887)
 9 Feb 1891 - 15 May 1892  Antonio Starabba, marchese         (b. 1839 - d. 1908)  Des
                             di Rudinì (1st time)
15 May 1892 - 15 Dec 1893  Giovanni Giolitti (1st time)       (b. 1842 - d. 1928)  Sin
15 Dec 1893 - 10 Mar 1896  Francesco Crispi (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Sin
10 Mar 1896 - 30 Jun 1898  Antonio Starabba, marchese         (s.a.)               Des
                             di Rudinì (2nd time)
30 Jun 1898 - 25 Jun 1900  Luigi Pelloux                      (b. 1839 - d. 1924)  Des
25 Jun 1900 - 15 Feb 1901  Giuseppe Saracco                   (b. 1821 - d. 1907)  Des
15 Feb 1901 -  3 Nov 1903  Giuseppe Zanardelli                (b. 1826 - d. 1903)  Sin
 3 Nov 1903 - 16 Mar 1905  Giovanni Giolitti (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Sin
16 Mar 1905 - 28 Mar 1905  Tommaso Tittoni                    (b. 1855 - d. 1931)  Des
28 Mar 1905 -  8 Feb 1906  Alessandro Fortis                  (b. 1842 - d. 1909)  Sin
 8 Feb 1906 - 30 May 1906  Sidney, barone Sonnino (1st time)  (b. 1847 - d. 1922)  Des
30 May 1906 - 11 Dec 1909  Giovanni Giolitti (3rd time)       (s.a.)               Sin
11 Dec 1909 - 31 Mar 1910  Sidney, barone Sonnino (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Des
31 Mar 1910 - 30 Mar 1911  Luigi Luzzatti                     (b. 1841 - d. 1927)  Des
30 Mar 1911 - 21 Mar 1914  Giovanni Giolitti (4th time)       (s.a.)               Sin
21 Mar 1914 - 19 Jun 1916  Antonio Salandra                   (b. 1853 - d. 1931)  Des
19 Jun 1916 - 30 Oct 1917  Paolo Boselli                      (b. 1838 - d. 1932)  Des
30 Oct 1917 - 24 Jun 1919  Vittorio Emanuele Orlando          (b. 1860 - d. 1952)  Sin
24 Jun 1919 - 16 Jun 1920  Francesco Saverio Nitti            (b. 1868 - d. 1953)  Rad
16 Jun 1920 -  4 Jul 1921  Giovanni Giolitti (5th time)       (s.a.)               Sin
 4 Jul 1921 - 26 Feb 1922  Ivanoe Bonomi (1st time)           (b. 1873 - d. 1951)  PSRI
26 Feb 1922 - 30 Oct 1922  Luigi Facta                        (b. 1861 - d. 1930)  PLI
30 Oct 1922 - 25 Jul 1943  Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini   (b. 1883 - d. 1945)  PNF
                             (from 3 Jan 1926, styled Il Duce ["the Leader"])
25 Jul 1943 - 22 Jun 1944  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)  Mil
                             (from 8 May 1943 in
Brindisi)
22 Jun 1944 - 21 Jun 1945  Ivanoe Bonomi (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DL
21 Jun 1945 - 10 Dec 1945  Ferruccio Parri                    (b. 1890 - d. 1981)  PdA
10 Dec 1945 - 17 Aug 1953  Alcide De Gasperi                  (s.a.)               DC
17 Aug 1953 - 19 Jan 1954  Giuseppe Pella                     (b. 1902 - d. 1981)  DC
19 Jan 1954 - 10 Feb 1954  Amintore Fanfani (1st time)        (s.a.)               DC
10 Feb 1954 -  6 Jul 1955  Mario Scelba                       (b. 1901 - d. 1991)  DC
 6 Jul 1955 - 20 May 1957  Antonio Segni (1st time)           (s.a.)               DC
20 May 1957 -  2 Jul 1958  Adone Zoli                         (b. 1887 - d. 1960)  DC
 2 Jul 1958 - 16 Feb 1959  Amintore Fanfani (2nd time)        (s.a.)               DC
16 Feb 1959 - 26 Mar 1960  Antonio Segni (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DC
26 Mar 1960 - 26 Jul 1960  Fernando Tambroni Armaroli         (b. 1901 - d. 1963)  DC
26 Jul 1960 - 22 Jun 1963  Amintore Fanfani (3rd time)        (s.a.)               DC
22 Jun 1963 -  5 Dec 1963  Giovanni Leone (1st time)          (s.a.)               DC
 5 Dec 1963 - 25 Jun 1968  Aldo Moro (1st time)               (b. 1916 - d. 1978)  DC
25 Jun 1968 - 12 Dec 1968  Giovanni Leone (2nd time)          (s.a.)               DC
12 Dec 1968 -  6 Aug 1970  Mariano Rumor (1st time)           (b. 1915 - d. 1990)  DC
 6 Aug 1970 - 18 Feb 1972  Emilio Colombo                     (b. 1920 - d. 2013)  DC
18 Feb 1972 -  8 Jul 1973  Giulio Andreotti (1st time)        (b. 1919 - d. 2013)  DC
 8 Jul 1973 - 23 Nov 1974  Mariano Rumor (2nd time)           (s.a.)               DC
23 Nov 1974 - 29 Jul 1976  Aldo Moro (2nd time)               (s.a.)               DC
29 Jul 1976 -  4 Aug 1979  Giulio Andreotti (2nd time)        (s.a.)               DC
 4 Aug 1979 - 18 Oct 1980  Francesco Maurizio Cossiga         (s.a.)               DC
18 Oct 1980 - 28 Jun 1981  Arnaldo Forlani                    (b. 1925)            DC
28 Jun 1981 -  1 Dec 1982  Giovanni Spadolini                 (s.a.)               PRI
 1 Dec 1982 -  4 Aug 1983  Amintore Fanfani (4th time)        (s.a.)               DC
 4 Aug 1983 - 17 Apr 1987  Bettino Craxi                      (b. 1934 - d. 2000)  PSI
18 Apr 1987 - 29 Jul 1987  Amintore Fanfani (5th time)        (s.a.)               DC
29 Jul 1987 - 13 Apr 1988  Giovanni Goria                     (b. 1943 - d. 1994)  DC
13 Apr 1988 - 23 Jul 1989  Ciriaco De Mita                    (b. 1928)            DC
23 Jul 1989 - 28 Jun 1992  Giulio Andreotti (3rd time)        (s.a.)               DC
28 Jun 1992 - 29 Apr 1993  Giuliano Amato (1st time)          (b. 1938)            PSI
29 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994  Carlo Azeglio Ciampi               (s.a.)               Non-party
11 May 1994 - 17 Jan 1995  Silvio Berlusconi (1st time)       (b. 1936)            FI
17 Jan 1995 - 18 May 1996  Lamberto Dini                      (b. 1931)            Non-party
18 May 1996 - 23 Oct 1998  Romano Prodi (1st time)            (b. 1939)            OT
21 Oct 1998 - 26 Apr 2000  Massimo D'Alema                    (b. 1949)            DS
26 Apr 2000 - 11 Jun 2001  Giuliano Amato (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Jun 2001 - 17 May 2006  Silvio Berlusconi (2nd time)       (s.a.)               FI + CdL
17 May 2006 -  8 May 2008  Romano Prodi (2nd time)            (b. 1939)            LU
 8 May 2008 - 16 Nov 2011  Silvio Berlusconi (3rd time)       (s.a.)               FI;2009 PdL
16 Nov 2011 - 28 Apr 2013  Mario Monti                        (b. 1943)            Non-party
28 Apr 2013 - 22 Feb 2014  Enrico Letta                       (b. 1966)            PD
22 Feb 2014 -              Matteo Renzi                       (b. 1975)            PD 


 

Minister of Occupied Italy²
12 Dec 1944 - 21 Jun 1945  Mauro Scoccimarro                  (b. 1895 - d. 1972)  PCI
 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 17 Mar 1861 - 21 Apr 1861 and 10 May 1946 - 18 Jun 1946: Re d'Italia ("King of Italy");
(b) 21 Apr 1861 - 9 May 1936 and 8 Sep 1943 - 10 May 1946: Per Grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia ("By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy");
(c) 9 May 1936 - 19 Apr 1939: Per grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia, Imperatore d'Etiopia ("by the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy,  Emperor of Ethiopia");
(d) 19 Apr 1939 - 8 Sep 1943: Per grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia e di Albania, Imperatore d'Etiopia ("By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy and of Albania, Emperor of Ethiopia"); use of the titles Re di Albania and Imperatore d'Etiopia was informally discontinued after 23 Sep 1943, official change of the royal style was sanctioned by decree of 27 Nov 1943 (backdated to 8 Sep 1943; published in official gazette on 8 Dec 1943).

