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Lithuania 
 
[Lithuanian state flag to 1795,
                                    1918-1940, from 2004]
  c.1422 - 7 Jan 1795; 1 Jul - 10 Dec 1812;
State Flag 1 Aug 1922-15 Jun 1940, from 1 Sep 2004
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
             7 Jan 1795 - 18 Sep 1915 
 
[Lithuania unoffical flag
                                    1917-1918]
    24 Sep 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 Unofficial
 
[Lithuanian Flag]
  19 Apr 1918 - 3 Aug 1940 (officially 15 May 1920); 

      18 Nov 1941 - 1 Aug 1944 semi-official;

              Re-adopted 18 Nov 1988
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                      3 Aug 1940 - 24 Jun 1941; 
                     13 Jul 1944 - 11 Mar 1990
 
 Map of Lithuania  Hear National Anthem
"Tautiška Giesmė"
 
(The National Hymn)
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1918-1940, 1990
Constitution
 (30 Nov 1992)
-----------------------------------
Former Constitution
(14 May 1938-1 Jul 1940,
11 Mar 1990-30 Nov 1992
Capital: Vilnius
(Kaunas 1920-1939, 1941-44;
Vilnius 1323-1919, 1919-20;
Voruta [Varuta] c.1251)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
Lithuanian Lita  (LTL)
25 Jun 1993 - 31 Dec 2014;

1992-1993 Talonas (LTT);
 1922-1940 Lita (LTA);
1918-22 German Mark (DEP);
1918-1922  Darlehenskasse
Ost Mark (DEOM); 1916-18
 German Darlehenskasse
Ost Ruble (DEOR)
National Holiday: 16 Feb (1918)
Independence Day
Population: 3,515,858 (2013)
2,575,363 (1938)
GDP: $67.43 billion (2013) Exports: $30.4 billion (2013)
Imports: $32.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%,
Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,850 (2010)
Merchant marine: 38 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%,
Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical
Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish,
Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%,
unspecified 10.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: 1918-1941: BIS, ICRM, ILO, IOC, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCIJ, UPU; from 1990: AG, APM, BA, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CCM, CE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESCR, ESA (cooperating state), EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Lithuania
Index
Chronology
 
bf.1203                    Semi-legendary Grand Principality of Lithuaniaą 
                             (Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė), ruled by a
                             Grand Prince of Lithuania.
c.1236                     Unification of the state of Lithuania.
17 Jul 1251                Lithuania recognized as a state by Pope Innocent
                             IV.
 5 Jul 1253 - 12 Sep 1263  Grand Prince Mindaugas adopts style of Lithuanian
                             and Russian King, etc.
 2 Feb 1386                By marriage with the Polish regnant Queen 
                             (properly [female] king) Jadwiga, the Grand 
                             Prince Jogaila/Jagiełło becomes Polish king 
                             (Władysław II after baptism)(crowned 4 Mar 1386),
                             and his successors frequently occupy both thrones
18 Jan 1401 -  1 Jun 1434  Jogaila oversees the successive grand princes of
                             Lithuania with the style "Supreme Prince of 
                             Lithuania (supremus dux Lithuanie)"
 1 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of
                             Lublin", joining Poland and Lithuania 
                             officially, but not constitutionally, into 
                             United Commonwealth of the Two Nations, in 
                             short, The Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita).
 6 Jul 1572                Last hereditary Polish king dies. Kingship 
                             becomes elective; election as Polish King and 
                             Grand Prince of Lithuania is carried out 
                             jointly, but conduct of interregnum is 
                             separate. 
1691 - 29 Sep 1793         Lordships of Tauroggen and Serrey ceded to Prussia.
May 1702 - 1709            Occupied by Sweden (Vilnius, the capital, 
                             is occupied by Russia 1705 - Mar 1706).
 5 Aug 1772                First partition of Poland-Lithuania by Russia,
                             Prussia, and Austria. Lithuanian voivodeships of
                             Vitebsk, Polotsk and Mstislavl annexed by Russia.
 3 May 1791                First and only Constitution, giving formal 
                             sanction to the union with Lithuania, etc.
23 Jan 1793                Second partition by Russia and Prussia. Lithuanian
                             voivodeships of MinskBrest-Litovsk and parts of
                              Vilnius annexed by Russia.
12 Aug 1794                Occupied by Russia.
30 Oct 1794 - 12 Dec 1796  Divided into the Vilna governorate (Vilenskaya
                             guberniya) and Slonim governorate (Slonimskaya
                             guberniya) of Russia.
 7 Jan 1795                Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian 
                             Commonwealth: the Grand Principality of
                             Lithuania is incorporated into Russia, the
                             Emperor adopting the additional style of 
                             "Grand Prince of Lithuania."
12 Dec 1796                Lithuania governorate (Litovksaya guberniya).
 9 Sep 1801                Re-divided into Vilna governorate and
                             Grodno governorate (Grodnenskaya guberniya).
28 Jun 1812 - 10 Dec 1812  Occupied by France (on 1 Jul 1812 the Grand 
                             Principality of Lithuania nominally
                             re-established under joint French-Saxon
                             protectorate) (composed of Vilnius, Grodno,
                             Minsk, and Białystok departments).
26 Mar 1831 -  9 Jul 1831  Russian rule partially interrupted by rebellion in 
                             conjunction with the "First Insurrection" in
                             Poland, however the rebels fail to capture
                             Wilna (Vilnius) and Kowno (Kaunas).
18 Jun 1840 - 30 Jun 1912  Vilna governorate (Vilenskaya guberniya) part of
                             Northwestern Region (Severozapadny kray)
                             (incl. Minsk, Grodno, Vitebsk and later Kovno).
 1 Jul 1843                Kovno governorate (Kovenskaya Guberniya) formed 
                             from the western part of Vilna governorate.
  1 Feb 1863 - 10 Feb 1864  Russian rule interrupted by rebellion in 
                             conjunction with the "Second Insurrection" in
                             Poland.
22 May 1864 - 24 Apr 1904  Lithuanian and Polish printed in Latin alphabet
                             are banned.
1870 - 1912                Vilna, Kovno and Grodno guberniyas constituted as
                             Government-general of Lithuania (seat in Vilna).
Apr 1915 - 18 Sep 1915     Lithuania (Russian provinces of Kovno and
                             Vilna) gradually occupied by Germany (18 Aug
                             1915 city of Kaunas, 18 Sep 1915 city of
                             Vilnius). German administrations for 
                             Administrative Region of Lithuania and 
                             Administrative Region of Vilnius established;
                             subordinated to commander of the Eastern front.
18-22 Jan 1917             A Congress demands independence for Lithuania
                             (as planned by the German administration).
 4 Mar 1917                Both German military administrations united into
                             central Military Administration of Lithuania
                             seated in Vilnius.
18 Sep 1917                Lithuanian Regional Council (Taryba) formed.
11 Dec 1917                Declaration of the re-establishment of Lithuanian
                             independence by Lithuanian National Council.
16 Feb 1918                Full independence of state of Lithuania declared 
                             by the Lithuanian Council; declaration prohibited
                             by German occupation authorities.
 3 Mar 1918                In the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski)
                             Lithuania is "no longer subject to Russian 
                             sovereignty", but Germany to "determine the 
                             future status of the territories in agreement
                             with population".
23 Mar 1918                Independence recognized by Germany; Lithuanian
                             State (Lithuania and Republic of Lithuania also
                             in official use).
11 Nov 1918                In the Armistice at Compičgne the Treaty of 
                             Brest-Litovsk is declared void and the German
                             troops are be withdrawn (fixed time not given).
29 Nov 1918                The Principal Allied and Associated Powers 
                             recognize de facto independence of Lithuania.
 5 Jan 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  Lithuanian Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic;
                            in opposition to Republic of Lithuania (see below)
27 Feb 1919 -  1 Sep 1919  Part of Socialist Soviet Republic of Lithuania
                             and Belorussia ("Litbel"); in opposition to
                             Republic of Lithuania.
31 Dec 1918 - 25 Aug 1920  Polish and Soviet Russian troops occupy Vilnius;
                             capital of Lithuania is moved to Kaunas.
12 Jul 1920                Independence recognized by Russia.
 9 Oct 1920                Polish irregular occupation of Vilnius                              (from 12 Oct 1920 Central Lithuania).
18 Apr 1922                Vilnius annexed by Poland.
20 Dec 1922                Independence de jure recognized by the Principal
                             Allied and Associated Powers.
23 Jan 1923 - 22 Mar 1939  Lithuania annexes Memel.
23 Mar 1939 - 28 Jan 1945  Germany re-annexes Memel.
28 Oct 1939                Vilnius restored to Lithuania by Soviet Union.
15 Jun 1940                Lithuania occupied by the Soviet Union.
21 Jul 1940                Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.
 3 Aug 1940                Incorporation into Soviet Union (not 
                             internationally recognized).
22 Jun 1941                Germany invasion begins.
23 Jun 1941 -  5 Aug 1941  Independence of the Republic of Lithuania 
                             declared in Kaunas, government functions 
                             allowed in liberated areas and in German rear.
24 Jun 1941                Kaunas and Vilnius occupied by Germany.
25 Jul 1941                Lithuania is made a General District 
                             (Generalbezirk Litauen), informally a Land,
                             within the Reichskommissariat of Ostland 
                             (see under Latvia).
Jul 1944 - 28 Jan 1945     Lithuania re-occupied by the Soviet Union;
                             Vilnius on 13 Jul 1944, Kaunas on 1 Aug 1944,
                             and Memel on 28 Jan 1945.
 7 Apr 1948                Klaipėda (Memel) re-integrated into Lithuanian SSR.
18 May 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty.
11 Mar 1990                Independence declared (Republic of Lithuania; use
                             of Lithuanian as alternate style approved).
 6 Sep 1991                Independence recognized by Soviet Union.
Counties
(since 1995)
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1940-1990)
Republic
in Exile

