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Ukraine
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
            31 Jan 1667 - 22 Jan 1918
 
[Ukraine flag 1917-1918]
 20 Nov 1917 - 29 Apr 1918 (Non-Communist Ukraine)
 
Ukraine
                                    flag 1918-1920]
 29 Apr 1918 - 22 Nov 1920 (Non-Communist Ukraine)
 
[Flag
                                    of Ukrainian SSR 1917-1919]
    26 Dec 1917 - 14 Mar 1919 (Communist Ukraine)
 
[Flag
                                    of Ukrainian SSR 1921-1937]
     14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937 (Communist Ukraine)
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR 1923-1991]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
 
Flag of
                                    Ukrainian SSR in 1949
                   24 Aug 1991 - 28 Jan 1992 
 
[Ukraine flag]
                Adopted 18 Sep 1991 
        (Co-National flag to 28 Jan 1992)

Map of Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina"
(Ukraine has not Perished) 
Text of National Anthem
(1917-20 non-communist - none)
Adopted 5 Dec 1991
Constitution
  (28 Jun 1996)
Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
(Bila Tserkva [Belaya Tserkov]
15 Nov - 19 Dec 1918)
Currency: Hryvnya (UAH);
1992-96 Karbovanets' (UAK),
1991-92 Russian Ruble (RUR),
1918-1919 Hryvnya (UAH),

 1918, 1919-20 Karbovanets'
National Holiday: 24 Aug  (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 44,573,205 (2013)
GDP: $337.4 billion (2013) Exports: $71.1 billion (2013)
Imports: $87.2 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%,
Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian
 0.3%,
Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 129,925 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 5,000 weapons (1991-1996)
Merchant marine: 134 ships (2010)
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian
 Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic
 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic
 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, none and other 3.2% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), AG, ANT (consultative), APM, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN (associate), CFE, CICA (observer), CIS, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NSG, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Ukraine Index
Chronology
             

862                        Grand Principality of Kiev Rus'
1024 - 1356                Chernigov nominally under Kiev (from 1239
                             under Mongol supremacy) ruled by
                             princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1036 - 1340                Volyn, nominally under Kiev (from 1241
                             under Mongol supremacy) ruled by
                             princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1054 - 1362                Pereyaslavl, nominally under Kiev,
                             (from 1239 under Mongol supremacy) ruled 
                             by princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1097 - 1355                Novgorod Severskiy, nominally under Kiev,
                             (from 1239 under Mongol supremacy) ruled 
                             by princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional 
                             principalities of Kiev Rus' (Kiev itself 
                             6 Dec 1240, although the Grand prince's
                             capital was transferred to Vladimir in 1169).
1340/1363                  Most of northern Ukraine (from 1362, Kiev) 
                             part of Lithuania.
 1 Jul 1569                By the Union of Lublin, joining Poland and
                             Lithuania, Ukrainian lands are transferred
                             from Lithuania to Poland.
24 May 1648                Revolution against Poland.
Aug 1649                   In the Treaty of Zboriv recognized by Poland as 
                             autonomous Hetmanate, later known as the
                             "Ukrainian Cossack Republic."
18 Jan 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Pereyaslav.
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach).
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate 
                             (east of the Dnieper River) and the pro-Polish
                             Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the Dnieper).
31 Jan 1667                In Treaty of Andrusovo, Hetmanate provisionally 
                             partitioned between Poland and Russia. Russia 
                             obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhzhya), Poland retains Right-Bank 
                             (partition confirmed by the Eternal Peace 
                             of 6 May 1686).
Aug 1672 - 1699            Bratslav and Podolia under Ottoman rule.
1780                       Hetmanate incorporated into Russia.
1793 - 1795                Polish parts of Ukraine annexed by Russia in the
                             Second and Third Partitions of the 
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             proclaimed.
25 Dec 1917 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation of Kharkov (Kharkiv),
                        and Kiev (Kyyiv) from 9 Feb 1918.
25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (Ukrainian National
                             Republic) established in Kharkov (Kharkiv) as
                             a (communist) counter-government, subordinate
                             to Russia.
22 Jan 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist) 
                             declares independence from Russia.
27 Jan 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation (non-communist
                              government moves to Zhitomir [Zhytomyr]).
 1 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  German and Austro-Hungarian occupation; Germans
                             in Volyniya (24 Feb), Kiev (1 Mar), Chernigov
                             (12 Mar), Poltava (30 Mar), Kharkov (8 Apr),
                             in Taurida and Crimea (22 Apr); Austrians in
                             Podolia (28 Feb), Kherson and Odessa (13 Mar),
                             Rostov and Ekaterinoslav (4 Apr 1918).
19 Mar 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (communist) declares
                             independence from Russia.
18 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Communist authorities dissolved and exiled
                             following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and
                             the fall of Lugansk (Luhans'k).
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under occupation).
28 Nov 1918                (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants'
                             Government of Ukraine established (at Sudza,
                             Soviet Russia exile).
14 Dec 1918 - 22 Nov 1920  Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             (restored).
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Allied occupation of Odessa.
 5 Jan 1919                Soviet Russian intervention (from 3 Jan 1919
                             in Kharkov [Kharkiv], 12 Jan 1919 Chernigov
                             [Chernihiv], 18 Jan 1919 Poltava and 27 Jan
                             1919 in Ekaterinoslav [Katerynoslav]).
 5 Feb 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Kiev.
10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic.
21 Apr 1919                Soviet Russia occupies (Kamenets-Podolskiy)
                             (Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy) effectively 
                             terminating the (non-communist) Ukrainian
                             People's Republic.
 2 Sep 1919 - 12 Dec 1919  "White" Russian Volunteer Army under Anton
                             Denikin occupies Kiev and most of Ukraine (in
                             Odessa 18 Aug 1919 - 7 Feb 1920).
12 Dec 1919                Soviet Russia occupies Kharkov (Kharkiv); Kiev
                            (Kyyiv) 16 Dec 1919, Odessa (Odesa) 7 Feb 1920.
 7 May 1920 - 13 Jul 1920  Poland and (non-communist) Ukrainian forces
                             occupy Kiev.
22 Nov 1920                Ukrainian People's Republic, which is
                             intermittently absent from the national
                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last
                             last session on Ukrainian soil.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
  5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins.
25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944  Occupied by Germany (Reichskommissariat
                             Ukraine is established 1 Sep 1941).
 5 Jul 1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv
                             (terminated by German occupation forces).
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to
                             Ukrainian S.S.R
26 Apr 1986                Chernobyl' (Chornobyl') nuclear plant disaster.
16 Jul 1990                Declaration of state sovereignty.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (ratified by
                             referendum on 1 Dec 1991).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the 
                             U.S.S.R.).
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes Crimea, not recognized by Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1991)
Ukraine Admin.
Divisions
Crimea
Kiev Province in
Poland-Lithuania

(1340-1795)
Hetmanate
(1648-1775)
Non-Communist
Ukraine
(1917-1920)
Ukraine Exile Govt.
(1920-1992)
Ukrainian S.S.R.
(1919-1991)
Odessa Soviet
Republic

(1918)
Donets Kryvyi Rih
Soviet Republic
(1918)
Reichskommissariat
Ukraine
(1941-1944)
-------------------------
Transnistria
(1941-1944)
Western Ukraine
(1918-1919) 
Galician Soviet
Republic

(1920)
Lemko-Rusyn
(1918-1920)
Bukovina
(1774-1918)
Carpatho-Ukraine
(Ruthenia)
(1918-1939)
Hutsul Republic
(1918)
Komancza and
Hutsul Republics
(1918-1919)
Kaffa (Caffa)
(1204-1477)
Ukrainian
Republic of

the Far East

"Green Ukraine"
(1918-1922)
Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church

Orthodox Church
of Ukraine

Map of
Administrative
Divisions
Historical Maps
of Ukraine

 

Kiev Province of Poland-Lithuania

Voivodes (governors) of Province of Kiev (title Wojewodowie Kijewski)
1682 - 1684                Stefan Niemirycz
1684 - 1702                Marcin Kazimierz Kątski            (b. 1636 - d. 1710)

1702 - 1744                Józef Potocki                      (b. 1673 - d. 1751)
1744 - 1756                Stanisław Potocki                  (b. 1698 - d. 1760)
1756 - 1772                Franciszek Salezy Potocki          (b. 1700 - d. 1772)
1772 - 1785                Stanisław Lubomirski               (b. 1704 - d. 1793)
1785 - 1791                Józef Piotr Stępkowski             (d. 1791)
1791                       Józef Lubomirski (acting)          (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
1791 - 1795                Antoni Protazy Potocki             (b. 1761 - d. 1801)


Hetmanate
af.1392                    Southern border areas of the provinces of Kiev and Braclav,
                             conquered by Lithuania organized as a military district called
                             the 'Zaporozhian Sich (Host)' (Zaporoz'ka Sich) comprised of 
                             Cossacks. Since 1550 these Cossacks were led by a (self-elected)
                             Hetman.
 2 May 1648                Rebellion against Poland. 
Aug 1649                   In the Treaty of Zboriv recognized by Poland as an autonomous 
                             Hetmanate, later known as "Ukrainian Cossack Republic" (covering
                             Kiev, Bratslav [Bracław] and Chernigov [Czernihów] voivodships).
28 Sep 1651                Bratslav and Chernigov restored to Polish administration.
18 Jan 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of Pereyaslav.
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of Hadiach (Hadyach/Gadyach)
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate (east of the Dnieper
                             River) and the pro-Polish Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the
                             Dnieper River).
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo provisionally partitioned between 
                             Poland and Russia. Russia obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhia [Zaporizhzhya]), Poland retained Right-Bank
                             (partition confirmed by the Eternal Peace of 6 May 1686).
Aug 1672 - 1699            Bratslav together with Podolia under Ottoman rule.
1676                       Right-Bank Hetmanate abolished by Poland.
1681 - 1684                Moldovan administration
1708 - 1709                Independence from Russia.
1713 - 1739                Zaporizhzhya ceded by Russia to Crimea.
Jul 1722 - Sep 1727        Direct Russian administration. 
1734 - 1750                Direct Russian administration.
10 Nov 1764                Direct Russian administration; abolition of Hetman title.
1780                       Incorporated into Russia.

Hetman of the Right-Bank (in Chyhyryn [Chigirin])
26 Jan 1648 -  6 Aug 1657  Bohdan Mykhaylovych Khmel'nyts'kyy (b. 1595 - d. 1657)
                             (Bogdan Mikhaylovich Khmel'nitskiy)
 
6 Aug 1657 - 21 Oct 1657  Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (b. c.1641 - d. 1685)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (1st time)

21 Oct 1657 - Nov 1658     Ivan Evstatevych Vyhovs'kyy        (d. 1664)
                            
(Ivan Yevstafyevich Vygovskiy)
Nov 1658 - 11 Sep 1659     Ivan Fedorovych Bezpalyy (acting)  (b. 16.. - d. 1718)

                            
(Ivan Fyodrovich Bespalyy)
11 Sep 1659 - 1663         Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (s.a.)

                             (2nd time)
1663 - 18 Jun 1663         Somko Yakym Semenovych (acting)    (b. c.1619 - d. 1663)
                            
(Somko Kakim Semyonovich)
1663 - Jul 1665            Pavlo
Ivanovych Teterya            (b. c.1620 - d. 1670)
                            
(Pavel Ivanovich Teterya)
1665 - Oct 1665            Stepan Opara
(Stepan Opara)        (d. 1665)
                            
(prisoner from 18 Aug 1665)
10 Oct 1665 - 19 Sep 1676  Petro Dorofeyvych Doroshenko       (b. 1627 - d. 1689)

                            
(Pyotr Dorofeyvich Doroshenko)
1668 - 1669                Petro Sukhoviy (Pyotr
Sukhovey)    (b. 1645 - d. ....)
                             (pretender)
1671 - 27 Mar 1674         Mykhaylo Khanenko (in rebellion)   (b. c.1620 - d. c.1680)

                            
(Mikhail Khanenko)
1675 -  9 Jan 1679         Ostap Hohol' (Ostap Gogol')(acting)(d. 1679)

1677 - 1681                Yuriy Bohdanovych Khmel'nyts'kyy   (b. 1641 - d. 1685)
                             (Yuriy Bogdanovich Khmel'nitskiy)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv [N
emirov])
1681 - 1684                Gheorghe Duca                      (b. 16.. - d. 1685)
                             (appointed by Ottomans)
Jan 1684 - Jan 1689        Andriy Mohyla
(Andrey Mogila)      (b. c.1630 - d. 1689)
1689 - 169.                Hrymko (Grimko)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)

1693 - 1699                Samiylo Ivanovych Samus'           (d. c.1713)
                             (Samoylo Ivanovich Samus')
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)

Hetman of the Left-Bank (in Hadyach [Gadyach], Baturyn [Baturin] and then Hlukhiv [Glukhov])
18 Jun 1663 - 17 Jun 1668  Ivan Martynovych Bryukhovets'kyy   (b. 1623 - d. 1668)
                            
(Ivan Martinovich Bryukhovetskiy)
17 Jun 1668 - 27 Jun 1672  Dem´yan Hnatovych Mnohohrishnyy    (b. 1627 - d. 1698)

                             (Dem´yan Mnogogreshnyy)
                             (acting to Dec 1668)

28 Jun 1672 - 23 Jul 1687  Ivan Samoylovych (Ivan Samoylovich)(b. c.1630 - d. 1690)
25 Jul 1687 -  6 Nov 1708  Ivan Mazepa-Kaledyns'kyy           (b. 1639 - d. 1709)
                             (
Ivan Mazepa-Kaledins'kiy)
 
6 Nov 1708 -  3 Jul 1722  Ivan Skoropads'kyy                 (b. 1646 - d. 1722)
                             (Ivan Skoropadskiy)
 
