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Austria
 
[Austria Archduchy Civil Flag
                                    c.1230-1786]
              c.1230 - 20 Mar 1786  
              Archduchy of Austria 
 
[Austria
                                  Naval Ensign, c.1686-1786]
     c.1686 - 20 Mar 1786 Naval Ensign
       (officially adopted 29 Nov 1749)
 
 
[Austria Naval and Merchant
                                    Ensign, 1786-1918]
         20 Mar 1786 - 1 Aug 1869
           Austria National Ensign;
  1 Aug 1869 - 12 Nov 1918 Naval Ensign
[Austrian Landesfarben
                                    1804-1918]
 11 Aug 1804 - 12 Nov 1918 Imperial Flag
                  Austrian Empire
[Austria-Hungary National Civil
                                    Flag, 1869-1918]
           6 Mar 1869 - 12 Nov 1918
     Austria-Hungary National Civil Flag
 
[Austrian
                                    civil ensign]
       In use 12 Nov 1918 - 21 Oct 1919;
   21 Oct 1919 - 13 Mar 1938 Civil Ensign
 
[Austria State Flag, 1919]
    21 Oct 1919 - 1 May 1934 State Flag
 
[Austria State Flag and War
                                    Ensign and jack 1934-38]
     21 Oct 1919 - 1 May 1934 State Flag
 
 
[Austrian
                                    flag]
    Adopted 1 May 1945 (confirmed 1984)
 
[Austrian State Flag, since
                                    1945]
        Adopted 1 May 1945 State Flag
 
 

Map of Austria
Hear National Anthem
"Bundeshyme"
(Federal Hymn)

Adopted 25 Feb 1947
Former Anthem
"Deutsch-Österreich"
 (German-Austria)

(1920-1929)
-----------------------------------
Former Anthem
"Sei gesegnet ohne Ende"
(Be Blessed Without End)
(1929-13 Mar 1938)
Constitution
  (1920-1934, from 1 May 1945)
Capital: Vienna
(Melk 976-1089;
Gars c.1089-c.1095;
Tulln c.1095-1113;
Klosterneuburg 1113-1145)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1923- 1 Jan 2002 Austrian
 Schilling
(ATS); 1918-1923
 Austrian Kronen
(ATK)
National Holiday: 26 Oct (1955)
National Day
Population: 8,221,646 (2013) 
GDP: $361 billion (2013)
Exports: $165.6 billion (2013)
Imports: $167.9 billion (2013)
Ethnic Groups: Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes
 Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%,
German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001)
Total Active Armed Forces: 27,300 (2010)
Merchant marine: 3 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%,
Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%,
none 12% (2001) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CCM, CE, CEI, CERN, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Austria Index
Chronology
c.400 - 454                Ruled by the Huns.
454 - 489                  Rugians (Rugii) rule.
489 -  2 Apr 568           Lombard (Langobard) rule.
 2 Apr 568 - 799           Avar rule.
799 -  4 Jul 907           Frankish rule as the Marca Orientalis.
 4 Jul 907 - Sep 955       Hungarian rule.
Sep 955 - 17 Sep 1156      Part of Bavaria and organized as the Marca Orientalis
                             from Jul 976 under Babenberg dynasty.
 1 Nov 996                 First recorded use of modern name for Austria
                             (Ostarrîchi).
17 Sep 1156                Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich), elevated by
                             the Privilegium Minus, independent of the Duchy of
                             Bavaria; under Babenberg dynasty until 15 Jun 1246.
Jan 1237 - Dec 1239        Imperial administration.
Apr 1247 -  6 Dec 1251     Imperial administration.
 6 Dec 1251 - 21 Nov 1276  Bohemian rule.
21 Nov 1276 - 27 Dec 1282  Imperial administration.
27 Dec 1282                Habsburg (from 29 Nov 1780, Habsburg-Lothringen)
                             dynasty established.
 1 Jun 1283                Primogeniture established.
25 Sep 1379                Division into Albertine (in Niederösterreich and
                             Oberösterreich) and Leopoldine lines (in Kärnten,
                             Steiermark, Tirol, Vorlande, Krain, and Istrien)
                             (ratified 17 Jan 1380); both lines are styled
                             Herzog zu Österreich ("Duke of Austria").
10 Oct 1386                Division is suspended, senior family members govern
                             during the rulers minorities.
22 Nov 1395                Joint rule, with division of income only
                             (Mutschierung), by the Treaty of Hollenburg.
 6 Jan 1453                Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich); later
                             in official use in full: Archduchy of Austria above
                             and below the Enns (Erzherzogtum Österreich ob und
                             unter der Enns); from this date Archdukes are
                             continually elected Holy Roman Emperor (except
                             1741-1745)(see under Germany).
23 Nov 1457                Inherited by Leopoldine Line upon extinction of
                             Albertine Line.
 1 Jun 1485 -  6 Apr 1490  Occupied by Hungary.
24 Oct 1526                Bohemia, and from 16 Dec 1526 Hungary, in personal
                             union with Austria.
11 Jun 1742                Most of Silesia is ceded to Prussia.
11 Aug 1804                Kaisertum Österreich¹
13 Nov 1805 - 12 Jan 1806  French occupation of Vienna.
 6 Aug 1806                Holy Roman Empire dissolved.
12 May 1809 - Nov 1809     French occupation of Vienna.
20 Jun 1815 - 24 Aug 1866  Austria a member of the German Confederation² 
                             (see under Germany).
21 Dec 1867                "Austrian" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy,
                             officially styled Die im Reichsrat vertretenen
                             Königreiche und Länder ("The Kingdoms and Lands
                             Represented in the Imperial Council"); informally
                             known from its inception as Österreich (Austria).
14 Nov 1868                Style Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Österreichisch-
                             Ungarische Monarchie) comes into official use.
11 Oct 1915                First official use of the style Empire of Austria.
16 Oct 1918                Emperor's manifesto declares that the Austrian 
                             Empire will be reorganized as a federal state
28 Oct 1918                Czechoslovakia declares independence.
31 Oct 1918                Hungary independent.
12 Nov 1918                End of Habsburg dynastic rule.
15 Nov 1918                Republic of German-Austria (Staat Deutschösterreich;
                             also in official use: Republik Deutschösterreich,
                             and Deutschösterreichische Republik).
10 Apr 1919                All titles of nobility and rights abolished.
10 Sep 1919                In Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye Austria recognizes 
                             independence of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland,
                             the Yugoslav state, and cedes Carniola (Slovenia),
                             Dalmatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina to the Yugoslav state,
                             Bukovina to Romania and Southern Tyrol, Trient, 
                             Görz (Gorizia), Istria and Trieste to Italy; and
                             Austria is forbidden from union with Germany
                             (treaty ratified on 16 Jul 1920).
23 Oct 1919                Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich).
 1 Jul 1934                Federal State of Austria (Bundesstaat Österreich).
13 Mar 1938                Annexed to Germany, as state of Österreich,
                             colloquially called "Ostmark"; it is dissolved into
                             separate Reichsgaue 1 May 1939 (see Austria States)
10 Apr 1938                Annexation ratified by plebiscite, 99.73% approve.
13 Apr 1945 - 27 Jul 1955  Allied occupation.
27 Apr 1945                Republic of Austria (restored).
States
(since 1918)
Crown Lands
(to 1918)
Joint Imperial
Government