 ² the Ministry of Occupied Italy was responsible for the reconstruction of liberated northern Italy and for the relations with the various resistance movements.

Noble titles: barone = baron; conte = count; marchese = marquis; principe = prince.

Territorial Dispute: Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa.

Party abbreviations: FI = Forza Italia (Forward Italy, center-right, liberal conservative, Silvio Berlusconi personalist, 1994-2009 named Movimento Politico Forza Italia, 2009 merged into PdL; restored 29 Nov 2013); PD = Partito Democratico (Democratic Party, social-democratic, center-left, est.2007); PSDI = Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano (Italian Social Democratic Party, social–democratic, est.1947); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CdL = Casa delle Libertà (House of Freedoms, center-right coalition, incl. FI, Alleanza Nazionale, Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e dei Democratici di Centro, Lega Nord, PRI, Christian Democracy-New PSI, 1996-2001 as Polo per le Libertà [Pole for Liberty], 2000-2008); Des = Destra (Right, later referred to as Destra Storica [Historic Right], Italian nationalist, classical liberal, conservative, monarchist, 1849-1921); DC = Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy, christian democratic, centrist, Dec 1943-Jan 1994, successor Partito Popolare Italiano); DL = Partito Democratico del Lavoro (Democratic Labor Party, social democratic, center-left, 1943-1948); DS = Democratici di Sinistra (Democrats of the Left, social-democratic, 1991-98 as Partito Democratico della Sinistra [Democratic Party of the Left], former PCI, merged into PD, 1998-2007); LU = L'Unione (The Union, center-left coalition, OT successor, incl. DS, Rifondazione Comunista [Communist Refoundation], Popolari-UDEUR, Partito dei Comunisti Italiani [to 1998], Federazione dei Verdi [Green Federation], and Rosa nel Pugno [Rose in the Fist], Feb 2005-Feb 2008); OT = L'Ulivo (The Olive Tree, center-left coalition, incl. Federazione dei Verdi [Green Federation], DS, Partito Popolare Italiano, PRI, Rinnovamento Italiano [Lista Dini], Unione Democratica, Party of the Left [main partner of the OT], 1994-2005, then LU); PCI = Partito Comunista Italiano (Italian Communist Party, communist, banned 1926-1944, merged into DS, 1921-1991); PdA = Partito d'Azione (Action Party, center-left, liberal socialist, anti-monarchy, 1942-1947);
PdL = Popolo della Libertà (People of Freedom, center-right, liberal conservative, Silvio Berlusconi personalist, merger of FI and Alleanza Nazionale, 2009-29 Nov 2013, renamed FI); PLI = Partito Liberale Italiano (Italian Liberal Party, moderate conservative, center-right, merger of DS remnants and Sinistra Liberale, 1922-1925 & 1943-1994); PNF = Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian fascist, nationalist, authoritarian, only legal party 7 Oct 1926-25 Jul 1943, successor at Salo the Partito Fascista Repubblicano [PFR], 1921-27 Jul 1943); PRI = Partito Repubblicano Italiano (Italian Republican Party, republican, social liberal, center-left, 1895-1926 and from 1943); PSI = Italiano Socialista Partito (Italian Socialist Party, socialist, 1892-1994, banned 1925-1943); PSRI = Partito Socialista Riformista Italiano (Italian Social Reform Party, social-democratic, split from PSI, later DL, 1912-1926); Rad = Partito Radicale Italiano (Radical Party, radical, anti-capitalist, left-wing, split from Sin, 1877-1922); Sin = Sinistra (Left, later referred to as Sinistra Storica [Historic Left], center-left, liberal, progressive, anti-clerical, monarchist, 1849-1921)



Allied Military Government of Italy

11 Jun 1943                Allied forces occupy Pantelleria island, from 12 Jun 1943
                             Lampedusa, and 13 Jun 1943 Linosa and Lampione islands.
10 Jul 1943                Allied Military Government (AMG) begins in Sicily.
 3 Sep 1943                Allied Military Government begins on Italian mainland
                            (the King's government takes over as allied forces move  
                             up the peninsula).
31 Dec 1945                Allied Military Government ends, except in Udine and Venezia
                             Giulia provinces.
31 Jan 1947                Formal end of Allied Commission.


Heads of the Allied Military Government (AMGOT)
10 Jul 1943 -  8 Jan 1944  Dwight D. Eisenhower (U.S.)        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
 8 Jan 1944 - 11 Dec 1944  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson (U.K.)   (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
12 Dec 1944 - 29 Sep 1945  Sir Harold Alexander (U.K.)        (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
29 Sep 1945 - Oct 1945     Joseph Taggart McNarney (U.S.)     (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
                             (acting)
Oct 1945 - 31 Jan 1947     Sir William Duthie Morgan (U.K.)   (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
1947                       John Clifford Hodges Lee (U.S.)    (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
                             (acting)
Acting Deputy President of the Allied Control Commission for Italy
10 Nov 1943 - 16 Jan 1944  Kenyon A. Joyce (U.S.)             (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
Chief Commissioners of the Allied Control Commission for Italy
16 Jan 1944 - Jul 1944     Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane (U.K.)   (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
Jul 1944 - 26 Oct 1944     Ellery W. Stone (U.S.)             (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
Chief Commissioner of the Allied Commission
26 Oct 1944 - 31 Jan 1947  Ellery W. Stone (U.S.)             (s.a.)

Military Governors of the Occupied Territories
10 Jul 1943 - 11 Dec 1944  Sir Harold Alexander (U.K.)        (s.a.)
12 Dec 1944 -  5 Jul 1945  Mark Wayne Clark (U.S.)            (b. 1896 – d. 1984)


Counter Government at Saló: Italian Social Republic 
 
[Italian Social Republic Civil Flag
                        1943-1945]
   23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945 State flag
  
[Italian Social Republic War Flag
                        1944-1945]
    28 Jan 1944 - 28 Apr 1945 War flag
Map of Italian Social
Republic

Hear National Anthem
"Giovinezza"
(The Youth) 
Text of National Anthem
(23 Sep 1943-28 Apr 1945)
Draft Constitution
(1943; in Italian)
Capital: Saló4
Currency: Lira (ITLM)
National Holiday:
29 Jul (1883)

 Birthday of Mussolini
Population: N/A (1943)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Italian, German, Slovene, Croat
Total Armed Forces: 150,000 (1944)
German Forces: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish
International Organizations: None
12 Sep 1943                Germans rescue Mussolini from prison at Gran Sasso.
15 Sep 1943                Mussolini arrives at Saló.
23 Sep 1943                National Republican State of Italy (Stato Nazionale Repubblicano
                             d'Italia) formed in German occupied northern and central Italy.
 1 Dec 1943                Renamed Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana).
28 Apr 1945                Collapse of Axis forces and end of the Italian Social Republic.
 2 May 1945                German forces formally surrender.