5 Apr 1710 - 24 May 1742  Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (in exile) (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
                            
(Filipp Stepanovich Orlik)
 4 Jul 1722 - 18 Dec 1724  Pavlo Polubotok (
Pavel Polubotok)  (b. c.1660 - d. 1724)
                            
(acting)
Chairman of the Little-Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium
11 Jul 1722 - 12 Oct 1727  Stepan Lukych Velyaminov           (b. 1670 - d. 1737)
                            
(Stepan Lukich Velyaminov)
Hetman

12 Oct 1727 - 28 Jan 1734  Danylo Apostol (Daniil Apostol)    (b. 1654 - d. 1734)
Chairmen of the Regency Council
1734 - 1736                Knyaz Aleksey Ivanovich            (b. 1690 - d. 1737) 
                             Shakhovskoy
17 Jun 1736 - Feb 1738     Knyaz Ivan Fyodorovich             (b. 1689 - d. 1738)
                             Baryatinskiy
Mar 1738 - May 1738        Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov (1st time)(d. 1749)
May 1738 - Mar 1740        Aleksandr Ivanovich Graf           (b. 1677 - d. 1749) 
                             Rumyantsev
Mar 1740 - 17 Sep 1740     Ivan Afanasyevich Shipov (2nd time)(s.a.)
1740 - 1741                Yakov Keyt (= James Keith)         (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
1741 - Dec 1741            Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuyev           (b. 1693 - d. 1773)
Dec 1741 - 1742            Aleksandr Borisovich Buturlin      (b. 1694 - d. 1767)
1742 - 20 May 1745         Ivan Ivanovich Bibikov             (d. 1745)
1745 - 1750                ....
Hetman
 5 Jun 1750 - 10 Nov 1764  Kyrylo Hryhorovych Rozumovs'kyy    (b. 1728 - d. 1803)
                            
(Kirill Grigoryevich Razumovskiy)
Chairmen of the Little-Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium

1764 - 1781                Pyotr Aleksandrovich Graf          (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunayskiy
1769 - 1775                Knyaz Platon Stepanovich           (b. 1713 - d. 1799)
                             Mesherskiy

(non-communist) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian with Russian in parentheses.

20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic.
22 Jan 1918                Independence from Russia declared.
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under occupation).
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (restored).
22 Nov 1920                Government, which is intermittently absent from the national

                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last last session on
                             Ukrainian soil.
30 Jun
1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State declared restored at L'viv (terminated by
                             German occupation forces).

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Central Rada (Council)
20 Mar 1917 - 27 Mar 1917  Fedir Ivanovych Kryzhanivs'kyy     (b. 1878 - d. 1938)  Non-party
                             (Fyodor Ivanovich Kryzhanovskiy)
                             (acting)
27 Mar 1917 - 29 Apr 1918  Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrushevs'kyy  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)  TUP
                             (Mikhail Sergeyevich Grushevskiy)
                             (elected 20 Mar 1917, arrived 27 Mar 1917)
Hetman of All Ukraine
29 Apr 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Pavlo Petrovych Skoropads'kyy      (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Mil
                             (Pavel Petrovich Skoropadskiy)
Chairmen of the Directory

13 Nov 1918 -  5 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1951)  USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
                             (in opposition to the Hetman to 14 Dec 1918)
 5 Feb 1919 -  9 May 1919  Directors
                           (meetings chaired in random order)
                           - Symon Vasyl'ovych Petlyura       (b. 1879 - d. 1926)  USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                           - Fedir Petrovych Shvets'          (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  UPSR
                             (Fyodor Petrovich Shvets)
                           - Andriy Havrylovych Makarenko     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Gavrilovich Makarenko)
                           - Opanas Mykhaylovych Andriyevs'kyy(b. 1878 - d. 1955)  UPSS
                             (Afanasiy Mikhaylovich Andriyevskiy)
                           - Yevhen Omelyanovych Petrushevych (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  USDP
                             (
Yevgeniy Yemel'yanovich Petrushevich)
                             (from 12 Mar 1919; never chaired)
 9 May 1919 - 22 Nov 1920 
Symon Vasyl'ovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USRP
                             (in Kam'yanets' [Kamenets])
Chairman of the National Assembly
30 Jun
1941 - 12 Jul 1941  Yaroslav Semenovych Stets'ko       (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  OUNR
                             (Yaroslav Semyonovich Stets'ko)
                             (in dissidence, in L'viv; German
                              prisoner from 9/10 Jul 1941)


Chairman of the General Secretariat

15 Jun 1917 -  9 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Vladimir Kirillovich Vinnichenko)
Chairmen of the C
ouncil of Ministers (prime ministers)
 
9 Jan 1918 - 30 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
30 Jan 1918 - 29 Apr 1918  Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (b. 1885 - d. 1939)  UPSR
                            
(Vsevolod Aleksandrovich Golubovich)
29 Apr 1918 - 30 Apr 1918  
Mykola Mykolayovych Sakhno-        (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  UPSF
                            
Ustymovych (Nikolay Nikolayevich
                             Sakhno-
Ustinovich
)
30 Apr 1918 -  3 May 1918 
Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko       (b. 1866 - d. 1935)  KDP
                            
(Nikolay Prokopovich Vasilenko)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 
Fedir Andriyovych Lyzohub          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)  Oct
                            
(Fyodor Andreyevich Lizogub)
14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1918 
Serhiy Mykolayovych Herbel'        (b. 1856 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                            
(Sergey Nikolayevich Gerbel')
Chairman of the Council of Commissioners

14 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Volodymyr Moyseyovych Chekhivs'kyy (b. 1876 - d. 1937)  USDRP
                            
(Vladimir Moiseyevich Chekhovskiy)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(from 13 Feb 1919, in opposition to Communist rule)
24 Dec 1918 - 13 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Moyseyovych Chekhivs'kyy (s.a.)               USDRP
13 Feb 1919 -  9 Apr 1919  Serhiy Stepanovych Ostapenko       (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  Non-party
                             (Sergey Stepanovich Ostapenko)
 9 Apr 1919 - 29 Aug 1919  Borys Mykolayovych Martos          (b. 1879 - d. 1977)  USDRP
                             (Boris Nikolayevich Martos)
29 Aug 1919 - 28 May 1920  Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  USDRP
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)
28 May 1920 - 18 Oct 1920  V´yacheslav Kostyantynovych        (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  UPSF
                             Prokopovych (Vyacheslav
                            
Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
18 Oct 1920 - 14 Nov 1920  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (b. 1879 - d. 1954)  USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Levitskiy)


German Military Commanders-in-chief (at Kiev)
(Heeresgruppe Linsingen to 31 Mar 1918, Heeresgruppe Eichhorn-Kiew 31 Mar - 2 Apr 1918,
Heeresgruppe Eichhorn 3 Apr - 13 Aug 1918, then Heeresgruppe Kiew)
 3 Mar 1918 - 31 Mar 1918  Alexander von Linsingen            (b. 1850 - d. 1935)  Mil

31 Mar 1918 -  8 Aug 1918 
Hermann Gottfried Emil von         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             Eichhorn 
 
8 Aug 1918 - 21 Jan 1919  Günther Emanuel Graf von Kirchbach (b. 1850 - d. 1925)  Mil
Austro-Hungarian Military Commanders (at Odessa)
13 Mar 1918 - 16 May 1918  Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)  Mil

                           
(Oberkommandierender der Ukraine)
16 May 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Alfred Krauss                      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil

                           
(Kommandant der Ostarmee in der Ukraine)

Ukrainian People's Republic in Exile

[Ukraine flag]

Chairmen of the Directory
22 Nov 1920 - 25 May 1926  S
ymon Vasyl'ovych Petlyura         (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Petlyura)
                             (in Poland to 1923, in 1923-1934
                             Austria, later Hungary and Switzerland;
                             from
Oct 1924 in Paris, France exile)
25 May 1926 - 16 Jul 1948  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (Andrey Nikolayevich Levitskiy)
                             (in Poland, from 1945 Germany exile)
Presidents

16 Jul 1948 - 17 Jan 1954  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
17 Jan 1954 - 19 Oct 1965  Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Porfiryevich Vitvitskiy)
                             (acting to 6 Mar 1954)
                             (in New York exile)
19 Oct 1965 -  8 Dec 1989  Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)  UNDS
                             (Nikolay Andreyevich Levitskiy)
                             (acting to 22 Mar 1967)
                             (in Philadelphia exile)
 8 Dec 1989 - 22 Aug 1992  Mykola Vasyl'ovych Plav'yuk        (b. 1925 - d. 2012)  OUN
                             (Nikolay Vasilyevich Plav'yuk)
                             (in Canada exile)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
(in Poland exile, then Prague, later Germany, then noted)
14 Nov 1920 - 24 Mar 1921  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (1st time)
24 May 1921 -  5 Aug 1921  V´yacheslav Kostyantynovych        (s.a.)               UPSF
                             Prokopovych (Vyacheslav
                             Konstantinovich Prokopovich)
                             (1st time) (acting)
 5 Aug 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  Pylyp Kalenykovych Pylypchuk       (b. 1869 - d. 1940)  Non-party
                             (Filipp Kalenikovich Pilipchuk)
14 Jan 1922 - 25 May 1926  Andriy Mykolayovych Livyts'kyy     (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (2nd time)
25 May 1926 - Oct 1939     V´yacheslav Kostyantynovych        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Prokopovych (2nd time) 
Oct 1939 - May 1940        Oleksandr Yakovych Shul'hin        (b. 1889 - d. 1960)  Non-party
                             (Aleksandr Yakovlevich Shul'gin)
                             (in Paris exile, German prisoner from ... 1940)
1940 - 1944                Vacant
1944 - 1945                Andriy Ivanovych Yakovliv          (b. 1872 - d. 1955)  Non-party
                             (Andrey Ivanovich Yakovlev)
                             (in Prague exile)
(acting)
1945 - 1948                Kost' Kostyantynovych Pan'kivs'kyy (b. 1897 - d. 1973)  UNDS
                             (Kost' Konstantinovich Pan'kovskiy)
                             (in [West] Germany exile)
19 Jun 1948 - Jan 1952     Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (s.a.)               USDRP;1950
                             (Isaak Prokhorovich Mazepa)
                             (in Austria, then West Germany exile)
                 USP
Jan 1952 -  4 Jun 1953     Stepan Ivanovych Baran             (b. 1879 - d. 1953)  UNDP+UNDO
                             (Stepan Ivanovich Baran) 
                             (in West Germany exile)
1953 - 1954                Stepan Porfyrovych Vytvyts'kyy     (s.a.)               UNDO
                             (in New York exile)
1954                       Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  USP
                             (Spiridon Nikitovich Dovgal')
                             (in West Germany exile)(1st time)
1954 - 1957                Symon Vasyl'ovych Sozontiv         (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  Non-party
                             (Simon Vasilyevich Sozontov)
                             (in Paris exile)
1957 - 1967                Mykola Andriyovych Livyts'kyy      (s.a.)               UNDS
                             (in New York exile)
22 Mar 1967 - 1969         Atanas Ivanovych Figol'            (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                             (Atanas Ivanovich Figol') 
                             (
in West Germany exile)
1969 - 1972                Spyrydon Mykytovych Dovhal'        (s.a.)               USP
                             (in Münich, West Germany exile)
                            
(2nd time)
1972 - 1974                Vasyl' Lukynovych Fedoronchuk      (b. 1915 - d. 1984?) OUN+UNDO
                             (Vasiliy Lukinovich Fedoronchuk)
                             (in Rome, Italy exile)
1974 - 1980                Teofil' Leontyy (Teofil' Leontiy)                       Non-party
1980 - 1989                Yaroslav-Bohdan Antonovych         (b. 1910 - d. 1995)  Non-party
                             Rudnyts'kyy (Yaroslav-Bogdan
                             Antonovich Rudnitskiy)
                             (in Canada exile)
1989 - 22 Aug 1992         Ivan Matviyovych Samiylenko        (b. 1912 - d. 2006)  UNDS
                             (Ivan Matveyevich Samoylenko)
                             (in New York exile)

German Recognized Ukrainian National Committee in Exile

[Ukrainian S.S. flag
                1942-1945]

Chairman of the Ukrainian National Committee (and from 28 Mar 1945,
Commander
of the Ukrainian National Army) 
17 Mar 1945 -  8 May 1945  Pavlo
Feofanovych Shandruk         (b. 1889 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (Pavel Feofanovich Shandruk)
                             (in Graz, Austria exile)

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1944 - 1954

Note: Ukrainian resistance groups against German occupation united as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on 14 Oct 1942, which formed its political body in 1944. Resistance continued against Soviet re-occupation until 1954 when it was finally suppressed by Soviet forces.

