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Ukraine
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
            31 Jan 1667 - 22 Jan 1918
 
[Ukraine flag 1917-1918]
           20 Nov 1917 - 29 Apr 1918
 
[Non-Communist Ukraine
                                    1918-1921]
  29 Apr 1918 - 7 May 1921 (Non-Communist Ukraine)
 
[Flag of
                                    Ukrainian SSR in 1921]
     10 Aug 1921 - 30 Dec 1922 (Communist Ukraine)
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                    30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991 
 
Flag of
                                    Ukrainian SSR in 1949
         4 Sep 1991 - 21 Jan 1992 (Co-national flag)
 
[Ukraine flag]
                Adopted 4 Sep 1991 
        (co-national flag to 21 Jan 1992) 
 


Map of Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Sche ne vmerla Ukrainy"
(Ukraine's Glory Hasn't Perished) 
Text of National Anthem
1917-1920 (non-communist)
Adopted 5 Dec 1991
Constitution
  (28 Jun 1996)
Capital: Kiev (Kyiv)
(Bila Tserkva 15 Nov 1918
- 19 Dec 1918
Currency: Hryvnia (UAH) National Holiday: 24 Aug  (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 44,573,205 (2013)
GDP: $337.4 billion (2013) Exports: $71.1 billion (2013)
Imports: $87.2 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%,
Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian
 0.3%,
Romanian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 129,925 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 5,000 weapons (1991-1996)
Merchant marine: 134 ships (2010)
Religions: Ukrainian Orthodox - Kyiv Patriarchate 50.4%, Ukrainian
 Orthodox - Moscow Patriarchate 26.1%, Ukrainian Greek Catholic
 8%, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox 7.2%, Roman Catholic
 2.2%, Protestant 2.2%, Jewish 0.6%, none and other 3.2% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACS (observer), AG, ANT, APM, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CFE, CICA (observer), CIS, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NAM (observer), NSG, NPT, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Ukraine Index
Chronology
             

862                        Grand Principality of Kiev Rus'
1024 - 1356                Chernigov nominally under Kiev (from 1239
                             under Mongol supremacy) ruled by
                             princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1036 - 1340                Volyn, nominally under Kiev (from 1241
                             under Mongol supremacy) ruled by
                             princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1054 - 1362                Pereyaslavl', nominally under Kiev,
                             (from 1239 under Mongol supremacy) ruled 
                             by princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
1097 - 1355                Novgorod Severskiy, nominally under Kiev,
                             (from 1239 under Mongol supremacy) ruled 
                             by princes of the Ryurikovich dynasty.
Dec 1237/Feb 1241          The Mongols subdue most of the regional 
                             principalities of Kiev Rus' (Kiev itself 
                             6 Dec 1240, although the Grand prince's
                             capital was transferred to Vladimir na Vyazma
                             in 1169).
1340/1363                  Most of northern Ukraine (from 1362, Kiev) 
                             part of Lithuania.
 4 Jul 1569                By the Union of Lublin, Ukrainian lands 
                             transferred from Lithuania to Poland.
24 May 1648                Revolution against Poland.
Aug 1649                   In the Treaty of Zboriv recognized by Poland as 
                             autonomous Hetmanate, known as the Ukrainian
                             Cossack Republic.
18 Jan 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Pereyaslav.
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of 
                             Hadyach.
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate 
                             (east of the Dnieper River) and the pro-Polish
                             Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the Dnieper).
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo provisionally 
                             partitioned between Poland and Russia. Russia 
                             obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhzhya), Poland retains Right-Bank 
                             (partition confirmed by the Eternal Peace 
                             of 1686).
Aug 1672 - 1699            Braclaw together with Podolya (Podolia) under
                             Ottoman rule.
1780                       Hetmanate incorporated into Russia.
1793 - 1795                Polish parts of Ukraine annexed by Russia in the
                             Second and Third Partitions of the 
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
23 Jun 1917                Declares itself autonomous within Russia.
20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             proclaimed.
25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (communist)
                             proclaimed.
22 Jan 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist) 
                             declares independence from Russia.
27 Jan 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation.
 1 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  German and Austro-Hungarian occupation.
19 Mar 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (communist)
                             declares independence from Russia.
18 Apr 1918 - 29 Nov 1918  Communist state dissolved following Treaty of
                             Brest-Litovsk.
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State
29 Nov 1918                Communist state restored.
14 Dec 1918 - 22 Nov 1920  Ukrainian People's Republic (non-communist)
                             (restored).
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Allied occupation of Odessa.
 6 Jan 1919                Communist polity renamed to Ukrainian
                             Socialist Soviet Republic.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union
                            (later as Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic).
25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944  Occupied by Germany (Reichskommissariat
                             Ukraine created on 1 Sep 1941).
30 Jun 1941 -  9 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State (not recognized, disbanded by
                             Germany).
26 Apr 1986                Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion.
16 Jul 1990                State sovereignty declared by Ukraine.
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (confirmed on
                             1 Dec 1991).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the 
                             U.S.S.R.).
21 Mar 2014                Russia annexes Crimea, not recognized by Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1991)
Ukraine Admin.
Divisions
Crimea
Kiev Province in
Poland-Lithuania

(1340-1795)
Hetmanate
(1648-1775)
Non-Communist
Ukraine
(1917-1920)
Ukraine Govt.
in Exile

(1920-1992)
Ukrainian
S.S.R.

(1919-1991)
Odessa Soviet
(1918)
Donets Kryvyi Rih
Soviet Republic
(1918)
Reichskommissariat
Ukraine
(1941-1944)
Western Ukraine
(1918-1919) 
Galician S.S.R.
(1920)
Lemko-Rusyn
(1918-1920)
Bukovina
(1774-1918)
Carpatho-Ukraine
(Ruthenia)
(1918-1939)
Hutsul Republic
(1918)
Komancza and
Hutsul Republics
(1918-1919)
Kaffa (Caffa)
(1204-1477)
Ukrainian
Republic

of the Far East

"Green Ukraine"
(1918 - 1922)
Ukrainian Greek
Catholic Church

Orthodox Church
of Ukraine

Map of
Administrative
Divisions
Historical Maps
of Ukraine

 

Kiev Province of Poland-Lithuania

Governors (Wojewodowie Kijewski)
1684 - 1702                Marcin Kazimierz Katski            (b. 1636 - d. 1710)
1702 - 1744                Józef Potocki                      (b. 1673 - d. 1751)
1744 - 1756                Stanislaw Potocki                  (b. 1698 - d. 1760)
1756 - 1772                Franciszek Salezy Potocki          (b. 1700 - d. 1772)
1772 - 1785                Prince Stanislaw Lubomirski        (b. 1704 - d. 1793)
1785 - 1791                Józef Piotr Stepkowski             (d. 1791)
1791 - 1791                Prince Józef Lubomirski (acting)   (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
1791 - 25 Nov 1795         Antoni Protazy Potocki             (b. 1761 - d. 1801)


Hetmanate
[Ukrainian Cossack
                  Republic]
                        to 1775
                     
     
af.1392                    Southern border areas of the provinces of Kiev and Braclav,
                             conquered by Lithuania organized as a military district called
                             the 'Zaporozhian troops' (Vijsko Zaporizke) comprised of 
                             Cossacks. Since 1550 these Cossacks were led by a (self-elected)
                             Hetman.
 2 May 1648                Rebellion against Poland. 
Aug 1649                   In the Treaty of Zboriv recognized by Poland as an autonomous 
                             Hetmanate, known as the Ukrainian Cossack Republic
                             (covering Kiev, Braclav and Chernigiv voevodships).
28 Sep 1651                Braclav and Chernigiv restored to Polish administration.
18 Jan 1654                Under Russian sovereignty by the Treaty of Pereyaslav.
 6 Sep 1658                Under Polish sovereignty by the Treaty of Hadyach.
17 Jun 1663                Split in the pro-Russian Left-Bank Hetmanate (east of the Dnieper
                             River) and the pro-Polish Right-Bank Hetmanate (west of the
                             Dnieper River).
31 Jan 1667                In the Treaty of Andrusovo provisionally partitioned between 
                             Poland and Russia. Russia obtained Left-Bank (including Kiev and 
                             Zaporizhzhya), Poland retained Right-Bank (partition confirmed
                             by the Eternal Peace in 1686).
Aug 1672 - 1699            Braclaw together with Podolya (Podolia) under Ottoman Empire rule.
1676                       Right-Bank Hetmanate abolished by Poland.
1681 - 1684                Molodvan administration
1708 - 1709                Independence from Russia.
1713 - 1739                Zaporizhzhya ceded by Russia to Crimea.
Jul 1722 - Sep 1727        Direct Russian administration. 
1734 - 1750                Direct Russian administration.
10 Nov 1764                Direct Russian administration; abolition of Hetman title.
1780                       Incorporated into Russia.

Hetman of the Right-Bank (in Chyhyryn)
Jal 1648 - 31 Jul 1657     Bohdan Zenoby Mykhailovych         (b. 1593 - d. 1657)
                             Khmelnytsky
31 Jul 1657 - 21 Oct 1657  Yury Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky       (b. 1641 - d. 1685)
                             (1st time)
21 Oct 1657 - Nov 1658     Ivan Yevstatevych Vyhovsky         (d. 1664)
Nov 1658 - 11 Sep 1659     Ivan Bespaly                       (d. 1718)
11 Sep 1659 - 1663         Yury Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1663 - 18 Jun 1663         Akim Somko (acting)                (d. 1663)
1663 - 1665                Pavlo Teterya                      (d. 1667)
1665                       Stepan Opara
11 Oct 1665 - 29 Sep 1676  Petro Dorofeyvych Doroshenko       (b. 1627 - d. 1689)
1671 - 27 Mar 1674         Myhaylo Hanenko (in rebellion)     (b. c.1620 - d. c.1680)
1676 - 1679                Ostap Hohol                        (d. 1679)
1677 - 1681                Yury Bohdanovych Khmelnytsky       (b. 1641 - d. 1685)
                             (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)
1681 - 1684                Ottoman rule
1684 - 1689                Andrey Mohyla                      (d. 1689)
1689 - 169.                Hrymko (in rebllion, in Nemyriv)
1693 - 1699                Samus (in rebellion, in Nemyriv)
Hetman of the Left-Bank (in Hadyach, Baturyn, and then Hlukhiv)
18 Jun 1663 - 17 Jul 1668  Ivan Martynovych Bruhovyecky       (b. 1623 - d. 1668)
17 Jul 1668 - 27 Jun 1672  Demyan Hnatovych Mnohohrishny      (b. 1627 - d. 1698)
                             (acting to Dec 1668)
28 Jun 1672 - 23 Jul 1687  Ivan Samoylovych                   (d. 1690)
25 Jul 1687 -  6 Nov 1708  Ivan Mazepa                        (b. 1639 - d. 1709)
 6 Nov 1708 -  3 Jul 1722  Ivan Skoropadsky                   (b. 1646 - d. 1722)
Apr 1710 - 24 May 1742     Pylyp Orlyk (in exile)             (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
 4 Jul 1722 - 18 Dec 1724  Pavlo Polubotok (acting)           (b. 1660 - d. 1724)
Chairman of the Little-Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium
11 Jul 1722 - 12 Oct 1727  Stepan Lukich Velyaminov
Hetman
12 Oct 1727 - 28 Jan 1734  Danylo Apostol                     (b. 1654 - d. 1734)
Chairmen of the Regency Council
1734 - 1736                Prince Aleksey Ivanovich           (b. 1690 - d. 1737) 
                             Shakhovskoy
17 Jun 1736 - Feb 1738     Prince Ivan Fyodorovich            (b. 1689 - d. 1738)
                             Baryatinskiy
Mar 1738 - May 1738        Ivan Afanasevich Shipov (1st time) (d. 1749)
May 1738 - Mar 1740        Count Aleksandr Ivanovich          (b. 1677 - d. 1749) 
                             Rumyantsev
Mar 1740 - 17 Sep 1740     Ivan Afanasevich Shipov (2nd time) (s.a.)
1740 - 1741                Yakov Keyt (James Keith)           (b. 1696 - d. 1758)
1741 - Dec 1741            Ivan Ivanovich Neplyuev            (b. 1693 - d. 1773)
Dec 1741 - 1742            Aleksandr Borisovich Buturlin      (b. 1694 - d. 1767)
1742 - 20 May 1745         Ivan Ivanovich Bibikov             (d. 1745)
1745 - 1750                ....
Hetman
 5 Jun 1750 - 10 Nov 1764  Kyrylo Razumovsky                  (b. 1728 - d. 1803)
Chairmen of the Little-Russian (Ukrainian) Collegium
1764 - 1781                Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich         (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyanshev-Zadunaisky
1769 - 1775                Prince Platon Stepanovich          (b. 1713 - d. 1799)
                             Meshersky