Head of State and Head of government5
23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945  Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (b. 1883 - d. 1945)  PFR

German Plenipotentiary (de facto ruler)
23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945  Rudolf Rahn                      (b. 1900 - d. 1975)  NSDAP

Head of the Military Administration
1944 - 1945                Karl Otto Gustav Wächler         (b. 1901 - d. 1949)  Mil
Commanders in Chief of the South Western War Zone (German Army in Italy)
 8 Sep 1943 - 20 Nov 1943  Erwin Johannes Eugen Romel       (b. 1891 - d. 1944)
                            - jointly with -
 8 Sep 1943 -  9 Mar 1945  Albert Kesselring                (b. 1885 - d. 1960)
10 Mar 1945 - 30 Apr 1945  Heinrich Gottfried von           (b. 1887 - d. 1952)
                             Vietinghoff-Scheel 
30 Apr 1945                Hans Röttiger (acting)           (b. 1896 - d. 1960)
30 Apr 1945 -  2 May 1945  Friedrich "Fritz" Schulz         (b. 1897 - d. 1945)

 4The de jure capital was Rome, but Saló was the de facto seat of government and location of the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior and Popular Culture; other ministries were scattered throughout northern Italy: ministry of Defense in Soiano; ministry of Justice in Cremona later Bresica; ministry of Finance in Bresica; ministry of Corporate Economy in Bergamo later Milan; ministry of Agriculture in Treviso; ministry of National Education in Padova; ministry of Public Jobs in Venice; ministry of Communications in Verona; ministry of Labor in Milan; and offices of the House and Senate in Venice.

 5Full style of ruler:
(a) 23 Sep 1943 - 1 Dec 1943: Duce del Fascismo, Capo dello Stato Nazionale Repubblicano d'Italia
("Leader of Fascism, Head of the Republican National State of Italy"); and
(b) Duce dello Stato Nazionale Repubblicano d'Italia ("Leader of the Republican National State of Italy");
(c) 1 Dec 1943 - 28 Apr 1945: Duce della Repubblica Sociale Italiana ("Leader of the Italian Social Republic").

Party abbreviations: PFR = Partito Fascista Repubblicano (Republican Fascist Party, Italian fascist, nationalist, republican, former PNF, only legal party of RSI Sep 1943-May 1945); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, German nationalist, 1920-1945); Mil = Military



Partisan Resistance 

[Committee of National
                    Liberation flag 1943-1945 (Italy)]

Note: In Sep 1943, delegates of non-Fascist parties assembled in Rome and founded the Fronte Antifascista unito libertà (United Anti-Fascist Freedom Front), renamed Comitato di Liberazione Nationale (Committee of National Liberation)(CLN) after the German occupation of Italy. Similar committees were also set up in most other cities. In the course of the following months they regrouped into three regional committees, acting independently of the Italian government. 

President of the Central Committee of National Liberation (CCLN)
(Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Centrale)
 9 Sep 1943 - 11 Jun 1944  Ivanoe Bonomi                      (s.a.)               DL
President of the Committee of National Liberation of Tuscany (CTLN)
(Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale della Toscana)

 9 Sep 1943 - 11 Aug 1944  Carlo Ludovico Ragghianti          (b. 1910 - d. 1987)  PA
Presidents of the Committee for National Liberation of Upper Italy (CLNAI)
(Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale Alta Italia)
 9 Sep 1943 - 27 Apr 1945  Alfredo Pizzoni ("Longhi")         (b. 1894 - d. 1958)  Non-party
27 Apr 1945 - 1945         Rodolfo Morandi                    (b. 1903 - d. 1955)  PSI

Party abbreviations:
AP = Partito d'Azione (Action Party, center-left, republican, 1942-1947); DL = Partito Democratico del Lavoro (Democratic Labor Party, socialist, former PSDI, 1943-1948); PSI = Italiano Socialista Partito (Italian Socialist Party, socialist, 1892-1994)


Italian Partisan Republics of 1944

Note: In 1944 the Committee of National Liberation of Upper Italy (CLNAI)(s.a.) staged a revolt that resulted in the establishment of a number of "partisan republics." Within the same year, however, they were reconquered by the occupying Germans. They were: Alto Monferrato (Sep - 2 Dec), Alto Tortonese6 (Sep-Dec), Bobbio e Torriglia6 (7 Jul - 27 Aug), Cansiglio (Jul-Sep), Carnia (Jul-Oct), Friuli Orientale (30 Jun - Sep), Imperia (Aug-Oct), Langhe (Sep-Nov), Montefiorino (17 Jun - 1 Aug), Ossola (10 Sep - 23 Oct), Val Ceno (10 Jun - 11 Jul), Val d'Enza e Val Parma (Jun-Jul), Val Maira e Val Varaita (Jun - 21 Aug), Val Taro (15 Jun - 24 Jul), Valli di Lanzo (25 Jun - Sep), Valsesia (11 Jun - 10 Jul), and Varzi6 (Sep - 29 Nov). Ossola was the only republic which received some recognition both by Swiss officials and by local Allied representatives.


Ossola (Domodossola) 

[Free Republic
                      of Ossola (Italy) flag 1944]

10 Sep 1944                Italian partisans establish Free Republic of Ossola near the 
                             on the shore of Lake Maggiore (incl. Cannoba, Intra, Verbania,
                             Omegna, and Domodossola) comprised 35 municipalities situated
                             along the Swiss frontier.
23 Oct 1944                Germans reoccupy the area, end of the partisan republic.

President of the Provisional Junta of Government of Ossola
10 Sep 1944 - 23 Oct 1944  Ettore Tibaldi                   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)

 6The partisan republics of Alto Tortonese, Bobbio e Torriglia and Varzi were adjacent, forming in this way one vast liberated territory.



Trieste

[Austrian Flag of Trieste to
                          1918]
                   1813 - 3 Nov 1918
[Free Territory of Trieste flag
                          1947-1954]
           15 Sep 1947 - 25 Oct 1954 
Map of Trieste Zone 1947-54 Hear Unofficial Anthem
"L'inno di San Giusto"
(Hymn of Saint Justus)
Text of  Trieste Anthem
(1947-1954; Unoffical)
Permanent Statute
 (10 Feb 1947 - 25 Oct 1954)
Capital: Trieste (Zone A);
Koper (Capodistria) (Zone B)
Currency: Italian Lira
(Zone A 1945-54); Trieste Lira (Yugolira) (Zone B 
29 Oct 1945 - Jul 1949)
National Holiday:
15 Sep (1947)
 Population: 310,000 (1949)
Zone A: 297,000 (1953)
Zone B: 67,461 (1945)
GDP: $ N/A Exports: $ N/A
Imports
: $ N/A
Ethnic groups: Italian, Croat, Slovene, other
Zone A: Italian 239,000; Slovene 63,000 (1949)
Zone B: Slav 30,789; Italian 29,672; other 7,000 (1945)
Total TTF Police: 4,337 (1950)
Allied Military Forces: 5,000 (US);
5,000 (UK); 5,000 (Yugoslavia) (1950)
Defense was Responsibility of the United Nations
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, other
International Organizations/Treaties (Zone A): OEEC, UPU