(1867-1918)
Allied
Occupation

(1945-1955)
 
 
 
 
 
 


Frankish Prefects (to c.856 also styled Confinii Comes [Counts of the Border])
799 - 802                  Goteram                            (b. 7.. - d. 802?)
802 - 806                  Werinher (Werner)                  (b. c.760 - d. 814)         
806 - c.808                Albirih (Alberich)       
c.808 - c.810              Gotafrid (Gottfried)               (b. 7.. - d. c.823?)         
c.810 - c.832              Gerold                             (b. 78. - d. af.838)        
c.832 - 856                Ratbot (Radbod, Radpot)    
856 - May? 863             Karlmann                           (b. c.830 - d. 880)
May? 863 - Apr 865         Gundachar                          (b. 8.. - d. 869) 
Apr 865 - Nov? 876         Karlmann                           (b. c.830 - d. 880)
Nov? 876 - 25 Dec 887      Arnolf (Arnulf)                    (b. c.850 - d. 899)
25 Dec 887 - May? 898      Aribo (1st time)                   (b. 84. - d. af.909) 
May? 898 - Sep? 898        Liutpold                           (b. 85. - d. 907)
Sep? 898 -  4 Jul 907      Aribo (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
Margraves
(title Marchio)
Sep? 955 - Jul 976         Burchard (Burkhard)                (b. 91. - d. c.982)
Jul 976 - 10 Jul 994       Liutpold I "der Durchlauchtigte"   (b. c.923 - d. 994)
10 Jul 994 - 23 Jun 1018   Heinrich I "der Starke"            (b. c.965 - d. 1018)
23 Jun 1018 - 26 May 1055  Adalbert "der Siegreiche"          (b. c.985 - d. 1055)
26 May 1055 -  9 Jun 1075  Ernst "der Tapfere"                (b. 1027 - d. 1075)
 9 Jun 1075 - 12 Oct 1095  Liutpold II "der Schöne"           (b. c.1051 - d. 1095)
Jul 1081 - 1084            Wratizlaw II, dux Boemorum         (b. c.1032 - d. 1092)
                             (Vratislav II, duke of Bohemia)
                             (pretender)
12 Oct 1095 - 15 Nov 1136  Liutpold III "der Heilige"         (b. 1073 - d. 1136)
15 Nov 1136 - 18 Oct 1141  Liutpold IV "der Grossherzige"     (b. c.1108 - d. 1141)
18 Oct 1141 - 17 Sep 1156  Heinrich II "Jasomirgott"          (b. c.1114 - d. 1177)
Dukes
²
17 Sep 1156 - 13 Jan 1177  Heinrich II "Jasomirgott"          (s.a.)
13 Jan 1177 - 31 Dec 1194  Liutpold V "der Tugendreiche"      (b. c.1157 - d. 1194)
31 Dec 1194 - 16 Apr 1198  Fridrich I "der Katholische"       (b. 1175 - d. 1198)
16 Apr 1198 - 28 Jul 1230  Liutpold VI "der Glorreiche"       (b. c.1176 - d. 1230)
28 Jul 1230 - Jan 1237     Fridrich II "der Streitbare"       (b. 1210? - d. 1246)
                             (1st time)
Imperial Vicars for Austria and Styria
Apr? 1237 -  5 Jun 1237    Ekbert, Graf zu Meran, Bischof     (b. af.1173 - d. 1237)
                             zu Bamberg
 5 Jun 1237 - Oct 1237     Vacant
Oct 1237 - Dec 1239        Otto, Graf zu Eberstein (1st time) (d. 1279)
Duke
s²
Dec 1239 - 15 Jun 1246     Fridrich II "der Streitbare"       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 Jun 1246 -  6 Dec 1251  Gertrud (Gertrudis) (f) -Duchess   (b. 1226 - d. 1288)
Jul? 1246 -  3 Jan 1247    Wladizlaw, marchio Moraviae
-Regent(b. 122. - d. 1247)
                             (Vladislav V, margrave of Moravia)
1248 -  4 Oct 1250         Hermann, Markgraf zu Baden         (b. c.1220 - d. 1250)
                             (pretender)
Imperial Vicars for Austria and Styria

Apr 1247 - 1248            Otto, Graf zu Eberstein (2nd time) (s.a.)
1248 -  6 Dec 1251         Otto, Herzog zu Bayern             (b. 1206 - d. 1253)
Duke