[Organization of Ukrainian
                Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army flag]

Chairmen of the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation
Council
and Commanders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
14 Oct 1942 - 15 Jul 1944  Dmytro
Semenovych Klyachkivs'kyy   (b. 1911 - d. 1945)  OUNR
                             (Dmitriy Semyonovich Klyachkivskiy)
15 Jul 1944 -  5 Mar 1950  Roman-Taras Yosypovych Shukhevych  (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  OUNR
                             (Roman-Taras Iosifovich Shukhevich)
1950 - 23 May 1954         Vasyl' Stepanovych Kuk             (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  OUNR
                             (Vasiliy Stepanovich Kuk)

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Konstytutsiyno-Demokratychna Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); Oct = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya/Spilka 17 Zhovtnya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); OUN = Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, nationalist, right-wing, anti-communist, from 1940 sometimes called OUN-Melnyk, est.3 Feb 1929); OUNR = Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv Revolyutsiyna (Revolutionary Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, sometimes called OUN-Bandera, nationalist, Stepan Bandera personalist, anti-communist, right-wing, split from OUN, Feb 1940-1959); TUP = Tovarystvo Ukrayins'kykh Postupovtsiv (Society of Ukrainian Progressives, liberal nationalist, split from Ukrainian Democratic Radical Party, 1908-7 Apr 1917, merged into UPSF); UNDO = Ukrayins'ke Natsional'no-Demokratychne Ob'yednannya (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, nationalist, right-wing, 11 Jul 1925-1939, exile re-est.1947); UNDP = Ukrayins'ka Natsional'na Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian National Democratic Party, centrist, Galicia regionalist, 1914-Apr 1919, renamed Ukrainian Labor Party); UNDS = Ukrayins'kyy Natsional'no-Derzhavnyy Soyuz (Ukrainian National State Union, coordination center Ukrainian centrist and right parties, incl USDRP, UPSR, UPSF & USP, Aug 1918-1991); UPSF = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 7 Apr 1917-1923, renamed Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party 1923-39); USDP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party, democratic socialist, Galicia regionalist, 17 Sep 1899-Sep 1939, banned by Poland 30 Jun 1924, merged into USP); USP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsialistychna Partiya (Ukrainian Socialist Party, socialist, merger of USDP, USDRP & UPSR members, est.24 Mar 1950); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialists and Revolutionaries, Ukrainian nationalist, populist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); UPSS = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Samostiynykiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Independents, socialist, 30 Dec 1917-1922, renamed Ukrainian People's Party); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP); Mil = Military


Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1917-1919]
                 26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918,
                 28 Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919
[Ukrainian
                          People's Republic in 1917-1918 (Possible
                          reconstruction)]
       26 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 (Possible)
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1919 - 1937]
                   14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR Variant 1919-1939]
              14 Mar 1919 - 30 Jan 1937  Variant
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR in 1937-1949]
                    30 Jan 1937 - 21 Nov 1949
 
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR, 1949-1992]
                    21 Nov 1949 - 28 Jan 1992
[National Flag
                          of Ukraine]
18 Sep 1991 - 28 Jan 1992 Co-National Flag
 

Capital: Kiev (Kyyiv)
(Kharkov [Kharkiv] 1919-34;
Yekaterinoslav
[Katerynoslav]

10 Mar - 4 Apr 1918;
Poltava 1-10 Mar 1918)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn
 Ukrainskoy Sovetskoy
Sotsialisticheskoy
 Respubliki"
("Derzhavnyy
 Himn Ukrayins'koyi
 Radyans'koyi
Sotsialistychnoyi
Respubliky")
(State Anthem of the
 Ukrainian S.S.R.)
(1949 - 5 Dec 1991)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978 - 8 Jun 1995;
in Ukrainian)
Population: 49,755,000 (1980)

Note: Names are listed in Russian with Ukrainian in parentheses.

20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (Ukrainian National Republic)
                             established in Kharkov (
Kharkiv) as a communist counter-
                             government, subordinate to Soviet Russia.

18 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Authorities dissolved and exiled following the Treaty of Brest-
                             Litovsk and the fall of Lugansk (Luhans'k).
28 Nov 1918                (Communist) Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of
                             Ukraine established (in Sudza, Russia exile).

10 Mar 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
 
5 Dec 1936                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944
  Occupied by Germany (
Reichskommissariat Ukraine established
                             on 1 Sep 1941; see
below).
16 Jul 1990                State sovereignty declared.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
 

Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
12 Jul 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Georgiy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (b. 1890 - d. 1937) 

                             (Heorhiy Leonidovych P´yatakov)
                             (1st time)

 
9 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Serafima Ilyinichna Gopner (f)     (b. 1880 - d. 1966)

                            
(Serafima Illivna Hopner)
23 Oct 1918 -  6 Mar 1919  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring (Quiring)(b. 1888 - d. 1937)

                             (Emmanuyil Ionovych Kviring [Kvirinh])
 6 Mar 1919 - 30 May 1919  G
eorgiy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
30 May
1919 - 10 Dec 1919  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (b. 1889 - d. 1939)
                             (Stanislav Vikentiyovych Kosior)
                             (1st time)

10 Dec 1919 - Jan 1920     Vacant?
Jan 1920 - 23 Mar 1920     Rafail Borisovich Farbman (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
                            
(Rafayil Borysovych Farbman)
23 Mar 1920 - 25 Mar 1920  Nikolay Ilyich Nikolayev           (b. 1895 - d. 1937)

                            
(Beschetvertnoy)
                             (Mykola Illich Nikolayev [
Bezchetvertnyy])
25 Mar 1920 - 23 Nov 1920  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
First Secretary of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Nov 1920 - 22 Mar 1921  Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich Molotov    (b. 1890 - d. 1986)
                            
(V´yacheslav Mykhaylovych Molotov)
Executive Secretary of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
22 Mar 1921 - 15 Dec 1921  Feliks Yakovlevich Kon             (b. 1864 - d. 1941)
                             (Feliks Yakovych Kon)
First Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
15 Dec 1921 - 10 Apr 1923  Dmitriy Zakharovich Manuil'skiy    (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
                             (Dmytro Zakharovych Manuyil's'kyy)
10 Apr 1923 - 20 Mar 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
General Secretaries of the
Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
20 Mar 1925 -  7 Apr 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1925 - 14 Jul 1928  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (b. 1893 - d. 1991)
                            
(Lazar Moyseyovych Kahanovych)
14 Jul 1928 - 23 Jan 1934  S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee the Communist Party of Ukraine
23 Jan 1934 - 27 Jan 1938  Stanislav Vikentyevich Kosior      (s.a.)
27 Jan 1938 -  3 Mar 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                             (Khrushchyov) (1st time)
                             (
Mykyta Serhiyovych Khrushchov
)
                             (acting to 18 Jun 1938)

                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
 3 Mar 1947 - 26 Dec 1947  Lazar' Moiseyevich Kaganovich      (s.a.)
26 Dec 1947 - 28 Dec 1949  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
28 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1953  Leonid Georgiyevich Mel'nikov      (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
                            
(Leonid Heorhiyovych Mel'nykov)
 4 Jun 1953 - 26 Dec 1957  Aleksey Illarionovich Kirichenko   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)

                            
(Oleksiy Ilarionovych Kyrychenko)
26 Dec 1957 -  2 Jul 1963  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgornyy      (b. 1903 - d. 1983)

                            
(Mykola Viktorovych Pidhornyy)
 2 Jul 1963 - 25 May 1972  Pyotr Yefimovich Shelest           (b. 1908 - d. 1996)

                            
(Petro Yukhymovych Shelest)
25 May 1972 - 28 Sep 1989  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(b. 1918 - d. 1990)
                             (Volodymyr Vasyl'ovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
28 Sep 1989 - 23 Jun 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (b. 1932 - d. 1994)

                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko
)
23 Jun 1990 - 26 Aug 1991  Stanislav Ivanovich Gurenko        (b. 1936 - d. 2013)
                             (Stanislav Ivanovych Hurenko
)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee (in rebellion)
26 Dec 1917 - 30 Dec 1917  Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee
(acting)
                           - Vladimir Khristianovich Aussem   (b. 1882 - d. 1937?) RSDRP-B
                             (Volodymyr Khrystyyanovych Aussem)
                           -
Issak Leybovich Erlikherman      (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B
                             (Issak Leybovych Erlykherman)
                           -
Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)(b. 1879 - d. 1925)  RSDRP-B
                             (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                           - Sergey Sergeyevich Bakinskiy     (b. 1886 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
                             (Serhiy Serhiyovych Bakyns'kyy)
                           - Vasiliy Matveyevich Shakhray     (b. 1888 - d. 1919)  R
SDRP-B
                            
(Vasyl' Matviyovych Shakhray)
30 Dec 1917 - 19 Mar 1918 
Yefim Grigoryevich Medvedev        (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  USDRP
                            
(Yukhym Hryhorovych Medvyedyev)
19 Mar 1918 - 25 Mar 1918 
Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee (acting)
                           - Vladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Volodymyr Petrovych Zatons'kyy)
                           - Y
an Borisovich Gamarnik          (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             (Yan Borysovych Hamarnyk)
                           - Georgiy Fyodorovich L
apchinskiy  (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  RKP
                             (Heorhiy Fedorovych Lapchyns'kyy)
                           -
Leonid Dmitriyevich Korobchuk    (b. 1898 - d. 19..)  USDRP
                             (Karabchuk)(Leonid Dmytrovych Korobchuk [Karabchuk])
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich Severo-     (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                               Odoyevskiy
                            
(Opanas S
emenovych Sivero-Odoyevs'kyy)
                           -
Pavel Fyodorovich Boychenko                           UPSR
                             (Pavlo Fedorovych Boychenko)
                           - Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  UPSR

                             (Yevhen Petrovych Terlets'kyy)
                           -
Viktor Grigoryevich Grish                             UPSR
                            
(Viktor Hryhorovych Hrysh)
25 Mar 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy       (s.a.)               RKP 
28 Apr 1918 - Nov 1918    
All-Ukrainian Bureau For Directing the Partisan 
                           Resistance Against the German Occupiers
                           (at Taganrog, Russia)
                           - Andrey Sergeyevich Bubnov        (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  RKP/KPU-B
                             (Andriy Serhiyovych Bubnov)
                           -
Nikolay Alekseyevich Skripnik    (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  RKP;1918
                             (Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)                        KPU-B
 
                          - V
ladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy     (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B 
                           -
Georgiy Leonidovich Pyatakov     (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B
                           -
Yevgeniy Petrovich Terletskiy    (s.a.)               UPSR
                           - Afanasiy Semyonovich Severo-     (s.a.)               UPSR
                               Odoyevskiy
 
                          - Sergey Dmitriyevich Mstislavskiy (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  RKP/KPU-B
                             (S
erhiy Dmytrovych Mstyslavs'kiy) 
                           - Nikolay Yevtikhiyevich           (b. 1897 - d. 1918)  RKP/KPU-B                                Vrublevskiy
                            
(Mykola Yevtykhiyovych Vrublevs'kyy)
                           - S
tanislav Vikentyevich Kosior    (s.a.)               RKP/KPU-B
                          
[list not necessarily complete]
Chairmen of the Provisional Workers 'and Peasants' Government (in rebellion)
28 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919 
Georgiy Leonidovich Pyatakov       (s.a.)            RKP;1918 KPU-B
                             (H
eorhiy Leonidovych P´yatakov)
                             (in Kursk, Russia exile to ... 1918;
                             in dissidence 16 - 24 Jan 1919)
16 Jan 1919 - 24 Jan 1919 
Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  KPU-B
                            
"Artem" ("Artyom")
                            
(
Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev "Artem")

                            
(acting from 19 Jan 1919)
24 Jan 1919 - 10 Mar 1919
  K
hristian Georgiyevich Rakovskiy   (b. 1873 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                            
(K
hrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy
                              =
Krăstyo Georgiev Stanchev)

Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1919 - 25 Jul 1938  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  KPU-B

                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
25 Jul 1938 - 27 Jul 1938  Mikhail Alekseyevich Burmistenko   (b. 1902 - d. 1941)  KPU-B
                             (Mykhaylo Oleksiyovych Burmystenko)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

27 Jul 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (b. 1901 - d. 1969)  KPU-B
                             (Leonid Romanovych Korniyets')
28 Jul 1939 - 15 Jan 1954  Mikhail Sergeyevich Grechukha
     (b. 1902 - d. 1976)  KPU-B;1952
                             (Mykhaylo Serhiyovych Hrechukha)                      KPU
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

15 Jan 1954 -  7 Apr 1969  Dem´yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (b. 1894 - d. 1969)  KPU
                             (Dem´yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
 
7 Apr 1969 - 20 Jun 1969 
Stepan Yemelyanovich Stetsenko     (b. 1903 - d.af.1976)KPU
                             (Stepan Omelyanovych Stetsenko)
                             (1st time) (acting)
20 Jun 1969 -  9 Jun 1972  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  KPU

                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
 9 Jun 1972 - 28 Jul 1972  Stepan Yemelyanovich Stetsenko     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) (acting)
28 Jul 1972 - 25 Jun 1976  Ivan Samoylovich Grushetskiy       (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  KPU

                            
(Ivan Samiylovych Grushets'kyy [Hrushets'kyy])
25 Jun 1976 - 22 Nov 1984  Aleksey Fedoseyevich Vatchenko     (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  KPU

                            
(Oleksiy Fedosiyovych Vatchenko)
22 Nov 1984 -  4 Jun 1990  Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko (f)(b. 1935)            KPU

                             (Valentyna Semenivna Shevchenko)
                             (acting to 27 Mar 1985)

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
 4 Jun 1990 - 18 Jul 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko)
 
9 Jul 1990 - 23 Jul 1990  Ivan Stepanovich Plyushch          (b. 1941)            KPU
                            
(Ivan Stepanovych Plyushch)
                             (acting [for
Ivashko to 18 Jul 1990])
23 Jul 1990 - 24 Aug 1991  Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            KPU
                             (Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk)

Chairmen of the People's Secretariat (in rebellion)
17 Dec 1917 -  4 Mar 1918  Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh (Bosch)  (s.a.)              
RSDRP-B                               (Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh)(f)
                             (acting)
 
4 Mar 1918 - 18 Apr 1918  Nikolay Alekseyevich Skripnik      (s.a.)               RKP
                            
(Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk)
28 Nov 1918 - 29 Jan 1919  the heads of state (acting)(in rebellion)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars

29 Jan 1919 - 11 Dec 1919
  Khristian Georgiyevich Rakovskiy   (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrystyyan Heorhiyovych Rakovs'kyy)
                             (1st time)

Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Military Revolutionary Committee
11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Grigoriy Ivanovich Petrovskiy      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovs'kyy
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
19 Feb 1920 - 15 Jul 1923  Khristian Georgiyevich Rakovskiy   (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1923 - 28 Apr 1934  Vlas Yakovlevich Chubar            (b. 1891 - d. 1939)  KPU-B
                            