752                        Duchy of Trieste
788                        Part of Frankish Empire.
790                        Bishopric of Trieste founded.
933 - 948                  Occupied by Margraviate of Istria. 
948                        Under rule of Patriarch of Aquileia.
952                        Part of Holy Roman Empire.
1081                       City under the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
1202                       Autonomous Commune of Trieste.
1202 - 1236                Occupied by Venetian Republic.
1282 - 1287                Occupied by Venetian Republic.
1299                       Imperial Free City of Trieste.
1304                       Patriarchate of Aquileia renounces claim to Trieste.
1368 - 1372                Occupied by Venetian Republic.
Oct 1382                   Trieste's agreement cessation to Austria signed; Reichsunmittelbare
                             Stadt Triest (Free Imperial City of Trieste).
1463 - 1469                Trieste overthrows Austrian rule.
1508 - 1509                Occupied by Venetian Republic.
10 Sep 1718 –  1 Jul 1891  Made a free port within the Habsburg Empire.
1740                       Administration of the Littoral unified under Intendancy in Trieste.
27 Apr 1766                Empress Maria Teresa confirms Trieste independence 
                             within the crown territories of Austria.
20 Oct 1776                Administration of the two main ports divided, Trieste assigned
                             as the port for the Austrian "hereditary lands" and Fiume for
                             the Kingdom of Hungary.
21 Mar 1797 - 23 May 1797  French occupation.
19 Nov 1805 -  4 Mar 1806  French occupation.
 1 May 1806                Istria annexed to Kingdom of Italy (département of Istrie).
 9 Apr 1809 - 16 May 1809  Austrian occupation of Trieste.
14 Oct 1809                Trieste annexed to France, as part of Illyrian Provinces
                             (province of Trieste).
15 Apr 1811                Province fused with Gorz to form the intendance of Istrie.
30 Jun 1811 - 18 Sep 1811  Division between two military subdivisions: Capo-d'Istria
                             and Rovigno.
29 Oct 1813                Austrian occupation.
30 May 1814                Formally restored to Austria (remains within Illyria).
25 Dec 1814                Re-incorporated into Austria, as Kreisamt zu Triest (within
                             Illyria).
 3 Aug 1816                Component of the Austrian Illyrian Kingdom (Königreich Illyrien) as
                             Triester Kreis within the Landesgubernium in dem Königreiche
                             Illyrien zu Triest
(see Austrian Crownlands).
 2 Oct 1849                City and Land of Trieste (Stadt und Gebiet Triest), a separate and
                             immediate city with the status of an Austrian crownland.
15 Nov 1849
                Görz and Gradisca combined with Istria and subordinated to Triest
                             (by decree of 18 Oct 1849) as one crownland which is called
                             Österreichisches Küstenland (Austrian Littoral), with the
                             governor residing in Triest
(see Austrian Crownlands).
12 Apr 1850                Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest mit ihrem Gebiet (Imperial Free
                             City of Trieste and its Lands).
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Austrian" half of the Austro-Hungarian 
                             Monarchy (i.e. of the "kingdoms and Lands Represented in
                             the Imperial Diet").
May 1915 - 30 Oct 1918     Municipal government dissolved by Austria.
 3 Nov 1918                Occupied by Italy.
10 Sep 1919                Trieste formally ceded to Italy by Austria.
10 Sep 1943 -  2 May 1945  German occupation (from 1 Oct 1943 part of Adriatisches Küstenland
                             Zone [see Austrian States under Carinthia])
23 Sep 1943                Nominally part of the Italian Social Republic.
 1 May 1945 - 12 Jun 1945  Yugoslav military forces occupy the city.
 2 May 1945                Joint Anglo-American occupation begun (Allied Military
                             Government of Venezia Giulia).
15 Sep 1947                Free Territory of Trieste; Anglo-American occupation of Zone A
                             (including the Pola exclave) and Zone B occupied by Yugoslavia.
11 May 1952                Italian civil administration restores in Zone A.
26 Oct 1954                Divided between Italy (Zone A) and Yugoslavia (Zone B).
10 Nov 1975                Treaty of Osimo formally ends Italy claim to former Zone B.

Lords (title Herr zu Triest)
Oct 1382 - 14 Oct 1809     the archdukes of Austria
30 May 1814 - 11 Nov 1918  the archdukes of Austria
Captains and mayors (capitano e podesta)
1381                       Simon von Pramperg
1382                       Nicolo Colalto
1383                       Ugo von Duino
1385                       Popolin von Wuertenstang
1395                       Rudolf von Walsee
1409                       Jakob Trab (Traub? or  Trob?)
1411                       Conrad von Leisch
1420                       Pancraz Burggraf von Lienz
1429                       Johann Welsegger
1435                       Johann Bluscher
1437                       Franz di Strassoldo
1453                       Kaspar von Lamberg
1466                       Albrecht Dyer (Durrer)
1468                       Niklas Lueger (Luogar)
1469                       Georg Tschernembl (Cernomel?)
1473                       Nikolaus Rauber
1483                       Kaspar Rauber
1486                       Balthasar Dyer (Durrer)
1490                       Simon von Ungerspach
1498                       Erasmo Brasca
1506                       Georg Moisevic (Moscovich?)
1509                       Francesco Capello for Venice
1509                       Nikolaus Rauber
1533                       Bartolomeo Rizonio (Rizanio)
1536                       Nikolaus Rauber
1537                       Leonardo Nogarola
1546                       Hans von Hoyos
1558                       Anton von Thurn (Antonio della Torre)
1569                       Christoph Siegmund Römer (Renner?)
                             von Maretsch
1582                       Veit von Dornberg
1590                       Giorgio Nogarola
1610                       Ascanio Valmerana
1618                       Franz von Thurn
                             (Francesco demlla Torre)
1630                       Benvenuto Petazzi Freiherr von
                             Schwarzenegg
1636                       Giorgio Barbo
1637                       Georg von Herberstein
1652                       Franz Kaspar von Brenner
1659                       Nicolo Petazzi
1664                       Johann Jakob von Raunach
1666                       Karl von Thurn (Carlo della Torre)
1666                       Johann Vincenz Graf Coronini
1673                       Johann Philipp Graf Cobenzl
1698                       Veit von Strassoldo
1707 - 1724                Marzio von Strassoldo                  (b. 1663 - d. 1732)
1724 - 1736                Andreas Freiherr de Fin
1736 - 1739                Franz Graf Firmian                 
1739 - 21 Sep 1740         Wolf Sigismund Graf Wallenberg
Intendancy Presidents
1740 - 1741                Sigismund Freiherr von Hohenberg
1741 - 1746                Johann Graf von Herberstein            (b. 1706 - d. 1771)
1746 - 1748                Antonio Rudolfo de Marenzi de          (d. 1771)
                             
Mahrenzenfeld (substitute)
1748 - 1749                Christoph Freiherr von Flachenberg
1749 - 1750                Franz Freiherr von Wiesenhütten        (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
                             (or Weissenhütten)
1750 - 1764                Nikolaus Graf von Hamilton             (b. 1715 - d. 1769)
1764 - 1765                Johann Karl Graf Lichnowsky            (b. 1730 - d. 1788)
1765 - 1766                Heinrich Graf von Auersperg            (b. 1721 - d. 1773)
1766 - 1773                Giuseppe barone Ceschi di Santa Croce
1773 - 1774                Adolf Graf von Wagensperg  
1774 - 1776                Franz Adam Graf Lamberg zu Stein
      (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
Governors
1776                       Franz Xaver Freiherr von Königsbrunn   (b. 1728 - d. 1794)
1776 - 1782                Karl Johann Christian Graf von 
       (b. 1739 - d. 1813) 
                             Zinzedorf 
1783 - 1803                Pompeo Graf von Brigido und Bresowitz  (b. 1729 - d. 1811)
1797                       Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte               (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
                             (French Commander)
May 1797 - Nov 1801        Raimund Reichsgraf von Thurn-          (b. 1747 - d. 1817)
                             Valsassina und Hofer 
                             (French commissioner plenipotentiary
                             
for Istria, Dalmatia and Albania)
Nov 1801 -  6 Mar 1804     Francesco Maria barone di Carnea       (d. 1825)
                             Steffaneo
(commissioner plenipotentiary
                             
for Istria, Dalmatia and Albania)
18 Dec 1803 - 1808         Sigmund von Lovász
Mar 1804 -  3 Apr 1804     Franz Philipp von Roth
                             (acting for Lovász)
Apr 1804 - Jun 1804        Alexander Német (1st time)
Jun 1804 - 1805?           Giuseppe Maria conte Castiglioni       (d. 1820)
                             (provincial captain)

1808 - 1809                Peter Graf von Goëss                   (b. 1774 - d. 1846)
1809                       Bernhard Anton Maria Vincenz           (b. 1756 - d. 1817)
                            
Freiherr von Rossetti zu Roseneck
                             (Rosenegg)
(1st time)

                             (civil governor)

 9 Apr 1806 - 16 May 1809  Anton Freiherr von Zach                (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
                             (miliary commander)
 9 Apr 1809 - 16 May 1809  Alexander Német (2nd time)

French Military governors
19 Nov 1805 -  2 Dec 1805  Jean-Baptiste Solignac                 (b. 1773 - d. 1850)
 2/6 Dec 1805 - Jan 1806   Jean-Mathieu Séras                     (b. 1765 - d. 1815)
Heads of provisional government
 2 Dec 1805 -  5 Dec 1805  Ignazio, cavaliere de Capuano
 6 Dec 1805 - 29 Apr 1806  Angelo Calafati                        (b. 1765 - d. 1822) 
Prefect
29 Apr 1806 -  7 Sep 1810  Angelo Calafati                        (s.a.)
Intendants of Trieste