 6 Dec 1251 - 21 Nov 1276  Premizl Otakar                     (b. 1230 - d. 1278)
                            
(from 25 Dec 1261, King Premysl II Otakar of Bohemia)
Imperial Vicars over Austria and Styria
21 Nov 1276 - Jun 1278     Ludwig, Herzog zu Bayern           (b. 1229 - d. 1294)
Jun 1278 - May 1281        Vacant
May 1281 - 27 Dec 1282     Albrecht Graf zu Habsburg und      (b. 1248 - d. 1308)
                             Kyburg, Landgraf von Elsass
Duke
s² 
27 Dec 1282 -  1 May 1308  Albrecht I (= Graf zu Habsburg)    (s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
27 Dec 1282 -  1 Jun 1283  Rudolf II                          (b. 1271 - d. 1290)
 1 May 1308 - 13 Jan 1330  Friedrich III "der Schöne"         (b. 1286 - d. 1330)
 1 May 1308 - 28 Feb 1326  Leopold I -Co-ruler                (b. 1290 - d. 1326)
                             "der Glorwürdige" (in the Vorlande)  
28 Feb 1326 - 20 Jul 1358  Albrecht II "der Weise"            (b. 1298 - d. 1358)
                             (co-ruler in the Vorlande to 13 Jan 1330)
13 Jan 1330 - 16 Feb 1339  Otto "der Fröhliche" -Co-ruler     (b. 1301 - d. 1339)
                             (in the Vorlande)
16 Feb 1339 - 10 Aug 1344  Leopold II (titular only)          (b. 1328 - d. 1344)
16 Feb 1339 - 11 Dec 1344  Friedrich IV (titular only)        (b. 1327 - d. 1344)
20 Jul 1358 - 27 Jul 1365  Rudolf IV "der Stifter"            (b. 1339 - d. 1365)
18 Nov 1364 - 29 Aug 1395  Albrecht III                       (b. 1348 - d. 1395)
                             (co-ruler to 27 Jul 1365)
18 Nov 1364 - 25 Sep 1379  Leopold III "der Biedere" -Co-ruler(b. 1351 - d. 1386)
                             (in Tyrol) 
29 Aug 1395 - 14 Sep 1404  Albrecht IV                        (b. 1377 - d. 1404)
29 Aug 1395 - 22 Nov 1395  Wilhelm "der Freundliche" -Regent  (b. 1370 - d. 1406)
22 Nov 1395 - 14 Sep 1404  Wilhelm "der Freundliche" -Co-ruler(s.a.)
14 Sep 1404 - 27 Oct 1439  Albrecht V                         (b. 1397 - d. 1439)
14 Sep 1404 - 15 Jul 1406  Wilhelm "der Freundliche" -Regent  (s.a.)
15 Jul 1406 -  3 Jun 1411  Leopold IV "der Stolze" -Regent    (b. 1371 - d. 1411)
13 Mar 1409 - 30 Oct 1411  Ernst II "der Eiserne" -Regent     (b. 1377 - d. 1424)
27 Oct 1439 - 22 Feb 1440  Friedrich V (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1415 - d. 1493)
22 Feb 1440 - 23 Nov 1457  Ladislaus "Posthumus"              (b. 1440 - d. 1457)
22 Feb 1440 -  4 Sep 1452  Friedrich V -Regent                (s.a.)
23 Nov 1457 -  2 Dec 1462  Friedrich V "der Friedfertige"     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
27 Jun 1458 -  2 Dec 1463  Albrecht VI "der Freigebige"       (b. 1418 - d. 1463)
                             (co-ruler
to 2 Dec 1462 in Österreich ob der Enns)
 2 Dec 1463 - 19 Aug 1493  Friedrich V                        (b. 1415 - d. 1493)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III)
 1 Jun 1485 -  6 Apr 1490  Matthias Corvinus (in dissidence)  (b. 1443 - d. 1490)
                             (Mátyás Hunyadi Korvin, king of Hungary)
Archduke
s² 
19 Aug 1493 - 12 Jan 1519  Maximilian I "der letzte Ritter"   (b. 1459 - d. 1519)
12 Jan 1519 - 28 Apr 1521  Karl I                             (b. 1500 - d. 1558)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Karl V)
28 Apr 1521 - 25 Jul 1564  Ferdinand I                        (b. 1503 - d. 1564)
25 Jul 1564 - 12 Oct 1576  Maximilian II                      (b. 1527 - d. 1576)
12 Oct 1576 - 20 Jan 1612  Rudolf V                           (b. 1552 - d. 1612)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II)
20 Jan 1612 - 20 Mar 1619  Matthias                           (b. 1557 - d. 1619)
                             (acting for Rudolf from 1593)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Matthias II)
20 Mar 1619 - 15 Feb 1637  Ferdinand II                       (b. 1578 - d. 1637)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III)
15 Feb 1637 -  2 Apr 1657  Ferdinand III                      (b. 1608 - d. 1657)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand IV)
 2 Apr 1657 -  5 May 1705  Leopold V                          (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I)
 5 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711  Joseph I                           (b. 1678 - d. 1711)
17 Apr 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Karl III                           (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Karl VI)
20 Oct 1740 - 29 Nov 1780  Maria Theresia -Archduchess        (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
21 Nov 1740 - 18 Aug 1765  Franz I Stephan -Co-ruler          (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
                             (Grand Duke of Tuscany Francesco II)
23 Sep 1765 - 20 Feb 1790  Joseph II                          (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
                             (co-ruler to 29 Nov 1780)
20 Feb 1790 -  1 Mar 1792  Leopold II                         (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
 1 Mar 1792 -
11 Aug 1804  Franz I                            (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
                             (Holy Roman Emperor Franz II)
Emperors²
11 Aug 1804 -  2 Mar 1835  Franz I                            (s.a.)
 2 Mar 1835 -  2 Dec 1848  Ferdinand I "der Gütige"           (b. 1793 - d. 1875)
                             (Austrian Archduke Ferdinand IV)
 4 Mar 1835 -  4 Apr 1848  Ludwig Erzherzog von               (b. 1784 - d. 1864)  Con
                             Österreich -Regent
                             (chairman of the state conference; de facto
                             regent for intermittently insane Ferdinand I)
25 Jun 1848 -  2 Dec 1848  Johann Erzherzog von               (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
                             Österreich -Regent
 2 Dec 1848 - 21 Nov 1916  Franz Joseph I                     (b. 1830 - d. 1916)
21 Nov 1916 - 12 Nov 1918  Karl I                             (b. 1887 - d. 1922)
                            (Austrian Archduke Karl IV)
Presidents
12 Nov 1918 -  4 Mar 1919  Directory of the Council of State
                           - Franz Dinghofer                  (b. 1873 - d. 1956)  Non-party
                           - Johann Nepomuk Hauser            (b. 1866 - d. 1927)  CSP
                           - Karl Seitz                       (b. 1869 - d. 1950)  SDAP
                           (chair rotating weekly)
 4 Mar 1919 -  5 Mar 1919  Anton David                        (b. 1849 - d. 1924)  SDAP
                            (president by age of the Constituent National Assembly)
 5 Mar 1919 -  9 Dec 1920  Karl Seitz                         (s.a.)               SDAP
                            (president of the Constituent National Assembly
                             to 23 Nov 1919, then acting president)
 9 Dec 1920 - 10 Dec 1928  Michael Hainisch                   (b. 1858 - d. 1940)  Non-party
10 Dec 1928 - 13 Mar 1938  Wilhelm Miklas                     (b. 1872 - d. 1956) CSP/Non-party
13 Mar 1938  (hours)       Arthur Seyss-Inquart (acting)      (b. 1892 - d. 1946)  NS
13 Mar 1938 - 13 Apr 1945  annexed to Germany
Reichsstatthalter
15 Mar 1938 - 30 Apr 1939  Arthur Seyss-Inquart               (s.a.)               NS
Presidents
27 Apr 1945 - 31 Dec 1950  Karl Renner                        (b. 1870 - d. 1950) SPÖ/Non-party
                            (chairman of the Political Cabinet Council
                             of the Provisional Government to 20 Dec 1945)
31 Dec 1950 - 21 Jun 1951  Leopold Figl (acting)              (b. 1902 - d. 1965)  ÖVP
21 Jun 1951 -  4 Jan 1957  Theodor Körner                     (b. 1873 - d. 1957) SPÖ/Non-party
 4 Jan 1957 - 22 May 1957  Julius Raab (acting)               (b. 1891 - d. 1964)  ÖVP
22 May 1957 - 28 Feb 1965  Adolf Schärf                       (b. 1890 - d. 1965) SPÖ/Non-party
28 Feb 1965 -  9 Jun 1965  Josef Klaus (acting)               (b. 1910 - d. 2001)  ÖVP
 9 Jun 1965 - 24 Apr 1974  Franz Jonas                        (b. 1899 - d. 1974) SPÖ/Non-party
24 Apr 1974 -  8 Jul 1974  Bruno Kreisky (acting)             (b. 1911 - d. 1990)  SPÖ
 8 Jul 1974 -  8 Jul 1986  Rudolf Kirchschläger               (b. 1915 - d. 2000)  Non-party
 8 Jul 1986 -  8 Jul 1992  Kurt Josef Waldheim                (b. 1918 - d. 2007)  Non-party
 8 Jul 1992 -  6 Jul 2004  Thomas Klestil                     (b. 1932 - d. 2004) ÖVP/Non-party
 5 Jul 2004 -  6 Jul 2004  Wolfgang Schüssel                  (b. 1945)            ÖVP
                             (acting for Klestil)  
 6 Jul 2004 -  8 Jul 2004  Andreas Khol (acting)              (b. 1941)            ÖVP
 8 Jul 2004 -              Heinz Fischer                      (b. 1938)           SPÖ/Non-party
 