(1940-1991)
Resistance
to German
and Soviet
Occupation

(1943-1956)
Lithuanian
Conciliar
Republic
(1918-1919)
--------------------
Lithuania and
Belorussia
(1919)
Central Lithuania
(1918-1922)
Samogitia
(1214-1795)
Tauroggen
and Serrey
(1691-1793)

Memel
(1629-1635,
 1757-1758,

1920-1945)
German
Eastern
Front
Administration

(1915-1918) 
German Military
Administration

(1918-1919) 
Historical Maps
of Lithuania
 

Note: After 1572, no Lithuanian held the title of Grand Prince. Dominance by Poland led to increased Polonization of the country and in 1698 Polish was declared the official state language of the entire commonwealth replacing Lithuanian and Belarusian in Lithuania. The cultural, political, and economic discourse of the nation was Polish, and Lithuanian and Belarusian were relegated to languages spoken the illiterate peasants of the eastern regions of the commonwealth. This situation persisted under Russian rule, when Russian was the official language, until 1905 when the rebirth of Lithuanian language (which had begun in 1863) was again legally allowed inside Lithuania.

Grand Princes2 (Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
11.. - 1213                Daugirutis                        (d. 1213)
                            
(= Dangerutis, Dangeruthe)
1213 - 12..               
Živinbudas       
12.. - 12..                Daujotas  
12.. - 12..                Dausprungas (= Dovsprunk)          (d. af.1219)         
123. -  6 Jul 1253         Mindaugas (= Mindovg, Mindowe    (b. c.1203 - d. 1263) 
King
 6 Jul 1253 - 12 Sep 1263  Mindaugas (I) (Mendog)             (s.a.) 
Grand Princes2 (Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
1263 - 1264                Treniota (Troniata)
                (b. c.1210 - d. 1264) 
1264 - 1267                Vaišelga (Wojsiełk) (= Vaišvilkas) (b. 123. - d. 1268)
1267 - c.1269              Švarnas (Szwarno)                  (b. c.1236 - d. c.1269)
                             (= Svarnas, Shvarno, Shkvarno)   
c.1269 - c.1282            Traidenis (Trojden)                (b. 122. - d. c.1282)
c.1282 - c.1290            Butigeidis (Butygejd)              (b. 124. - d. c.1290)
c.1290 - c.1294            Butvydas (Pukuwer                (b. 124. - d. c.1294)
c.1294 - 1316              Vytenis (Witenes                 (b. 127. - d. 1316?)
1316 - Dec? 1341           Gediminas (Giedymin)               (b. c.1275 - d. 1341)
Dec? 1341 - Feb? 1345      Jaunutis (Jawnut)                  (b. 1301 - d. af.1366)
Feb? 1345 -  2 May 1377    Algirdas (Olgierd)                 (b. c.1296 - d. 1377)
                           - jointly with - 
Feb? 1345 -  2 May 1377
    Kęstutis (Kiejstut) (1st time)     (b. c.1297 - d. 1382)
 2 May 1377 - 10 Aug 1381  Jogaila (Jagiełło)(1st time)       (b. c.1351 - d. 1434)
                           - jointly with - 

 2 May 1377 -  3 Aug 1382  Kęstutis (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1382 -  5 Aug 1392  Jogaila (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
                             (from 15 Feb 1386 Vladislovas)
                             (from 18 Feb 1386, King of Poland Władysław II)
                             (supremus dux of Lithuaniae to 1 Jun 1434)
Apr 1387 -  5 Aug 1392     Skirgaila (Skirgiełło)             (b. c.1353 - d. 1397)
                             (governor of Lithuania)
30 Jan 1384 - 27 Oct 1430 
Aleksandras (= Vytautas)           (b. 134. - d. 1430)
                             (Aleksandr [= Vitovt])
                             (in rebellion to 5 Aug 1392)
27 Oct 1430 -  7 Nov 1430  Vladislovas (= Jogaila) (3rd time) (s.a.)
                             (Władysław II Jagiełło)
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae
 7 Nov 1430 -  1 Sep 1432  Boleslovas (Bolesław)              (b. 137. - d. 1452)
                             (
in rebellion to 1 Sep 1435)
 1 Sep 1432 - 20 Mar 1440  Žygimantas I Kęstutaitis           (b. c.1365 - d. 1440)
                             (Zygmunt I Kiejstutowicz)
                             (officially recognized by King

                             and Polish Royal Council from 15 Oct 1432)
20 Mar 1440 - 29 Jun 1440  Council of State
                           - Jonas Daugirdas                  (b. c.1392 - d. 1443)
                              (Jan Dowgird)
                           - Pacas Ginvilavicius
 
                           - Petras Montigerdavicius          (d. c.1497)
                              (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
                              (grand marshal)
                           - Radvila Astikaitis               (b. 1384 - d. 1477)
                              (Radziwiłł Ostykowicz)

29 Jun 1440 -  7 Jun 1492  Kazimieras IV "Jogailaitis"        (b. 1427 - d. 1492)
                             (from 25 Jun 1447 also King of Poland
Kazimierz III)
 7 Jun 1492 - 30 Jul 1492  Council of State
                           - Mikalojus Radvilavičius          (b. 1478 - d. 1510)
                               (Mikołaj Radziwiłłowicz)
                               (chancellor)
                           - Petras Montigerdavicius          (s.a.)
                               (grand marshal)
                           - Stanislovas Jonavičius Kęsgaila  (b. 1451 - d. 1527)

                               (Stanisław Janowicz Kieżgajło)