(Vlas Yakovlevych Chubar)
28 Apr 1934 - 30 Aug 1937  Afanasiy Petrovich Lyubchenko      (b. 1897 - d. 1937)  KPU-B

                            
(Panas Petrovych Lyubchenko)
30 Aug 1937 - 29 Oct 1937  Mikhail Ilyich Bondarenko          (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykhaylo Illich Bondarenko)
13 Oct 1937 - 21 Feb 1938  Nikolay Makarovich Marchak         (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU-B
                            
(Mykola Makarovych Marchak)
                             (acting [for B
ondarenko to 29 Oct 1937])
21 Feb 1938 - 28 Jul 1939  Dem
´yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Dem´yan Serhiyovych Korotchenko)
                             (1st time)
28 Jul 1939 -  5 Feb 1944  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Leonid Romanovych Korniyets')
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)

 5 Feb 1944 - 25 Mar 1946  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
                             (Khrushchyov)
                             (Mykyta Serhiyovych Khrushchov)                            

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

25 Mar 1946 - 26 Dec 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU-B
26 Dec 1947 - 15 Jan 1954  Dem´yan Sergeyevich Korotchenko    (s.a.)               KPU-B;1952
                             (2nd time)                                            KPU
15 Jan 1954 - 28 Feb 1961  Nikifor Timofeyevich Kalchenko     (b. 1906 - d. 1989)  KPU
                            
(Nykyfor Tymofiyovych Kal'chenko)
28 Feb 1961 - 28 Jun 1963  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitskiy
(s.a.)               KPU
                             (Volodymyr Vasyl'ovych Shcherbyts'kyy)
                             (1st time) 

28 Jun 1963 - 15 Oct 1965  Ivan Pavlovich Kazanets            (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  KPU
                            
(Ivan Pavlovych Kazanets')
15 Oct 1965 -  9 Jun 1972  Vladimir Vasilyevich S
hcherbitskiy (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) 
 
9 Jun 1972 - 10 Jul 1990  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (s.a.)               KPU
                            
(Oleksandr Pavlovych Lyashko)
10 Jul 1990 - 23 Oct 1990  Vitaliy Andreyevich Masol          (b. 1928)            KPU

                            
(Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol)
23 Oct 1990 - 18 Apr 1991  Vitol'd Pavlovich Fokin            (b. 1932)            KPU

                             (Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin)
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1990)

Party abbreviations: KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991); KPU-B = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov) Ukrainy (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, separated 1 Mar 1919 from RKP, 12 Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed KPU); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); UPSR = Ukrayins'ka Partiya Sotsialistiv-Revolyutsioneriv/ Ukrainskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Ukrainian Party of Socialists and Revolutionaries, Ukrainian nationalist, populist, 17 Apr 1917-1918, left wing faction merged into KPU-B, right wing in exile to 1950 then merged into USP); USDRP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya/Ukrainskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, democratic socialist, Jan 1919 split into right and left wing factions, 1920 exiled, Dec 1905-26 Mar 1950, merged into USP)


Odessa Soviet Republic

[Odessa Soviet Republic, 1918
                (Ukraine)]

 5 Jan 1918                (Second) Central Executive Committee of Soldiers', Sailors',
                             Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front, the
                             Black Sea Fleet and Odessa District
("Rumcherod") organized.
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Occupies Moldova.
31 Jan 1918                Odessa Soviet Republic proclaimed by "Rumcherod" (claiming parts
                             of the Kherson, Taurida, and Bessarabia guberniya); nominally
                             a part
of Soviet Russia.
13 Mar 1918 - Dec 1918     German and Austro-Hungarian occupation.
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Allied forces occupy Odessa.
18 Aug 1919 -  7 Feb 1920 
"White" Russian forces occupy Odessa.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Soldiers', Sailors', Workers' and Peasants' Deputies of the Romanian Front, the Black Sea Fleet and Odessa District ("Rumcherod")
18 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Vladimir Grigoryevich Yudovskiy     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)  RSDRP-B

                             (Volodymyr Hryhorovych Yudovs'kyy)

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Council of Workers' Deputies
18 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Aleksandr Konstantinovich Voronskiy (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             (Oleksandr Kostyantynovych Voronskyy)

Allied Military Commander in Odessa

18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Albert Charles Jules Borius        (b. 1865 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (France)


Donets–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (Donets'- Kryvyy Rih Soviet Republic)

[Donets Kryvyi
                          Rih Soviet Republic (Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet
                          Republic), 1918 )(Ukraine)
       12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918
[Donets Kryvyi
                          Rih Soviet Republic (Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet
                          Republic), 1918 (possible
                          reconstruction)(Ukraine)
           Possible Reconstruction

12 Feb 1918                Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic (Donets'-Kryvyy Rih
                             Soviet Republic).

19 Mar 1918                Incorporated into Communist Ukraine.

Chairman of the Council of People's Comissars  
12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918 
Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev        (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  RSDRP-B 
                             "Artem" ("Artyom")
                            
(Fedir Andriyovych Serhyeyev
"Artem")


(post-Soviet) Ukraine

Note: Names are listed in Ukrainian.

24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Chairman of the Supreme Council (Verkhovna Rada)
24 Aug 1991 -  5 Dec 1991
  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            Non-party
Presidents

 5 Dec 1991 - 19 Jul 1994  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk         (s.a.)               Non-party
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Jan 2005  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (b. 1938)            Non-party
23 Jan 2005 - 25 Feb 2010  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (b. 1954)            NU
25 Feb 2010 - 22 Feb 2014  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (b. 1950)            Non-party
23 Feb 2014 -  7 Jun 2014  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (b. 1964)            VOB;2014 NF
                             (acting)
 7 Jun 2014 -              Petro Oleksiyovych Poroshenko      (b. 1965)            Non-party

Prime ministers 
18 Apr 1991 -  2 Oct 1992  Vitol'd Pavlovych Fokin            (b. 1932)          KPU;1991 Ind
 2 Oct 1992 - 13 Oct 1992  Valentyn Kostyantynovych Symonenko (b. 1940)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
13 Oct 1992 - 22 Sep 1993  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma           (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Sep 1993 - 16 Jun 1994  Yukhym Leonidovych Zvyahil's'kyy   (b. 1933)            Non-party
                             (acting) 
16 Jun 1994 -  6 Mar 1995  Vitaliy Andriyovych Masol          (b. 1928)            KPU
 
6 Mar 1995 - 27 May 1996  Yevgen Kyrylovych Marchuk          (b. 1941)            SDP
                             (acting to 8 Jun 1995)
28 May 1996 -  2 Jul 1997  Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko          (b. 1953)            Hormada
19 Jun 1997 - 16 Jul 1997  Vasyl' Vasyl'ovych Durdynets'      (b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (acting [for Lazarenko to 2 Jul 1997])
16 Jul 1997 - 22 Dec 1999  Valeriy Pavlovych Pustovoytenko    (b. 1947)            NDP
22 Dec 1999 - 29 May 2001  Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko      (s.a.)               Non-party
29 May 2001 - 21 Nov 2002  Anatoliy Kyrylovych Kinakh         (b. 1954)            PPP
21 Nov 2002 -  5 Jan 2005  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(1st time)
 7 Dec 2004 - 28 Dec 2004  M
ykola Yanovych Azarov (1st time)  (b. 1947)            PR
                             (acting for Yanukovych)
 5 Jan 2005 - 24 Jan 2005  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PR
                             (acting)      
24 Jan 2005 -  8 Sep 2005  Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(b. 1960)            VOB
                             (1st time)(acting to 4 Feb 2005)
 8 Sep 2005 -  4 Aug 2006  Yuriy Ivanovych Yekhanurov         (b. 1948)            NU
                             (Ekhanurov)(acting to 22 Sep 2005)
 4 Aug 2006 - 18 Dec 2007  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych       (s.a.)               PR
                            
(2nd time)
18 Dec 2007 - 11 Mar 2010  
Yuliya Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)(s.a.)               VOB
                             (2nd time)
 4 Mar 2010 -  9 Mar 2010  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov  (s.a.)               VOB
                             ([de facto] acting for Tymoshenko)
11 Mar 2010 - 28 Jan 2014  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PR
28 Jan 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Sergiy Gennadiyovych Arbuzov       (b. 1976)            PR
                            
(acting)
27 Feb 2014 -              Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk        (b. 1974)           
NF
24 Jul 2014 -  1 Aug 2014  Volodymyr Borysovych Groysman      (b. 1978)            Non-party
                             (Hroysman) (acting for Yatsenyuk)


Territorial Disputes:
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova's difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSECE)-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Ostriv Zmiyinyy/Insula Șerpilor (Snake Island) and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Party abbreviations: Hormada = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Hromada" (All-Ukrainian Association "Community", social democratic, center-left, est.12 Dec 1993); Ind = Independent; KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991, re-est.19 Jun 1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiya (People's Democratic Party, centrist, est.24 Feb 1996); NF = Narodnyy Front (People's Front, nationalist, conservative, pro-Europe, est.31 Mar 2014); NRU = Narodnyy Rukh Ukrayiny (People's Movement of Ukraine, "Rukh", center-right, Ukrainian nationalist, est.9 Feb 1990); NU = Nasha Ukrayina ("Our Ukraine", center-right, liberal conservative, pro-Europe, Viktor Yushchenko personalist, est.5 Mar 2005); PPP = Partiya Promyslovtsiv i Pidpryyemtsiv Ukrayiny (Party of Industrialists & Entrepreneurs of Ukraine, centrist, est.9 Feb 2000); PR = Partiya Rehioniv/Partiya Regionov (Party of Regions, regionalist, centrist, pro-Russia, 2001-05 pro-Kuchma, 2010-14 pro-Yanukovych, 1997-2001 named Partiya Rehionalʹnoho Vidrodzhennya Ukrayiny/Partiya Regional'nogo Vozrozhdeniya Ukrainy [Party Regional Revival of Ukraine], est.3 Mar 2001); VOB = Vseukrayins'ke Ob'yednannya "Bat'kivshchyna" (All-Ukrainian Association "Fatherland", center-right, liberal conservative, populist, pro-Europe, split from Hormada, est.9 Jul 1999)



Reichskommissariat of Ukraine

[Third Reich 1933-1945 (Germany)]
 
Map of Ukraine
1941-1944
Capital: Rowno
(Rivne)
Currency: 1942-1944 Reichs Karbowanez (UAC)
Population: 41,340,000
(1941 est.)
Districts
(Generalbezirk)

22 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944  Ukraine occupied by Germany (from 1 Sep 1941, 
                             Reichskommissariat Ukraine).

German Commander Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd)
22 Jun 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
Reichskommissare
 1 Sep 1941 -  6 Oct 1943  Erich Koch                     (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
1942 - 194.                Paul Dargel (acting for Koch)  (b. 1903 - d.af.1945)NSDAP
Oct 1943 - 1944            Curt von Gottberg              (b. 1896 - d. 1945)  NSDAP

Party abbreviation: NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist, xenophobic, 1920-1945)


Transnistria

[Romania]

Map of Transnistria
1941-1944

Capital: Odessa
(Odesa)
Population: 2,326,224
 (1941)

 3 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug Rivers, including Odessa
                             and the Transnitria region of Moldavian S.S.R., is occupied
                             but not annexed by Romania.
19 Aug 1941 - 10 Apr 1944 
Organized as Transnistria Governorate (Guvernământul
                             Transnistriei
); Odessa occupied on 16 Oct 1941.
10 Apr 1944                Odessa liberated by Soviet forces. 

Romanian Commandants (of the 4th Army)
 
3 Aug 1941 -  9 Sep 1941  Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil 
 
9 Sep 1941 - 16 Oct 1941  Iosif Iacobici                     (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  Mil 
Governors of Transnistria
19 Aug 1941 -  1 Feb 1944  Gheorghe Alexianu                  (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  Mil 
 
1 Feb 1944 - 10 Apr 1944  Gheorghe Potopeanu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1966)  Mil



Western Ukraine

[Western Ukraine flag 1918-1919]
           13 Nov 1918 - 22 Jan 1919
 
Map of Western Ukraine
Capital: L'viv
(Ternopil' 22 Nov 1918 -
1 Jan 1919, Stanyslaviv
1-22 Jan 1919)

Currency: 1918-1922
  Hryvnya (UAG)

Population: 5,400,000 (1910)

26 Apr 1795                Annexed by Austria from Poland (part of Galicia).
 1 Nov 1918                Ukrainian State (independence from Austria).
13 Nov 1918                Western Ukrainian People's Republic
22 Jan 1919                Incorporation into Ukraine.
20 Apr 1920                Annexation by Poland (Western Ukrainian government in exile est.)
15 Mar 1923                Ambassadors council recognizes Polish annexation.
17/22 Sep 1939             Western Ukraine occupied and from 1 Nov 1939 annexed by Soviet
                             Union (part of Ukrainian S.S.R.)
21 Jun 1941                Germany takes over the Soviet-occupied areas.
 1 Aug 1941 - Jul 1944     Galizien district of German occupied General-government.
Jul 1944                   Re-occupied by Soviet forces.
15 Sep 1947                Re-icorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (in Soviet Union) 
                             (de facto from 1944).
 