Chancellors³
 3 Jun 1705 -  8 Jan 1715  Johann Friedrich Graf von Seilern  (b. 1646 - d. 1715)
 8 Jan 1715 -  8 Feb 1742  Philipp Ludwig Graf von            (b. 1671 - d. 1742)
                             Sintzendorf und Thannhausen
 8 Feb 1742 - 15 Feb 1742  Johann Friedrich Graf von Seilern  (b. 1675 - d. 1751)
15 Feb 1742 - 13 May 1753  Corfitz Anton Graf von Ulfeld      (b. 1699 - d. 1769)
                             (Uhlefeld)
13 May 1753 - 19 Aug 1792  Wenzel Anton Graf zu Kaunitz-      (s.a.)
                             Rittberg (from 8 Apr 1764, Wenzel
                             Anton Fürst zu Kaunitz, Graf zu Rittberg)
19 Aug 1792 - 30 Mar 1793  Johann Philipp Graf von Cobenzl    (b. 1741 - d. 1810)
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1793 - 28 Sep 1800  Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula      (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                             Freiherr von Thugut
 5 Oct 1800 – 30 Nov 1805  Franz de Paula Carl Graf von       (b. 1736 – d. 1806)
                             Colloredo
24 Dec 1805 -  4 Oct 1809  Johann Philipp Graf zu Stadion-    (b. 1787 - d. 1862)
                             Thannhausen und Warthausen
 8 Oct 1809 - 13 Mar 1848  Clemens Wenzel Lothar Graf von     (b. 1773 - d. 1859)  Con
                             Metternich-Winneburg (from 20 Oct 1813,
                             Clemens Wenzel Lothar Fürst von
                             Metternich-Winneburg)
13 Mar 1848 - 20 Mar 1848  Carl Borromäus Graf von Inzaghy    (b. 1777 - d. 1856)  Con
                             (Inzaghi)(acting)
Directing Ministers of State³
10 May 1749 - 11 Sep 1765  Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1702 - d. 1765)
                             Haugwitz
11 Sep 1765 -  2 Sep 1766  Wenzel Anton Fürst zu Kaunitz,     (b. 1711 - d. 1794)
                             Graf zu Rittberg (Rietberg)               
 2 Sep 1766 - 15 Dec 1771  Georg Adam Fürst von Starhemberg   (b. 1724 - d. 1807)
15 Dec 1771 - 17 Nov 1792  Carl Friderich Graf von Hatzfeld   (b. 1718 - d. 1793)
                             zu Gleichen                       
17 Nov 1792 -  7 Jun 1808  Leopold Krakowsky Graf von         (b. 1727 - d. 1809)
                             Kolowrat
 7 Jun 1808 -  7 Dec 1809  Carl Graf von Zinzendorf und       (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
                             Pottendorf
 7 Dec 1809 - 26 Nov 1818  Joseph Graf von Colloredo          (b. 1735 - d. 1818)
26 Nov 1818 - 28 Sep 1826  Carl Graf von Zichy zu Vasonykeö   (b. 1753 - d. 1826)
29 Sep 1826 - 20 Mar 1848  Franz Anton Graf von Kolowrat-
                             Liebsteinsky                     (b. 1778 - d. 1861)  Lib
Military and Civil Commander of the Capital
14 Mar 1848 - 20 Mar 1848  Alfred Candidus Ferdinand Fürst    (b. 1787 - d. 1862)  Mil
                             zu Windisch-Graetz
Prime ministers³
20 Mar 1848 - 18 Apr 1848  Franz Anton Graf Kolowrat-         (s.a.)               Lib
                             Liebsteinsky
31 Mar 1848 -  4 May 1848  Karl Ludwig Graf Ficquelmont       (b. 1777 - d. 1857)  Mil
                             (acting for Kolowrat to 18 Apr 1848)
 4 May 1848 -  9 Jul 1848  Franz Xaver Freiherr von           (b. 1786 - d. 1862)  Lib
                             Pillersdorff (acting)
 9 Jul 1848 - 18 Jul 1848  Anton Freiherr von Doblhoff-Dier   (b. 1800 - d. 1872)  Lib
                             (acting)
18 Jul 1848 - 21 Nov 1848  Johann Philipp Freiherr von        (b. 1773 - d. 1858)  Non-party
                             Wessenberg-Ampringen
21 Nov 1848 -  5 Apr 1852  Felix Fürst zu Schwarzenberg       (b. 1800 - d. 1852)  Mil
 5 Apr 1852 - 11 Apr 1852  Alexander Bach (acting)            (b. 1813 - d. 1893)  Con   
11 Apr 1852 - 17 May 1859  Karl Ferdinand Graf von            (b. 1797 - d. 1865)  Non-party
                             Buol-Schauenstein   
17 May 1859 -  4 Feb 1861  Johann Bernhard Graf von Rechberg  (b. 1806 - d. 1899)  Non-party
                             und Rothenlöwen
 4 Feb 1861 - 27 Jul 1865  Rainer Ferdinand Erzherzog von     (b. 1827 - d. 1913)  Non-party
                             Österreich
26 Jun 1865 - 27 Jul 1865  Alexander Graf von Mensdorff-      (b. 1813 - d. 1871)  Lib
                             Pouilly (acting for Rainer)
27 Jul 1865 -  7 Feb 1867  Richard Graf Belcredi              (b. 1823 - d. 1902)  Non-party
Ministers of State (Staatsminister)
20 Oct 1860 - 13 Dec 1860  Agenor Romuald Graf Goluchowski    (b. 1812 - d. 1875)  Non-party   
13 Dec 1860 - 27 Jul 1865  Anton Ritter von Schmerling        (b. 1805 - d. 1893)  Lib  
27 Jul 1865 -  7 Feb 1867  Richard Graf Belcredi              (s.a.)               Non-party
Prime ministers³
 7 Feb 1867 - 30 Dec 1867  Friedrich Ferdinand Freiherr       (b. 1809 - d. 1886)  Non-party
                             von Beust 
30 Dec 1867 - 24 Sep 1868  Karl Wilhelm Fürst von Auersperg,  (b. 1814 - d. 1890)  Lib
                             Herzog von Gottschee 
24 Sep 1868 - 15 Jan 1870  Eduard Graf Taaffe (1st time)      (b. 1833 - d. 1895)  Lib
                             (acting to 17 Apr 1869)
15 Jan 1870 -  1 Feb 1870  Ignaz Edler von Plener             (b. 1810 - d. 1908)  Lib
 1 Feb 1870 - 12 Apr 1870  Leopold Hasner Ritter von Artha    (b. 1818 - d. 1891)  Lib
12 Apr 1870 -  6 Feb 1871  Alfred Josef Graf Potocki          (b. 1822 - d. 1889)  Non-party
 6 Feb 1871 - 30 Oct 1871  Karl Sigmund Graf Hohenwart        (b. 1824 - d. 1899)  Con
                             (acting)
30 Oct 1871 - 25 Nov 1871  Ludwig Freiherr von Holzgethan     (b. 1810 - d. 1876)  Non-party
                             (acting)