                           - Jonas Jurgaitis Zaberezinskis    (b. 1437 - d. 1508)
                               (Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzeziński)
                           - Aleksandras Jurevi
čius           (d. 1511)
                               Golsanskis
30 Jul 1492 - 19 Aug 1506  Aleksandras "Jogailaitis"          (b. 1461 - d. 1506) 
                             (Aleksander "Jagiellończyk")
                             (from 12 Dec 1501, also king of Poland)
19 Aug 1506 - 20 Oct 1506  Council of State
                           - Mikalojus Radvilavičius          (s.a.)
                               (chancellor)
                           - Mikalojus Mikalovicius Radvila   (b. 1470 - d. 1521)
                               (Mikołaj Radziwiłłowicz) 
                           - Stanislovas Jonavičius Kęsgaila  (s.a.)
                           - Aleksandras Jurevičius           (s.a.)
                               Golsanskis 
                           - Jonas Jurgaitis Zaberezinskis    (s.a.)
                               (grand marshal)
                           - Mykolas Liudvikas Glinskis       (b. 1460 - d. 1534)
                               (Michał Glinski)
                           -
Vaitiekus Albertas I Taboras,    (b. c.1453 - d. 1507)
                               Vilniaus vyskupas
                              (Wojciech Tabor,
biskup wileński)  
20 Oct 1506 -  1 Apr 1548  Žygimantas I "Senasis"             (b. 1467 - d. 1548) 
                             (Zygmunt I "Stary")
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae)
                           - jointly with -
18 Oct 1529
-  7 Jul 1572  Žygimantas II Augustas             (b. 1520 - d. 1572)
                             (Zygmunt II August)
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae to 1 Jul 1569)
                             (co-ruler to 1 Apr 1548)
 7 Jul 1572 - 21 Feb 1574  Jonas Jeronimas                    (b. c.1537 - d. 1579)
                             Chodkevičius -Grand Marshal
                             (Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz)
                             (1st time)
21 Feb 1574 - 19 Jun 1574  Henrikas
(Henryk)                  (b. 1551 - d. 1589)
                             (from 30 May 1574 also King of France Henri III;
                             left Poland-Lithuania on 18 Jun 1574)
19 Jun 1574 -  1 May 1576  Jonas Jeronimas                    (s.a.)
                             Chodkevičius -Grand Marshal
                             (2nd time)
 1 May 1576 - 12 Dec 1586  Steponas (Stefan)                  (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (= István Báthory somlyói, prince of Transylvania)

12 Dec 1586 - 27 Dec 1587   Albertas
Radvila -Grand Marshal   (b. 1558 - d. 1592) 
                             (Albert Mikołajewicz Radziwiłł)
27 Dec 1587 - 30 Apr 1632  Žygimantas III
(Zygmunt III)       (b. 1566 - d. 1632)
                             (= King of Sweden Sigismund)

30 Apr 1632 -  6 Feb 1633  Jonas Stanislovas Sapiega          (b. 1589 - d. 1635) 
                             (Jan Stanisław Sapieha)-Grand Marshal
 6 Feb 1633 - 20 May 1648  Vladislovas
IV (Władysław IV)      (b. 1595 - d. 1648)
20 May 1648 - 17 Jan 1649  Aleksandras Liudvikas              (b. 1594 - d. 1654)
                             Radvila -Grand Marshal
                             (Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł)
17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668  Jonas II Kazimieras                (b. 1609 - d. 1672)
                             (Jan II Kazimierz)
16 Sep 1668 - 29 Sep 1669  Kristupas Zaviša -Grand Marshal    (b. 1578 - d. 1670)
                             (Krzysztof Zawisza)                            
29 Sep 1669 - 10 Nov 1673  Mykolas
(Michał)                   (b. 1640 - d. 1673)
10 Nov 1673 -  2 Feb 1676  Aleksandras Hiliaris               (b. 1626 - d. 1679)
                             Palubinskis -Grand Marshal
                             (Aleksander Hilary Połubiński)
 2 Feb 1676 - 17 Jun 1696  Jonas III 
(Jan III)               (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
17 Jun 1696 - 15 Sep 1697  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega        (b. 1672 - d. 1734) 
                             -Court Marshal
                             (Aleksander Paweł Sapieha)
15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  Augustas II 
(August II) (1st time)(b. 1670 - d. 1733)
                             (continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706)
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega
                             -Grand Marshal (1st time)        (s.a.) 
                            (recognized by grand prince Stanislovas I) 
                           - opposed by -
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius   (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
                             (Marcjan Dominik Wołłowicz)
                             (recognized by grand prince
Augustas II)
 4 Oct 1705 -  8 Aug 1709  Stanislovas I  (
Stanisław I)       (b. 1677 - d. 1766)
                             (1st time)
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  Augustas II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1733 - 12 Sep 1733  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega       
                             -Grand Marshal (2nd time)        (s.a.)
12 Sep 1733 - 28 Jun 1734  Stanislovas I (2nd time)           (s.a.) 
                             (in dissidence; in Danzig 2 Oct 1733 -
                            
28 Jun 1734, abdicated 26 Jan 1736)
30 Jun 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  Augustas III (August III)          (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764  Ignotas Oginskis -Grand Marshal    (b. 1698 - d. 1775) 
                             (Ignacy Ogiński)
25 Nov 1764 -  7 Jan 1795  Stanislovas II Augustas            (b. 1732 - d. 1798)

                             (Stanisław II August)
                             (abdicated 25 Nov 1795)
Russian Governors-general in Vilna (Vilnius)

30 Oct 1794 - 26 Nov 1798  Knyaz Nikolay Vasilyevich Repnin   (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
26 Nov 1798 - 26 Oct 1799  Boris Petrovich Lassie             (b. 1737 - d. 1820)
                             (Moritz de Lacy
13 Nov 1799 - 19 Dec 1799  Ivan Petrovich Gorich-Menshoy      (b. 1745 - d. 1811)
                            
(acting)
19 Dec 1799 - 11 Jul 1801  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenyshtchev

                             -Kutuzov (1st time)              (b. 1745 - d. 1813)
11 Jul 1801 - 20 Sep 1806  Levin August Theophil Graf von     (b. 1745 - d. 1826)  
                             Bennigsen
                            (Leontiy Leontyevich Graf fon Bennigsen)
                      
 5 Oct 1806 -  3 Jul 1809  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rimskiy-    (b. 1753 - d. 1840)
                             Korsakov (1st time)          
 3 Jul 1809 - 17 Apr 1812  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenyshtchev
                             -Kutuzov (2nd time)              (s.a.)
27 Mar 1811 - 17 Apr 1812  Ivan Stepanovich Guriyev
                             
(acting for Golenyshtchev-Kutuzov)
17 Apr 1812 - 28 Jun 1812  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rimskiy-    (s.a.)
                             Korsakov (2nd time)         
French Military commander
28 Jun 1812 - 16 Jul 1812  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
Chairmen of the Commission of the Provisional Government of Lithuania
 1 Jul 1812 - 24 Aug 1812  Stanisław Sołtan                   (b. 1758 - d. 1836)  Non-party
                            
(Stanislovas Soltanas)   
24 Aug 1812 - 10 Dec 1812  Dirk, graaf van Hogendorp          (b. 1761 - d. 1822)  Mil

                             (governor of Lithuania 8 Jul - 10 Dec 1812)
French Commissioner

13 Jul 1812 -  8 Dec 1812  Louis Pierre Édouard, baron Bignon (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
Russian Governors-general in Vilna (Vilnius)
 8 Dec 1812 - 24 Dec 1830  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Rimskiy-    (s.a.)
                             Korsakov (3rd time)     
24 Dec 1830 - 23 Aug 1831  Matvey Yevgrafovich Khrapovitskiy  (b. 1784 - d. 1847)
23 Aug 1831 - 18 Mar 1840  Knyaz Nikolay Andreyevich          (b. 1792 - d. 1847) 
                             Dolgorukov            
President of the Supreme Central Committee of Lithuania (in rebellion)
26 Mar 1831 - 11 Jun 1831  Stanisław Szumski                  (b. 1790 - d. 1871)  Lib
                             (Stanislovas Šumskis)