(non-communist) Ukraine

23 Jun 1917                Autonomy declared within Russia.
20 Nov 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic proclaimed.
22 Jan 1918                Independence from Russia declared.
27 Jan 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Soviet Russian occupation (government to Zhitomir).
 1 Mar 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Austro-German occupation; Germans in Volyniya (24 Feb), Kiev (Mar),
                             Chernigov (12 Mar), Poltava (30 Mar), Kharkov (8 Apr), and
                             Taurida and Crimea (22 Apr); Austrians in Podoliya (28 Feb),
                             Kherson and Odessa (12 Mar), Rostov and Ekaterinoslav (4 Apr).
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State (under occupation).
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (restored).
22 Nov 1920                Government, which is intermittently absent from the national
                             territory from 16 Jul 1920, holds its last last session on
                             Ukrainian soil.
Jun 1941 - 1944            Occupied by Germany (see below).
30 Jun 1941 -  9 Jul 1941  Ukrainian State proclaimed (not recognized, disbanded
                             by German occupation forces).

Chairman of the General Ukrainian Rada (Council)
 5 May 1915 - 23 Mar 1917  Kost' Levytsky                     (b. 1859 - d. 1941)
                             (in Vienna, Austria-Hungary exile)
Chairmen of the Ukrainian Central Rada (Council)
23 Mar 1917 - 26 Mar 1917  Fedir Ivanovych Kryzhanivsky       (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
                             (acting)
27 Mar 1917 - 29 Apr 1918  Mykhailo Serhiiovych Hrushevsky    (b. 1866 - d. 1934)  USRP
                             (elected 20 Mar 1917, arrived 27 Mar 1917)
Hetman
29 Apr 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Pavlo Petrovych Skoropadsky        (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Mil
Chairmen of the Directory
13 Nov 1918 -  9 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1951)  USDRP
                             (in opposition to Hetman to 14 Dec 1918)
 9 Feb 1919 -  9 May 1919  Directors
                           (meetings chaired in random order)
                           - Symon Vasylovych Petlyura        (b. 1879 - d. 1926)  USDRP
                           - Fedir Petrovych Shvets           (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  USRP
                           - Andrii Havrylovych Makarenko     (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  Non-party
                           - Opanas Mykolaiovych Andriievsky  (b. 1878 - d. 1955)  UPSI
 9 May 1919 - 22 Nov 1920  Symon Vasylovych Petlyura          (s.a.)               USRP
President
30 Jun 1941 -  9 Jul 1941  Yaroslav Semyonovych Stetsko       (b. 1912 - d. 1986)  OUN-B
                             (in rebellion) 

Chairman of the General Secretariat
15 Jun 1917 - 22 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
Chairmen of the Council of People's Ministers
22 Jan 1918 - 31 Jan 1918  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (s.a.)               USDRP
31 Jan 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (b. 1885 - d. 1939)  USRP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime minister)
29 Apr 1918 - 30 Apr 1918  Mykola Illich Sakhno-Ustymovych    (b. 1863 - d. 1918)  Non-party
30 Apr 1918 - 10 May 1918  Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko       (b. 1866 - d. 1935)  KDP
10 May 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Fedir Andriiovych Lyzohub          (b. 1851 - d. 1928)  Oct
14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Serhii Mykolaiovych Gerbel'        (b. 1856 - d. 19..)  Non-party
Chairman of the Council of Commissioners
14 Dec 1918 - 24 Dec 1918  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivsky    (b. 1876 - d. 1938)  USDRP
Chairmen of the Council of People's Ministers
24 Dec 1918 - 13 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivsky    (s.a.)               USDRP
13 Feb 1919 -  9 Apr 1919  Serhii Stepanovych Ostapenko       (b. 1881 - d. 1937)  Non-party
 9 Apr 1919 - 27 Aug 1919  Borys Mykolaiovych Martos          (b. 1879 - d. 1977)  USDRP
27 Aug 1919 - 20 May 1920  Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  USDRP
20 May 1920 - 20 Oct 1920  Vyacheslav Konstantinovych         (b. 1881 - d. 1942)  UPSF
                             Prokopovych 
20 Oct 1920 - 22 Nov 1920  Andrii Mykolaiovych Livytsky       (b. 1879 - d. 1954)  USDRP
30 Jun 1941 -  9 Jul 1941  Yaroslav Semyonovych Stetsko       (s.a.)               OUN-B
                             (in rebellion) 

Soviet Russian Commander
27 Jan 1918 -  1 Mar 1918  Vladimir Aleksandrovich Antonov-   (b. 1883 - d. 1939)
                             Ovseyenko
German Military Governors at Kiev
 1 Mar 1918 -  1 Apr 1918  Alexander von Linsingen            (b. 1850 - d. 1935)
 2 Apr 1918 - 30 Jul 1918  Hermann Gottfried Emil von         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)
                             Eichhorn 
30 Jul 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Günther Graf von Kirchbach         (b. 1850 - d. 1925)
Austrian Commanders in Eastern Ukraine at Odessa
12 Mar 1918 -  6 May 1918  Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli   (b. 1856 - d. 1941)
 6 May 1918 - 16 Dec 1918  Alfred Krauss                      (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
Allied Commander in Odessa
18 Dec 1918 -  8 Apr 1919  Albert-Charles-Jules Borius        (b. 1865 - d. 1937)
                             (France)

Ukrainian People's Republic in Exile

[Ukraine flag]

Presidents (in Poland exile; then Prague, later Germany, then ...)
22 Nov 1920 - 25 May 1926  Symon Vasylovych Petlyura          (s.a.)               USRP
                             (chairman of the Directory)
                             (from c.1921 in Paris exile)
25 May 1926 - 17 Jan 1954  Andrii Mykolaiovych Livytsky       (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (chairman of the Directory to 16 Jul 1948)
17 Jan 1954 - 19 Oct 1965  Stepan Vytvytsky                   (b. 1884 - d. 1965)  UNDO
                             (acting to 6 Mar 1954)
19 Oct 1965 -  8 Dec 1989  Mykola Andriiovych Livytsky        (b. 1908 - d. 1989)  UNSU
                             (acting to 22 Mar 1967)
 8 Dec 1989 - 22 Aug 1992  Mykola Vasylovych Plavyuk          (b. 1925 - d. 2012)  OUN
                             (in Canada exile)

Prime ministers (in Poland exile; then Prague, later Germany, then ...)
22 Nov 1920 - 1921         Andrii Mykolaiovych Livytsky       (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (1st time)
1921 -  5 Aug 1921         Vyacheslav Konstantinovych         (s.a.)               UPSF
                             Prokopovych (1st time)  
 5 Aug 1921 - 14 Jan 1922  Pylyp Kalenykovych Pylypchuk       (b. 1869 - d. 1940)  UNRP
14 Jan 1922 - 25 May 1926  Andrii Mykolaiovych Livytsky       (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (2nd time)
25 May 1926 - Oct 1939     Vyacheslav Konstantinovych         (s.a.)               UPSF
                             Prokopovych (2nd time) 
Oct 1939 - 1944            Oleksandr Yakovych Shulhyn         (b. 1889 - d. 1960)  UPSF
1944 - 1945                Andrii Yakovliv (acting)           (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
1945 - 1948                Kost' K. Pankivskiy                (b. 1897 - d. 1973)  UNSU
19 Jul 1948 - Jan 1952     Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa          (s.a.)               USDRP
                             (in Austria, then Germany exile)
Jan 1952 -  4 Jun 1953     Stepan Baran                       (b. 1879 - d. 1953)  UNDO
1954                       Spyrydon Dovhal (1st time)         (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  USRP
1954 - 1957                Symon Sozontiv                     (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
1957 - 1967                Mykola Andriiovych Livytsky        (s.a.)               UNSU
22 Mar 1967 - 1969         Atanas Figol                       (b. 1908 - d. 1993)
1969 - 1972                Spyrydon Dovhal (2nd time)         (b. 1896 - d. 1975)  USRP
1972 - 1974                Vasyl' Fedoronchuk                 (b. 1915 - d. 1984)  OUN
1974 - 1980                Teofil Leontiy 
1980 - 1989                Yaroslav Bohdan Rudnycky           (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
1989 - 22 Aug 1992         Ivan Matviyovych Samiylenko        (b. 1912 - d. 2006)  UNSU
                             (in U.S. exile)

German Recognized Ukrainian Government in Exile

[Ukraine flag]

Chairman of the Ukrainian National Committee and Commander of
the Ukrainian National Army
17 Mar 1945 - 10 May 1945  Pavlo Shandruk                     (b. 1888 - d. 1979)  Mil
                             (in Graz, Austria exile)

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1944 - 1956

Note: Ukrainian resistance groups against German occupation united as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on 14 Oct 1942, which formed its political body in 1944. Resistance continued against Soviet re-occupation until 1956 when it was suppressed by Soviet troops.