25 Nov 1871 - 15 Feb 1879  Adolf Wilhelm Daniel Fürst         (b. 1821 - d. 1885)  Lib
                             Auersperg
15 Feb 1879 - 12 Aug 1879  Karl Anton Franz von Stremayr      (b. 1823 - d. 1904)  Lib
                             (acting)
12 Aug 1879 - 11 Nov 1893  Eduard Graf Taaffe (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
11 Nov 1893 - 19 Jun 1895  Alfred August Fürst zu             (b. 1851 - d. 1927)  Con
                             Windischgrätz
19 Jun 1895 - 29 Sep 1895  Erich Graf von Kielmansegg         (b. 1847 - d. 1923)  Non-party
                             (acting)
29 Sep 1895 - 30 Nov 1897  Kasimir Felix Graf Badeni          (b. 1846 - d. 1909)  Non-party
30 Nov 1897 -  7 Mar 1898  Paul Gautsch Freiherr von          (b. 1851 - d. 1918)  Non-party
                             Frankenthurn (1st time)
 7 Mar 1898 -  2 Oct 1899  Franz Anton Graf von Thun und      (b. 1847 - d. 1916)  Non-party
                             Hohenstein
 2 Oct 1899 - 21 Dec 1899  Manfred Alexander Graf von Clary   (b. 1852 - d. 1928)  Non-party
                             und Aldringen
21 Dec 1899 - 18 Jan 1900  Heinrich Franz Ferdinand Ritter    (b. 1844 - d. 1930)  Non-party
                             von Wittek (acting)
18 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1904  Ernest von Koerber (1st time)      (b. 1850 - d. 1919)  Lib
31 Dec 1904 -  2 May 1906  Paul Gautsch Freiherr von          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Frankenthurn (2nd time)
 2 May 1906 -  2 Jun 1906  Konrad Prinz zu Hohenlohe-         (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  Non-party
                             Schillingsfürst 
 2 Jun 1906 - 15 Nov 1908  Max Wladimir Freiherr von Beck     (b. 1854 - d. 1943)  Non-party
15 Nov 1908 - 28 Jun 1911  Richard Freiherr von Bienerth      (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  Non-party
28 Jun 1911 -  3 Nov 1911  Paul Freiherr Gautsch von          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Frankenthurn (3rd time) 
 3 Nov 1911 - 21 Oct 1916  Karl Graf Stürgkh                  (b. 1859 - d. 1916)  Non-party
21 Oct 1916 - 28 Oct 1916  Friedrich Robert Freiherr von      (b. 1852 - d. 1926)  Mil
                             Georgi (acting) 
28 Oct 1916 - 20 Dec 1916  Ernest von Koerber (2nd time)      (s.a.)               Lib
20 Dec 1916 - 23 Jun 1917  Heinrich Karl Graf Clam-Martinic   (b. 1863 - d. 1932)  Non-party
23 Jun 1917 - 25 Jul 1918  Ernst Wilhelm Seidler Ritter von   (b. 1862 - d. 1931)  Non-party
                             Feuchtenegg
25 Jul 1918 - 27 Oct 1918  Max Hussarek Freiherr von Heinlein (b. 1865 - d. 1935)  CSP
27 Oct 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Heinrich Lammasch                  (b. 1853 - d. 1920)  Lib
Chancellors³
12 Nov 1918 -  7 Jul 1920  Karl Renner (1st time)             (s.a.)               SDAP
 7 Jul 1920 - 21 Jun 1921  Michael Mayr                       (b. 1864 - d. 1922)  CSP
21 Jun 1921 - 26 Jan 1922  Johann Schober (1st time)          (b. 1874 - d. 1932)  Non-party
26 Jan 1922 - 27 Jan 1922  Walter Breisky                     (b. 1871 - d. 1944)  Non-party
27 Jan 1922 - 31 May 1922  Johann Schober (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
31 May 1922 - 20 Nov 1924  Ignaz Seipel (1st time)            (b. 1876 - d. 1932)  CSP
20 Nov 1924 - 20 Oct 1926  Rudolf Ramek                       (b. 1881 - d. 1941)  CSP
20 Oct 1926 -  4 May 1929  Ignaz Seipel (2nd time)            (s.a.)               CSP
 4 May 1929 - 26 Sep 1929  Ernst Streeruwitz                  (b. 1874 - d. 1952)  CSP
26 Sep 1929 - 30 Sep 1930  Johann Schober (3rd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Sep 1930 -  4 Dec 1930  Karl Vaugoin                       (b. 1873 - d. 1949)  CSP
 4 Dec 1930 - 20 Jun 1931  Otto Ender                         (b. 1875 - d. 1960)  CSP
20 Jun 1931 - 20 May 1932  Karl Buresch                       (b. 1878 - d. 1936)  CSP
20 May 1932 - 25 Jul 1934  Engelbert Dollfuss                 (b. 1892 - d. 1934)  CS;1934 VF
25 Jul 1934 - 26 Jul 1934  Kurt Schuschnigg (1st time)        (b. 1897 - d. 1977)  VF
                             (acting)
26 Jul 1934 - 30 Jul 1934  Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg (acting) (b. 1899 - d. 1956)  VF
30 Jul 1934 - 11 Mar 1938  Kurt Schuschnigg (2nd time)        (s.a.)               VF
11 Mar 1938 - 15 Mar 1938  Arthur Seyss-Inquart               (s.a.)               NS
13 Mar 1938 - 13 Apr 1945  annexed to Germany
Leader of the Austrian State Government       
15 Mar 1938 - 30 Apr 1939  Arthur Seyss-Inquart               (s.a.)               NS
Chancellors³
27 Apr 1945 - 20 Dec 1945  Karl Renner (2nd time)             (s.a.)               SPÖ
20 Dec 1945 -  2 Apr 1953  Leopold Figl                       (s.a.)               ÖVP
 2 Apr 1953 - 11 Apr 1961  Julius Raab                        (s.a.)               ÖVP
11 Apr 1961 -  2 Apr 1964  Alfons Gorbach                     (b. 1898 - d. 1972)  ÖVP
 2 Apr 1964 - 21 Apr 1970  Josef Klaus                        (s.a.)               ÖVP
21 Apr 1970 - 24 May 1983  Bruno Kreisky                      (s.a.)               SPÖ
24 May 1983 - 16 Jun 1986  Alfred Sinowatz                    (b. 1929 - d. 2008)  SPÖ
16 Jun 1986 - 28 Jan 1997  Franz Vranitzky                    (b. 1937)            SPÖ
28 Jan 1997 -  4 Feb 2000  Viktor Klima                       (b. 1947)            SPÖ
 4 Feb 2000 - 11 Jan 2007  Wolfgang Schüssel                  (s.a.)               ÖVP 
11 Jan 2007 -  2 Dec 2008  Alfred Gusenbauer                  (b. 1960)            SPÖ
 2 Dec 2008 -              Werner Faymann                     (b. 1960)            SPÖ