President of the Polish Provisional Central Government in Lithuania (in rebellion)

11 Jun 1831 -  9 Jul 1831
  Tadeusz hrabia Tyszkiewicz         (b. 1774 - d. 1852)  Lib
                             (
Tadas grafas Tiškevičius)
Governors-general of
the Government-general of Lithuania and also Northwestern Region
(Vilna, Kovno,
Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev and Vitebsk)
 1 Apr 1840 - 10 Feb 1850  Fyodor Yakovlevich Mirkovich       (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
15 Mar 1850 - 10 Dec 1855  Ilya Gavrilovich Bibikov           (b. 1794 - d. 1867)
10 Dec 1855 -  1 May 1863  Vladimir Ivanovich Nazimov         (b. 1802 - d. 1874)

 1 May 1863 - 17 Apr 1865  Mikhail Nikolayevich (from 1865, 
  (b. 1796 - d. 1866)
                             Graf) Muravyov
14 Jul 1864 - 17 Apr 1865  A
leksandr L'vovich Potapov         (b. 1818 - d. 1886)
                             (acting for Muravyov)
17 Apr 1865 -  9 Oct 1866  Konstantin Petrovich von Kauffmann (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
 9 Oct 1866 -  2 Mar 1868  Eduard Trofimovich Baranov         (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
 5 Sep 1867 -  2 Mar 1868  Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov
        (b. 1829 - d. 1905)
                             (acting for Baranov)                
 2 Mar 1868 - 22 Jul 1874  Aleksandr L'vovich Potapov         (s.a.)
28 Mar 1868 - 22 Sep 1870  Knyaz Pyotr Romanovich Bagration   (b. 1818 - d. 1876)
                             (acting for
Potapov  
22 Jul 1874 - 18 May 1880  Pyotr Pavlovich Albedinskiy        (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
18 May 1880 - 19 Jun 1884  Eduard Ivanovich Graf Totleben     (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
                             (Todleben)
 5 Nov 1882 - 14 Jan 1884  Aleksandr Pavlovich Nikitin        (b. 1824 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Totleben
14 Jan 1884 -  1 Jan 1893  Ivan Semyonovich Kakhanov          (b. 1825 - d. 1909) 
                             (Kokhanov)(acting to 6 Sep 1884)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 May 1897  Pyotr Vasilyevich Orzhevskiy       (b. 1839 - d. 1897)
31 May 1897 -  6 Dec 1897  Vacant
 6 Dec 1897 -  9 Mar 1901  Vitaliy Nikolayevich Trotskiy
     (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
 9 May 1901 - 15 Sep 1902  Vacant
15 Sep 1902 - 26 Sep 1904  Knyaz Pyotr Dmitriyevich           (b. 1857 - d. 1914)
                             Svyatopolk-Mirskiy
12 Oct 1904 - 19 Dec 1905  Aleksandr Alekseyevich Freze       (b. 1840 - d. af.1917)
19 Dec 1905 - 1909         Konstantin Faddeyevich Krshivitskiy(b. 1840 - d. 1910) 
                             (Krzhivitskiy) 
1909 - 30 Jun 1912         Vacant
30 Jun 1912 - 23 Nov 1915  Post abolished
Governors of Vilna

 2 Jun 1906 -  7 May 1912  Dmitriy N
ikolayevich Lyubimov      (b. 1864 - d. 1942)
 7 May 1912 - 1916         Pyotr
Vladimirovich Veryovkin      (b. 1862 - d. 1946)
                             (in Russia exile from Sep 1915)
1916 - 1917                A
leksandr Nikolayevich Tolstoy
                             (in Russia exile)
Governors of Kovno

24 Apr 1904 - 31 Dec 1912  Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin
     (s.a.)
31 Dec 1912 - 1917         Nikolay Dmitriyevich Gryazev       (b. 1868 - d. af.1917)
                             (in Russia exile from Aug 1915)
Heads of the German Military Administration for Vilnius

23 Nov 1915 - May 1916     Karl von Alten                     (b. 1852 - d. 1937)
May 1916 -  3 Mar 1917     Carl Franz Adolph von Harbou       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
Heads of the German Military Administration for Lithuania
 4 Mar 1917 - 28 Feb 1918  Franz Joseph Fürst zu Isenburg-    (b. 1869 - d. 1939)
                             Birstein
 1 Mar 1918 -  1 Aug 1918  Theodor Alexander von Heppe        (b. 1870 - d. 1854)
Head of the German Military Administration of Lithuania (Litauen)
 1 Aug 1918 - Nov 1918     Carl Franz Adolph von Harbou       (s.a.)
Reichskommissare
für Litauen (und die Baltischen Provinzen)
15 Mar 1918 -  5 Jun 1918  Robert Franz Karl Graf von         (b. 1866 - d. 1959)  Non-party
                             Keyserlingk-Cammerau
 5 Jun 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Friedrich Karl Alexander Cäsar     (b. 1869 - d. 1946)  Non-party
                             Freiherr von Falkenhausen
Chairman of the Lithuanian Council
24 Sep 1917 - 11 Jul 1918  Antanas Smetona                    (b. 1874 - d. 1944)  TPP
King
3
13 Jul 1918 -  2 Nov 1918  Mindaugas II                       (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
                             (= Herzog Wilhelm von Urach, Graf von Württemberg)
Presidents

11 Jun 1918 -  4 Apr 1919  A
ntanas Smetona (1st time)         (s.a.)               TPP
                             (chairman of Lithuanian State Council)
 
4 Apr 1919 -  6 Apr 1919  Justinas Staugaitis                (b. 1866 - d. 1943)  LKDP
                           + Stasys Silingas                  (b. 1885 - d. 1962)  LUS
                           (acting chairmen of Lithuanian State Council)
 6 Apr 1919 - 19 Jun 1920  A
ntanas Smetona (2nd time)         (s.a.)               TPP
19 Jun 1920 -  7 Jun 1926  Aleksandras Stulginskis (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  LUS
                             (acting to 21 Dec 1922)
 8 Jun 1926 - 18 Dec 1926  Kazys Grinius                      (b. 1866 - d. 1950)  LSDP
18 Dec 1926 - 19 Dec 1926  Jonas Staugaitis                   (b. 1868 - d. 1952)  LVLS   
                           + A
leksandras Stulginskis(2nd time)(s.a.)               LUS    
                           (acting)
19 Dec 1926 - 16 Jun 1940  A
ntanas Smetona (3rd time)         (s.a.)               LTS
                            
(self-styled Tautos Vadas [Leader of the Nation],
                             left the country on 15 Jun 1940
)
16 Jun 1940 - 17 Jun 1940  Antanas Merkys (acting)            (b. 1887 - d. 1953)  LTS
17 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Justas Paleckis (acting)           (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  LKP
                             (not recognized by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
Commander-in-chief of the German Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord)
24 Jun 1941 -  4 Jul 1941  Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb            (b. 1876 - d. 1956)  Mil  
Commander of the German Rear Army Area North (Heeresgebiet Nord)
 5 Jul 1941 -  1 Aug 1941  Franz von Roques                   (b. 1877 - d. 1967)  Mil  
G
eneralkommissar für Litauen
25 Jul
1941 -  1 Aug 1944  Theodor Adrian von Renteln         (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                             (in Memel exile to 28 Jan 1945)
Chairman of the Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania
25 Oct 1943 - 30 Apr 1944  
Steponas Kairys                    (b. 1878 - d. 1964)  Non-party
Presidents