President of the Supreme Ukrainian Council (from 5 May 1915,
Chairman of the
General Ukrainian Council)

 1 Aug 1914 - 31 Oct 1918  Kostyantyn Antonovych Livyts'kyy   (b. 1859 - d. 1941)  USDP
                             (Konstantin Antonovich Levitskiy)
                             (in Lemberg, from May 1915 in Vienna exile)
President of the Ukrainian National Council

 1 Nov 1918 - 22 Jan 1919  Yevhen Omelyanovych Petrushevych   (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  USDP
                             (Yevgeniy Yemel'yanovich Petrushevich)
                             (continues in Austria exile to 15 Mar 1923)

Chairmen of the State Secretariat (chief ministers)
 9 Nov 1918 -  4 Jan 1919  Kostyantyn Antonovych Livyts'kyy   (s.a.)               USDP
 4 Jan 1919 - 22 Jan 1919  Sydir Tymofiyovych Holubovych      (b. 1873 - d. 1938)  USDP
                             (Sidor Timofeyevich Golubovich)

Party abbreviation: USDP = Ukrayins'ka Sotsial-Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party, democratic socialist, Galicia regionalist, 17 Sep 1899-Sep 1939, banned by Poland 30 Jun 1924)

Galician Socialist Soviet Republic

[Galician Socialist Soviet Republic, 1920
                (possible reconstruction)]

15 Jul 1920                Galician Revolutionary Committee formed in Kiev exile.         
 1 Aug 1920                Galician Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed at
                             Ternopil' (Tarnopol).
21 Sep 1920                Dissolved, area is re-occupied by Poland. 

Chairman of the Galician Revolutionary Committee ("Galrevkom")
 1 Aug 1920 - 21 Sep 1920  Vladimir Petrovich Zatonskiy        (b. 1888 - d. 1938)  RKP
                             (Volodymyr Petrovych Zatons'kyy)
                             (from 15 Jul 1920 in Kiev exile)

Party abbreviation: RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks])


Lemko-Rusyn Republic
 
[Lemko-Rusyn
                Republic flag]
  
 5 Dec 1918                Rusyn Republic People's Republic of Lemko
                             (Ruska Narodna Respublika Lemkiv) established in Florynka.
Mar 1920                   Incorporation into Poland.

President of the Central National Council 
 5 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1920  Yaroslav Teofilovych Kachmarchyk    (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
                             (Yaroslav Teofilovich Kachmarchik
                              = Jarosław Kaczmarczyk)



Bukovina

[Flag of Duchy of Bukovina,
                1849-1918]
                 1849 - 31 Dec 1918
 
Map of Bukovina
Capital: Czernowitz
(Chernivtsi, Cernăuți)
Population: 800,198 (1910)

1490                       Part of Moldavia (under suzerainty of Ottoman Empire).
14 Sep 1739 - Oct 1739     Occupied Russia.
15 Dec 1769 - Sep 1774     Occupied by Russia.
 1 Oct 1774 - 1775         Occupied by Austria.
 7 May 1775                Annexed by Austria (under military administration to 1786).
16 Sep 1786 -  4 Mar 1849  Amalgamated with Galicia (see Poland) as kreis (district) of
                             Czernowitz (later Bukovina).
 4 Mar 1849                Separate Austrian crownland as the Duchy of Bukovina
                             (Herzogtum Bukowina).
 1 Sep 1860 - 26 Mar 1861  Re-incorporated into Galicia.
28 Feb 1861                Autonomous.
21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e. of the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial 
                             Diet").
26 Nov 1914 - 17 Feb 1915  Russian occupation.
18 Jun 1916 -  6 Aug 1917  Russian occupation.
Mar 1918 - Oct 1918        Austrian military occupation of Khotyn (then the northernmost  
                             district of Bessarabia).
12 Nov 1918                Independence from Austria; Northern Bukovina (Czernowitz) votes
                             to united with Ukraine, Southern Bukovina votes to join Romania.
31 Dec 1918                All of Bukovina incorporated into Romania.
27 Jun 1940                Northern Bukovina annexed by Soviet Union (as part of Ukrainian
                             S.S.R.).
25 Jun 1941                Occupied by Germany and Romania.
 5 Jul 1941                Northern Bukovina re-incorporated into Romania as Bukovina
                             (Bucovina) governorate.
 9 Apr 1944                Occupied by Soviet Union.
15 Sep 1947                Incorporation of Northern Bukovina into Ukrainian S.S.R.
                             (as part of Soviet Union; de facto from 1944).

Dukes (title Herzog von Bukowina)
 4 Mar 1849 - 12 Nov 1918  the Emperors of Austria

Military and Civil Governors
 1 Oct 1774 -  6 Apr 1778  Gabriel Anton Freiherr             (b. 1734 - d. 1818)
                             Splény de Miháldy
Apr 1778 - 31 Oct 1786     Karl Freiherr von Enzenberg zu     (b. c.1725 - d. 1810)
                             Freyen und Jöchelsthurn
Kreishauptleute
1786 - 1792                Joseph von Beck
1792 - 1803                Basil von Balsch (Vasile Bals)     (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
1803 - 1805                von Schreiber
1805 - 1807                von Mitscha
1807 - 1817                Johann von Platzer
1817 - 1823                Joseph Freiherr von Stutterheim    (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
1823 - 1833                Johann von Melczechen
1833 - 1838                Franz Kratter
1838 - 1840                Casimir Ritter von Milbacher       (b. 1784 - d. 18..)
1840 - 1849                Gheorghe Isăcescu (Issecescul)
Administrators-general
Feb 1849 - Jul 1849        Eduard Freiherr von Bach           (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
Jul 1849 -  1 Mar 1853     Anton Freiherr Henniger von Seeberg
Landespräsidenten
 
6 Mar 1853 - 27 Nov 1857  Franz Freiherr von Schmück         (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
                             (provisional to 29 May 1854)
18 Feb 1858 - May 1860     Karl Graf von Rothkirch und Panthen(b. 1807 - d. 1870)
 1 Sep 1860 -  1 Mar 1861  Jakob Ritter von Mikuli            (b. 1815 - d. 1869)
                            
(chef des provisorischen Gouvernements)
26 Mar 1861 -  2 May 1862  Wenzel Ritter von Martina

 2 May 1861 - 31 May 1862  Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki    (b. 1812 - d. 1874)
                             (Eudoxiu de Hurmuzachi)(acting)
31 May 1862 - 30 Oct 1865  Rudolf Graf von Amadei             (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
30 Oct 1865 -  4 Oct 1870  Franz Myrbach Ritter  von          (b. 1818 - d. 1882) 
                             Rheinfeld
 4 Oct 1870 -  8 Jul 1874  Felix Freiherr von Pino            (b. 1825 - d. 1906)
                             Friedenthal (1st time)
18 Aug 1874 -  8 Feb 1887  Hieronymus Freiherr von            (b. 1837 - d. 1887)
                             Alesani
14 Feb 1887 -  1 Aug 1890  Felix Freiherr von Pino            (s.a.)
                             Friedenthal (2nd time)
 9 Jan 1891 - 17 May 1892  Anton Graf Pace von Friedensberg   (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
                             (Leiter der Landesregierung to 1 Aug 1891)
22 May 1892 -  7 Jun 1894  Franz Freiherr von Krauss          (b. 1837 - d. 1919)

 
8 Jun 1894 - 16 Dec 1897  Leopold Graf von Goëss             (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
16 Dec 1897 - 25 Feb 1903  Friedrich Freiherr Bourguignon     (b. 1846 - d. 1907)
                             von Baumberg
25 Feb 1903 -  1 Oct 1904  Konrad Maria Prinz zu Hohenlohe-   (b. 1863 - d. 1918)
                             Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst
 1 Oct 1904 - 15 Dec 1911  Oktavian Ritter Regner von         (b. 1866 - d. 1945)  
                             Bleyleben 
 
1 Jan 1912 - 24 Apr 1917  Rudolf Graf von Meran              (b. 1872 - d. 1959)
24 Apr 1917 -  6 Nov 1918  Joseph Graf von Etzdorf
President of the National Council
27 Oct 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Dionisie Bejan                     (b. 1837 - d. 1922)  PDUB
President of the General Congress
28 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Iancu Flondor                      (b. 1865 - d. 1924)  PNRB
Romanian Military commander
Jun 1941 - Jul 1941        Petre Dumitrescu                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil
Governors-general of Bukovina

 7 Jul 1941 - 31 Aug 1941  Alexandru Rioşanu                  (b. 1892 - d. 1941)  Mil
31 Aug 1941 - 13 Apr 1943  Corneliu Calotescu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1970)  Mil
                            
(acting to 5 Sep 1941)
13 Apr 1943 - Apr 1944     Corneliu Dragalina                 (b. 1887 - d. 1949)  Mil


Landeshauptleute‏

1861 - 1862                Eugenie Hacman, bishop of Bukovina (b. 1793 - d. 1873)  Non-party
1862 - 1870                Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki    (s.a.)               Z
                             (acting to 1864) (1st time)
1870 - 1871                Alexander Freiherr Wassilko von    (b. 1827 - d. 1893)  PNR
                            
Serecki (1st time)
1871 - Feb 1874
            Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki    (s.a.)               Z
                             (2nd time)
1874 - 1884                Anton
Kochanowski Ritter von       (b. 1817 - d. 1906)  DL
                             Stawczan
1884 - 1892                Alexander Freiherr Wassilko von    (s.a.)               PNR
                            
Serecki (2nd time)
1892 - 1904                Johann von Lupul
(Iancu Lupul)     (b. 1836 - d. 1922)  PNR
14 Sep 1904 - Jul 1911     Georg Freiherr Wassilko von Serecki(b. 1864 - d. 1940)  PNR
1911 - 12 Nov 1918         Alexander Freiherr von Hormuzaki   (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  PNR
                             (Alexandru Hurmuzachi)

Party abbreviations: DL = Deutschliberale Partei (German Liberal Party, 1867-1879); PNR = Partidul Naţional Român din Transilvania şi Banat (Romanian National Party in Transylvania and Banat, liberal, Romanian autonomist, from 1919 named Partidul Naţional Român [Romanian National Party], 1881-1926, merged into PNT); PDUB = Partidul Democrat al Unirii din Bucovina (Democratic Union Party of Bukovina, Romanian autonomist, liberal, 1918-1923, merged into PNL); PNRB = Partidul Naţional Român din Bucovina (Romanian National Party of Bukovina, conservative, split from PNR, 1909-1918); Z = Zentralist (Centralist); Mil = Military



Carpatho-Ukraine (Ruthenia)
 
[AH Flag of
                          Ruthenia]
                c.1848 -  8 Nov 1918
[Flag of
                          Carpatho-Ukraine 1939]
          15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939
Map of Carpatho-Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Shche ne vmerla Ukrayina"
(Ukraine has not Perished)
Text of National Anthem
 (15 - 16 Mar 1939)
First Constitutional Law
 of Carpatho-Ukraine

(15 Mar 1939)
Capital: Uzhgorod (Uzhhorod)
(Khust 2 Nov 1938-1939)
Currency: 1938-1939
Hungarian Pengoe (HUP)
National Holiday: 14 Mar (1939)
Independence Day
Population: 814,000 (1938)
1,254,000 (2003)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Ruthenian/Rusyn 63%, Russian 15.4%,
Jewish 13%, Ukrainian 1.8%, Hungarian 1.7%, Czech and
Slovak 4.8%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, others 0.1% (1930)
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Ukrainian
Orthodox, Jewish
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Ruthenian Catholic Church

25 Dec 1000                Part of Hungary (part of Feldivék [Upper Hungary])
                             (24 Feb 1538 - 16.. part Erdély [Transylvania].
 5 Aug 1772                Red Ruthenia (Rus Czerwona) annexed.
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Hungarian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e of the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown").
 8 Nov 1918                Ruthenian National Council established at Lyubovna. On
                             19 Nov 1918 moved to Prešov in Slovakia.
 9 Nov 1918                Rival Ruthenian Council in Hungary (for autonomy within
                             Hungary) established in Uzhgorod (Uzhhorod). 
26 Dec 1918                Hungary establishes an Autonomous Region of Russka Kraina.
28 Dec 1918                Czechoslovak forces occupy Prešov.
12 Jan 1919                After Allied intervention, the territory was temporarily divided 
                             into two zones: western Subcarpathia to Czechs, while
                             eastern Subcarpathia remained Hungarian.
12 Jan 1918                Czechoslovak forces occupy Uzhgorod.
17 Jan 1919                Western Ukrainian troops invade Subcarpathia. They are driven out
                             21 Jan, but not before having established a third Rusyn council,
                             the Carpatho-Ukrainian National Council (claiming reunion with 
                             Ukraine) at Khust. 
19 Apr 1919 - Jul 1920     Romanian troops occupy the eastern Hungarian zone. 
27 Apr 1919                Czech troops started occupying the western Hungarian zone.
 9 May 1919                A Ruthenian Central National Council, claiming to represent all the
                             previous councils, set up at Uzhgorod. On 22 May 1919, formally
                             accepts union with Czechoslovakia.
10 Sep 1919                Part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Rus).
 4 Jun 1920                By Treaty of Trianon Hungary formally cedes Carpathian Ruthenia
                             to Czechoslovakia.
11 Oct 1938                Autonomy within Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Rus province).
30 Dec 1938                Renamed Carpatho-Ukraine.
15 Mar 1939                Independence from Czechoslovakia (Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine).
16 Mar 1939                Annexed by Hungary and named Subcarpathia.
27 Oct 1944                Occupied by the Soviet Union (see under Slovakia) and 
                             named Transcarpathian Ukraine.
29 Jun 1945                Formally ceded by Czechoslovakia and annexed to Soviet Union.
22 Jan 1946                Incorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (within Soviet Union as
                             Transcarpathia oblast [Ukrainian: Zakarpatska oblast, Russian: 
                             Zakarpatskaya oblast])(see Ukraine oblasts).
 