Jul 1809 - Nov 1809        Louis Joubert
26 Nov 1809 -  3 May 1813  Lucien-Émile Arnault                   (b. 1787 - d. 1863)
1813                       Angelo Calafati                        (s.a.)
Austrian Provisional Civil and Military Governor of Illyria
13 Oct 1813 - 18 Mar 1815  Christoph Freiherr von Lattermann      (b. 1753 - d. 1835)
Kreishauptmann in Triest
1813 - 1816               
Karl Graf Chotek von Chotkowa          (b. 1783 - d. 1868)
Landes-Gouverneure in dem Königreiche Illyrien zu Triest

1816
- 14 Nov 1849         the Landes-Gouverneure in dem
                           Königreiche
Illyrien

Militär- und Civil-Gouverneur von Triest, Statthalter im Küstenlande
(from 14 Jan 1856,
Statthalter im Küstenland, Gouverneur von Triest)
15 Nov 1849 -
24 May 1859  the Statthalter of Küstenland
Statthalter (in Triest und im Küstenlande)
24 May 1859 - 31 Oct 1918  the Statthalter of Küstenland (s.a.)
Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of Trieste
30 Oct 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Alfonso Valerio                        (b. 1852 - d. 1942)
Italian Military Governor

 3 Nov 1918 - 1919         Carlo Petitti di Roreto                (b. 1862 - d. 1933) 
General Civil Commissioners for Venezia Giulia
31 Jul 1919 -  3 Dec 1919  Augusto Ciuffelli                      (b. 1856 - d. 1921)
 8 Dec 1919 - 30 Oct 1922  Antonio Mosconi                        (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
Prefects

 1 Nov 1922 - 18 Jun 1924  Francesco Crispo Moncada               (b. 1867 - d. 1952) 
22 Jun 1924 - 11 Dec 1925  Amadeo Moroni                          (b. 1876 - d. 1926) 
11 Dec 1925 - 15 Dec 1926  Giovanni Gasti                         (b. 1852 - d. 1927) 
16 Dec 1926 - 16 Jul 1929  Bruno Fornaciari                       (b. 1881 - d. 1959) 
16 Jul 1929 - 16 Jan 1933  Ettore Porro                           (b. 1874 - d. 1947) 
16 Jan 1933 -  1 Aug 1936  Carlo Tiengo                           (b. 1892 - d. 1945) 
 1 Aug 1936 - 21 Aug 1939  Eolo Rebua                             (b. 1878 - d. 1959) 
21 Aug 1939 -  7 Jun 1941  Dino Borri                             (b. 1885 - d. 1970) 
 7 Jun 1941 -  1 Aug 1943  Tullio Tamburini (1st time)            (b. 1892 - d. 1957) 
 1 Aug 1943 - 11 Sep 1943  Giuseppe Cocuzza                       (b. 1882 - d. 1974) 
12 Sep 1943 -  1 Oct 1943  Tullio Tamburini (2nd time)            (s.a.)               PFR 
22 Oct 1943 - 28 Apr 1945  Bruno Coceani                          (b. 1893 - d. 1978)  PFR
28 Apr 1945 - 1945         Antonio De Berti                       (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
Allied Military governors7

- Zone A (British-U.S.) -
 2 May 1945 - Jul 1945     Bernard Cyril Freyberg (New Zealand)   (b. 1889 - d. 1963)
Jul 1945 - Jul 1947        Alfred Connor Bowman (U.S.)            (b. 1904 - d. 1982)
Jul 1947 - 15 Sep 1947     James Jewett Carnes (U.S.)             (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
15 Sep 1947 - 31 Mar 1951  Sir Terence Sydney Airey (U.K.)        (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
 1 Apr 1951 - 26 Oct 1954  Sir Thomas Willoughby Winterton (U.K.) (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
- Zone B (Yugoslav) -
 1 May 1945 - Sep 1947     Dušan Kveder                           (b. 1915 - d. 1966)
15 Sep 1947 - Mar 1951     Mirko Lenac                            (b. 1919 - d. 1956)
Mar 1951 - 25 Oct 1954     Miloš Stamatović                       (b. 1914 - d. 1988)


Mayors (Podestà)
19 Nov 1850 - 20 Apr 1861  Muzio Giuseppe Spirito,                (b. 1794 - d. 1879)
                             cavaliere de Tommasini     
20 Apr 1861 -  2 Jun 1863  Stefano Giovanni Pietro de Conti       (b. 1810 - d. 1872)       
 2 Jun 1863 - 13 May 1869  Carlo, cavaliere Porenta               (b. 1814 - d. 1898)    
13 May 1869 - 27 May 1879  Massimiliano D'Angeli                  (b. 1815 - d. 1881) 
27 May 1879 - 27 Dec 1890  Riccardo Bazzoni                       (b. 1826 - d. 1891) 
Jan 1891 - Apr 1897        Ferdinando Pitteri                                          LN
Apr 1897 - 1900            Carlo Dompieri                         (b. 1842 - d. 1925) 
1900 - 1909                Luigi Scipione Ritter von Sandrinelli  (b. 1846 - d. 1922)  NLP
1909 - May 1915            Alfonso Valerio (1st time)             (s.a.)
May 1915 - 30 Oct 1918     municipal government suspend
Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of Trieste
30 Oct 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Alfonso Valerio                        (s.a.)
Mayor (Sindaco)
 3 Nov 1918 - 17 Jul 1919  Alfonso Valerio (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Mayor
(Sindaco)
18 Jul 1949 - 17 Sep 1957  Gianni Bartoli                         (b. 1900 - d. 1973)  DC

 7the provisional military administration was continued 1947 to 1954 because of the inability
of the United Nations Security Council to agree upon the selection of a civil governor. 

Party abbreviations: DC = Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democracy, christian democratic, centrist, Dec 1943-Jan 1994); LN = Lega Nazionale (National League, supported union of Italian lands within Austria, 1891-1915); NLP = Nationalliberale Partei (National Liberal Party, Austrian conservative); PFR = Partito Fascista Repubblicano (Republican Fascist Party, Italian fascist, nationalist, republican, former PNF, only legal party of RSI Sep 1943-May 1945)



Pious Establishments of France in Rome

[France]

 

Map of Pious Establishments
of France in Rome
Headquarters: Ville Bonaparte, Rome

31 Dec 1494                After his occupation of Rome, the French king Charles VII confirms
                             the establishment of a convent of French Minims and on 21 Feb
                             1495 Pope Alexander VI also confirms the rights of the convent,
                             overlooking the Piazza di Spagna (Église et abbaye de la
                             Trinité-des-Monts)(Church and Abbey of the Trinity of the
                             Mount).
 2 Apr 1478                Pope Sixtus IV confirms the possession of the church and refuge
                             for pilgrims to France, replacing another ancient site, between
                             the Pantheon and the Piazza Navona (Église Saint-Louis-des-
                             Français)(Church of Saint Louis of the French).
16 Sep 1455                Pope Calixtus III grants a concession for the building of a
                             church and a refuge for pilgrims from the Duchy of Brittany
                             (later passes to France), near the Piazza Navona (Église
                            