11 Mar 1990 - 25 Nov 1992  Vytautas Landsbergis               (b. 1932)            LPS
                             (chairman of the Supreme Council) 
25 Nov 1992 - 25 Feb 1998  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (b. 1932 - d. 2010)  LDDP 
                             (acting to 25 Feb 1993)
26 Feb 1998 - 25 Feb 2003  Valdas Adamkus (1st time)          (b. 1926)            Non-party
26 Feb 2003 -  6 Apr 2004  Rolandas Paksas                    (b. 1956)            LLDP
 6 Apr 2004 - 12 Jul 2004  Arturas Paulauskas (acting)        (b. 1953)            NS
12 Jul 2004 - 12 Jul 2009  Valdas Adamkus (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jul 2009 -              Dalia Grybauskaite (f)             (b. 1956
)            Non-party
 

Land Marshals (chief ministers)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)

c.13 Jan 1407-20 Apr 1411  Stanislovas Čupurna                (b. 13.. - d. 1411)
                             (Stanisław Czupurna)
c.31 May 1412-15 Oct 1432  Rumboldas Valimantavičius
         (b. 1371 - d. 1432)
                             (Rumbold Wolimuntowicz)
c.20 Jan 1433-27 Feb 1434  Radvila Astikaitis
(1st time)      (b. 1384 - d. 1477)
                             (Radziwiłł Ostykowicz)
c.28 May 1438- 9 Aug 1459  Petras Montigerdavicius            (s.a.)
                             (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
c.27 May 1463-22 Nov 1474  
Radvila Astikaitis (2nd time)      (s.a.)
c.1476                     Stankus Sudijovaitis
c.14 Jul 1477? - c.1479    Martynas Goštautas
                (b. 1430 - d. 1483)
                             (Marcin Gasztołd)
c.1 Nov 1480 - 30 Mar 1490 Bagdonas Andriejaitis Sakaitis     (d. 1491)
                             (Bohdan Andrzejewicz Sakowicz)   
1490 -  6 Dec 1497         Petras Jonaitis Mangirdaitis       (s.a.)
                             (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
1497 - May 1498            Grigorijus A
stikas (1st time)      (b. 145. - d. 1518)
                             (Grigorij Ostik)(acting)
May 1498 -  2 Feb 1508     Jonas Jurgaitis Zaberezinskis      (s.a.)

                             (Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzeziński
)
                            
(or Zaberezhsky)
 2 Feb 1508 - May 1512     Grigorijus Astikas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1512 - Sep? 1513       Stanislovas Piotrowicz             (b. 145. - d. 1513)
                             (or Pietraszkowicz) Kiška
                             (Stanis
ław Piotrowicz Kiszka
Sep? 1513 -  9 Apr 1514    Grigorijus Astikas (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 9 Apr 1514 - Mar? 1522    Mikalojus Radvila                  (b. c.1474 - d. 1522)
                             (Mkołaj Radziwiłł)
Mar? 1522 - May 1522
      Jurgis Ivanovičius Iljiničius      (b. 148. - d. 1526)
                             (Jerzy Iwanowicz Ilinicz)(
acting)  
May 1522 - Sep? 1537       Jonas Jonavičius Zabžezinskis      (b. 146. - d. 1537)
                             (Jan Janowicz Zabrzeziński)
Sep? 1537 - Apr 1541       Jurgis Mikalojaus Radvila (acting) (b. c.1480 - d. 1541)
                             (Jerzy Mikołajewicz Radziwiłł)
Apr 1541 - Oct 1544        Ivanas Hornostajus (acting)        (b. c.1480 - d. 1558)
                             (Iwan Hornostaj)

Oct 1544 - 28 May 1565     Mikalojus Radvila Juodasis         (b. 1515 - d. 1565)
                             (Miikołaj Radziwiłł Czarny)
29 May 1565 - 11 Mar 1566  Ostapas (Eustachijus) Valavičius   (b. c.1520 - d. 1587)
                             (
Ostafi Bohdanowicz Wołłowicz)
                             (acting)
11 Mar 1566 -  1 Jul 1569 
Jonas Jeronimas Chodkevičius       (s.a.)
                             (Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz)
Grand Marshals
(chief ministers)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)

 1 Jul 1569 -  4 Aug 1579  Jonas Jeronimas Chodkevičius       (s.a.)

 4 Aug 1579 -  1 Jun 1586  Mikalojus Kristupas Radvila        (b. 1549 - d. 1616)
                             Našlaitėlis (acting to 25 Oct 1579)
                             (Mikołaj Krzysztof Radziwiłł Sierotka)
 1 Jun 1586 - 13 Jul 1592  Albertas Radvila                   (s.a.)
                             (Albrecht Radziwiłł)
13 Jul 1592 - 22 Oct 1592  Mikalojus Talvosas (1st time)      (b. 155. - d. 1598)
                             (Mikołaj Talwosz) (acting)   
22 Oct 1592 -  9 Oct 1595  Stanislovas Radvila                (b. 1559 - d. 1599)
                             (Stanisław Radziwiłł)
 9 Oct 1595 - May 1596     Mikalojus Talvosas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1596 - 12 May 1615     Kristupas Manvydas Dorohostaiskis  (b. 1562 - d. 1615)
                             (Krzysztof Mikołajewicz Dorohostajski)
                             (acting to 8 May 1597)
12 May 1615 - 10 Sep 1619  Petras Viesiolovskis               (b. 157. - d. 1621)
                             (Piotr Wiesiołowski)
                             (acting to 27 Jun 1615)
10 Sep 1619 - 10 Apr 1635  Jonas Stanislovas Sapiega          (s.a.)
                             (Jan Stanisław Sapieha)
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1621)
10 Apr 1635 - 19 Apr 1637  Kristupas Viesiolovskis
           (b. 159. - d. 1637)
                             (Krzysztof Wiesiołowski)
                             (acting to 20 Apr 1635)
19 Apr 1637 -  3 Mar 1654  Aleksandras Liudvikas Radvila      (s.a.)

                             (Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł)
                             (acting to 2 May 1637) 
 3 Mar 1654 - 11 Nov 1669  Kristupas Zaviša                   (s.a.)
                             (Krzysztof Zawisza)
                             (acting to 11 Apr 1654)
11 Nov 1669 -  3 Nov 1679  Aleksandras Hilaris Palubinskis    (s.a.)

                             (Aleksander Hilary Połubiński)

 3 Nov 1679 - 1679         Teodoras Lackis (acting)           (b. c.1617 - d. 1683)
                             (Teodor Aleksander Lacki)  
1679 -  8 Dec 1690         Stanislovas Kazimieras Radvila
     (b. 1648 - d. 1690)
                             (Stanisław Kazimierz Radziwiłł)
 8 Dec 1690 - 29 Apr 1695  Jonas Dolskis
(Jan Dolski)         (b. 1637 - d. 1695)
                             (acting to 7 May 1691)
29 Apr 1695 - 27 Nov 1703  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega        (s.a.) 
                             (Aleksander Paweł Sapieha)
                             (acting to 14 Jul 1698; r
ecognized by
                             the Grand Prince Stanislovas I
                             to 9 May 1708) (1st time)
27 Nov 1703 -  4 Feb 1704  Mykolas Servacijus Višnioveckis    (b. 1680 - d. 1744)
                             (Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki)
                             (grand hetman) 
 4 Feb 1704 -  5 Aug 1712  Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius
   (s.a.)
                             (Marcjan Dominik Wołłowicz)
 5 Aug 1712 - 10 Apr 1713  Juozas Vandalinas Mnisekas (acting)(b. 1670 - d. 1747)
                             (Józef Wandalin Mniszech)
10 Apr 1713 -  4 Jan 1734  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
 4 Jan 1734 - 15 Apr 1750  Povilas Karolis Sanguška           (b. 1680 - d. 1750)
                             (Paweł Karol Sanguszko)
                             (acting to 4 Feb 1734)
15 Apr 1750 - 22 Feb 1768  Ignotas Oginskis (Ignacy Ogiński)  (s.a.)
                             (a
cting to 21 Aug 1750)
22 Feb 1768 - 12 May 1781  Juozapas Paulinas Sanguška         (b. 1740 - d. 1781)
                             (Józef Paulin Sanguszko) 
                             (acting to 7 Mar 1768)
29 Feb 1768 - 23 Jun 1768  Grafas Mykolas Jonas Pacas         (b. 1730 - d. 1787)
                             (Hrabia Michał Jan Pac)
                            