Coordinator of the NSDAP in Austria (Kommissarischer Leiter der NSDAP in Österreich)    
15 Mar 1938 - 31 Mar 1940  Josef Bürckel                      (b. 1895 - d. 1944) NS
Reichskommissar for Reunification of Austria with the German Reich
(Reichskommissar für die Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit dem Deutschen Reich)
23 Apr 1938 - 31 Mar 1940  Josef Bürckel                      (s.a.)              NS


Common Government of Austria-Hungary

[Austria-Hungary
                          National Civil Flag, 1869-1918]
           6 Mar 1869 - 12 Nov 1918
     Austria-Hungary National Civil Flag
[Austro-Hungarian Merchant Ensign, 1869 -
                          1918]
           1 Aug 1869 - 12 Nov 1918
       Austria-Hungary Merchant Ensign
Map Austria-Hungary
Hear National Anthem
"Die Kaiserhymne"
(Emperor's Hymn)
Text of National Anthem
(12 Feb 1797-12 Nov 1918)
Constitution
(21 Dec 1867)
Capitals: Vienna
and Budapest
Currency: Austro-Hungarian
Krone (ATK) 1892-1918;

Austrian Gulden (ATP)
1754 - 1892
National Holiday 1848 - 1916:
18 Aug (1830)

Birthday of Emperor
Franz Josef I
Population: 51,390,223 (1910)
(Cisleithania: 28,571,934
Transleithania: 20,886,487
Bosnia-Herzeg.: 1,931,802)

36,950,401 (1840)
GDP: Austria: 635 million Krone
(1910)
Hungary: 490 million Krone
 (1910)
Exports: $551.4 million (1915)
Imports: $403.18 million (1915)
Ethnic Groups: German 24%, Hungarian 20%,
Czech 13%, Polish 10%, Ruthenian 8%, Romanian 6%,
Croat 5%, Slovak 4%, Serb 4%, Slovene 3%, Italian 3% (1910)
(Cisleithania 55.6% [German 35.6%, Czech 23%, Poles 17.8%, Ruthenian 12.6%, Slovenes 4.5%, Serb and Croats 2.8%, Italian 2.7%, Romanian 1%, other 0.02%]; Transleithania 40.6%
[Hungarian 48.1%, Romanian 14.1%, German 9.8%, Slovak 9.4%, Croat 8.8%, Serb 5.3%, Ruthenian 2.3%, others 2.2%];
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.8%)
Total Armed Forces: 2,500,000 (1914)
Merchant marine: 433 (1914)
Religions: Roman Catholic 76.6%, Protestant 8.9%,
Orthodox 8.7%, Jews 4.4%,
Muslim 1.3%, other 0.1% (1910)
(Cisleithania - Roman Catholic 90.9%, Protestant 2.1%, Orthodox
 2.3%, Jews 4.7%;
Transleithania - Roman Catholic 61.8%,
Protestant 19%, Orthodox 14.3%, Jews 4.9%;
Bosnia - Roman Catholic 22.9%, Protestant 0.3%,
 Orthodox 43.5%, Jews 0.6% Muslim 32.7%
)
International Organizations/Treaties: ICRM, IOC, IMO, IPU, ITU, PCA, UIBPIP, UPU

Emperors and Kings²
30 Dec 1867 - 12 Nov 1918  the Emperors of Austria

Imperial Chancellor, Minister of the Imperial Household and of Foreign Affairs
30 Dec 1867 -  8 Nov 1871  Friedrich Ferdinand Graf von Beust (s.a.)
Ministers for the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs
14 Nov 1871 -  2 Oct 1879  Gyula Graf Andrássy von Csík Szent (b. 1823 - d. 1890)
                             Király und Krazna-Horka "der Ältere" 
 8 Oct 1879 - 10 Oct 1881  Heinrich Karl Freiherr von         (b. 1828 - d. 1881)
                             Haymerle
20 Nov 1881 -  2 May 1895  Gustav Zsigismond Graf Kálnoky von (b. 1823 - d. 1898)
                             Kröspatak 
16 May 1895 - 24 Oct 1906  Agenor Graf Goluchowski von        (b. 1859 - d. 1921)
                             Goluchowo 
24 Oct 1906 - 17 Feb 1912  Alois Freiherr Lexa von Aehrenthal (b. 1854 - d. 1912)
                             (from 17 Aug 1909, Alois Graf Lexa von Aehrenthal
17 Feb 1912 - 13 Jan 1915  Leopold Graf Berchtold von und zu  (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
                             Ungarschitz, Fratting und Pullitz 
13 Jan 1915 - 22 Dec 1916  István Freiherr Burián von Rajecz  (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
                             (1st time)
22 Dec 1916 - 16 Apr 1918  Ottokar Graf Czernin von und zu    (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
                             Chudenitz 
16 Apr 1918 - 24 Oct 1918  István Freiherr Burián von Rajecz  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
24 Oct 1918 -  2 Nov 1918  Gyula Graf Andrássy von Csík Szent (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
                             Király und Krazna-Horka "der Jüngere" 
 2 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Ludwig Freiherr von Flotow (acting)(b. 1867 - d. 1948)