Chairmen of the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council
and supreme commanders of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
14 Oct 1942 - 15 Jul 1944  Dmytro Hrytsay                      (b. 1907 - d. 1945)  OUN-B
15 Jul 1944 -  5 Mar 1950  Roman Shukhevych                    (b. 1907 - d. 1950)  OUN-B
1950 - 23 May 1954         Vasyl Stepanovich Kuk (Koval)       (b. 1913 - d. 2007)  OUN-B

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democrat Party, "Cadets", Russian social-democratic, 1905-1921); Oct = Soyoz 17 Oktyabrya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", centrist, moderate constitutionalist, 1905-1918); OUN = Orhanizatsiya Ukrainskykh Natsionalistiv (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, nationalist, conservative, anti-communist, from 1939 OUN-Melnyk "Melnykites", after est.1929); OUN-B = Orhanizatsiya Ukrainskykh Natsionalistiv-Bandera (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists-Bandera, "Banderites", nationalist, Stepan Bandera personalist, anti-communist, split from OUN, later renamed Revolutionary OUN, 1940-1959); UNDO = Ukrainske Natsionalno-Demokratychne Obiednannia (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, nationalist, 1925-1939); UNRPUkrainska Narodna Respublika Partiya (Ukrainian People's Republican Party, est.1918); UNS = Ukrainskyi Natsionalnyi Soiuz (Ukrainian National Union, est.Aug 1918, USDRP + USRP); UPSF = Ukrainska Partiya Sotsiialistiv-Federalistiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists, 1917-1923, named Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party 1923-1939); UPSI = Ukrainska Partiya Sotsiialistiv-Samostiinykiv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Independentists, 1917-1926); USDRP = Ukrainska Sotsiial-Demokratychna Robitnycha Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' Party, marxist communist, 1905-1950); USRP = Ukrainska Partiya Sotsiialistiv-Revoliutsioneriv (Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries, Ukrainian nationalist, populist, Apr 1917-Jul 1918, re-est.Jan 1919); Mil = Military


Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Ukrainian
                          People's Republic in 1917]
         24/25 Dec 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1919-1920]
                  10 Mar 1919 - Jan 1920
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR 1920]
                     Jan 1920 - 10 Aug 1921
 
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR 1921 - 1937]
                      10 Aug 1921 - 1937
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR Variant 1929 - 1937]
                   10 Aug 1921 - 1937  Variant
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR in 1937]
                     30 Jan 1937 - May 1937
 
[Flag of
                          Ukrainian SSR in 1937-45]
                         May 1937 - 1945
 
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR, 1945-1949]
                        1945 - 21 Nov 1949
[Flag of Ukrainian
                          SSR in 1949]
                   21 Nov 1949 - 21 Jan 1992
Capital: Kiev
(Kharkiv 1919-1934;
Yekaterinoslav
[Dnipropetrovsk]

10 Mar - 4 Apr 1918;
Poltava 1-10 Mar 1918)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Derzhavnyy himn
 Ukrayins'koyi Radyans'koyi
 Sotsialistychnoyi
 Respubliky"
 (State Anthem of the
 Ukrainian SSR)
(1949 - 5 Dec 1991)
Constitution
(20 Apr 1978 - 8 Jun 1995;
in Ukrainian)
Population: 49,755,000 (1980)

25 Dec 1917                Ukraine People's Republic (communist) proclaimed.
19 Mar 1918                Independence from Russia declared.
28 Apr 1918 - 29 Nov 1918  Authorities dissolved and exiled following the Treaty of Brest-
                             Litovsk and the fall of Lugansk.
29 Nov 1918                Communist government restored (formerly in Kursk, Russia exile).
 6 Jan 1919                Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
25 Jun 1941 - 1944         Occupied by Germany (Reichskommissariat of Ukraine; see below).
24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Secretaries of Central Committee the (Ukrainian) Communist Party 
12 Jul 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Yurii Leonidovych Pyatakov         (b. 1890 - d. 1937) 
 9 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1918  Serafima Ilyinichna Gopner (f)     (b. 1880 - d. 1966)
23 Oct 1918 - 30 May 1919  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (b. 1888 - d. 1939)
30 May 1919 - 10 Dec 1919  Stanislav Vikentevich Kosior       (b. 1889 - d. 1939)
                             (1st time)
10 Dec 1919 - Jan 1920     Vacant
Jan 1920 - 23 Mar 1920     Rafail Borisovich Farbman (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
23 Mar 1920 - 25 Mar 1920  Nikolay Ilyich Nikolayev           (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
25 Mar 1920 - 23 Nov 1920  Stanislav Vikentevich Kosior       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
First Secretary of the Central Committee
23 Nov 1920 - 22 Mar 1921  Vyacheslav Mihailovich Molotov     (b. 1890 - d. 1986)
Executive Secretary of the Central Committee 
22 Mar 1921 - 15 Dec 1921  Feliks Jakovlevich Kon             (b. 1864 - d. 1941)
First Secretaries of the Communist Party
15 Dec 1921 - 10 Apr 1923  Dmitry Zakharovich Manuilsky       (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
10 Apr 1923 - 20 Mar 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
General Secretaries of the Central Committee
20 Mar 1925 -  7 Apr 1925  Emmanuil Ionovich Kviring          (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1925 - 14 Jul 1928  Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich       (b. 1893 - d. 1991)
14 Jul 1928 - 23 Jan 1934  Stanislav Vikentevich Kosior       (s.a.)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee
23 Jan 1934 - 27 Jan 1938  Stanislav Vikentevich Kosior       (s.a.)
27 Jan 1938 -  3 Mar 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
                             (1st time)(acting to 18 Jun 1938)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
 3 Mar 1947 - 26 Dec 1947  Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
26 Dec 1947 - 16 Dec 1949  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
16 Dec 1949 -  4 Jun 1953  Leonid Georgyevich Melnikov        (b. 1906 - d. 1981)
 4 Jun 1953 - 26 Dec 1957  Aleksey Illarionovich Kirichenko   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)
26 Dec 1957 -  2 Jul 1963  Nikolay Viktorovich Podgorny       (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
 2 Jul 1963 - 25 May 1972  Pyotr Yefimovich Shelest           (b. 1908 - d. 1996)
25 May 1972 - 28 Sep 1989  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitsky  (b. 1918 - d. 1990)
28 Sep 1989 - 22 Jun 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (b. 1932 - d. 1994)
22 Jun 1990 -  1 Sep 1991  Stanislav Ivanovich Gurenko        (b. 1936 - d. 2013)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
26 Dec 1917 - 30 Dec 1917  Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee
(acting)
                           - Volodymyr Hrystyanovych Aussem   (b. 1882 - d.af.1936)RSDLP-B
                           - Issak Leybovich Erlyherman       (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  RSDLP-B
                           - Evheniya Bohdanivna Bosch (f)    (b. 1879 – d. 1925)  RSDRP-B 
                           - Serhiy Serhiyovych Bakynsky      (b. 1886 - d. 1939)  RSDRP-B
                           - Vasil Matvіyovich Shahrai        (b. 1888 - d. 1919)  RSDRP-B
30 Dec 1917 - 19? Mar 1918 Yukhym Hryhorovych Medvedyev       (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B 
20? Mar 1918 - 25 Mar 1918 Presidium of the Central Executive
                           Committee (acting)
                           - Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky     (s.a.)               RSDRP-B 
                           - Yan Borysovych Hamarnyk          (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                           - Heorhii Fedorovych Lapchynsky    (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                           - Leonid Korobchuk                                      RSDRP-B
                           - Opanas Sivero-Odoyevsky          (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B
                           - Pavlo Fedorovych Boychenko                            RSDRP-B
                           - Yevhen Petrovych Terletsky       (b. 1892 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-B
                           - Viktor Hryhorovych Hrysh                              RSDRP-B
25 Mar 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky       (b. 1888 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B 
28 Apr 1918 - Nov 1918     All-Ukrainian Bureau For Directing the Partisan 
                           Resistance Against the German Occupiers
                           - Mykola Oleksiiovych Skrypnyk     (b. 1872 - d. 1933)  KPU
                           - Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky     (s.a.)               KPU 
                           - Andrii Serhiiovych Bubnov        (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  KPU
                           - Yurii Leonidovych Pyatakov       (s.a.)               KPU
                           - Yevhen Petrovych Terletsky       (s.a.)               KPU
                           - Opanas Sivero-Odoyevsky          (s.a.)               KPU
                           - Serhiy Dmytrovych Mstyslavsky    (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  KPU 
                           - Mykola Yevtykhiiovych Vrublevsky (b. 1897 - d. 1918)  KPU
                           - Stanislav Vikentiiovych Kosior   (s.a.)               KPU
                           (list not necessarily complete)
Chairmen of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government
28 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Yurii Leonidovych Pyatakov         (s.a.)               KPU
16 Jan 1919 - 24 Jan 1919  Fedir Andriiovych Artem            (b. 1883 - d. 1921)  KPU
                            
(acting from 19 Jan 1919)
24 Jan 1919 - 29 Jan 1919
  Khrystyyan Georgiiovych Rakovsky   (b. 1873 - d. 1941)  KPU
                            
(Krastyo Georgiev Stanchev)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee

29 Jan 1919 - 14 Mar 1919  Vacant
14 Mar 1919 - 27 Jul 1938  Hryhorii Ivanovych Petrovsky       (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  KPU
                             (Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
27 Jul 1938 - Jul 1939     Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (b. 1901 - d. 1969)  KPU
Jul 1939 - 18 Jan 1954     Mikhail Sergeyevich Grechukha      (b. 1902 - d. 1976)  KPU
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
18 Jul 1954 -  7 Apr 1969  Demyan Sergeyevich Korotchenko     (b. 1894 - d. 1969)  KPU
10 Jun 1969 - Jun 1972     Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (b. 1915 - d. 2002)  KPU
28 Jul 1972 - 24 Jun 1976  Ivan Samoilovich Grushetsky        (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  KPU
24 Jun 1976 - 22 Nov 1984  Aleksey Fedoseyevich Vatchenko     (b. 1914 - d. 1984)  KPU
22 Nov 1984 -  4 Jun 1990  Valentina Semyonovna Shevchenko (f)(b. 1935)            KPU
                             (acting to 27 Mar 1985)
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
 4 Jun 1990 - 18 Jul 1990  Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko        (s.a.)               KPU
18 Jul 1990 - 23 Jul 1990  Ivan Stepanovich Plyushch (acting) (b. 1941)            KPU
23 Jul 1990 -  5 Dec 1991  Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk         (b. 1934)            KPU

People's Secretary of Internal Affairs
30 Dec 1917 -  9 Mar 1918  Evheniya Bohdanivna Bosch (f)      (s.a.)               RSDRP-B 
Chairman of the People's Secretariat
 9 Mar 1918 - 18 Apr 1918  Mykola Oleksiiovych Skrypnyk       (s.a.)               RSDRP-B
Chairmen of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government 
28 Nov 1918 - 16 Jan 1919  Yurii Leonidovych Pyatakov         (s.a.)               KPU
16 Jan 1919 - 24 Jan 1919  Fedir Andriiovych Artem            (s.a.)               KPU
24 Jan 1919 - 29 Jan 1919  Khrystyyan Georgiiovych Rakovsky   (s.a.)               KPU
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (initially also 
styled Chairman of the Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine)
29 Jan 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Khrystyyan Georgiiovych Rakovsky   (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Christian Georgyevich Rakovsky)
                             (1st time)
Chairman of the All-Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee
11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Hryhorii Ivanovych Petrovsky       (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky) 
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
19 Feb 1920 - 15 Jul 1923  Christian Georgyevich Rakovsky     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1923 - 28 Apr 1934  Vlas Yakovlevich Chubar            (b. 1891 - d. 1939)  KPU
28 Apr 1934 - 30 Aug 1937  Panas Petrovich Lyubchenko         (b. 1897 - d. 1937)  KPU
30 Aug 1937 - 13 Oct 1937  Mikhail Ilich Bondarenko           (b. 1903 - d. 1938)  KPU
13 Oct 1937 - 21 Feb 1938  Nikolay Makarovich Marchak (acting)(b. 1904 - d. 1938)  KPU
21 Feb 1938 -  6 Aug 1939  Demyan Sergeyevich Korotchenko     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (1st time)
 6 Aug 1939 -  5 Feb 1944  Leonid Romanovich Korniyets        (s.a.)               KPU
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1941-1944)
 5 Feb 1944 - 25 Mar 1946  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
25 Mar 1946 -  4 Mar 1947  Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev      (s.a.)               KPU
 4 Mar 1947 - 15 Jan 1954  Demyan Sergeyevich Korotchenko     (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1954 - 28 Feb 1961  Nikifor Timofeyevich Kalchenko     (b. 1906 - d. 1989)  KPU
28 Feb 1961 - 28 Jun 1963  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitsky  (s.a.)               KPU
                             (1st time) 
28 Jun 1963 - 22 Oct 1965  Ivan Pavlovich Kazanets            (b. 1918 - d. 2013)  KPU
22 Oct 1965 -  8 Jun 1972  Vladimir Vasilyevich Shcherbitsky  (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time) 
 8 Jun 1972 - 10 Jul 1990  Aleksandr Pavlovich Lyashko        (s.a.)               KPU
10 Jul 1990 - 23 Oct 1990  Vitaly Andreyevich Masol           (b. 1928)            KPU
23 Oct 1990 -  2 Oct 1992  Vitold Pavlovich Fokin             (b. 1932)            KPU;1991
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1990)                               Non-party

Party abbreviations: KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, Jul 1918-1991); RSDLP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Bolshevik (Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party-Bolshevik [Majority], marxist communist, internationalist, renamed Russian Communist Party, 1903-1918)


Soviet Republic of Odessa

[Soviet Republic of Odessa]

Chairman of Military and Revolutionary Committee
31 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918   Ivan Fyodorovich Smirnov          (b. 1885 - d. 1919)

Chairman of People's Commissars Council
31 Jan 1918 - Feb 1918      Vladimir Grigoryevich Yudovsky    (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
Chairman of Executive Committee
Feb 1918 - 13 Mar 1918      Pyotr Ivanovich Starostin         (b. 1881 - d. 1918)


Donets Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic (Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic)

[Donets Kryvyi Rih Soviet
                Republic (Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic), 1918
                (possible reconstruction)]

12 Feb 1918                Donets-Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic
19 Mar 1918                Dissolved.