(Marshal General of the Crown [of Baro Confederation],
                             in rebellion)
12 May 1781 - 23 May 1790  Vladislovas Rokas Gurovskis
       (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
                             (Władysław Roch Gurowski)
                             (
acting to 23 May 1781)
23 May 1790 -  3 May 1791  Grafas Romanas Ignotas Potockis    (b. 1750 - d. 1809)
                             (Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki)
                             (a
cting to 16 Apr 1791)
19 May 1791 -  7 May 1793  Stanislovas Soltanas (acting)      (s.a.) 
                             (Stanisław Sołtan)
 7 May 1793 - 24 Apr 1794  Grafas Liudvikas
Tiškevičius       (b. c.1748 - d. 1808)
                             (Ludwik
Tyszkiewicz)
Chairmen of the Supreme Lithuanian Council
24 Apr 1794 - 12 Jun 1794  Jokūbas Jasinskis                  (b. 1761 - d. 1794)  Mil
                             (Jakub Jasiński)
12 Jun 1794 - 11 Oct 1794  Central Deputation
(chair rotating)
                           - Juozapas Niesiolovskis           (b. 1728 - d. 1814)
                              (Józef Niesiołowski)
                           -
Antanas Tyzenhauzas              (b. 1756 - d. 1816)  
                              (Antoni Tyzenhauz, Anton von Tiesenhausen)
                           - 
Jurgis Bialopetrovičius          (b. 1740 - d. 1812) 
                              (or Belapetryavichyus)
                              (
Jerzy Białopiotrowicz)
                           - Stanislovas Mirskis              (b. 1756 - d. 1805/15)
                              (Stanisław Mirski)
                           - Grafas Benediktas Morikonis      (b. 1750? - d. 1812)

                              (Benedykt Morykoni)
                           - Davidas Pilchauskas (Pilshauskas)
(b. 1735 - d. 1803)
                              (Dawid Pilchowski
)
Chairman of the Provisional Provincial Government in Lithuania and Belarus (in rebellion)
 2 Feb 1863 - 11 Mar 1863  Wincenty Konstanty
Kalinowski      (b. 1838 - d. 1864)  Rad
                            
(
Vincentas Konstantinas Kalinauskas)
Chairman of the Managing Department for the Provinces of Lithuania (from 26 Jun 1863,
Chairman of the
Executive Department for Lithuania) (in rebellion)
11 Mar 1863 - 12 Aug 1863  Jakób (Jakub) Wilhelm Gieysztor z  (b. 1827 - d. 1897)  Lib
                            
Giejsztorów 
                            
(
Jokūbas
Wilhelm Geištoras)
12 Aug 1863 - 10 Feb 1864  W
incenty Konstanty Kalinowski      (s.a.)               Rad
                            
(acting)
Prime ministers

11 Nov 1918 - 26 Dec 1918  Augustinas Voldemaras (1st time)   (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  TPP
26 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1919  Mykolas Sleževičius (1st time)     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)  LVS 
12 Mar 1919 - 12 Apr 1919  Pranas "Franz" Dovydaitis          (b. 1886 - d. 1942)  LKDP
12 Apr 1919 -  7 Oct 1919  Mykolas Sleževičius (2nd time)     (s.a.)               LVS
 7 Oct 1919 - 19 Jun 1920  Ernestas Galvanauskas (1st time)   (b. 1882 - d. 1967)  Non-party
19 Jun 1920 -  2 Feb 1922  Kazys Grinius                      (s.a.)               LSDP
 2 Feb 1922 - 18 Jun 1924  Ernestas Galvanauskas (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Jun 1924 -  4 Feb 1925  Antanas Tumėnas                    (b. 1880 - d. 1946)  LKDP
 4 Feb 1925 - 25 Sep 1925  Vytautas Petrulis                  (b. 1890 - d. 1942)  LKDP
25 Sep 1925 - 15 Jun 1926  Leonas Bistras                     (b. 1890 - d. 1971)  LKDP
15 Jun 1926 - 17 Dec 1926  Mykolas Sleževičius (3rd time)     (s.a.)               LVLS
17 Dec 1926 - 23 Sep 1929  Augustinas Voldemaras (2nd time)   (s.a.)               LTS
23 Sep 1929 - 24 Mar 1938  Juozas Tūbelis                     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)  LTS
24 Mar 1938 - 28 Mar 1939  Vladas (Vladislovas) Mironas       (b. 1880 - d. 1954)  LTS 
28 Mar 1939 - 21 Nov 1939  Jonas Kazimeras Černius            (b. 1898 - d. 1977)  LTS 
21 Nov 1939 - 17 Jun 1940  Antanas Merkys                     (s.a.)               LTS 
15 Jun 1940 - 17 Jun 1940  Kazimieras "Kazys" Bizauskas       (b. 1893 - d. 1941)  LTS 
                            (acting for Merkys)
17 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Justas Paleckis                    (s.a.)               LKP
                            (not recognized by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
17 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Vincas Krėvė Mickevičius           (b. 1882 - d. 1954)  Non-party
                            (acting for Paleckis)
                             (
not recognized
by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
23 Jun 1941 - 24 Jun 1941  Kazys Škirpa (interim)             (b. 1895 - d. 1979)  LAF
                            
(in Berlin exile) 
23 Jun 1941 -  5 Aug 1941  Juozas Ambrazevičius               (b. 1903 - d. 1974)  LAF
                             (acting [for Škirpa to 24 Jun 1941], in rebellion)
First General Councillor of the Lithuanian Self-Administration
(Erster Generalratsmann der Litauischen Selbstverwaltung)
22 Aug 1941 - 13 Jul 1944  P
etras Kubiliūnas                  (b. 1894 - d. 1946)  Mil
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers)
17 Mar 1990 - 10 Jan 1991  Kazimira Danutė Prunskienė (f)     (b. 1943)            LKP
10 Jan 1991 - 13 Jan 1991  Albertas Šimėnas                   (b. 1950)            LKDP
13 Jan 1991 - 23 Jul 1992  Gediminas Vagnorius (1st time)     (b. 1957)            Non-party
17 Jul 1992 - 23 Jul 1992  Algis Dobravolskas                 (b. 1951)            Non-party
                             (acting for Vagnorius
23 Jul 1992 - 25 Nov 1992  Aleksandras Algirdas
Abišala       (b. 1955)            Non-party
Prime ministers
25 Nov 1992 - 17 Dec 1992  Aleksandras Algirdas Abišala       (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Dec 1992 - 31 Mar 1993  Bronislovas Lubys                  (b. 1938 - d. 2011)  Non-party
31 Mar 1993 -  8 Feb 1996  Adolfas Šleževičius                (b. 1948)            LDDP
 8 Feb 1996 - 10 Dec 1996  Laurynas Mindaugas Stankevičius    (b. 1935)            LDDP
                             (acting to 19 Mar 1996)
10 Dec 1996 -  4 May 1999  Gediminas Vagnorius (2nd time)     (s.a.)               TS-LK
 4 May 1999 - 10 Jun 1999  Irena Degutienė (f)(1st time)      (b. 1949)            TS-LK
                             (acting) 
10 Jun 1999 - 27 Oct 1999  Rolandas Paksas                    (s.a.)               TS-LK
27 Oct 1999 - 11 Nov 1999  Irena Degutienė (f)(2nd time)      (s.a.)               TS-LK
                             (acting) 
11 Nov 1999 -  9 Nov 2000  Andrius Kubilius (1st time)        (b. 1956)            TS-LK
 9 Nov 2000 - 20 Jun 2001  Rolandas Paksas (2nd time)         (s.a.)               LLS
20 Jun 2001 - 12 Jul 2001  Eugenijus Gentvilas (acting)       (b. 1960)            LLS
12 Jul 2001 -  1 Jun 2006  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (s.a.)               LSDP
 1 Jun 2006 - 18 Jul 2006  Zigmantas Balčytis (acting)        (b. 1953)            LSDP
18 Jul 2006 -  9 Dec 2008  Gediminas Kirkilas                 (b. 1951)            LSDP
 9 Dec 2008 -
13 Dec 2012  Andrius Kubilius (2nd time)        (s.a.)               TS-LKD
13 Dec 2012 -              Algirdas Butkevičius               (b. 1958)            LSDP