 
Noble titles: Edler/Edle = Noble; Erzherzog/Erzherzogin = Archduke/Archduchess; Freiherr/Freifrau = Baron/Baroness; Fürst/Fürstin = Prince/Princess; Graf/Gräfin = Count/Countess; Grossherzog/Grossherzogin = Grand Duke/Grand Duchess; Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess; Kaiser/Kaiserin = Emperor/Empress; König/Königin = King/Queen; Landgraf/Landgräfin = Landgrave/Landgravine; Markgraf/Markgräfin = Margrave/Margravine; Prinz/Prinzessin = Prince/Princess; Reichsgraf/Reichsgräfin = Imperial Count/Countess; Ritter = Knight.
 
Party abbreviations: FPÖ = Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (Austrian Freedom Party, conservative, nationalist, est.1956); ÖVP = Österreichische Volkspartei (Austrian People's Party, center-right, est.1945); SPÖ = Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (Social-Democratic Party of Austria, social-democratic, until 15 Jun 1991 named Socialist Party of Austria [Sozialistische Partei Österreichs], former SDAP, est.1945); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Con = Konservativ (Conservative, 1848-1918); CSP = Christlichsoziale Partei (Christian Social Party, right-wing conservative, 1895-1907 as Catholic People's Party [Katholische Volkspartei], 1907-1934, merged into VF); Lib = Liberal (Liberal, 1867-79 as German Liberal Party [Deutschliberale Partei], 1848-1918); NS = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party, Nazi fascist, Germany nationalist, banned 19 Jun 1933 - 13 Mar 1938, only legal party 15 Mar 1938 - May 1945); SDAP = Sozialdemokratische Abeiterpartei (Social Democratic Labor Party, social-democratic, 1888-12 Feb 1934); VF = Vaterländische Front (Fatherland's [Patriotic] Front, Austrian nationalist, clerical fascist, corporatist, 1 May 1934 - 13 Mar 1938 only legal party, 1933-1938)


Allied Military Government of Austria
Map of Allied Occupation
Zones in Austria
Allied Occupation
Commanders of Vienna

13 Apr 1945                Vienna surrenders to Soviets (Vienna is under separate
                            
four power Allied occupation 1945-1955).
Jul 1945                   Austria under joint four power Allied occupation.
11 Sep 1945                Allied control council formed.
27 Jul 1955                Allied occupation ends, Austrian sovereignty restored.

American Zone

[US flag]

High commissioners
 5 Jul 1945 - 16 May 1947  Mark W. Clark                      (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
17 May 1947 - 19 Sep 1950  Geoffrey Keyes                     (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
20 Sep 1950 - 17 Jul 1952  Walter J. Donnelly                 (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
17 Jul 1952 - 27 Jul 1955  Llewellyn E. Thompson, Jr.         (b. 1904 - d. 1972)


British Zone

United Kingdom flag

High commissioners
Jul 1945 - Mar 1946        Sir Richard Loudon McCreery        (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
Mar 1946 - Oct 1947        Sir James Stuart Steele            (b. 1894 - d. 1975)
Oct 1947 -  1 Jan 1950     Sir Alexander Galloway             (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
 1 Jan 1950 -  1 Aug 1950  Sir John Winterton                 (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
 1 Aug 1950 -  5 Feb 1954  Sir Harold Caccia                  (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
 5 Feb 1954 - 27 Jul 1955  Sir Geoffrey Wallinger             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)


French Zone

High commissioners
 8 Jul 1945 - 29 Jun 1950  Antoine Béthouart                  (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
29 Jun 1950 - 27 Jul 1955  Jean Payart                        (b. 1892 - d. 1969)


Soviet Zone

[Flag of USSR]

Military governor 
13 Apr 1945 - Jul 1945     Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin         (b. 1894 - d. 1949)
High commissioners
Jul 1945 - 25 Apr 1946     Ivan Stepanovich Konev             (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
10 May 1946 -  2 Apr 1949  Vladimir Vasilyevich Kurasov       (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
 4 May 1949 -  7 Jun 1953  Vladimir Petrovich Sviridov        (b. 1898 - d. 1963)
 7 Jun 1953 - 27 Jul 1955  Ivan Ivanovich Ilichev             (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
 

 ¹The word Kaisertum was deliberately chosen not to imply Kaiserreich Österreich (Empire of Austria). This term has no Constitutional status before 25 Apr 1848, and has dynastic rather than territorial import - it was deliberately preferred to Kaiserreich. It is intended to encompass all the hereditary possessions of the Haus Österreich, and is so defined in the Constitution of 7 Mar 1849; in the Constitution of 25 Apr 1848 it is similarly used, but excludes the "Hungarian" and "Lombardo-Venetian" possessions.