Chairman of the Council of People's Comissars 
12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918  Fedir Andriiovych Artem               (b. 1883 - d. 1921) 
                             (Fyodor Andryovych Serhyeyev)


(post-Soviet) Ukraine

24 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (confirmed 1 Dec 1991).
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.).

Chairman of the Supreme Council
24 Aug 1991 -  5 Dec 1991  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk             (b. 1934)        Non-party
Presidents

 5 Dec 1991 - 19 Jul 1994  Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk             (s.a.)           Non-party
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Jan 2005  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma               (b. 1938)        Non-party
23 Jan 2005 - 25 Feb 2010  Viktor Andriyovich Yushchenko          (b. 1954)       NUSU;2007 NU
25 Feb 2010 - 22 Feb 2014  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych           (b. 1950)        PR;2010 Ind
23 Feb 2014 -              Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov      (b. 1964)        VOB
                             (acting)

Prime ministers 
23 Oct 1990 -  2 Oct 1992  Vitold Pavlovych Fokin                 (b. 1932)        KPU;1991
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1990)                               Non-party
 2 Oct 1992 - 13 Oct 1992  Valentyn Kostyantinovych Symonenko     (b. 1940)        Non-party
                             (acting) 
13 Oct 1992 - 22 Sep 1993  Leonid Danylovych Kuchma               (s.a.)           Non-party
22 Sep 1993 - 16 Jun 1994  Yukhim Leonidovych Zvyahilsky          (b. 1933)        Non-party
                             (acting) 
16 Jun 1994 -  1 Mar 1995  Vitalii Andriyovych Masol              (b. 1928)        Non-party
 1 Mar 1995 - 28 May 1996  Yevhen Kyrylovych Marchuk              (b. 1941)        Non-party
                             (acting to 8 Jun 1995)
28 May 1996 -  2 Jul 1997  Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko              (b. 1953)        Hormada
19 Jun 1997 - 16 Jul 1997  Vasyl Vasylovych Durdynets             (b. 1937)        Non-party
                             (acting [for Lazrenko to 2 Jul 1997])
16 Jul 1997 - 22 Dec 1999  Valerii Pavlovych Pustovoitenko        (b. 1947)        NDP
22 Dec 1999 - 29 May 2001  Viktor Andriyovich Yushchenko          (s.a.)           Non-party
29 May 2001 - 21 Nov 2002  Anatolii Kyrylovych Kinakh             (b. 1954)        PPPU
21 Nov 2002 -  5 Jan 2005  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (1st time)(s.a.)           PR
 7 Dec 2004 - 28 Dec 2004  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (1st time)      (b. 1947)        PR
                             (acting for Yanukovych)
 5 Jan 2005 - 24 Jan 2005  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (2nd time)      (s.a.)           PR
                             (acting)      
24 Jan 2005 -  8 Sep 2005  Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)     (b. 1960)        VOB + BYuT
                             (1st time)(acting to 4 Feb 2005)
 8 Sep 2005 -  4 Aug 2006  Yurii Ivanovych Yekhanurov             (b. 1948)        NU
                             (acting to 22 Sep 2005)
 4 Aug 2006 - 18 Dec 2007  Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (2nd time)(s.a.)           PR
18 Dec 2007 - 11 Mar 2010  Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (f)     (s.a.)           VOB + BYuT
                             (2nd time)
 4 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2010  Oleksandr Valentynovych Turchynov      (s.a.)           VOB + BYuT
                             (acting for Tymoshenko)
11 Mar 2010 - 28 Jan 2014  Mykola Yanovych Azarov (3rd time)      (s.a.)           PR
28 Jan 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Serhiy Hennadiyovych Arbuzov (acting)  (b. 1976)        PR
27 Feb 2014 -              Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk            (b. 1974)        VOB


Territorial Disputes:
1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete with preparations for demarcation underway; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and ongoing expert-level discussions; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE) in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/ Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Ukraine and U.S. do not recognize Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol.

Party abbreviations: BYuT = Blok Yuliyi Tymoshenko (Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc, center-right, pro-Europe, Yuliyi Tymoshenko coalition, est.2001); Hormada = Vseukrainske Obiednannia "Hromada" (All-Ukrainian Association "Hromada", social democratic, center-left, est.1994); Ind = Independent; KPU = Kommunistychna Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, 1918-1991, re-est.1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiya Ukrainy (Peoples' Democratic Party of Ukraine, centrist, est.1996); NRU = Narodnyi Rukh Ukrayiny (People's Movement of Ukraine, "Rukh", center-right, est.1990); NU = Nasha Ukrayina ("Our Ukraine", center-right, Viktor Yushchenko personalist, formerly NSNU, est.2007); PPPU = Partiy Promyslovtsiv i Pidpryiemtsev Ukrainy (Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine, centrist, est.2000); PR = Partiya Rehioniv (Party of Regions, regionalist, centerist, Russophile, 1997-2005 pro-Kuchma, 2010-14 pro-Yanukovych, est.1997); VOB = Vseukrayinske Obyednannya "Batkivshchyna" (All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland", center-right, moderate conservative, populist, pro-Europe, est.1999); 
- Former parties: NUSU = Blok "Nasha Ukrayina"-Narodna Samooborona ("Our Ukraine"–People's Self-Defense Bloc, reformist, center-right, renamed NSNU, 2001-2012)



Reichskommissariat of Ukraine

[Third Reich 1933-1945 (Germany)]
 
Map of Ukraine
1941-1944
Capital: Rowno
(Rivne)
Currency: Reichs
Karbowanez (UAC)
Population: 41,340,000
(1941 est.)
Districts
(Generalbezirk)

25 Jun 1941 -  2 Feb 1944  Ukraine occupied by Germany (from 
                             1 Sep 1941, Reichskommissariat of Ukraine).

German Commander
25 Jun 1941 - 31 Aug 1941  Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
Reichskommissare
 1 Sep 1941 -  6 Oct 1943  Erich Koch                     (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
1942 - 194.                Paul Dargel (acting for Koch)  (b. 1903 - d. 19..)  NSDAP
Oct 1943 - 1944            Curt von Gottberg              (b. 1896 - d. 1945)  NSDAP

Party abbreviation: NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist)



Western Ukraine

[Western Ukraine flag 1918-1919]
           13 Nov 1918 - 22 Jan 1919
 
Map of Western Ukraine
Capital: L'viv
(Ternopil 22 Nov 1918 -
1 Jan 1919;
 Stanislaviv Jan 1-22 1919)
Currency: Ukraine Grivna
(UAG)
Population: 5,400,000
 (1910)

26 Apr 1795                Annexed by Austria from Poland (part of Galicia).
 1 Nov 1918                Ukrainian State (independence from Austria).
13 Nov 1918                Western Ukrainian People's Republic
22 Jan 1919                Incorporation into Ukraine.
20 Apr 1920                Annexation by Poland (Western Ukrainian government in exile est.)
15 Mar 1923                Ambassadors council recognizes Polish annexation.
17/22 Sep 1939             Western Ukraine occupied and from 1 Nov 1939 annexed by Soviet
                             Union (part of Ukrainian S.S.R.)
21 Jun 1941                Germany takes over the Soviet-occupied areas.
 1 Aug 1941 - Jul 1944     Galizien district of German occupied General-government.
Jul 1944                   Re-occupied by Soviet forces.
15 Sep 1947                Re-icorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (in Soviet Union) 
                             (de facto from 1944).
 

President of the Ukrainian National Council
 1 Nov 1918 - 22 Jan 1919  Yevhen Petrushevych                (b. 1863 - d. 1940)  USDP
                             (in Vienna, Austria exile to 15 Mar 1923)

Chairmen of the State Secretariat
 9 Nov 1918 -  4 Jan 1918  Kost' Levytsky                     (b. 1859 - d. 1941)  USDP
 4 Jan 1919 - 22 Jan 1919  Sydir Holubovych                   (b. 1875 - d. 1938)  USDP

Party abbreviation: USDP = Ukrainska Sotsiial-Demokratychna Partiya (Ukrainian Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, Galicia regionalist, 1899-1924  

Galician Socialist Soviet Republic

[Galician Socialist Soviet Republic, 1920
                (possible reconstruction)]

15 Jul 1920                Galician Revolutionary Committee formed in Kiev exile.         
 1 Aug 1920                Galician Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed in
                             Ternopil/Tarnopol.
21 Sep 1920                Dissolved as area is re-occupied by Poland. 

Chairman of the Galician Revolutionary Committee ("Galrevkom")
 1 Aug 1920 - 21 Sep 1920  Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky        (b. 1888 - d. 1938)
                              (Vladimir Petrovich Zatonsky)
                              (in Kiev from 15 Jul 1920)


Lemko-Rusyn Republic
 
[Lemko-Rusyn
                Republic flag]
  
 5 Dec 1918                Lemko-Rusyn Republic (Republic of Lemkivshchyna)
                             (Ruska Lemkivska Respublika) established in Florynka.
Mar 1920                   Incorporation into Poland.

President of the Central National Council 
 5 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1920  Jaroslav Kaczmarczyk               (b. 1884 - d. 1944)

Chairman of the Executive Council
 5 Dec 1918 - Mar 1920     Mykhal Iurchakevych 



Bukovina

[Flag of Duchy of Bukovina,
                1849-1918]
                 1849 - 31 Dec 1918
 
Map of Bukovina
Capital: Czernowitz
(Chernovsty)
Currency for 1918: Ukraine
Grivna (UAG)
Population: 800,198 (1910)

1490                       Part of Moldavia (under suzerainty of Ottoman Empire).
14 Sep 1739 - Oct 1739     Occupied Russia.
15 Dec 1769 - Sep 1774     Occupied by Russia.
 1 Oct 1774 - 1775         Occupied by Austria.
 7 May 1775                Annexed by Austria (under military administration to 1786).
16 Sep 1786 -  4 Mar 1849  Amalgamated with Galicia (see Poland) as kreis (district) of
                             Czernowitz (later Bukovina).
 4 Mar 1849                Separate Austrian crownland as the Duchy of Bukovina
                             (Herzogtum Bukowina).
1860 - 1861                Re-incorporated into Galicia.
26 Feb 1861                Autonomy restored.