Saint-Yves-des-Bretons)(Church of Saint Yves of the Bretons).
23 Aug 1500                French national churches and charitable institutions in Rome are
                             organized as self-governing communities under the protection of
                             the King of France represented by his ambassador as the Pious
                             Establishments of France in Rome
                             (Les Pieux-Etablissements de la France à Rome).
23 Aug 1615                French Cardinal de Joyeuse bequests a chapel he has financed at
                             Loreto to the King of France (Chapellenie nationale de France à
                             Lorette)(National Chaplaincy of France in Loreto).
16 Oct 1622                Holy See grants a concession for the building of a church and a
                             refuge for pilgrims from the Duchy of Lorraine (later passes to
                             France), right next to the Piazza Navona (Église Saint-
                             Nicolas-des-Lorrains
)(Church of Saint Nicolas of the Lorrains).
 7 May 1652                Holy See grants a concession for the building of a church and a
                             refuge for pilgrims from Franch-Comté, between the Palazzo
                             Montecitorio and the Piazza di Spagna (Église Saint-Claude-
                             
des-Francs-Comtois de Bourgogne)(Church of Saint Claude of
                             Franch-Comté in Burgundy).
19 Feb 1797                French Republic cedes the Pious Establishments to the Papal State.
                             The Pope uses the possessions and wealth to restore his own
                             finances. Some buildings are demolished, priests are dispersed.
15 Jul 1801                Papal-French Concordat, the Pious Establishments are restored to
                             France; again administered by French ambassador to Holy See.
17 May 1809 - 24 Mar 1814  Annexation of the Papal States to France.
1815                       Following the return of the Pope, the French ambassador resumes
                             authority over the Establishments.
 9 Oct 1870                Papal States are annexed by Italy.
Jul 1904 - May 1921        Rupture of diplomatic relations between France and the Holy See;
                             establishments are administered by an agent of the French
                             ministry of Foreign affairs.
1940                       Attempt by the Italian state to confiscate the establishments, the
                             French Ambassador is confined to Vatican City.
 9 Dec 1940 - 24 Aug 1944  Ambassador loyal to Vichy France.
May 1943 - 1945            Establishments are 'neutralized' and placed under the
                             administration of a commission of three members appointed by the
                             Holy See.
25 Aug 1944 - 1945         Delegation loyal to the Free French.
 8 Sep 1956                Pope Pius XII approves the last France-Papal settlement regarding
                             the establishments.

Ambassadors of France to the Holy See
1653 - 1657                François Boquet
1658 - 1659                Millet (chargé d'une mission)
1659 - 1660                Francesco Cardinal Barberini           (b. 1597 - d. 1679)
                             (chargé d'une mission)
12 Oct 1660 - 1661
        Charles Colbert de Vandières           (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
                             (chargé d'une mission)
1661 - Jun 1662            d'Aubeville
(chargé d'une mission)     (b. 1610 - d. 1687)
1662 - 1665                Charles de Blanchefort, duc de Créquy  (b. 1623 - d. 1687)
1666 - 1668                Charles d'Albert, duc de Chaulnes      (b. 1625 - d. 1698)
                             (1st time)
1668 - 1671                Abbé Bourlemont (chargé d'affaires)
1671 - 12 Jan 1687         François-Annibal II, duc d'Estrées     (b. 1623 - d. 1687)
Jan 1687 - Feb 1687        César d'Estrées (acting)               (b. 1629 - d. 1714)
1687 - 1688                Henri III Charles de Beaumanoir,       (b. 1644 - d. 1701)
                             marquis de Lavardin
1688 - 1689                Jules-Louis Bolé, marquis de Chamlay   (b. 1650 - d. 1719)
1689 - 1690                Charles d'Albert, duc de Chaulnes      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1690 - 1691                A
bbé David (chargé d'une mission)
1691 - 1699                Emmanuel Cardinal de Bouillon          (b. 1643 - d. 1715)
                             (chargé d'affaires)
1699 - 1700                Louis Grimaldi, Prince de Monaco       (b. 1642 - d. 1701)

1700 - 1706                Toussaint Cardinal de Janson           (b. 1631 - d. 1713)
                             (chargé d'affaires)
1706 -  8 Jan 1720         Joseph-Emmanuel Cardinal de La
        (b. 1659 - d. 1720)
                             Trémoille (chargé d'affaires)
1708 - Feb 1709            René de Froulay, comte de Tessé        (b. 1651 - d. 1725)
Jan 1715 - Sep 1715        Michel Amelot, marquis de Gournay      (b. 1655 - d. 1724)
1720 - 1721                Père Laffiteau
(chargé d'affaires)
1721 - 1722                Cardinal de Rohan (chargé d'une mission)
1722 - 1725                Paul-Pierre Guérin de Tencin           (b. 1679 - d. 1758)
                             (chargé d'affaires)
1725 - 1730                Cardinal Melchior de Polignac          (b. 1661 - d. 1741)
                             (chargé d'affaires)
Nov 1730 - 12 Sep 1740     Paul-Hippolyte de Beauvilliers,
       (b. 1684 - d. 1776)
                             duc de Saint-Aignan          
1740 - 1742                Pierre Guérin Cardinal de Tencin       (b. 1680 - d. 1758)
                             (chargé d'affaires)
Sep 1742 - Jun 1745        François-Claude de Montboissier,       (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
                             abbé de Canillac
(1st time)
                             (chargé d'affaires)

1745 - Dec 1747            Frédéric Jérôme Cardinal de La         (b. 1701 - d. 1757)
                             Rochefoucauld
1748 - 1749                François-Claude de Montboissier,       (s.a.)
                             abbé de Canillac
(2nd time)
                             (chargé d'affaires)

1749 - 1752                Louis-Jules Mancini, duc de Nivernais  (b. 1716 - d. 1789)
1752 - 1754                Charles Antoine Leclerc de La Bruère   (b. 1716 - d. 1754)
                             (chargé d'affaires)

1754 - 1757                Étienne François, comte de Stainville  (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
1757 - 1758                Boyer
(chargé d'affaires)
1758 - Apr 1762            Jean-François-Joseph Cardinal de
      (b. 1708 - d. 1777)
                             Rochechouart
24 Apr 1762 - 12 Dec 1763  de la Houze de Bonnegarde
                             (
chargé d'affaires)
1763 - 1769                Henri Joseph Bouchard d'Esparbès de    (b. 1714 - d. 1788)
                             Lussan, marquis d'Aubeterre
1769 -  3 Nov 1794         François-Joachim de Pierre             (b. 1715 - d. 1794)
                             Cardinal de Bernis
 
                             (chargé d'affaires)

1793 - 1797                
François Cacault (resident minister)   (b. 1742 - d. 1805)
                             (2nd time)
31 Aug 1797 - 29 Dec 1797  Joseph Bonaparte                       (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
1797 - 1799                Vacant
1799 - 1800                Pierre Claude François Daunou          (b. 1761 - d. 1840)

                           + Guiot de Saint-Florent, dit          (b. 1735 - d. 1834)
                              Florent-Guyot

                           + Gaspard Monge                        (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
                           (commissioners of the Directory to Roman Republic)
1800 - 1801                Antoine-René Constant B
ertholio        (b. 1741 - d. 1812)
 6 Apr 1801 - 1803         François Cacault (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1803 - 1805         Joseph Cardinal Fesch (1st time)       (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
                             (minister plenipotentiary)
1805 - 1806                Alexis-François Artaud de Montor       (b. 1772 - d. 1849)
                            
(chargé d'affaires)
1806                       Joseph Cardinal Fesch (2nd time)       (s.a.)
10 Apr 1806 - Feb 1808     Charles-Jean-Marie Alquier             (b. 1752 - d. 1826)
Feb 1808 - Apr 1808        Pierre-Edouard Lefebvre                (b. 1769 - d. 1828)
                             (chargé d'affaires)

1808 - 1814                Post abolished
Aug 1814 - Apr 1816        Gabriel Courtois de Pressigny          (b. 1745 - d. 1822)
                             (extraordinary ambassador)
1816 - 1822                Pierre Louis de Blacas d'Aulps,  
     (b. 1771 - d. 1839)
                             prince-duc de Blacas  
1822 - May 1828            Prince Adrien de Montmorency,          (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
                             duc de Laval              
Oct 1828 - May 1829        François-René, vicomte de              (b. 1768 - d. 1848)
                             Chateaubriand          
1829 - 1830                Pierre-Louis-Auguste Ferron,           (b. 1777 - d. 1842)
                             comte de La Ferronnays    
1830 - 1831                Louis Bellocq (chargé d'affaires)      (b. 1785 - d. 1853) 
22 Mar 1831 - 1831         Louis de Beaupoil, comte de
            (b. 1778 - d. 1854)
                             Sainte-Aulaire          
1831 - 23 May 1837         Florimond, marquis La Tour-Maubourg    (b. 1781 - d. 1837)
23 May 1837 - 1838         Alexandre-Louis-Thomas, comte de Lurde (b. 1800 - d. 1872)
                             (
chargé d'affaires)
1838 - 10 Apr 1845         Charles Armand Septime de Faÿ,
         (b. 1801 - d. 1845)
                             comte Septime de La Tour-Maubourg
1845 - 30 Mar 1848         Pellegrino, comte Rossi                (b. 1787 - d. 1848)
 1 Apr 1848 - 1848         Charles Théodore Alexandre Palamède,   (b. 1783 - d. 1849)
                             comte de Forbin-Janson