 

Republic of Lithuania in Exile

[Lithuanian Flag]

Heads of the Diplomatic Service
15 Jun 1940 - 24 Dec 1983  Stasys Lozoraitis (in Rome)        (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
 
2 Dec 1941 - 15 Jun 1945  Jurgis Šaulys (in Switzerland)     (b. 1879 - d. 1948)
                             (acting for
Lozoraitis)
24 Dec 1983 - 15 Nov 1987  Stasys Antanas Bačkis              (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
                             (in Washington, D.C.)
15 Nov 1987 -  6 Sep 1991  Stasys Lozoraitis                  (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
                             (in Washington, D.C.) 

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1943-1956

Note: Anti-German (at the same time also anti-Soviet) resistance already began in 1941 by establishment of Lithuanian Freedom Army. All resistance groups united in 1943 to form Supreme Lithuanian Liberation Committee. After the World War II anti-Soviet resistance groups united in 1949, sometimes having full control over large areas of western Lithuania. Resistance continued into 1956 when their activities were suppressed by Soviet troops.

Chairman of the Supreme Lithuanian Liberation Committee
25 Nov 1943 - 1945         Steponas Kairys                    (b. 1879 - d. 1964)  LSDP

Chairmen of the Lithuanian Freedom Fighters' Council and
Commanders of the Lithuanian Defence Forces
10 Feb 1949 - Jan 1950     Jonas Žemaitis (1st time)          (b. 1909 - d. 1954)  Mil
Jan 1950 - Feb 1953        Adolfas Ramanauskas (1st time)     (b. 1918 - d. 1957)  Mil
Feb 1953 - 30 May 1953     Jonas Žemaitis (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
30 May 1953 - 12 Oct 1956  Adolfas Ramanauskas (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Mil


German Military Administration 1918-1919

Commanders of the German Troops in Lithuania
 4 Mar 1918 - 25 Feb 1919  Erich Georg Sebastian von          (b. 1861 - d. 1922)  Mil
                             Falkenhayn 

German Chief Representative in Lithuania
(Generalbevollmächtigter in Litauen)

 
5 Nov 1918 - Dec 1919     Ludwig Zimmerle                    (b. 1867 - d. 1925)  Non-party
                           (also from ... 1919, Chief of Civil Administration in Lithuania)

Noble titles: Count = Grafas/Hrabia (in German: Graf); Prince/Princess = Książę/Księżna (in Russian: Knyaz) the style Kniaz/Kniahini or Kniagini (title was also used is easten parts of Poland for old families of tribal rulers, equal to prince/ksiaze, but more distinguished).

 ąThe style "didysis kunigaikštis" is better rendered "grand prince" rather than "grand duke", just as is the case with the Russian "velikiy knyaz". The confusion arises from the fact that the same Russian style is used for what is definitely "grand duke" in the case of Finland. 
The style of the polity should therefore be correctly rendered as "Grand Principality".

 2Under the elective monarchy, a grand prince assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. From 6 Jan 1573, during a vacancy, the primate of Poland ex officio (occasionally another prelate, in emergency situations) headed the state with the style Interrex. Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. Although de jure the Polish Interrex only dealt with Poland during a vacancy in the monarchy (the Lithuanian Council of State [Lietuvos Ponu Taryba], chaired by the Grand Marshal [Lietuvos didysis marsalka] dealing with Lithuania), this is de facto a spurious distinction.
  The full style of Grand Princes of Lithuania (and Polish kings) from 1573 was (in official Latin): Dei Gratiae Rex Poloniae, Magnus Dux Lituaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogithiae, Kiioviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Livoniae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque. In Polish: Z Bożej łaski, Król Polski, Wielki Książę Litewski, Ruski, Pruski, Mazowiecki, Żmudzki, Kijowski, Wołyński, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smoleński, Siewierski i Czernihowski ("By the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov").

 3On 11 Jul 1918, the State Council declared Lithuania to be a monarchy and invited Herzog Wilhelm von Urach, Graf von Württemberg (s.a.) to be king, under the unofficially proposed style of Mindaugas II, he accepted the offer, but he did not come to Lithuania and was not installed and was not recognized by the German occupation authorities. On 2 Nov 1918, the State Council suspended the invitation and Lithuania was organized as a republic.

Territorial Disputes: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of Jan. 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation.
 

Party abbreviations: LKDP = Lietuvos Krikščionių Demokratų Partija (Christian Democratic Party of Lithuania, christian-democratic, Mar 1917-1936, re-est.28 Jan 1990); LSDP = Lietuvos Socialdemokratų Partija (Social-Democratic Party of Lithuania, social-democratic, 1 Jun 1896-6 Feb 1936, re-est.27 Apr 1989); LTS = Lietuvių Tautininkų Sąjunga (Lithuanian Nationalist Union, called "Tautininkai", nationalist, 1936-39 state party, 9 Aug 1924-1940, re-est.23 Feb 1990); TPP = Tautos Pažangos Partija (Party of National Progress, 1916-19 Aug 1924, renamed LTS, re-est.28 May 1994); TS-LKD = Tėvynės Sąjunga-Lietuvos Krikščionys Demokrataiai (Homeland Union–Christian Democrats of Lithuania, center-right, formerly TS-LK, est.17 May 2008); Mil = Military;
- Former parties
: LAF = Lietuvos Aktyvistų Frontas (Activist Front of Lithuania, anti-Soviet resistance organization, 17 Nov 1940-26 Sep 1941); LDDP = Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija (Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania, socialist, former LKP, 8 Dec 1990-27 Jan 2001, renamed LSDP); LDTS = Lietuvos Darbo Liaudies Sąjunga (Working People's Union of Lithuania, communist LKP front bloc, 1940); Lib = Biali/Stronnictwo Białych (Whites/White Party, liberals, opposed Rad, c.1858); LKP = Lietuvos Komunistų Partijos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Litvy (Communist Party of Lithuania, communist, named 1940-13 Oct 1952 Lietuvos Komunistų [Bolševikų] Partijos [Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Lithuania], 1940-20 Dec 1989 part of CPSU, 3 Oct 1918-Nov 1920 part of LBKP, 1940-7 Dec 1989 state party, Nov 1920-8 Dec 1990, renamed LDDP); LLDP = Lietuvos Liberalų Demokratų Partija (Liberal Democratic Party of Lithuania, center-right, populist, 9 Mar 2002-13 May 2006, renamed Tvarka ir teisingumas [Order and Justice]); LLS = Lietuvos Liberalų Sąjung (Liberal Union of Lithuania, liberal, 21 Jun 1990-31 May 2003, merged into Liberalų ir centro sąjunga); LPS = Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis (Reform Movement of Lithuania, "Sąjūdis," pro-independence, from 1990 shortened to Lietuvos Sąjūdis, 3 Jun 1988-1 May 1993, merged into TS-LK); LSLDP = Lietuvos Socialistų Liaudininkų Demokratų Partija (Socialist People's Democratic Party of Lithuania, 19 Nov 1917-5 Dec 1922, merged into LVLS); LUS = Lietuvos Ukininku Sąjunga (Lithuanian Farmer's Union, agrarian, 1919-1936); LVS = Lietuvos Valstiečių Sąjunga (Peasant Union of Lithuania, leftist agrarian, 28 Dec 1905-5 Dec 1922, merged into LVLS); LVLS = Lietuvos Valstiečių Liaudininkų Sąjunga (Peasant Populist Union of Lithuania, "Liaudininkai," center-left, 5 Dec 1922-1936); NS = Naujoji Sąjunga (Socialliberalai)(New Union [Social Liberals], center-left, 25 Apr 1998-9 Jul 2011, merged into Darbo partija [Democratic Party]); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, only legal party 1941-1944); Rad = Czerwoni/Stronnictwo Czerwonych (Reds/Red Party, radical liberals, opposed Lib, c.1861); TS-LK = Tėvynės Sąjunga-Lietuvos Konservatoriai (Homeland Union - Conservatives of Lithuania, liberal conservative reformist, 1 May 1993-17 May 2008, merged into TS-LKD)