Chairmen of the Ruthenian National Council
(in L'ubovňa, from 19 Nov 1918 Prešov exile) 
 8 Nov 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  Omelyan Nevyckiy                   (b. 1878 - d. 1939)
19 Nov 1918 - Jan 1919     Antoniy Hryhorovych Beskyd         (b. 1855 - d. 1933)
                             (= Anton Beskid)
Chairman of the Hungarian-Ruthenian National Council
(in Uzhgorod)
 9 Nov 1918 - 26 Dec 1918  Symeon Sabov (= Simont Szabó)      (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
Chairman of the Ruthenian Central National Council
 6 May 1919 - 19 Aug 1919  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (b. 1874 - d. 1945) 
                            
(= Augustin Vološin)
Chairman of the Provisional Directorate

19 Aug 1919 - May 1920     Hryhoriy Ihnatiy Zhatkovych        (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
                             (= Grigorij Žatkovič)
Governor of Russka Kraina
(in Mukacevo)
12 Jan 1919 - 25 Mar 1919  Ágoston Stefán                     (b. 1877 - d. 1944)
Governors
1919 - 1920                Ivan Brejcha                       (b. 1867 - d. 1924)
 5 May 1920 - 17 May 1921  Hryhoriy Ihnatiy Zhatkovych        (s.a.)
17 May 1921 - 18 Nov 1923  Petr Ehrenfeld (acting)            (b. 1866 - d. 1936)

18 Nov 1923 - 16 Jun 1933  Antoniy Hryhorovych Beskyd         (s.a.)
16 Jun 1933 - 15 Feb 1935  Antonín Rozsypal (acting)          (b. 1866 - d. 1937)
15 Feb 1935 -  9 Oct 1938  Konstantin Hrabar                  (b. 1877 - d. 1938) 
 9 Oct 1938 - 1939         Ivan Párkányi                      (b. 1896 - d. 1997)
Military governor
 6 Mar 1939 - 14 Mar 1939  Lev Prchala                        (b. 1892 - d. 1963)  Mil
President
14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)               UNO
                             (acting to 15 Mar 1939)
Hungarian Military commanders
14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Béla Novákovics                    (b. 1886 - d. 1976)
16 Mar 1939 -  7 Jul 1939  Géza Császár
District Commissioners
 7 Jul 1939 - 12 Sep 1940  Zsigmond báró Perényi perényi      (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
12 Sep 1940 -  8 Dec 1941  vitéz Miklós Kozma leveldi         (b. 1884 - d. 1941)
 5 Jan 1942 -  5 Apr 1944  Vilmos Pál Tomcsányi               (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
 5 Apr 1944 - 19 Oct 1944  András Vincze   
Czechoslovak Administrator
28 Oct 1944 - 26 Nov 1944  František Němec                    (b. 1889 - d. 1963) 

Minister for Russka Kraina (in Budapest)
12 Dec 1918 - 21 Mar 1919  Oreszt Szabó (= Orest Sabov)       (b. 1867 - d. 1944?)
Vice-governors and Heads of the Civil Administration
May 1920 - 1924            Petr Ehrenfeld                     (s.a.)
1924 - 1933                Antonín Rozsypal                   (s.a.)
Head of the Political Administration
1933 - 1938                Antonín Rozsypal                   (s.a.)
Czechoslovak Minister for Subcarpathian Rus Affairs
 4 Oct 1938 - 14 Oct 1938  Ivan Párkányi                      (s.a.)
14 Oct 1938 -  6 Mar 1939  Vacant
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
11 Oct 1938 - 26 Oct 1938  Andriy Ivanovych Brodyy            (b. 1895 - d. 1946)  AZS
                            
(= Andras Brody)
26 Oct 1938 - 15 Mar 1939  Avgustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)              KNP;1939 UNO

15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Yuliyan Ivanovych Revay            (b. 1899 - d. 1979)  UNO
                             (= Iuliian Revai)

Commanders of Czechoslovak Troops in Subcarpathia
12 Jan 1919 - 27 May 1919  Luigi Giuseppe Piccione            (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
 1 Jun 1919 - 1919         Edmond Charles Adolphe Hennocque   (b. 1860 - d. 1933)
1919 - May 1920            Marie Constantin Robert Paris      (b. 1868 - d. 1953)

Party abbreviations: AZS = Avtonomno-Zemlerobs'kyy Soyuz (Autonomous Agricultural Union, founded as Pidkarpats'kyy Zemlerobs'kyy Soyuz [Subcarpathian Agricultural Union], Uniate Catholic, Subcarpathian autonomist, Jun 1920-25 Oct 1938); KNP = Khrystyyans'ko-Narodna Partiya (Christian People's Party, populist, Uniate Catholic, Ruthenia regionalist, 1920-24 named Ruthenian Peasants Party, 1922-18 Jan 1939, part of UNO); UNO = Ukrayins'ke Natsional'ne Ob'yednannya (Ukrainian National Association, Ruthenian self-government, Uniate Catholic, conservative, 18 Jan - 16 Mar 1939)


Hutsul' Republic

[Hutsul (Hucul) Republic]

 8 Nov 1918                Hutsul in eastern Subcarpathia, in revolt against Hungary since
                             Nov 1918, proclaims independence as Hutsul' Republic
                             (Hutsul's'koyy respubliky).
11 Jul 1919                Terminated by Romania.
10 Sep 1919                Part of Czechoslovakia.

Chairman
 8 Nov 1918 - 11 Jul 1919  Stepan Stepanovych Klochurak        (b. 1895 - d. 1980)
                             (= Stepan Stepanovich Klochurak) 


Komancza (Komanchans'ka) Republic

[Komancza (Komancha) Republic]

 4 Nov 1918                In eastern Lemko region 30 villages establish an administration
                             which was referred to as "Komanchans'ka (Komancza) Republic"
                             (or the East Lemko Republic).
23 Jan 1919                Polish troops occupied Komancza; incorporated into Poland.

President of the Council
 4 Nov 1918 - 23 Jan 1919  Panteleymon Shpyl'ka               (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
                             (Panteleymon Shpil'ka)



Crimea (Krym)
 
[Crimean Khanate
                          flag]
                        to 1783
  
[Crimean
                          Republic, 1917]
            26 Dec 1917 - 15 Jan 1918
   
[Tavrida
                          (Tauride) Soviet Republic flag, 1918]
           16 Jan 1918 - 21 Apr 1918,
              Apr 1919 - 26 Jun 1919
 
[Crimean
                          Regional Government, 1918]
              21 Jun 1918 - Apr 1919
 
[Russia flag]
          26 Jun 1919 - Nov 1920
 
[Crimean
                          Socialist Soviet Republic, 1920-21]
             Nov 1920 - 10 Nov 1921
 
[Crimean Soviet
                          Socialist Republic, 1921]
                      10 Nov 1921 - 1937
 
[Crimean ASSR,
                          1922]
                   10 Nov 1921 - 1937 Variant
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1937]
                            1937 - 1939
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1939-45]
             1939 - 1942, Apr 1944 - 30 Jun 1945
[Crimean
                          Autonomous Republic flag (Ukraine)]
                       Adopted 24 Sep 1992
Map of Crimea Hear Local Anthem
"Gimn Avtonomnoy
 Respubliki Krym"
("Himn Avtonomnoyi
 Respubliky Krym")
(Hymn of the Autonomous
Republic of Crimea)
Text of Anthem
26 Feb 1992-2014
(lyrics 18 Oct 2000)
Constitution
(12 Jan 1999-17 Mar 2014)
-----------------------------------

1992 Constitution

(6 May 1992 - 17 Mar 1995,
restored 17 Mar 2014
)
Capital: Simferopol
(Bakhchisaray 1532-28 Apr
1784, 25 Jun 1918-Apr 1919)
Currency: from 17 Mar 2014
Russian Ruble (RUR);
1993-1 Jun 2014 Hryvnya
(UAH)

Local Holiday (1992-2014):
20 Jan (1991)
Day of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Population: 1,966,556 (2014)
2,024,000 (2001)
1,634,700 (1906)
GDP (1992-2014): $N/A
(included in Ukraine GDP)
Exports (1992-2014): $N/A
Imports (1992-2014): $N/A
(included in Ukraine figures)
Ethnic groups: Russian 58.5%, Ukrainian 24.4%, Crimean
Tatar 12.1%, Belarusian 1.5%, Tatar 0.5%, Armenian 0.4%,
Jews 0.2%, Poles 0.2%, Moldovan 0.2%, Azeri 0.2%,
others 1.8%
(2001)
Total Local Armed Forces: 1,500 (2014)
[Ukrainian Forces: 14,500 (2014)]
Russian Forces: 30,000 (2013)

Merchant marine: N/A (2014)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic,
Muslim, Jewish, others
Sevastopol

Note: For 1991-2014 names are given in Ukrainian with Russian version in parentheses.

395 - 989                  Byzantine rule on the south coast.
c.680 - c.833              Khazar rule.
c.833 - 895                Magyar rule.
895 - 1004/50              Under Paçinak (to the Slavs known as Pecheneg) rule.
989 - 10..                 Russian rule in Gothia and Cherson.
1004/50                    The Qypçak (also known as Polovcy or Kuman) found a state
                             referred to as Steppe of the Qypçak (Dest-i-Qypçak).
10.. - 1204                Byzantine rule on the south coast restored.
1236                       Mongol conquest (under the Kipchak [Qipchaq]).
1266 - 1300                Crimean city of Theodosia (Kaffa) ruled by Genoa.
1315 -  6 Jun 1475         Kaffa under Genoese rule (from 12 Jul 1365 - 1387 also in Sudak,
                             and Cembalo [Balaklava] and southern coast of the Crimea).
1449                       Girai (Giray) Khans replaced the Kipchak Khans as rulers of the
                             Crimea.
 1 Jun 1475                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1568 - 21 Jul 1774         Eyalet of Kefe (province of Kaffa) created in the southern
                             coast of Crimea, under direct Ottoman rule.
1713 - 1739                Zaporizhia (Zaporizhzhya) ceded by Russia to Crimea.
13 Jul 1771 - 1773         Russian occupation.
21 Jul 1774                Ottomans renounce sovereignty over Crimea by the Treaty 
                             of Küçük Kaynarca (Kuchuk Kainarjae).
21 Apr 1777                Russian vassal.
21 Jul 1783                Annexed to Russia (as Taurida oblast).
Jun 1792                   Khanate terminated by Russia.
 8 Oct 1802                Part of Russian governorate (guberniya) of Taurida.
13 Sep 1854 - 12 Jul 1856  Parts of southern of Crimea occupied during Crimean War.
20 Apr 1917                Autonomy proclaimed.
26 Dec 1917                Crimean People's Democratic Republic (excluding Sevastopl).

26 Jan 1918                Tatar troops routed at Simferopol by Bolshevik forces.
28 Jan 1918                Tatar government abolished by Bolsheviks.
21 Mar 1918                Tavrida (Tauride) Soviet Republic
19 Mar 1918                Northern territories of Crimean peninsula (parts of Kherson
                            and Zaporozhye regions) occupied by the German army.
18 Apr 1918 - 23 Nov 1918  German occupation.
21 Apr 1918                Tavrida (Tauride) abolished by German forces.
21 Jun 1918                Crimean Regional Government founded at Simferopol under
                             German protectorate until 23 Nov 1918.
25 Dec 1918 - 29 Apr 1919  Allied (French) occupation of Sevastopol (Sebastopol) under
                             Jean François Charles Amet (b. 1861 - d. 1940).

11 Apr 1919                Soviet Russian forces occupy Simferopol; the Crimean government
                             evacuates to Sevastopol on 8 Apr 1919.
29 Apr 1919                Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic. 
26 Jun 1919 - Nov 1920     Crimea occupied by "White" Russian forces.

Nov 1920                   Soviet Russian forces regain control, Crimea is re-incorporated
                             into the Russian S.F.S.R.
10 Nov 1921                Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic
1937
                      Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Jul 1942 -  9 May 1944     German occupation; administered separately from
Reichskommissariat
                             Ukraine until 1 Sep 1942 (as Reichskommissariat of Krim-Taurien,
                             then from 1 Sep 1942, Generalbezirk Krim und Teilbezirk Taurien)
                             (Simferopol occupied 1 Sep 1941, Sevastopol on 1 Jul 1942). 
Apr/May 1944               Soviet Union re-occupies Crimea (Kerch re-taken on 11 Apr 1944,
                             Simferopol 13 Apr 1944 and Sevastopol on 9 May 1944).
30 Jun 1945                Crimea reduced to oblast (Krymskaya oblast).
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to Ukrainian S.S.R
20 Jan 1991                In referendum 93.3% vote for the restoration of the Crimean
                             Autonomous S.S.R. within the Soviet Union.
12 Feb 1991                Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Ukraine.
 4 Sep 1991                State sovereignty of Crimea within Ukraine declared.
26 Feb 1992                Renamed Crimean Republic.
 5 May 1992                Crimean parliament declares independence (annulled 20 May 1992).
17 Mar 1995 -  8 Jun 1995  Direct rule by the government of Ukraine.
28 Jun 1996                Autonomous Republic of Crimea
28 Feb 2014                Russian intervention in Crimea.
 6 Mar 2014                Crimea parliament votes to join Russia.
15 Mar 2014                Ukraine government declares direct rule.
16 Mar 2014                Referendum votes 96.7% to join Russia (recognized by Russia,
                             but not Ukraine).
17 Mar 2014                Independence declared (Republic of Crimea) and application for
                             accession to Russia (recognized by Russia, but not Ukraine).
21 Mar 2014                Crimea annexed to Russia, creating two new federal subjects:
                             Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol, which then
                             form new Krymskiy federal district (not recognized by Ukraine).