21 Dec 1867                Part of "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e. of the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial 
                             Diet").
26 Nov 1914 - 17 Feb 1915  Russian occupation.
18 Jun 1916 - 1917         Russian occupation.
12 Nov 1918                Independence from Austria; Northern Bukovina (Czernowitz) votes
                             to united with Ukraine, Southern Bukovina votes to join Romania.
31 Dec 1918                All of Bukovina incorporated into Romania.
27 Jun 1940                Northern Bukovina annexed by Soviet Union (as part of Ukrainian
                             S.S.R.).
 5 Jul 1941                Northern Bukovina re-incorporated into Romania.
15 Sep 1947                Incorporation of Northern Bukovina into Ukrainian S.S.R.
                             (as part of Soviet Union; de facto from 1944).

Dukes (title Herzog von Bukowina)
 4 Mar 1849 - 12 Nov 1918  the Emperors of Austria

Military and Civil Governors
 1 Oct 1774 -  6 Apr 1778  Gabriel Anton Freiherr             (b. 1734 - d. 1818)
                             Splény de Miháldy
Apr 1778 - 31 Oct 1786     Karl Freiherr von Enzenberg zu     (b. c.1725 - d. 1810)
                             Freyen und Jöchelsthurn
Kreishauptleute
1786 - 1792                Joseph von Beck
1792 - 1803                Basil von Balsch (Vasile Bals)     (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
1803 - 1805                von Schreiber
1805 - 1807                von Mitscha
1807 - 1817                Johann von Platzer
1817 - 1823                Joseph Freiherr von Stutterheim    (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
1823 - 1833                Johann von Melczechen
1833 - 1838                Franz Kratter
1838 - 1840                Casimir Ritter von Milbacher       (b. 1784 - d. 18..)
1840 - 1849                Gheorghe Isacescu (H. Issecescul)
Administrators-general
Feb 1849 - Jul 1849        Eduard Ritter von Bach             (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
Jul 1849 - Mar 1853        Anton Freiherr Henniger von Seeberg
Landespräsidenten
Mar 1853 - 27 Nov 1857     Franz Freiherr von Schmück         (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
                             (acting to 29 May 1854)
18 Feb 1858 - May 1860     Karl Graf von Rothkirch und Panthen(b. 1807 - d. 1870)
 1 Sep 1860 - Mar 1861     Jakob Ritter von Mikuli (provisional)
26 Mar 1861 -  2 May 1862  Wenzel Ritter von Martina
 2 May 1861 - 31 May 1862  Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki    (b. 1812 - d. 1874)
                             (acting)
31 May 1862 - 30 Oct 1865  Rudolf Graf von Amadei             (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
30 Oct 1865 -  4 Oct 1870  Franz Myrbach Ritter  von          (b. 1818 - d. 1882) 
                             Rheinfeld
 4 Oct 1870 -  8 Jul 1874  Felix Freiherr von Pino            (b. 1826 - d. 1906)
                             Friedenthal (1st time)
18 Aug 1874 -  8 Feb 1887  Hieronymus Freiherr von            (b. 1837 - d. 1887)
                             Alesani
14 Feb 1887 -  1 Aug 1890  Felix Freiherr von Pino            (s.a.)
                             Friedenthal (2nd time)
 9 Jan 1891 - 17 May 1892  Anton Graf Pace von Friedensberg   (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
22 May 1892 - 13 Jun 1894  Franz Freiherr von Krauss          (b. 1837 - d. 1919)
15 Nov 1894 - 16 Dec 1897  Leopold Graf von Goëss             (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
16 Dec 1897 - 25 Feb 1903  Friedrich Freiherr Bourguignon     (b. 1846 - d. 1907)
                             von Baumberg
25 Feb 1903 -  1 Oct 1904  Prinz Konrad Prinz zu Hohenlohe-   (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
                             Schillingsfürst
 1 Oct 1904 - 15 Dec 1911  Oktavian Ritter Regner von         (b. 1866 - d. 1945)  
                             Bleyleben 
20 Jan 1912 - 24 Apr 1917  Rudolf Graf von Meran              (b. 1872 - d. 1959)
24 Apr 1917 -  5 Nov 1918  Joseph Graf von Etzdorf
President of the National Council
12 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Dionisie Bejan                     (b. 1837 - d. 1923)
President of the General Congress
28 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Iancu Flondor                      (b. 1865 - d. 1924)

Landeshauptleute‏
1861 - 1862                Eugenie Hacman, Bishop of Bukovina (b. 1793 - d. 1873)
1862 - Feb 1874            Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki    (s.a.)               Z
                             (Eudoksjusz Hurmuzaki)
                             (acting to 1864)
1874 - 1884                Anton Kochanowski Ritter von       (b. 1817 - d. 1906)  DL
                             Stawczan
1884 - 1892                Alexander Wassilko-Serecki         (b. 1827 - d. 1893)  PRN
1892 - 1904                Johann von Lupul (Iancu Lupul)     (b. 1836 - d. 1922)  PNR
14 Sep 1904 - Jul 1911     Georg Freiherr Wassilko von Serecki(b. 1864 - d. 1940)  PNR
1911 - 12 Nov 1918         Alexander Freiherr von Hormuzaki   (b. 1869 - d. 1945)  PNR
                             (Aleksander Hurmuzaki)

Party abbreviations: DL = Deutschliberale Partei (German Liberal Party, 1867-1879); PNR = Partidul National Român (Rumanian National Party, Romanian nationalist, Greek-Catholic, 1881-1926); Z = Zentralist (Centralist)



Carpatho-Ukraine (Ruthenia)
 
[AH Flag of
                          Ruthenia]
                bf.1848 -  8 Nov 1918
 
[Flag of
                          Carpatho-Ukraine 1939]
          14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939
 
Map of Carpatho-Ukraine Hear National Anthem
"Sche ne vmerla Ukraina"
(Ukraine has not yet Perished
Text of National Anthem
 (15 - 16 Mar 1939)
First Constitutional Law of Carpatho-Ukraine
(15 Mar 1939)
Capital: Uzhgorod
(Khust 2 Nov 1938-1939)
Currency 1938-1939:
Hungarian Pengoe (HUP)
National Holiday: 14 Mar (1939)
Independence Day
Population: 814,000 (1938)
1,254,000 (2003)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Ruthenian/Rusyn 63%, Russian 15.4%,
Jewish 13%, Ukrainian 1.8%, Hungarian 1.7%, Czech and
Slovak 4.8%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, others 0.1% (1930)
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Ukrainian Catholic (Uniate), Ukrainian
Orthodox, Jewish
International Organizations/Treaties: None
Ruthenian Catholic Church

25 Dec 1000                Part of Hungary (part of Feldivék [Upper Hungary])
                             (24 Feb 1538 - 16.. part Erdély [Transylvania].
 5 Aug 1772                Red Ruthenia (Rus Czerwona) annexed.
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Hungarian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e of the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown").
 8 Nov 1918                Ruthenian National Council established at Lyubovna. On
                             19 Nov 1918 moved to Presov in Slovakia.
 9 Nov 1918                Rival Ruthenian Council in Hungary (for autonomy within
                             Hungary) established in Uzhgorod. 
26 Dec 1918                Hungary establishes an Autonomous Region of Russka Kraina.
28 Dec 1918                Czechoslovak forces occupy Presov.
Jan 1919                   Czechoslovak troops begin occupying western Subcarpathia.
12 Jan 1919                After Allied intervention, the territory was temporarily divided 
                             into two zones: western Subcarpathia to Czechs, while
                             eastern Subcarpathia remained Hungarian.
13 Jan 1918                Czechoslovak forces occupy Uzhgorod.
17 Jan 1919                Western Ukrainian troops invade Subcarpathia. They are driven out
                             21 Jan, but not before having established a third Rusyn council,
                             the Carpatho-Ukrainian National Council (claiming reunion with 
                             Ukraine) at Khust. 
19 Apr 1919 - Jul 1920     Romanian troops occupy the eastern Hungarian zone. 
27 Apr 1919                Czech troops started occupying the western Hungarian zone.
 9 May 1919                A Ruthenian Central National Council, claiming to represent all the
                             previous councils, set up at Uzhgorod. On 22 May 1919, formally
                             accepts union with Czechoslovakia.
Mar 1920                   Part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Rus).
 4 Jun 1920                By Treaty of Trianon Hungary formally cedes the Rusyn areas
                             to Czechoslovakia.
11 Oct 1938                Autonomy within Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Rus province).
30 Dec 1938                Renamed Carpatho-Ukraine.
14 Mar 1939                Independence from Czechoslovakia (Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine).
16 Mar 1939                Annexed by Hungary and named Subcarpathia.
27 Oct 1944                Occupied by the Soviet Union (see under Slovakia) and 
                             named Transcarpathian Ukraine.
29 Jun 1945                Formally ceded by Czechoslovakia and annexed to Soviet Union.
22 Jan 1946                Incorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (within Soviet Union as
                             Transcarpathia oblast [Ukrainian: Zakarpatska oblast, Russian: 
                             Zakarpatskaya oblast])(see Ukraine oblasts).
 
Chairmen of the Ruthenian National Council
(in Lubovna, from 19 Nov 1918 Presov exile) 
 8 Nov 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  Omelyan Nevyckiy                   (b. 1878 - d. 1939)
19 Nov 1918 - Jan 1919     Antony Hryhorovych Beskyd          (b. 1855 - d. 1933)
Chairman of the Hungarian-Ruthenian National Council (in Uzh-horod)
 9 Nov 1918 - 26 Dec 1918  Symeon Sabov (Simont Szabó)        (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
Chairman of the Ruthenian Central National Council
 6 May 1919 - 19 Aug 1919  Avhustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (b. 1874 - d. 1945) 
Chairman of the Provisional Directorate
19 Aug 1919 - May 1920     Hrihorii Ihnatii Zhatkovych        (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
Governor of Russka Kraina (in Mukacevo)
12 Jan 1919 - 25 Mar 1919  Ágoston Stefán                     (b. 1877 - d. 1944)
Governors
1919 - 1920                Ivan Brejcha                       (b. 1867 - d. 1924)
 5 May 1920 - 17 May 1921  Hrihorii Ihnatii Zhatkovych        (s.a.)
17 May 1921 - 18 Nov 1923  Petr Ehrenfeld (acting)            (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
18 Nov 1923 - 16 Jun 1933  Antony Hryhorovych Beskyd          (s.a.)
                             (Anton Beskid)
16 Jun 1933 - 15 Feb 1935  Antonín Rozsypal (acting)          (b. 1866 - d. 1937)
15 Feb 1935 -  9 Oct 1938  Konstantin Hrabar                  (b. 1877 - d. 1938) 
 9 Oct 1938 - 1939         Ivan Parkányi                      (b. 1896 - d. 1997)
Military governor
 6 Mar 1939 - 14 Mar 1939  Lev Prchala                        (b. 1892 - d. 1963)  Mil
President
14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Avhustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)               UNO
                             (acting to 15 Mar 1939)
Hungarian Military commanders
14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Béla Novákovics
16 Mar 1939 -  7 Jul 1939  Géza Császár
District Commissioners
 7 Jul 1939 - 12 Sep 1940  Zsigmond baron Perényi Perényi     (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
12 Sep 1940 -  8 Dec 1941  Miklós Kozma                       (b. 1884 - d. 1941)
 5 Jan 1942 -  5 Apr 1944  Pál Vilmos Tomcsányi               (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
 5 Apr 1944 - 19 Oct 1944  András Vincze
Czechoslovak Administrator
28 Oct 1944 - 26 Nov 1944  Frantisek Nemec                    (b. 1889 - d. 1963) 