                             (
chargé d'affaires)
21 Jun 1848 - 12 Sep 1849  Eugène, duc d'Harcourt                 (b. 1786 - d. 1865)
Jun 1849 - Nov 1849        Claude François Philibert Francisque 
 (b. 1802 - d. 1892)
                            
Tirguy de Corcelle (1st time)
                             (
extraordinary envoy)  
 6 Nov 1849 - May 1850     Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers            (b. 1795 - d. 1878)
May 1850 - 1858            Alphonse, comte de Rayneval            (b. 1813 - d. 1858)
                             (minister to 1851)
1858 - 1861                Agénor, duc de Gramont                 (b. 1819 - d. 1880)
18 Aug 1861 - 1862         Charles, marquis de La Valette         (b. 1806 - d. 1880)
17 Oct 1862 - 1863         Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne,           (b. 1823 - d. 1871)
                             prince de Lauraguais      
 3 Oct 1863 - 1868         Étienne Gilbert Eugène, vicomte de     (b. 1809 - d. 1893)
                             Sartiges
18 Aug 1868 - 1870         Gaston Robert Morin, marquis de
       (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
                             Banneville
1871 - 1873                Bernard, comte d'Harcourt              (b. 1842 - d. 1914)
1873 - 1876                Claude François Philibert Francisque   (s.a.)
                            
Tirguy de Corcelle (2nd time)

1876 - 1878                Georges Napoléon, baron Baude          (b. 1831 - d. 1887)
1878 - 1880                Joseph François de Cadoine,            (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
                             marquis de Gabriac
23 Jan 1880 - 30 Oct 1882  Ferdinand Henry de Navenne             (b. 1853 - d. 1936)
30 Oct 1882 - 1896         Édouard Alphonse Lefebvre de Béhaine,  (b. 1829 - d. 1897)
                             comte Pigneaux     
1897 - Dec 1898            Eugène-René Poubelle                   (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
23 Dec 1898 - 24 Dec 1904  Armand Nisard                          (b. 1841 - d. 1925)
                             (recalled to Paris 21 May 1904)
1905 - 1920                Achille Raffray                        (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             (minister plenipotentiary)
10 May 1920                Gabriel Albert Auguste Hanotaux        (b. 1853 - d. 1944)
                             (extraordinary ambassador for
canonization of Joan of Arc)
Mar 1920 - May 1921        Jean-Marie-Augustin Doulcet (1st time) (b. 1865 - d. 1928)
                             (plenipotentiary)
28 May 1921 - 1923         Charles Jonnart                        (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
17 Dec 1923 - 12 Feb 1928  Jean-Marie-Augustin Doulcet (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (chargé d'affaires)

 2 May 1928 - 1932         Louis de Fontenay                      (b. 1864 - d. 1946)
27 Jul 1932 - 1940         François Charles-Roux                  (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Jun 1940 - Oct 1940
       Comte Wladimir Le Fèvre d'Ormesson     (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
                             (1st time)
 9 Dec 1940 - 24 Aug 1944  Léon Bérard
                           (b. 1876 - d. 1960)
                             (confined to Vatican City)  
25 Aug 1944 - 1945         Hubert Guérin -Delegate                (b. 1896 - d. 1986)
10 May 1945 - 1948         Jacques Maritain                       (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
29 Sep 1948 - 1956         Comte Wladimir Le Fèvre d'Ormesson     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
11 Oct 1956 - 1959         Roland Jacquin de Margerie             (b. 1899 - d. 1990)
 7 Oct 1959 - 1964         Baron Guy Le Roy de la Tournelle       (b. 1898 - d. 1982)
24 Jan 1964 - 1974         René Brouillet                         (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
26 Sep 1974 - 1976         Gérard Amanrich                        (b. 1921 - d. 1977)
30 Sep 1976 - 1979         Georges Galichon                       (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
1979 - 1983                Louis Dauge                            (b. 1918)
1983 - 1985                Xavier Daufresne de La Chevalerie      (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
1985 - 1988                Bertrand Dufourcq                      (b. 1933)
1988 - 1991                Jean-Bernard Raimond                   (b. 1926)
1991 - 1993                René Ala                               (b. 1934)
1993 - 1995                Alain Pierret                          (b. 1930)
1995 - 1998                Jean-Louis Lucet                       (b. 1933)
1998 - 2000                Jean Guéguinou                         (b. 1941)
10 Jun 2000 - 2001         Alain Dejammet                         (b. 1954?)
2001 - 2005                Pierre Morel                           (b. 1944)
19 Dec 2005 - 19 Dec 2007  Bernard Kessedjian                     (b. 1943 - d. 2007)
19 Dec 2007 - 2008         Pierre Cochard
(chargé d'affaires)
2008 - 19 Jan 2009         Alexandre Morois (chargé d'affaires)
19 Jan 2009 -  9 Mar 2012  Stanislas François Jean Lefebvre de    (b. 1946)
                             Laboulaye
 9 Mar 2012 -              Bruno Joubert                          (b. 1950)



Managing Directors (Administrateurs-délégué; until .... Business managers
[Administrateur-gérant
])
19 Jan 1872 - c.1888       Deshorties de Beaulieu
c.1888 - 1940              ....
1940 - 1944                François de Vial                       (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
1944 - 2007                ....
c.1983                     Françoise Provost(f)
2007 -                     François-Charles Uginet                (b. 1942)  



Italy 476-1004

508 BC                     Part of Roman Republic.
27 BC                      Part of Roman Empire.
17 Jan 395                 Divided de jure into Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)                              and Western Roman Empire (Rome). 
24-27 Aug 410              Visigoths led by Alareiks (Alaric I) sack Rome.
 2-16 Jun 455              Vandals and Alani led by
Genseric (Gaiseric) sack Rome.
 
4 Sep 476                 Last Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustus (b. c.460 - d. c.480),
                             is forced to abdicate by Odovacar.
 4 Sep 476 -  5 Mar 493    Odovacar (Odovacer), head of the Germanic foederati in Roman pay,
                             becomes Italian king (regnum Italicum); capital Ravenna. 
 5 Mar 493 - May 540       Kingdom of the Ostrogoths (Regnum Ostrogothorum/Reiki Gutthiudos),
                             capital Ravenna.

May 540 -  3 Sep 569       Part of Eastern Roman Empire.
 3 Sep 569 -  5 Jun 774    Kingdom of the Lombards (
Regnum Langobardorum/Langabardanö rikja),
                             capital Pavia.

 5 Jun 774                 Frankish rule.
Jul 817                    Italian Kingdom (Regnum Italicum), capital at Pavia.
14 May 1004                Italy definitively part of Holy Roman Empire, but the style Rex
                             Italia ("king of Italy") is not included in imperial titulature.
10 May 1796                Most of northern Italy falls under French domination and is
                             reorganized into French satellite states.
18 Oct 1797                By Treaty of Campo Formio, Austria formally recognizes French rule
                             in northern Italy; end of Holy Roman Empire claim to Italy
                             (confirmed by Treaty of Lunéville 9 Feb 1801).