Executive Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party
20 Nov 1920 -  6 Jan 1921  Rozaliya Samoylovna Zemlyachka     (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (Zalkind)(f)     
 6 Jan 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Adolf Mikhaylovich Lide            (b. 1895 - d. 1941)
13 Mar 1921 -  6 Nov 1921  Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov           (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
 6 Nov 1921 - 24 Oct 1922  Abram Ilyich Izraylovich           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
25 Oct 1922 - 13 May 1924  Nikolay Ivanovich Ufimtsev         (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
16 May 1924 - Jun 1925     Ivan Petrovich Nosov               (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
1925                       Vasiliy Vasilyevich Vashkevich     (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1925 - 30 Aug 1927  Sergey Dmitriyevich Petropavlovskiy(b. 1886 - d. af.1940)
Sep 1927 - 17 Dec 1929     Dmitriy Yegorovich Zhivov          (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
17 Dec 1929 - 11 May 1930  Nikolay Kuzmich Kozlov             (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
12 May 1930 - Dec 1930     Aykaz Arkadyevich Kostanyan        (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
Dec 1930 -  6 May 1931     Yevgeniy Illyich Veger (Weger)     (b. 1899 - d. 1937)
First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party 
 
6 May 1931 -  2 Feb 1933  Yevgeniy Illyich Veger             (s.a.)
 
3 Feb 1933 - 28 Dec 1936
  Boris Aleksandrovich Semyonov      (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
28 Dec 1936 - 14 Jul 1937  Lavrentiy Iosifovich               (b. 1890 - d. 1938)
                             Kartvelishvili
14 Jul 1937 - 10 Oct 1938  Nikolay Ivanovich Shchuchkin       (b. 1895 - d. 1938)
10 Oct 1938 - 28 Jan 1939  Vacant
28 Jan 1939 - 14 Jun 1944  Vladimir Semyonovich Bulatov       (b. 1910 - d. 1999)

                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1942) 
14 Jun 1944 - 30 Jun 1945  Pavel Fyodorovich Tyulyayev        (b. 1905 - d. 1946)
First Secretaries of the Oblast Committee of the Communist Party
30 Jun 1945 - 30 Jul 1946  Pavel Fyodorovich Tyulyayev        (s.a.)
30 Jul 1946 -  6 Aug 1949  Nikolay Vasilyevich Solovyov       (b. 1903 - d. 1950)
 6 Aug 1949 - 16 Jan 1954  Pavel Ivanovich Titov              (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
16 Jan 1954 - 14 Dec 1955  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (b. 1917 - d. 2001)
14 Dec 1955 -  6 Jan 1961  Vasiliy Grigoryevich Komyakhov     (b. 1911 - d. 1966)
 6 Jan 1961 -  5 Apr 1967  Ivan Kondratyevich Lutak           (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
                             (for Agriculture 9 Jan 1963 - 4 Dec 1964)
11 Jan 1963 -  4 Dec 1964  Nikolay Prokofyevich Surkin        (b. 1910 - d. 19..)
                             (for Industry)
 5 Apr 1967 -  1 Jul 1977  Nikolay Karpovich Kirichenko       (b. 1923 - d. 1986)
 1 Jul 1977 - 13 Jun 1987  Viktor Sergeyevich Makarenko       (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
13 Jun 1987 - 25 Sep 1989  Andrey Nikolayevich Girenko        (b. 1936)
25 Sep 1989 - 12 Feb 1991  Nikolay Vasilyevich Bagrov         (b. 1939)
First Secretaries of the Communist Party
12 Feb 1991 -  9 Apr 1991  Nikolay Vasilyevich Bagrov         (s.a.)
10 Apr 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  Leonid Ivanovich Grach             (b. 1948) 

Khans
 2 Mar 1699 - 26 Dec 1702  Devlet Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1668 - d. 1725)
26 Dec 1702 - 22 Dec 1704  Selim Giray I (4th time)           (b. 1631 - d. 1704)
30 Dec 1704 - Apr 1707     Ghazi Giray III                    (b. 1673 - d. 1708)
Apr 1707 -  9 Dec 1708     Qaplan Giray I (1st time)          (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
 9 Dec 1708 - 29 Mar 1713  Devlet Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1716  Qaplan Giray I (2nd time)          (s.a.)
15 Dec 1716 - 29 Dec 1716  Qara-Devlet Giray III              (b. 1650 - d. 1716)
29 Dec 1716 - 16 Oct 1724  Sa'adet Giray III                  (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
16 Oct 1724 - 28 Sep 1730  Mengli Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1681 - d. 1739)
28 Sep 1730 - 24 Jul 1736  Qaplan Giray I (3rd time)          (s.a.)
24 Jul 1736 - Jul 1737     Feth Giray II                      (b. 1696 - d. 1746)
Jul 1737 - 31 Dec 1739     Mengli Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 Dec 1739 - Nov 1743     Selamet Giray II                   (b. 1691 - d. 1751)
Nov 1743 - 18 May 1748     Selim Giray II                     (b. 1708 - d. 1748)
18 May 1748 - Dec 1755     Arslan Giray (1st time)            (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
Dec 1755 -  4 Oct 1758     Halim Giray                        (b. 1689 - d. 1759)
21 Oct 1758 - Sep 1764     Qirim Giray (1st time)             (b. 1717 - d. 1769)
Sep 1764 - 14 Mar 1767     Selim Giray III (1st time)         (b. 1713 - d. 1786)
14 Mar 1767 - 30 May 1767  Arslan Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1767 - Nov 1768        Maqsud Giray (1st time)            (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
19 Oct 1768 - Mar 1769     Qirim Giray (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Mar 1769 - 25 Feb 1770     Devlet Giray IV (1st time)         (b. 1730 - d. 1780)
25 Feb 1770 - Dec 1770     Qaplan Giray II                    (b. 1739 - d. 1771)
Dec 1770 - 30 Jun 1771     Selim Giray III (2nd time)         (s.a.)
30 Jun 1771 - Mar 1772     Maqsud Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Mar 1772 - Jun 1775        Sahib Giray II                     (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
Jun 1775 - Jan 1777        Devlet Giray IV (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1777 - Dec 1777     Shahin Giray (1st time)            (b. 1745 - d. 1787)
Dec 1777 - 1778            Selim Giray III (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1778 - Jul 1782            Shahin Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jul 1782 - 1783            Bahadur Giray II (1st time)        (b. 1722 - d. 1791)
1783 -  8 Apr 1783         Shahin Giray (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1783 - 1790                Bahadur Giray II (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (in Kuban exile)
1787 - 1789                Shahbaz Giray (in Bessarabia exile)(b. 1731 - d. 1793)
Feb 1789 - Jun 1792        Bakht Giray (in Bessarabia exile)  (b. 1745 - d. 1800)
Chairmen of the Directory of the Crimean People's Democratic Republic
26
Dec 1917 - 16 Jan 1918  Chelebi Chelebiyev                 (b. 1885 - d. 1918)  MF
                            
(= Numan Çelebi Cihan)
16 Jan 1918 - 28 Jan 1918  Dzhafer Seidamet (Seydamet)        (b. 1889 - d. 1960)  MF

                            
(= Cafer Seidamet)
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Tavrida
29 Jan 1918 - 21 Mar 1918  Ivan Avgustovich Miller            (b. 1880 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of Tavrida

21 Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918  Ivan Avgustovich Miller            (s.a.)               RSDRP-B
Supreme Governors (of "White" Russian forces)
15 Jun 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
 4 Apr 1920 - 15 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
 7 Nov 1921 - Aug 1924     Yuriy Petrovych Gaven              (b. 1884 - d. 1936)  RKP
Aug 1924 - 28 Jan 1928     Veli Ibraimov                      (b. 1889 - d. 1928)RKP;1925 AUCP
28 Jan 1928 - 20 Feb 1931  Mehmet Ismail Kubayev              (b. 1883 - d. 1931)  AUCP
20 Feb 1931 -  9 Sep 1937  Ilias Umerovich Tarhan             (b. 1900 - d. 1937)  AUCP
 9 Sep 1937 - 21 Jul 1938  Abdul Dzhelil Khayrulla Menbariyev                      AUCP 
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
21 Jul 1938 - 18 May 1944  Abdul Dzhelil Khayrulla Menbariyev                      AUCP 
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1942)
18 May 1944 - 30 Jun 1945  N.I. Sachyeva (f) (acting)                              AUCP
Reichskommissar
(from 1 Sep 1942, Generalkommissar)

Aug 1942 - 1944            Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld           (b. 1898 - d. 1977)  NSDAP
Chairmen of the Executive Committee 
30 Jun 1945 - Apr 1946     Aleksandr Fydorovich Kabanov       (b. 1899 - d. 1975)  AUCP
Apr 1946 - 10 Jun 1949     Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Krivoshein  (b. 1905 - d. 1979)  AUCP
10 Jun 1949 - 12 Dec 1949  Vasiliy Ivanovich Nikanorov        (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  AUCP
12 Dec 1949 - 23 Sep 1952  Sergey Osipovich Postovalov        (b. 1907 - d. 1983)  AUCP
23 Sep 1952 - 16 Feb 1954  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyanskiy     (s.a.)               CPSU
16 Feb 1954 - Jun 1956     Mikhail Grigoryevich Kuzmenko                           CPSU
Jun 1956 -  9 Oct 1959     Ivan Markelovich Filippov          (b. 1905 - d. 1963)  KPU
 9 Oct 1959 -  7 Dec 1965  Vladimir Nikolayevich Druzhinin    (b. 1907 - d. 1976)  KPU
                             (for Industry 12 Jan 1963 - 7 Dec 1964)
12 Jan 1963 -  7 Dec 1964  Nikolay Andreyevich Moiseyev       (b. 1918 - d. 1970)  KPU
                             (for Agriculture)      
18 Jan 1966 - 21 Dec 1979  Trofim Nikolayevich Chemodurov     (b. 1917 - d. 200.)  KPU
21 Dec 1979 - 13 Apr 1985  Yuriy Georgiyevich Bakhtin         (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  KPU
13 Apr 1985 - 27 Dec 1989  Aleksandr Mefodyevich Roshchupkin  (b. 1929 - d. 2006)  KPU
27 Dec 1989 - 22 Mar 1991  Vitaliy Vladimirovich Kurashik     (b. 1939)            KPU
Chairman of Parliament 
17 Jun 1991 -  4 Feb 1994  Mykola Vasyl'ovych Bahrov          (s.a.)              KPU;1992 PEV
                            
(Nikolay Vasilyevich Bagrov)
President

 4 Feb 1994 - 17 Mar 1995  Yuriy Oleksandrovych Myeshkov      (b. 1945)            RPK
                             (Yuriy Aleksandrovich Meshkov)
                             (in dissidence to 11 Jun 1995
)
Chairmen of Parliament
17 Mar 1995 -  6 Jul 1995  Sergiy Pavlovych Tsekov            (b. 1953)            KPK
                            
(Sergey Pavlovich Tsekov)
 6 Jul 1995 - 10 Oct 1996  Yevgen Volodymyrovych Suprunyuk    (b. 1955)
           RB
                            
(Yevgeniy Vladimirovich Suprunyuk)
10 Oct 1996 - 13 Feb 1997  Vasyl' Oleksiyovych Kyselyov       (b. 1948)
           PR
                            
(Vasiliy Alekseyevich Kiselev)
13 Feb 1997 - 14 May 1998  Anatoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko       (b. 1958)            PEV

                             (Anatoliy Pavlovich Gritsenko)
                             (1st time) 

14 May 1998 - 29 Apr 2002  Leonid Ivanovych Grach (Hrach)     (s.a.)               KPU
                            
(Leonid Ivanovich Grach)
29 Apr 2002 - 12 May 2006  Borys Davydovych Deych             (b. 1938)            PR

                            
(Boris Davidovich Deich)
12 May 2006 - 17 Mar 2010  A
natoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko       (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 2010 - 17 Mar 2014  Volodymyr Andriyovych Konstantynov (b. 1956)            PR
                            
(Vladimir Andreyevich Konstantinov)
Chairman of the State
Council
17 Mar 2014 - 14 Apr 2014  Vladimir Andreyevich Konstantinov  (s.a.)            PR;Apr 2014 YR
Head of the Republic

14 Apr 2014 -              S
ergey Valeryevich Aksyonov        (b. 1972)         RY;Sep 2014 YR
                             (
Sergiy Valeriyovych Aksyonov)
                             (
acting to 9 Oct 2014)


Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Republic of Tavrida

21 Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918  Anton Iosifovich Slutskiy          (b. 1884 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
                            
(Anton Yosypovych Slutskyy)
Chairman of Council of Ministers of the Region of Crimea
(under German occupation)
21 Jun 1918 - 27 Nov 1918  Suleiman Aleksandrovich Sulkevich  (b. 1865 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (Suleiman Oleksandrovych Sulkevych

                             
= Süleyman bey Sulkeviç)
Prime minister

28 Nov 1918 - 15 Apr 1919  Solomon Samoylovich Krym           (b. 1867 - d. 1936)  KDP
                            
(Solomon Samiylovych Krym)
Chairmen of the Provisional Council of People's Commissars of the Crimean 

Soviet Socialist Republic
29 Apr 1919 - May 1919     Yuriy Petrovich Gaven              (s.a.)               RKP
 5 May 1919 - 26 Jun 1919  Dmitriy Ilyich Ulyanov             (b. 1874 - d. 1943)  RKP

Head of government

Jun 1920 - Nov 1920        Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee of Crimea
("Krymrevkom")
11 Nov 1918 - 16 Nov 1918  Sergey Yakovlevich Babahan         (b. 1892 - d. 1936)  RKP
                            
(in rebellion)
16 Nov 1920 - 20 Feb 1921  Bela Morisovich Kun (= Béla Kun)   (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RKP 

20 Feb 1921 -  7 Nov 1921  Mikhail Kharitonovich Polyakov     (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  RKP
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars 
11 Nov 1921 - 16 May 1924  Sakhib-Garey Said-Galiyev          (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  RKP
May 1924 - 21 Mar 1926     Osman Abdul Gani Deren-Ayerly      (b. 1888 - d. 1941)RKP;1925 AUCP
21 Mar 1926 - May 1929     Emir Bekirovich Shugu                                   AUCP
May 1929 - 16 Sep 1937     Abduraim Abduramanovich Samedinov  (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  AUCP
1937 -  5 Apr 1942         Mehmet Ibrahimovich Ibrahimov                           AUCP
 