Minister for Russka Kraina (in Budapest)
12 Dec 1918 - 21 Mar 1919  Oreszt Szabó (Orest Sabov)         (b. 1867 - d. 1944?)
Vice-governors and Heads of the Civil Administration
May 1920 - 1924            Petr Ehrenfeld                     (s.a.)
1924 - 1933                Antonín Rozsypal                   (s.a.)
Head of the Political Administration
1933 - 1938                Antonín Rozsypal                   (s.a.)
Czechoslovak Minister for Subcarpathian Rus Affairs
 4 Oct 1938 - 14 Oct 1938  Ivan Parkányi                      (s.a.)
14 Oct 1938 -  6 Mar 1939  Vacant
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
11 Oct 1938 - 26 Oct 1938  Andras Brody                       (b. 1895 - d. 1946)  AZS
26 Oct 1938 - 15 Mar 1939  Avhustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (s.a.)             KhNP;1939 UNO
15 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Yulian Revay                       (b. 1899 - d. 1979)  UNO

Commanders of Czechoslovak Troops in Subcarpathia
12 Jan 1919 - 27 May 1919  Luigi Giuseppe Piccione            (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
 1 Jun 1919 - 1919         Edmond Charles Adolphe             (b. 1860 - d. 1933)
                             Hennocque
1919 - May 1920            Marie Constantin Robert Paris      (b. 1868 - d. 1953)

Party abbreviations: AZS = Avtonomniy Zemledilskiy Soyuz (Autonomous Agrarian Union, founded as Ruska Khliborobska Partiya [Ruthenian Agrarian Party], Uniate Catholic, Ruthenian autonomist, 1920-1938); KhNP = Khrystyiansko-Narodna Partiya (Christian People's Party, populist, Uniate Catholic, Ruthenia regionalist, 1924-1939, renamed UNO); UNO = Ukrainske Natsionalno Obiednannia (Ukrainian National Union, coalition of parties seeking national self-government, Uniate Catholic, conservative, 18 Jan 1939-16 Mar 1939)


Hutsul (Hucul) Republic

[Hutsul (Hucul) Republic]
 

 9 Jan 1919                Hutsul in eastern Subcarpathia, in revolt against Hungary since
                             Nov 1918, formally proclaims independence as Hutsul Republic
Jun 1919                   Terminated by Romania.

Prime minister
 9 Jan 1919 - Jun 1919     Stepan Klochurak                   (b. 1895 - d. 1980)


Komancza (Komancha) Republic

[Komancza (Komancha) Republic]

 4 Nov 1918                Thirty villages in eastern Lemko region found
                             Komancza Republic (also called the Komancza Lemko Republic).
23 Jan 1919                Polish troops occupied Komancza; incorporation into Poland.

President of the Council
 4 Nov 1918 - 23 Jan 1919  Pantelejmon Shpylka                (b. 1883 - d. 1950)



Crimea (Krym)
 
[Crimean Khanate
                          flag]
                        to 1783
 
[Crimean
                          Republic, 1917]
             14 Oct 1917 - 7 Mar 1918 
 
[Tavrida
                          (Tauride) Soviet Republic flag, 1918]
           7  Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918
 
[Russia flag]
 25 Jun - Nov 1918, 23 Jun 1919 - Nov 1920
 
[Crimean
                          Regional Government, 1918]
            18 Dec 1918 - Apr 1919
 
[Crimean
                          Socialist Soviet Republic, 1919-20, 1920-21]
     29 Apr - 23 Jun 1919, Nov 1920 - 10 Nov 1921
 
[Crimean
                          Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, 1921]
                     10 Nov 1921 - 1922
 
[Crimean ASSR,
                          1922]
                              1922 - 1932 
 
[Crimean ASSR,
                          1932]
                             1932 - 1937
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1937]
                            1937 - 1939
 
[Crimean ASSR
                          flag, 1939-45]
            1939 - Nov 1941, 1944 - 30 Jun 1945
[Crimean Republic
                          flag]
                       Adopted 24 Sep 1992

Map of Crimea Hear Local Anthem
"Gimn Avtonomnoi Respubliki
 Krym" (Hymn of the
 Autonomous Republic
of Crimea)
Text of Anthem
 Adopted 26 Feb 1992
(lyrics 18 Oct 2000)
Constitution
(12 Jan 1999)
-----------------------------------

1992 Constitution

(6 May 1992 - 17 Mar 1995,
restored 17 Mar 2014
)
Capital: Simferopol
(Bakhchisarai 1532-28 Apr
1784, 25 Jun 1918-Apr 1919)
Currency: Hryvnia (UAH) and
from 17 Mar 2014:
Russian
 Ruble
(RUR)
Local Holiday: 20 Jan (1991)
Day of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Population: 1,967,119 (2013)
2,024,000 (2001)
GDP: $N/A
(included in Ukraine GDP)
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
(included in Ukraine figures)
Ethnic groups: Russian 58.5%, Ukrainian 24.4%, Crimean
Tatar 12.1%, Belarusian 1.5%, Tatar 0.5%, Armenian 0.4%,
Jews 0.2%, Poles 0.2%, Moldovan 0.2%, Azeri 0.2%,
others 1.8%
(2001)
Total Local Armed Forces: 1,500 (2014)
Ukrainian Forces: 14,500 (2014)
Russian Forces: 30,000 (2013)

Merchant marine: N/A (2014)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic,
Muslim, Jewish, others
Sevastopol

395 - 989                  Byzantine rule on the south coast.
c.680 - c.833              Khazar rule.
c.833 - 895                Magyar rule.
895 - 1004/50              Under Paçinak (to the Slavs known as Pecheneg) rule.
989 - 10..                 Russian rule in Gothia and Cherson.
1004/50                    The Qypçak (also known as Polovcy or Kuman) est. a state
                             called Steppe of the Qypçak (Dest-i-Qypçak).
10.. - 1204                Byzantine rule on the south coast restored.
1236                       Mongol conquest (under the Kipchak [Golden Horde]).
1266 - 1300                Crimean city of Theodosia (Kaffa) ruled by Genoa.
1315 -  6 Jun 1475         Kaffa under Genoese rule (from 12 Jul 1365 - 1387 also Sudak,
                             and Cembalo [Balaklava] and southern coast of the Crimea).
1427                       Girai khans replaced the Kipchak Khans as rulers of the rest 
                             of the Crimea.
 1 Jun 1475                Vassal of Ottoman Empire.
1713 - 1739                Zaporizhzhya ceded by Russia to Crimea.
13 Jul 1771 - 1773         Russian occupation.
21 Jul 1774                Ottomans renounce sovereignty over Crimea by the Treaty 
                             of Küçük Kainardji.
21 Apr 1777                Russian vassal.
21 Jul 1783                Annexed to Russia.
Jun 1792                   Khanate finally overthrown.
1801                       Part of Russian province of Tauride.
13 Sep 1854 - 12 Jul 1856  Parts of southern of Crimea occupied during Crimean War.
10 Dec 1917                Crimean-Tatar Parliament (Kurultay) founded.
13 Dec 1917                Crimean People's Democratic Republic
26 Dec 1917                Independence declared.
14 Jan 1918                Tatar troops routed at Simferopol by Bolshevik forces.
14 Jan 1918                Tatar government abolished by Bolsheviks.
 7 Mar 1918                Republic of Tauride
21 Mar 1918                Tavrida (Tauride) Soviet Republic
19 Mar 1918                Northern territories of Crimean peninsula (parts of Kherson
                            and Zaporozhye regions) occupied by the German army.
18 Apr 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  German occupation.
21 Apr 1918                Tavrida (Tauride) abolished by German forces.
25 Jun 1918                Crimean Regional Government founded at Simferopol under
                             German protectorate until 14 Nov 1918.
Dec 1918 - 1919            Allied occupation.
2. Apr 1919                Red Army occupies Simferopol, the Crimean government
                             is dissolved.
29 Apr 1919                Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic.
15 Jun 1919 - Nov 1920     Crimea occupied by "White" Russian forces.
26 Jun 1919                Crimea S.S.R. dissolved.
17 May 1920                Crimean Tatar Republic proclaims itself to be under
                             Polish protectorate.
Nov 1920                   Red Army regains control, Crimea re-incorporated into the
                             Russian S.F.S.R.
18 Oct 1921                Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic formed
                             within the Russian S.F.S.R.
Jul 1942 -  9 May 1944     German occupation; administered separately from Reichskommissariat
                             Ukraine until
1 Sep 1942 (as Reichskommissariat of Krim-Taurien,
                             then from 1 Sep 1942, Generalbezirk Krim und Teilbezirk Taurien)
                           
(Simferopol occupied 1 Sep 1941 and Sevastopol on 1 Jul 1942). 
Apr/May 1944               Soviet Union re-occupies Crimea (Kerch re-taken on 11 Apr 1944,
                             Simferopol on 13 Apr 1944 and Sevastopol on 9 May 1944).
30 Jun 1945                Crimea reduced to oblast (Krymskaya oblast).
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to Ukrainian S.S.R
20 Jan 1991                In referendum 93.3% vote for the restoration of the Crimean
                             Autonomous S.S.R. within the Soviet Union.
12 Feb 1991                Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Ukraine.
 4 Sep 1991                State sovereignty of Crimea within Ukraine declared.
26 Feb 1992                Renamed Crimean Republic.
 5 May 1992                Crimean parliament declares independence (annulled 20 May 1992).
17 Mar 1995 -  8 Jun 1995  Direct rule by the government of Ukraine.
28 Jun 1996                Autonomous Republic of Crimea
28 Feb 2014                Russian intervention in Crimea.
 6 Mar 2014                Crimea parliament votes to join Russia.
16 Mar 2014                Referendum votes 96.7% to join Russia (recognized by Russia,
                             but not Ukraine).
17 Mar 2014                Independence declared (Republic of Crimea) and
application for
                             accession to Russia
(recognized by Russia, but not Ukraine).
21 Mar 2014                Crimea annexed to Russia, creating two new federal subjects:
                             Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol, which then
                             form new Krymsky federal district (not recognized by Ukraine).