   ²Style of the rulers:
(a) 17 Sep 1156 - 16 Apr 1198 (in Latin): Dux Austriae; (in German) Herczog czu Ostarich ("Duke of Austria");
(b) 16 Apr 1198 - Jan 1237, Dec 1239 - Apr 1247 (in Latin): Dux Austriae et Styriae; (in German): Herczog czu Ostarich und czu Steyeren ("Duke of Austria and of Styria");
(c) 27 Dec 1282 - 2 May 1335: Herczog ze Österreich und ze Steyr, Herr ze Chrain; (in Latin): Dux Austriae et Styriae, Dominus Carniolae ("Duke of Austria and of Styria, Lord of Carniola");
(d) 2 May 1335 - 27 Jul 1365: Herczog ze Österreich, ze Steyr und ze Kernden, Herr ze Chrain; (in Latin): Dux Austriae, Styriae et Karinthiae, Dominus Carniolae ("Duke of Austria, Styria and Carinthia, Lord of Carniola");
(e) 27 Jul 1365 - 19 Aug 1493: Herczog ze Österreich, ze Steir, ze Kernden und ze Krain, Graf ze Tyrol; (in Latin): Dux Austriae, Stiriae, Karinthiae et Carniolae, Comes Tyrolis ("Duke of Austria, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola, Count of Tyrol");
(f) 19 Aug 1493 - 11 Aug 1804: Ertzhertzog zu Österreich, Hertzog zu Steyr, zu Kärnden, zu Crain, Graf zu Tirol ("Archduke of Austria, Duke of Styria, of Carinthia, of Carniola, Count of Tyrol");
(g) 11 Aug 1804 - 11 Nov 1918: Kaiser von Österreich, König zu Ungarn und Böheim, etc., Erzherzog zu Österreich, etc. ("Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, etc., Archduke of Austria, etc.");
(h) Typical long form including effective and titular titles (variants occur) 1848-1868: Von Gottes Gnaden, Kaiser von Österreich; König von Ungarn und Böhmen, König der Lombardei und Venedigs ("König der Lombardei und Venedigs" removed from 3 Oct 1866), von Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem, etc.; Erzherzog von Österreich, Grossherzog von Toskana (from 4 Mar 1849 und Krakau); Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg, von Steier, Kärnten, Krain (from 4 Mar 1849 und der Bukowina); Grossfürst von Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; Gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg, von Tyrol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradisca; Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.; Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark (from 18 Nov 1849 Grosswojwod der Wojwodschaft Serbien, etc. etc.)("By the grace of God, Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy and Venice ["King of Lombardy and Venetia" removed from 3 Oct 1866], of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galitzia, Lodomeria and Illyria; King of Jerusalem, etc.; Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany [from 4 Mar 1849 and Cracow]; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola [from 4 Mar 1849 and Bukovina]; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, of Auschwitz [Oswiecim] and Zator, of Teschen [Czeszyn], Friuli, Ragusa [Dubrovnik] and Zara [Zadar]; princely Count of Habsburg, of Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent [Trento] and Brixen [Bressanone]; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count of Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro [Kotor], and in the Wendish Mark [from 18 Nov 1849 Grand Voivode of the Voivodeship of Serbia, etc. etc.]);
(i)
Typical long form including effective and titular titles (variants occur) 1868-1918: Von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, Apostolischer König von Ungarn, König von Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien und Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien, König von Jerusalem, etc.; Erzherzog von Österreich, Grossherzog von Toscana und Krakau, Herzog von Lothringen und von Salzburg, von Steiermark, von Kärnten, Krain und der Bukowina; Grossfürst von Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; Gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tirol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradiska; Fürst von Trient und von Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.; Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark; Grosswojwod der Wojwodschaft Serbien, etc.; Kaiserliche und Apostolische Majestät ("By the grace of God, Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, and Galitzia, Lodomeria and Illyria, King of Jerusalem, etc.; Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of Lorraine and of Salzburg, of Styria, of Carinthia, Carniola and the Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, of Auschwitz [Oswiecim] and Zator, of Teschen [Czeszyn], Friuli, Ragusa [Dubrovnik] and Zara [Zadar]; Princely Count of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent [Trento] and Brixen [Bressanone]; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro [Kotor], and in the Wendish Mark; Grand Voivode of the Voivodina of Serbia, etc.; Imperial and Apostolic Majesty").

  ³Until 1848 there were essentially two chiefs of government. The Directing Ministers of State for Interior Affairs and the Chancellors in charge of Foreign Affairs. These were equal in status, but eventually the Chancellors evolved as the leading force of the government. On 20 Mar 1848, the post of Prime minister was officially inaugurated.
(a) full title of Directing Ministers of State for Interior Affairs were:
10 May 1749 - 31 Dec 1761: Praesident des Directorii in Publicis & Cameralibus ("President of the Directory in Public and Financial Matters");
 1 Jan 1762 - 15 Dec 1771:
Dirigirender Staats-Minister in Inländischen Geschäften ("Directing Minister of State in Domestic Affairs");
15 Dec 1771 - 17 Nov 1792 and 7 May 1796 - 7 Jun 1808: Dirigirender erster Staats-Minister in Inländischen Geschäften ("First Directing Minister of State in Domestic Affairs");
17 Nov 1792 - 7 May 1796: Oberster Directorial-Minister ("Supreme Directorial Minister");
 
7 Jul 1808 - 20 Mar 1848: Dirigirender Minister im Staats- und Conferenz-Rath für die inländischen Geschäften ("Directing Ministers in the State Council and Conference for Domestic Affairs");
(b) full title of Chancellors for Foreign Affairs were:
 3 Jun 1705 - 15 Feb 1742: Erste Hof-Cantzler ("First Court Chancellor");
15 Feb 1742 - 13 May 1753:
Geheimer Hof- und Staats-Canzler ("Privy Court and State Chancellor");
13 May 1753 - 1765: Hof- und Staats-Canzler der Auswärtigen Geschäfte ("Court and State Chancellor for Foreign Affairs");
1765 - 30 Mar 1793:
Haus-, Hof- und Staats-Canzler der Auswärtigen Geschäfte ("House, Court and State Chancellor for Foreign Affairs");
30 Mar 1793 - 25 May 1821: Minister der Auswärtigen Geschäfte ("Minister for Foreign Affairs");
25 May 1821 - 20 Mar 1848: Haus-, Hof- und Staats-Kanzler ("House, Court and State Chancellor");
(d) 1848 - 1918 prime ministers formal title: 20 Mar - 21 Nov 1848 Provisorischer Minister-Präsident des Ministerrathes ("Provisional Minister President [Prime Minister] of the Council of Ministers"); 21 Nov 1848 - 7 Feb 1867 Minister-Präsident des Ministerrathes ("Minister President [Prime Minister] of the Council of Ministers"); 7 Feb 1867 - 30 Dec 1867 Präsident des Ministerrathes ("President of the Council of Ministers"); 30 Dec 1867 - 25 Nov 1871 Präsident des Ministerrathes für die im Reichsrathe vertretenen Königreiche und Länder ("President of the Council of Ministers for the Kingdoms and States represented in the Imperial Council"); 25 Nov 1871 - 28 Oct 1916 Ministerpräsident für die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder ("Prime Minister for the Kingdoms and States represented in the Imperial Council"); 28 Oct 1916 - 12 Nov 1918 Österreichischer Ministerpräsident ("Austrian Prime Ministers");       
(e) from 1918 prime ministers formal title: Staatskanzler (State Chancellor) 12 Nov 1918 - 10 Nov 1920 and 27 Apr - 20 Dec 1945; Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor) 10 Nov 1920 - 15 Mar 1938 and from 20 Dec 1945; Führer der Österreichischen Landesregierung (Leader of the Austrian State government) 13 Mar 1938 - 30 Sep 1939; Vorsitzender im Kabinett (Chairman in the Cabinet) 7 Jul 1920 - 10 Nov 1920.





© Ben Cahoon