5 Apr 1942 - 18 May 1944  Ismail Seyfullayevich Seyfullayev                       AUCP
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile)
May 1944 - 30 Jun 1945     Aleksandr Fydorovich Kabanov       (s.a.)               AUCP
Prime ministers
22 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1993  Vitaliy Volodymyrovych Kurashyk    (s.a.)               Non-party
                            
(Vitaliy Vladimirovich Kurashik)
20 May 1993 -  4 Feb 1994 
Borys Ivanovych Samsonov           (b. 1938)            Non-party
                            
(Boris Ivanovich Samsonov)
 4 Feb 1994 - 15 Feb 1994
  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (b. 1953)            APU
                             (Anatoliy Romanovich Franchuk)
                             (1st time) (acting)

15 Feb 1994 -  6 Oct 1994  Yevgen Fedorovych Saburov          (b. 1946 - d. 2009)  Non-party
                            
(Yevgeniy Fyodorovich Saburov)
 6 Oct 1994 - 22 Mar 1995  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU 

                             (2nd time) 
22 Mar 1995 - 31 Mar 1995  Anatoliy Ivanovych Drobotov        (b. 1951)            KPK
                             (Anatoliy Ivanovich Drobotov)
                             (not recognized by Ukraine)

31 Mar 1995 - 26 Jan 1996  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU
                             (3rd time)
26 Jan 1996 -  4 Jun 1997  Arkadiy Fedorovych Demydenko       (b. 1950 - d. 2005)  Non-party
                            
(Arkadiy Fyodorovich Demidenko)
 4 Jun 1997 - 25 May 1998  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU

                             (4th time) 
25 May 1998 - 18 Jul 2001  Sergiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn     (b. 1960)            BK
                             (Sergey Vladimirovich Kunitsyn)
                             (1st time)

18 Jul 2001 - 25 Jul 2001  Lentun Romanovych Bezaziyev        (b. 1942)            KPK
                             (Lentun Romanovich Bezaziyev)
                             (acting)

25 Jul 2001 - 29 Apr 2002  Valeriy Myronovych Horbatov        (b. 1955)            PTU
                            
(Valeriy Mironovich Gorbatov)
29 Apr 2002 - 20 Apr 2005  Sergiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn     (s.a.)               NDP

                             (2nd time) 
20 Apr 2005 - 23 Sep 2005  Anatoliy Serhiyovych Matviyenko    (b. 1953)            URP
                            
(Anatoliy Sergeyevich Matviyenko)
23 Sep 2005 -  2 Jun 2006  Anatoliy Fedorovych Burdyuhov      (b. 1958)            NU 

                            
(Anatoliy Fyodorovich Burdyugov)
 2 Jun 2006 - 17 Mar 2010  Viktor Tarasovych Plakida          (b. 1956)            NDP

                            
(Viktor Tarasovich Plakida)
17 Mar 2010 - 17 Aug 2011  Vasyl'
Heorhiyovych Dzharty        (b. 1958 - d. 2011)  PR
                            
(Vasiliy Georgiyevich Dzharty)
17 Aug 2011 -  8 Nov 2011  Pavlo Mykolayovych Burlakov
       (b. 1963)            PR
                             (Pavel Nikolayevich Burlakov)
                             (acting)

 8 Nov 2011 - 27 Feb 2014  Anatoliy Volodymyrovych Mohylyov   (b. 1955)            PR
                            
(Anatoliy Vladimirovich Mogilev)
27 Feb 2014 -              S
ergey Valeryevich Aksyonov        (s.a.)            RY;Sep 2014 YR
                             (
Sergiy Valeriyovych Aksyonov)


Pro-Ukraine: Autonomous Republic of Crimea (from 16 May 2014, in Kherson) exile

[Crimean Republic flag]

Permanent Representatives of the President of Ukraine in Crimea
27 Feb 2014 - 26 Mar 2014
  Sergiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (Sergey Vladimirovich Kunitsyn)
22 May 2014 -              Nataliya Kostyantynivna
Popovych (f)                    Non-party
                             (Natalya Konstantinovna Popovich)

   

Allied Occupation in Crimean War

Allied Commanders-in-chief
13 Sep 1854 - 29 Jun 1855  FitzRoy James Henry Somerset,      (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                             Baron Raglan 
29 Jun 1855 - 11 Nov 1855  Sir James Simpson (U.K.)           (b. 1792 - d. 1868)
11 Nov 1855 - 12 Jul 1856  Sir William John Codrington (U.K.) (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
14 Sep 1854 - 26 Sep 1854  Armand Jacques Leroy de Saint-     (b. 1801 - d. 1854)

                             Arnaud (France)
26 Sep 1854 - 16 May 1855  François Certain de Canrobert      (b. 1809 - d. 1895)
                             (France)
16 May 1855 - 12 Jul 1856  Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier     (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
                             (France)
 5 Jan 1855 -  6 Sep 1855  Omar Pasha (Ottoman Empire)        (b. 1806 - d. 1871)

[Crimean Tatar ethnic
                  flag]  
      Flag of Ethnic Crimean Tatars

Territorial Disputes: The Ukraine, U.S. and most other nations do not recognize Russia's 21 Mar 2014 annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their re-designation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Party abbreviations: KPK = Komunistychna Partiya Kryma (Communist Party of Crimea, anti-reform, Russophone, est.Jun 1993); KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny/ Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, former KPU-B, 13 Oct 1952-26 Aug 1991, re-est.19 Jun 1993); MF = Milli Firka/Milliy Fyrqa (National Party, Tatar nationalist, Jul 1917-1921, re-est.Jul 1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiya (People's Democratic Party, centrist, est.24 Feb 1996); NU = Nasha Ukrayina ("Our Ukraine", center-right, liberal conservative, pro-Europe, Viktor Yushchenko personalist, est.5 Mar 2005); PR = Partiya Rehioniv/Partiya Regionov (Party of Regions, regionalist, centrist, pro-Russia, 2001-05 pro-Kuchma, 2010-14 pro-Yanukovych, 1997-2001 named Partiya Rehionalʹnoho Vidrodzhennya Ukrayiny/Partiya Regional'nogo Vozrozhdeniya Ukrainy [Party Regional Revival of Ukraine], est.3 Mar 2001); YR = Yedinaya Rossiya (United Russia, Russian conservative, centrist, V. Putin personalist, est.1 Dec 2001); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: APU = Ahrarna Partiya Ukrayiny (Agrarian Party of Ukraine, agrarian, centrist, pro-Leonid Kuchma, Dec 1996-2004); AUCP = Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(All-Union Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, former RKP, 31 Dec 1925-13 Oct 1952, renamed CPSU); CPSU = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, communist, Marxist-Lennist, authoritarian, former AUCP, state party 1925-13 Mar 1990, banned 29 Aug 1991); KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, centrist, 12 Oct 1905-12 Dec 1917); BK = Blok Kunitsyna (Kunitsyn Bloc, centrist, S. Kunitsyn personalist, pro-Presidential, 1998-2002, merged into NDP); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, German nationalist, 1920-1945); PEV = Partiya Ekonomicheskogo Vozrozhdeniya (Party of Economic Revival, ex-communist, to 1996 named Partiya Ekonomicheskogo Vozrozhdeniya Kryma [Party of Economic Revival of Crimea] PEVK, Nov 1992-2003); PTU = Partiya Truda Ukrainy (Labor Party of Ukraine, centrist, pro-Russian, 21 Dec 1992-18 Nov 2000, merged into PR); RB = Rossiya Bloc (Russia Bloc, pro-Russia unification electoral coalition, incl. RPK, 1993-1996); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russian Marxist communist, former RSDRP-B, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed AUCP); RPK = Respublikanska Partiya Kryma (Republican Party of Crimea, separatist, Russophone, pro-Crimea independence, to 1992 named Republican Movement of Crimea, Aug 1991-1995, merged into Civil Congress of Ukraine); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); RY = Russkoye Yedinstvo/Rus'ka Yednist'(Russian Unity, pro-Russia unification, 2008-10 named Avangardnyy/Avanhardnyy [Vanguard], est.Aug 2010, banned by Ukraine 30 Apr 2014); URP = Ukrayins'ka Respublikans'ka Partiya "Sobor" (Ukrainian Republican Party "Assembly", conservative, reformist, 21 Apr 2002-3 Dec 2011)


Kaffa (Caffa) and Genoese Gazaria

[Genoa flag]

395 - 989                  Eastern Roman (Byzantine) rule on the south coast.
989 - 10..                 Kievan Rus' rule in Gothia and Cherson (Klimata).
10.. - 1204                Byzantine rule restored on the south coast.
1204 - 1261                Kaffa (Caffa) under Venetian Republic.
1266 - 1296                Crimean city of Theodosia (Feodosia [Kaffa]) ruled by Republic of
                             Genoa.

1296 - 1307                Kaffa under Venetian rule.
1307 - 1315                Mongol conquest (under the Kipchak Khanate [Golden Horde]).
1315                       Kaffa under Genoese rule (from 12 Jul 1365 at Soldaia [Sudak], 
                             and 1380 in Cembalo [Balaklava], southern coast of the Crimea 
                             or "Gazaria" and in Cerchio [Kerch] from 1318).
1316                       Counsul of Kaffa becomes chief administrator of all Genoese
                             Black Sea colonies (incl. Balaklava and Sudak in Crimea;
                             Amastris and Amisus on Anatolian coast; Licostomo and Maurocastro
                            [Akkerman (Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy)] on Moldovan coast and from 1332
                             Tana [Azov]; but excluding Pera (Galata) in Constantinople).
15 Nov 1453                Republic of Genoa cedes all its possessions in Gazaria to the 
                             Genoese Bank styled Uffizio di San Giorgio in Genoa
 6 Jun 1475                Ottoman occupation of Kaffa, soon occupying most other places.

Genoese Consuls of Kaffa
(from 1316 of all Genoese Black Sea colonies)
bf.1285                    Alberto Spinola
1289 - 12..                Paolino Doria
1300 - 1300                Vacant
1316 - 13..                Conrado De Roccio
1339 - 1340                Petrano Dell'Orto
1342 - 1343                Dondidio De Giusto
1352 - 1353                Goffredo Di Zoagli
1356                       Simone Dell'Orto
1357                       Leonardo Montaldo
1365                       Bartolomeo Di Jacopo
1370                       Giuliano Di Castro
1373 - 1374                Aimone Grimaldi
1374 - 1375                Eliano Di Camilla
1380 - 1381                Giannone Del Bosco
1381 - 1382                Giuanisio De Mari
1382                       Pietro Cazano (1st time)
1383                       Meliaduce Cattaneo
1384                       Giacomo Spinola
1385                       Pietro Cazano (2nd time)
1385 - 1386                Benedetto Grimaldi
1387                       Giovanni Degli Innocenti
1391                       Nicolo Giustiniani Banca
1392 - 1393                Eliano Centurione Becchignioni
1399                       Antonio De Marini
1404                       Constantino Lercari
1409                       Giacomo Doria
1410 - 1411                Giorgio Adorno                     (b. c.1350 - d. c.1430)
1411 - 1412                Antonio Spinola
1413                       Paolo Lercari
1415                       Battista De Franchi Lusardo
1415 - 1416                Girolamo Giustiniani Moneglia 
                             (1st time)
1417 - 1418                Giacomo Adorno
1419 - 1420                Quilico Gentile
1420 - 1421                Manfredo Sauli
1422 - 1423                Girolamo Giustiniani Moneglia 
                             (2nd time)
1423 - 1424                Antonio Cavano Vincente
1424                       Battista Giustiniani
1424 - 1425                Pietro Fieschi
1425 - 1426                Francesco De Vivaldi
1427                       Pietro Bondenaro
1427 - 1428                V.M.
1428 - 1429                Gabriele Giustiniani Recanello
1429 - 14..                Luigi Salvago
1434 - 143.                Battista Fornari
1438 - 14..                Paolo Imperiale
1441 - 1442                Teodoro Fieschi (1st time)
1446 - 1447                Giovanni Navone
1447 - 144.                Antonio De Franchi Tortorino
1448                       Antonio Maria Fieschi
1448 - 1449                Teodoro Fieschi (2nd time)
1449 - 1450                Giovanni Giustiniani Longo
1453                       Borduele De Grimaldi
1453 - 1454                Demetrio De Vivaldi
1454 - 1455                Paolo Raggi
1455 - 1456                Tommaso De Domoculta
1456 - 1457                Antonio Lercari
1457 - 1458                Damiano De Leone
1458 - 1459                Barolomeo Gentile
1459 - 1460                Martino Giustiniano
1460                       Luca Salvago Nepitelli
1460 - 1461                Azzolini Squarciafico
1462                       Rafaele Lercari
1462 - 146.                Rafaele Monterosso
1463                       Gerardo Lomellino
1463 - 1464                Baldassare Doria
1464 - 1465                Gregorio De Reza
1466                       Alaone Doria (1st time)
1466 - 1467                Giovanni Renzo Della Gabella
1467 - 146.                Calochio De Guizolfi
1468 - 1469                Gentile De Camilla
1469 - 1470                Carlo Cicogna
1470 - 147.                Alaone Doria (2nd time)
1471 - 147.                Filippo Chiavrola
1472                       Goffredo Lercari
1472                       Erasto Giustiniani
1473                       Battista Giustiniani Oliverio
1474 - 1475                Antoniotto Della Gabella
1475 - 1476                Oberto Squarciatico
1476 - 1477                Giuliano Gentile Falomonica
1477                       Galeazzo De Levanto
14.. - 1483                Zaccaria Ghisolfi (at Matrega)





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