First Secretaries of the Communist Party
20 Nov 1920 -  6 Jan 1921  Rozaliya Samoylovna Zalkind        (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (Zemlyachka)(f)     
 6 Jan 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Adolf Mikhailovich Lide            (b. 1895 - d. 1941)
13 Mar 1921 -  6 Nov 1921  Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov           (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
 6 Nov 1921 - 24 Oct 1922  Abram Ilyich Izrailovich           (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
25 Oct 1922 - 13 May 1924  Nikolay Ivanovich Ufimtsev         (b. 1889 - d. 1938)
16 May 1924 - Jun 1925     Ivan Petrovich Nosov               (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
1925                       Vasily Vasilyevich Vashkevich      (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
                             (acting)
 7 Aug 1925 - 30 Aug 1927  Sergey Dmitriyevich Petropavlovsky (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
Sep 1927 - 8 Dec 1929      Dmitry Yegorovich Zhivov           (b. 1896 - d. 1939)
17 Dec 1929 - 11 May 1930  Nikolay Kuzmich Kozlov             (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
12 May 1930 - Sep 1930     Aykaz Arkadyevich (Arshakovich)    (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
                             Kostanyan      
Oct 1930 - Jan 1933        Evgeniy Illich Veger               (b. 1899 - d. 1938)
Feb 1933 - 28 Dec 1936     Borys Anatoliyevich Semyonov       (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
28 Dec 1936 - 13 Jul 1937  Lavrentiy Iosifovich               (b. 1890 - d. 1938)
                             Kartvelishvili (Lavrentyev) 
14 Jul 1937 - 10 Oct 1938  Nikolay Ivanovich Schuchkin        (b. 1895 - d. 1938)
18 Jan 1939 - 21 May 1944  Vladimir Semyonovich Bulatov       (b. 1909 - d. 19..)
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1942) 
14 Jun 1944 - 30 Jun 1945  Pavel Fyodorovich Tyulyayev        (b. 1905 - d. 1946)
First Secretaries of the Oblast Committee of the Communist Party
30 Jun 1945 - 22 Jun 1946  Pavel Fyodorovich Tyulyayev        (s.a.)
30 Jul 1946 -  6 Aug 1949  Nikolay Vasilyevich Solovyov       (b. 1903 - d. 1950)
 6 Aug 1949 - 16 Jan 1954  Pavel Ivanovich Titov              (b. 1907 - d. 19..)
16 Jan 1954 - 14 Dec 1955  Dmitrii Stepanovich Polyansky      (b. 1917 - d. 2001)
14 Dec 1955 -  6 Jan 1961  Vasyl Grygorovych Komyahov         (b. 1911 - d. 1966)
 6 Jan 1961 - Jan 1967     Ivan Kindratovych Lutak            (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
                             (9 Jan 1963 - 4 Dec 1964 for Agriculture)
11 Jan 1963 -  4 Dec 1964  Mykola Prokopovych Surkin          (b. 1910 - d. 19..)
                             (for Industry)
 5 Apr 1967 -  1 Jul 1977  Mykola Karpovych Kyrychenko        (b. 1923 - d. 1986)
 1 Jul 1977 - Aug 1987     Victor Serhiiovych Makarenko       (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
Sep 1987 - 25 Sep 1989     Andrii Mykolayovych Girenko        (b. 1936)
25 Sep 1989 - 12 Feb 1991  Mykola Vasylovich Bahrov           (b. 1939)
First Secretaries of the Communist Party
12 Feb 1991 -  9 Apr 1991  Mykola Vasylovich Bahrov           (s.a.)
10 Apr 1991 - 26 Aug 1991  Leonid Ivanovych Hrach             (b. 1948) 

Khans
 2 Mar 1699 - 26 Dec 1702  Devlet Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1668 - d. 1725)
26 Dec 1702 - 22 Dec 1704  Selim Giray I (4th time)           (b. 1631 - d. 1704)
30 Dec 1704 - Apr 1707     Ghazi Giray III                    (b. 1673 - d. 1708)
Apr 1707 -  9 Dec 1708     Qaplan Giray I (1st time)          (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
 9 Dec 1708 - 29 Mar 1713  Devlet Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1716  Qaplan Giray I (2nd time)          (s.a.)
15 Dec 1716 - 29 Dec 1716  Qara-Devlet Giray III              (b. 1650 - d. 1716)
29 Dec 1716 - 16 Oct 1724  Sa'adet Giray III                  (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
16 Oct 1724 - 28 Sep 1730  Mengli Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1681 - d. 1739)
28 Sep 1730 - 24 Jul 1736  Qaplan Giray I (3rd time)          (s.a.)
24 Jul 1736 - Jul 1737     Feth Giray II                      (b. 1696 - d. 1746)
Jul 1737 - 31 Dec 1739     Mengli Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 Dec 1739 - Nov 1743     Selamet Giray II                   (b. 1691 - d. 1751)
Nov 1743 - 18 May 1748     Selim Giray II                     (b. 1708 - d. 1748)
18 May 1748 - Dec 1755     Arslan Giray (1st time)            (b. 1692 - d. 1768)
Dec 1755 -  4 Oct 1758     Halim Giray                        (b. 1689 - d. 1759)
21 Oct 1758 - Sep 1764     Qirim Giray (1st time)             (b. 1717 - d. 1769)
Sep 1764 - 14 Mar 1767     Selim Giray III (1st time)         (b. 1713 - d. 1786)
14 Mar 1767 - 30 May 1767  Arslan Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1767 - Nov 1768        Maqsud Giray (1st time)            (b. 1720 - d. 1780)
19 Oct 1768 - Mar 1769     Qirim Giray (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Mar 1769 - 25 Feb 1770     Devlet Giray IV (1st time)         (b. 1730 - d. 1780)
25 Feb 1770 - Dec 1770     Qaplan Giray II                    (b. 1739 - d. 1771)
Dec 1770 - 30 Jun 1771     Selim Giray III (2nd time)         (s.a.)
30 Jun 1771 - Mar 1772     Maqsud Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Mar 1772 - Jun 1775        Sahib Giray II                     (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
Jun 1775 - Jan 1777        Devlet Giray IV (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1777 - Dec 1777     Shahin Giray (1st time)            (b. 1745 - d. 1787)
Dec 1777 - 1778            Selim Giray III (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1778 - Jul 1782            Shahin Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jul 1782 - 1783            Bahadur Giray II (1st time)        (b. 1722 - d. 1791)
1783 -  8 Apr 1783         Shahin Giray (3rd time)            (s.a.)
1783 - 1790                Bahadur Giray II (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (in Kuban exile)
1787 - 1789                Shahbaz Giray (in Bessarabia exile)(b. 1731 - d. 1793)
Feb 1789 - Jun 1792        Bakht Giray (in Bessarabia exile)  (b. 1745 - d. 1800)
Heads of the Directory of the Crimean People's Democratic Republic
13 Dec 1917 -  4 Jan 1918  Chelebi Chelebiev                  (b. 1885 - d. 1918)  MF
 4 Jan 1918 - 14 Jan 1918  Dzhafer Seidamet                   (b. 1899 - d. 1960)  MF
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of Tavrida
21 Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918  Ivan Avgustovich Miller            (b. 1880 - d. 1939)  RSDLP-B
Supreme Governors
15 Jun 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
 4 Apr 1920 - 15 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
 7 Nov 1921 - Aug 1924     Yuriy Petrovych Haven (Dauman)     (b. 1884 - d. 1936)  RCP
Aug 1924 - 28 Jan 1928     Veli Ibraimov                      (b. 1889 - d. 1928)RCP;1925 AUCP
28 Jan 1928 - 20 Feb 1931  Mehmet Ismail Kubayev                                   AUCP
20 Feb 1931 -  9 Sep 1937  Ilias Umerovich Tarhan             (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  AUCP
 9 Sep 1937 - 21 Jul 1938  Abdul Dzhemil Khayrulla Menbariyev                      AUCP 
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
21 Jul 1938 - 18 May 1944  Abdul Dzhemil Khayrulla Menbariyev                      AUCP 
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1942)
18 May 1944 - 30 Jun 1945  N.I. Sacheva (f) (acting)                               AUCP
Reichskommissar
(from 1 Sep 1942, Generalkommissar)

Aug 1942 - 1944            Alfred Eduard Frauenfeld           (b. 1898 - d. 1977)  NSDAP
Chairmen of the Executive Committee 
30 Jun 1945 - Apr 1946     Aleksandr Fydorovich Kabanov       (b. 1899 - d. 1975)  AUCP
Apr 1946 - 10 Jun 1949     Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Kryvoshein  (b. 1905 - d. 1979)  AUCP
10 Jun 1949 - 12 Dec 1949  Vasiliy Ivanovich Nikanorov        (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  AUCP
12 Dec 1949 - 23 Sep 1952  Sergey Osipovich Postovalov        (b. 1907 - d. 1983)  AUCP
23 Sep 1952 - 16 Feb 1954  Dmitriy Stepanovich Polyansky      (s.a.)               CPSU
16 Feb 1954 - Jun 1956     Mykhailo Grygorovych Kuzmenko                           CPSU
Jun 1956 -  9 Oct 1959     Ivan Markelovich Filippov          (b. 1905 - d. 1963)  KPU
 9 Oct 1959 -  7 Dec 1965  Vladimir Nikolayevich Druzhynin    (b. 1907 - d. 1976)  KPU
                             (for Industry Jan 1963 - Dec 1964)
12 Jan 1963 -  7 Dec 1964  Mykola Andriyovych Moiseyev        (b. 1918 - d. 1970)  KPU
                             (for Agriculture)      
18 Jan 1966 - 21 Dec 1979  Trofim Nikolayevich Tchemodurov    (b. 1917 - d. 200.)  KPU
21 Dec 1979 - 13 Apr 1985  Yuriy Georgiyevich Bachtin         (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  KPU
13 Apr 1985 - 27 Dec 1989  Aleksandr Mefodyevich Roschupkin   (b. 1929 - d. 2006)  KPU
27 Dec 1989 - 22 Mar 1991  Vitaliy Volodymyrovych Kurashik    (b. 1939)            KPU
Chairman of Parliament 
17 Jun 1991 -  4 Feb 1994  Mykola Vasylovych Bahrov           (s.a.)              KPU;1992 PEV
President
 4 Feb 1994 - 17 Mar 1995  Yuriy Oleksandrovych Meshkov       (b. 1945)            RPK + RB
                             (continues in dissidence to 11 Jun 1995)
Chairmen of Parliament
17 Mar 1995 -  6 Jul 1995  Serhiy Pavlovych Tsekov            (b. 1953)            KPK
 6 Jul 1995 - 10 Oct 1996  Yevhen Volodymyrovych Suprunyuk    (b. 1955)            RB
10 Oct 1996 - 13 Feb 1997  Vasyl Oleksiyovich Kyselyov        (b. 1948)
13 Feb 1997 - 14 May 1998  Anatoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko       (b. 1958)            PEV
                             (1st time) 
14 May 1998 - 29 Apr 2002  Leonid Ivanovych Hrach             (s.a.)               KPU
29 Apr 2002 - 12 May 2006  Borys Davydovych Deich             (b. 1938)            PR
12 May 2006 - 17 Mar 2010  Anatoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko       (s.a.)               PR
                             (2nd time)
17 Mar 2010 - 14 Apr 2014  Volodymyr Andriyovych Konstantynov (b. 1956)            PR
Head of the Republic
14 Apr 2014 -              Sergey Valeriyovich Aksyonov       (b. 1972)            RY
                             (acting)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Republic of Tavrida
21 Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918  Anton Yosypovych Slutsky           (b. 1884 - d. 1918)  RSDLP-B
Chairman of Council of Ministers of the Region of Crimea (under German occupation)
25 Jun 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  Suleiman Oleksandrovych Sulkevych  (b. 1865 - d. 1920)  Mil
Prime minister
15 Nov 1918 - 15 Apr 1919  Solomon Samoilovych Krym           (b. 1867 - d. 1936)
Provisional Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars of the Crimean 
Soviet Socialist Republic
29 Apr 1919 - May 1919     Yuriy Petrovych Haven (Dauman)     (s.a.)               RCP
May 1919 - 26 Jun 1919     Dmytro Illich Ulyanov              (b. 1874 - d. 1943)  RCP
Head of government
Jun 1920 - Nov 1920        Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kryvoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)
                             (Oleksandr Vasylovych Kryvoshein)
Chairmen of the Crimean Revolutionary Committee
("Krymrevkom")
11 Nov 1918 - 16 Nov 1918  Sergey Jakovlevich Babahan         (b. 1892 - d. 1936)
16 Nov 1920 - 21 Feb 1921  Béla Kun                           (b. 1886 - d. 1939) 
21 Feb 1921 -  7 Nov 1921  Mykhailo Kharytonovych Polyakov    (b. 1884 - d. 1938)  RCP
1921 - 1922                Ivan Alekseyevich Akulov           (s.a.)               RCP
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars 
Nov 1921 - May 1924        Sahib-Girey Saidgaliyevich         (b. 1894 - d. 1938)  RCP
                             Said-Galiyev           
May 1924 - Feb 1926        Osman Abdul Gani Deren-Ajerli      (b. 1898 - d. 193.)RCP;1925 AUCP
Mar 1926 - May 1929        Emir Bekirovich Shugu                                   AUCP
May 1929 - 16 Sep 1937     Abduraim Abdurahmanovich Samedinov (b. 1900 - d. 1938)  AUCP
1937 - Apr 1942            Mehmet Ibraimovich Ibrahimov                            AUCP
Apr 1942 - May 1944        Ismail Seyfulayevich Seyfulayev                         AUCP
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers 
Aug 1944 - Jun 1945        Aleksandr Fydorovich Kabanov       (s.a.)               AUCP
Prime ministers
22 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1993  Vitaliy Volodymyrovych Kurashik    (b. 1939)            Non-party
20 May 1993 -  4 Feb 1994  Boris Ivanovich Samsonov           (b. 1938)            Non-party
 4 Feb 1994 - 15 Feb 1994  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (b. 1953)            APU
                             (1st time)(acting)
15 Feb 1994 -  6 Oct 1994  Yevhen Fedorovych Saburov          (b. 1946 - d. 2009)  Non-party
 6 Oct 1994 - 22 Mar 1995  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU 
                             (2nd time) 
22 Mar 1995 - 31 Mar 1995  Anatoliy Ivanovych Drobotov        (b. 1951)            KPK + BR
                             (not recognized by Ukraine)
31 Mar 1995 - 26 Jan 1996  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU
                             (3rd time)
26 Jan 1996 -  4 Jun 1997  Arkadiy Fedorovych Demydenko       (b. 1950 - d. 2005)  Non-party
 4 Jun 1997 - 25 May 1998  Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk       (s.a.)               APU
                             (4th time) 
25 May 1998 - 18 Jul 2001  Serhiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn     (b. 1960)            BK
                             (1st time)
18 Jul 2001 - 25 Jul 2001  Lentun Romanovych Bezaziyev        (b. 1942)            KPK
                             (acting)
25 Jul 2001 - 29 Apr 2002  Valeriy Myronovych Horbatov        (b. 1955)            PTU
29 Apr 2002 - 20 Apr 2005  Serhiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn     (s.a.)               NDP
                             (2nd time) 
20 Apr 2005 - 23 Sep 2005  Anatoliy Serhiyovych Matvienko     (b. 1953)            URP
23 Sep 2005 -  2 Jun 2006  Anatoliy Fedorovych Burdyugov      (b. 1958)            NSNU 
 2 Jun 2006 - 17 Mar 2010  Viktor Tarasovych Plakida          (b. 1956)            NDP
17 Mar 2010 - 17 Aug 2011  Vasyl Heorhiyovych Dzharty         (b. 1958 - d. 2011)  PR
17 Aug 2011 -  8 Nov 2011  Pavlo Mykolayovych Burlakov        (b. 1963)            PR
                             (acting)
 8 Nov 2011 - 27 Feb 2014  Anatoliy Volodymyrovych Mohyliov   (b. 1955)            PR
27 Feb 2014 - 14 Apr 2014  Sergey Valeriyovich Aksyonov       (s.a.)               RY  