King
(Rex)               
 4 Sep 476 -  5 Mar 493    Flavius Odovacar (Audwakr)         (b. c.433 - d. 493)
Kings of the Ostrogoths (title Rex Ostrogothorum/Reik Gutthiudos)
(Latin with Gothic names in parentheses)
 5 Mar 493 - 30 Aug 526    Theodoric (Thiuderik)              (b. c.451 - d. 526)
30 Aug 526 -  2 Oct 534    Athalaric (Athalarik)              (b. 516 - d. 534)
30 Aug 526 -  2 Oct 534    Amalasuintha (f) -Regent           (b. c.493 - d. 535)
                             (Amalaswintha)
 2 Oct 534 - Dec 534       Amalasuintha -Queen (Amalaswintha) (s.a.)
Nov 534 - Dec 536          Theodahat (Thiudahad)              (b. 47. - d. 536)
                             (co-ruler to Dec 534)
Dec 536 - May 540          Witigis                            (b. 49. - d. 542)
May 540 -  3 Sep 569       rule by Eastern Roman Empire  
May 540 - May 541          Hildibad (in opposition)           (b. 50. - d. 541)
May 541 - Sep 541          Erarius (Erahari)(in opposition)   (b. 51. - d. 541)
Sep 541 - Jul 552          Badwila (Totila)(in opposition)    (b. 52. - d. 552)
Jul 552 - Oct 552          Theia (Theia)(in opposition)       (b. 52. - d. 552)
Kings of the Lombards (title Rex Langobardorum/Langabardan
ö kuningaz)
(Latin with Lombard names in parentheses until 774)
 3 Sep 569 - 28 Jun 572    Alboin (Albwin)                    (b. 52. - d. 572)
28 Jun 572 - Sep 572       .... (acting)              
Sep 572 - Mar 574          Cleph (Klef)                       (b. c.532 - d. 574)
Mar 574 - 584              Vacant (rule by local dux [dukes])                  
584 -  5 Sep 590           Flavius Authari (Authhari)         (b. 55. - d. 590)
 5 Sep 590 - Dec? 615      Agilulf                            (b. c.558 - d. 616)
Jul 604 - 626              Adaloald (Adalwald)                (b. 602 - d. 626)
                             (co-ruler to Dec? 615)     
Dec? 615 - 620             Theodolinda (f) -Regent            (b. c.570 - d. 627)
                             (Theudelinda)
626 - 636                  Arioald (Hariwald)                 (b. 59. - d. 636)
636 - 652                  Rothari (Hrothhari)                (b. c.606 - d. 652)
652 - 653                  Rodoald (Hrothwald)                (b. c.630 - d. 653)
653 - 661                  Aripert I (Hariperht I)            (b. 61. - d. 661)
661 - 662                  Perctarit (Berhthari) (in Milan)   (b. 64. - d. 688)
661 - 662                  Godipert (Godiperht) (in Pavia)    (b. 64. - d. 662)
662 - 671                  Grimoald (Grimwald)                (b. 60. - d. 671)
671                        Garipald                           (b. c.663 - d. af.671)
671 - 688                  Perctarit (Berhthari)              (b. 64. - d. 688)
679 - 700                  Cunincpert (Kuningperht)           (b. c.660 - d. 700)
                             (co-ruler to 688)
688 - Jan 689              Alahis (Alagisil)(in rebellion)    (b. 64. - d. 689)
700 - 701                  Luitpert (Liutperht)               (b. c.689 - d. 703)
700 - 701                  Ansprand -Regent                   (b. c.661 - d. 712) 
701                        Raginpert (Raginperht)             (b. c.660 - d. 701)
701 - Mar 712              Aripert II (Hariperht II)          (b. 68. - d. 712)
                             (co-ruler to ... 701)
701 - 701                  Rothari II (Hrothhari II)          (b. 66. - d. 702)
                             (in rebellion)
Mar 712 - 13 Jun 712       Ansprand                           (s.a.)
10 Jun 712 - 28 Jan 744    Liutprand (co-ruler to 13 Jun 712) (b. 68. - d. 744)
736 - Sep 744              Hildeprand (co-ruler to 28 Jan 744)(b. 70. - d. 744)
Sep 744 -  4 Jul 749       Ratchis (Ratgisil)(1st time)       (b. 70. - d. af.757)
 4 Jul 749 - Dec 756       Aistulf (Haistulf)                 (b. 71. - d. 756)
Dec 756 -  3 Mar 757       Ratch
is (Ratgisil)(2nd time)       (s.a.)
 3 Mar 757 -  5 Jun 774    Desiderius                         (b. 72. - d. af.786)
Aug 759 -  5 Jun 774       Adalghis (Adalgisil) -Co-ruler     (b. 74. - d. af.788)
 5 Jun 774 - 15 Apr 781    Karl I "magnus" (Charlemagne)      (b. 747 - d. 814)
Jul 774 - 15 Apr 781       Arichis,
dux de Benevent           (b. c.736 - d. 787)
                             (Harigisil)(summus dux)(acting) 
15 Apr 781 -  8 Jul 810    Pippin (Karlmann)                  (b. 777 - d. 810)
15 Apr 781 - 791           Adalhard de Corbie -Regent         (b. c.751 - d. 826)
 8 Jul 810 - Sep 813       Wala (Walahoh)(acting)             (b. c.773 - d. 836)
Sep 813 - Dec 817          Bernhard                           (b. c.797 - d. 818)
Sep 813 - 814              Adalhard de Corbie -Regent         (s.a.)

Kings of Italy (title Rex Italiae)
Jul 817 - 15 Jun 844       Hlothar I (Lothair I)              (b. 795 - d. 855) 

15 Jun 844 - 12 Aug 875    Hludwig II (Louis II)              (b. c.825 - d. 875)   
                             (Holy Roman Emperor from 6 Apr 850)
12 Aug 875 -  1 Oct 877    the king of the Franks       
 1 Oct 877 - Nov 879       Karlmann (Carloman)                (b. 829 - d. 880)
Dec 877 - Nov 879          Berengar, marchio de Friulia       (b. c.843 - d. 924)                                         (Berengar, margrave of Friuli)
                             (1st time)
Nov 879 - 13 Jan 888       Karl II (Charles II)               (b. 839 - d. 888)   
                             (Holy Roman Emperor from 12 Feb 881)
Nov 879 -  7 Apr 924       Berengar I, marchio de Friulia     (s.a.)
                             (acting to Jan? 888)(2nd time)
16 Feb 889 - 12 Dec 894    Wido, dux de Spoleto (in rebellion)(b. c.855 - d. 894)    
                             (Guido, duke of Spoleto)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor from 21 Feb 891)
May 891 - 12 Dec 894       Lambert (Landberht) -Co-ruler      (b. c.876 - d. 898)
                             (in rebellion)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor from Apr 892)
12 Dec 894 - 15 Oct 898    Lambert, dux de Spoleto (Landberht)(s.a.)

                             (in rebellion)
 5 Oct 900 - Jun? 902      Hludwig III, rex de Burgundia      (b. c.880 - d. 928)   
                             (Louis III, king of Burgundy)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor from 15/22 Feb 901)
May 905 - Jul? 905         Hludwig III, rex de Burgundia      (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
 7 Apr 924 - May 926       Ruodolf II, rex de Burgundia       (b. c.883 - d. 937)
                             (in rebellion from 2 Jan 922)
May 926 -  9 Jul 926       Teudald (Theodald)(acting)    
 9 Jul 926 - 10 Apr 947    Hugo, rex de Burgundia             (b. c.880 - d. 947)    
                             (Hugh, king of Burgundy)
17 Apr 931 - 22 Nov 950    Hlothar II (Lothair II)            (b. c.927 - d. 950)
                             (co-ruler to 10 Apr 947)
22 Nov 950 - Oct 951       Berengar II, marchio de Ivrea      (b. c.900 - d. 966)
                             (Berengar II, margrave of Ivrea)
                             (acting to 15 Dec 950)(1st time)  
15 Dec 950 - Oct 951       Adalberht (Adalbert) -Co-ruler     (b. c.936 - d. 971)
                             (1st time)
Oct 951 -  7 Aug 952       the emperor of Holy Roman Empire
 7 Aug 952 - Oct 961       Berengar II, marchio de Ivrea      (b. c.900 - d. 966)  
 7 Aug 952 - Oct 961       Adalberht -Co-ruler (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Oct 961 - 15 Feb 1002      the emperors of Holy Roman Empire
Oct 961 -  2 Dec 963       Berengar II, marchio de Ivrea      (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion) 
15 Feb 1002 - 14 May 1004  Arduin (Hartwin), marchio de Ivrea (b. c.955 - d. 1015) 
14 May 1004 - 10 May 1796  the emperors of Holy Roman Empire




© Ben Cahoon