   

Allied Military Commanders during the Crimean War 
13 Sep 1854 - 28 Jun 1855  Fitzroy Henry James Somerset,      (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                             Baron Raglan (U.K.)
28 Jun 1855 - 11 Nov 1855  Sir James M. Simpson (U.K.)        (b. 1792 - d. 1886)
11 Nov 1855 - 12 Jul 1856  Sir William J. Codrington (U.K.)   (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
14 Sep 1854 - 26 Sep 1854  Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-     (b. 1801 - d. 1854)
                             Arnaud (France)
26 Sep 1854 - 16 May 1855  François Certain de Canrobert      (b. 1809 - d. 1895)
                             (France)
16 May 1855 - 12 Jul 1856  Aimable-Jean-Jacques Pélissier     (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
                             (France)
 5 Jan 1855 -  6 Sep 1855  Omar Pasha (Ottoman Empire)        (b. 1806 - d. 1871)

[Crimean Tatar ethnic
                  flag]  
      Flag of Ethnic Crimean Tatars

Party abbreviations: KPK = Kommunistychna Partiya Krym (Communist Party of Crimea, anti-reform, est.1992); KPU = Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, 1918-1991, re-est.1993); MF = Milli Fikra (National Party, Tatar nationalist, 1917-1920, re-est.1993); NDP = Narodno-Demokratychna Partiy Ukrayina (Peoples' Democratic Party of Ukraine, centrist, est.1996); PR = Partiya Rehioniv (Party of Regions, regionalist, centrist, pro-Russia, pro-Kuchma 1997-2005, from 2010 pro-Yanukovych, until 2001 named Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine, est.1997); RY = Russkoye Yedinstvo (Russian Unity, pro-Russia unification, until 2010 named Avangard [Vanguard], est.2008); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: APU = Ahrarna Partiya Ukrainy (Agrarian Party of Ukraine, centrist, pro-Leonid Kuchma, 1996-2004); AUCP = All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (communist, 1925-1952, renamed CPSU); CPSU = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (Communist Party of the Soviet Union, communist, Marxist-Lennist, authoritarian, former AUCP, only legal party 1922-1990, party banned 1991); KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democrat Party, "Cadets", Russian social-democratic, 1905-1921); BK = Kunitsyn Bloc (centrist, S. Kunitsyn personalist, pro-Presidential, 1998-2002, merged into NDP); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, Nazi fascist, German nationalist, 1933-1945); NSNU = Narodnyi Soyuz "Nasha Ukrayina" (People's Union "Our Ukraine", center-right, pro-Viktor Yushchenko, 2005-2009); PEV = Party of Economic Revival (ex-communist, to 1996 named Party of Economic Revival of Crimea [PEVK], 1992-2003); PTU = Partiya Truda Ukrainy (Labor Party of Ukraine, centrist, pro-CIS, 1992-1998);
RB = Rossiya Bloc (Russia Bloc, pro-Russia unification electoral coalition, incl. RKP, 1993-1996); RCP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, 1918-1925, renamed AUCP); RPK = Respublikanska Partiya Kryma (Republican Party of Crimea (separatist, Russophone, pro-Crimea independence, to 1992 named Republican Movement of Crimea, 1990-1995, merged into Civil Congress of Ukraine); RSDLP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Bolshevik (Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party-Bolshevik [Majority], marxist communist, internationalist, renamed Russian Communist Party, 1903-1918); URP = Ukrayinska Respublikanska Partija "Sobor" (Ukrainian Republican Party "Sobor", conservative, reformist, 2002-2011)


Kaffa (Caffa) and Genoese Gazaria

[Genoa flag]

395 - 989                  Byzantine rule on the south coast.
989 - 10..                 Russian rule in Gothia and Cherson.
10.. - 1204                Byzantine rule restored on the south coast.
1204 - 1261                Kaffa (Caffa) under Venetian rule.
1266 - 1296                Crimean city of Theodosia (Feodosiya [Kaffa]) ruled by Genoa.
1296 - 1307                Kaffa under Venetian rule.
1307 - 1315                Mongol conquest (under the Kipchak [Golden Horde]).
1315                       Kaffa under Genoese rule (from 12 Jul 1365 at Soldaia [Sudak], 
                             and 1380 in Cembalo [Balaklava], southern coast of the Crimea 
                             or "Gazaria" and in Cerchio [Kerch] from 1318).
1316                       Counsul of Kaffa becomes chief administrator of all
                             Genoese Black Sea colonies (incl. Balaklava and Sudak in Crimea;
                             Amastris and Amisus on Anatolian coast; Licostomo and Maurocastro
                             [Akkerman (Belgorod-Dnestrovsky)] on Moldovan coast and from 1332
                             Tana [Azov][but excluding Pera/Galata in Constantinople]).
15 Nov 1453                Republic of Genoa cedes all its possessions in Gazaria to the 
                             Genoese Bank styled Uffizio di San Giorgio. 
 6 Jun 1475                Ottoman occupation of Kaffa, soon occupying most other places.

Genoese Consuls of Kaffa
(from 1316 of all Genoese Black Sea colonies)
bf.1285                    Alberto Spinola
1289 - 12..                Paolino Doria
1300 - 1300                Vacant
1316 - 13..                Conrado De Roccio
1339 - 1340                Petrano Dell'Orto
1342 - 1343                Dondidio De Giusto
1352 - 1353                Goffredo Di Zoagli
1356                       Simone Dell'Orto
1357                       Leonardo Montaldo
1365                       Bartolomeo Di Jacopo
1370                       Giuliano Di Castro
1373 - 1374                Aimone Grimaldi
1374 - 1375                Eliano Di Camilla
1380 - 1381                Giannone Del Bosco
1381 - 1382                Giuanisio De Mari
1382                       Pietro Cazano (1st time)
1383                       Meliaduce Cattaneo
1384                       Giacomo Spinola
1385                       Pietro Cazano (2nd time)
1385 - 1386                Benedetto Grimaldi
1387                       Giovanni Degli Innocenti
1391                       Nicolo Giustiniani Banca
1392 - 1393                Eliano Centurione Becchignioni
1399                       Antonio De Marini
1404                       Constantino Lercari
1409                       Giacomo Doria
1410 - 1411                Giorgio Adorno                     (b. c.1350 - d. c.1430)
1411 - 1412                Antonio Spinola
1413                       Paolo Lercari
1415                       Battista De Franchi Lusardo
1415 - 1416                Girolamo Giustiniani Moneglia 
                             (1st time)
1417 - 1418                Giacomo Adorno
1419 - 1420                Quilico Gentile
1420 - 1421                Manfredo Sauli
1422 - 1423                Girolamo Giustiniani Moneglia 
                             (2nd time)
1423 - 1424                Antonio Cavano Vincente
1424                       Battista Giustiniani
1424 - 1425                Pietro Fieschi
1425 - 1426                Francesco De Vivaldi
1427                       Pietro Bondenaro
1427 - 1428                V.M.
1428 - 1429                Gabriele Giustiniani Recanello
1429 - 14..                Luigi Salvago
1434 - 143.                Battista Fornari
1438 - 14..                Paolo Imperiale
1441 - 1442                Teodoro Fieschi (1st time)
1446 - 1447                Giovanni Navone
1447 - 144.                Antonio De Franchi Tortorino
1448                       Antonio Maria Fieschi
1448 - 1449                Teodoro Fieschi (2nd time)
1449 - 1450                Giovanni Giustiniani Longo
1453                       Borduele De Grimaldi
1453 - 1454                Demetrio De Vivaldi
1454 - 1455                Paolo Raggi
1455 - 1456                Tommaso De Domoculta
1456 - 1457                Antonio Lercari
1457 - 1458                Damiano De Leone
1458 - 1459                Barolomeo Gentile
1459 - 1460                Martino Giustiniano
1460                       Luca Salvago Nepitelli
1460 - 1461                Azzolini Squarciafico
1462                       Rafaele Lercari
1462 - 146.                Rafaele Monterosso
1463                       Gerardo Lomellino
1463 - 1464                Baldassare Doria
1464 - 1465                Gregorio De Reza
1466                       Alaone Doria (1st time)
1466 - 1467                Giovanni Renzo Della Gabella
1467 - 146.                Calochio De Guizolfi
1468 - 1469                Gentile De Camilla
1469 - 1470                Carlo Cicogna
1470 - 147.                Alaone Doria (2nd time)
1471 - 147.                Filippo Chiavrola
1472                       Goffredo Lercari
1472                       Erasto Giustiniani
1473                       Battista Giustiniani Oliverio
1474 - 1475                Antoniotto Della Gabella
1475 - 1476                Oberto Squarciatico
1476 - 1477                Giuliano Gentile Falomonica
1477                       Galeazzo De Levanto
14.. - 1483                Zaccaria Ghisolfi (at Matrega)





© Ben Cahoon