Alternative governments: Lithuanian S.S.R. and "Litbel"

Lithuanian-Belorussian SSR Flag
                of 1919
                  5 Jan 1919 - 1 Sep 1919

Map of Litbel (as claimed)
Capital: Vilnius
(Minsk 19 Apr - 8 Aug 1919,
Babruysk 8 Aug - 1 Sep 1919)
Population: 4,000,000
 (1919 est.)

Note: Names are given in Lithuanian with Belarusian in parenthesis.

 5 Jan 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Soviet Russian occupation of Vilnius.
 5 Jan 1919                Lithuanian Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
                             declared, in opposition to the Republic of Lithuania
                            (proclamation dated 16 Dec 1918 in Russia exile).
27 Feb 1919                Merged with the Byelorussian Socialist Soviet Republic to
                             form the Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of
                             Lithuania and Byelorussia ("Litbel").
19 Apr 1919                Polish occupation of Vilnius (government moves to Minsk).
 8 Aug 1919                Soviet troops lose Minsk, the government of "Litbel" moves to
                             Babruysk (Bobruysk).
 1 Sep 1919                "Litbel" is dissolved in exile in Smolensk, Russia

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Workers' and Smallholders' (Peasants) Government
 5 Jan 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas        (b. 1880 - d. 1935)  LBKP
                             (Vintsas Mitskyevich-Kapsukas)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
27 Feb 1919 -  1 Sep 1919  Kazimieras Cichovskis              (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  LBKP
                             (Kazimir Hyenrykhavich Tsykhowski
                              = Kazimierz Cichowski)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
27 Feb 1919 -  1 Sep 1919  Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas        (s.a.)               LBKP

Party abbreviation: LBKP = Lietuvos ir Baltarusijos Komunistų Partija/Kamunistychnaya Partyya Litvy i Byelarusi (Communist Party of Lithuania and Byelorussia, communist, state party, 3 Oct 1918 - Nov 1920, renamed LPK)



Alternative government: Central Lithuania 

[Central Lithuanian flag
                1920-1922]
            12 Oct 1920 - 20 Feb 1922 

Map of Central Lithuania
Hear National Anthem
"Rota" (The Oath)
Text of National Anthem
(1920-1922)
Statute
(None)
Capital: Wilno
(Vilnius, Vilna)
Currency:
Polish Marka (PLM);
1920-12 Mar 1921 German
  Mark, Polish Marka,
& Russian Ruble
National Holiday: N/A Population: 489,000 (1922)
GDP: N/A
Exports: N/A
Imports: N/A
Ethnic Groups: Poles 68.7%, Jews 12.3%,
Belorussians 4.9%, others (mostly Lithuanians,
also Russians, Tatars, and Karaites) 14.1% (1921)
Total Armed Forces: 17,343 (1921)
Merchant marine: None
Religions: Roman Catholic, Jewish,
Orthodox Christian, other
International Organizations 1920-1922: None

31 Dec 1918 -  5 Jan 1919  Polish occupation of Vilnius.
 5 Jan 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Soviet Russian occupation of Vilnius.
 5 Jan 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Part of Lithuanian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic (from 27 Feb 1919

                             Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of Lithuania and
                             Belorussia ["Litbel"]).
19 Apr 1919 - 17 Jul 1920  Polish occupation of Vilnius. .
12 Jul 1920                Recognized by Soviet Russia as part of Lithuania by Moscow
                             Treaty (ratified 14 Oct 1920).
17 Jul 1920 - 25 Aug 1920  Soviet Russian occupation of Vilnius.
 7 Oct 1920                Lithuanian and Poland agree to a cease-fire and provisional
                             demarcation by Suwałki Agreement (to be effected 10 Oct 1920).
26 Aug 1920                Transferred to Lithuania.
 9 Oct 1920                Polish "irregular" occupation of Vilnius.
12 Oct 1920                Central Lithuania (Polish: Litwa Środkowa) declared.
20 Feb 1922                Territory occupied by Central Lithuania (and referred to as Ziemia
                             Wileńska) proclaimed part of Poland, by resolution of Sejm of
                             Central Lithuanian
.

18 Apr 1922                Incorporation into Poland (see Poland Voivodships 1919-1939)
                             (not recognized by Lithuania).
18 Sep 1939                Occupied by Soviet Union.
28 Oct 1939                Vilnius restored to Lithuania.

Commissioners General of the Commissariat for the Eastern Lands
19 Feb 1919 -  5 May 1919  Ludwik Kolankowski                 (b. 1882 - d. 1956)  Non-party
 5 May 1919 -  9 Sep 1920  Jerzy Marcin Osmołowski            (b. 1872 - d. 1952)  Non-party
Polish Military Commander (of 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division)
 9 Oct 1920 - 12 Oct 1920  Lucjan Żeligowski                  (b. 1865 - d. 1947)  Mil
Commander-in-Chief of the Central Lithuanian Army

12 Oct 1920 -  1 Dec 1921  Lucjan Żeligowski                  (s.a.)               Mil

Presidents of Provisional Government Commission

11/14 Dec 1920-14 Jan 1921 Witold Abramowicz                  (b. 1874 - d.1940/41)Non-party
16 Jan 1921 - 21 Nov 1921  Stefan Mokrzecki (acting)          (b. 1862 - d. 1932)  Mil
21 Nov 1921 - 18 Apr 1922  Aleksander Michał Marian           (b. 1864 - d. 1943)  Non-party
                             Meysztowicz 



Samogitia (Zemaitija)

[Samogitia (Zemaitija) flag
                to 1795]
                     c.1565 - 26 Apr 1795

Map of Samogitia
Capital: Raseiniai (from 1569)
Population: 238,200 (1790)

....                       Principality of Samogitia established.
124.                       Vassal of Lithuania.
c.1294 - 1341              Incorporated into Lithuania
31 Oct 1382                Ceded by Lithuania to the Teutonic Order.
 1 Feb 1411                Provisionally returned to Lithuania (confirmed 27 Sep 1422).
1413                       Autonomous within Lithuania, governed by an elected
                             ruler, the Elder (Seniūnas), with capital (from 1569)
                             in Raseiniai. Grand Prince of Lithuania takes style of the
                             "Prince of Samogitia."
1701 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
 3 May 1791                Autonomy formally abolished under the first constitution of the
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (de facto continues until 1795).
25 Oct 1795                Annexed by Russia in the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian
                             Commonwealth, the Russian Emperor adopts additional style of
                             "Prince of Samogitia" (de facto from 26 Apr 1795).

Princes
.... - 1214                Dangeruther                       (d. 1214)
1214 - c.1236              ....
c.1236 - 1251              Vykantas (Vykynt)                 (d. 1261)
c.1240 - 12..              Dausprungas (Dovsprynk)
c.1248 - 12..              Erdzivil 
                             (in Brest, Grodno, and  Smolensk)
c.1248 - 1263              Tautvila (Tovtivil) (in Polock)
1263 - 1264                Treniota
126. - 1267                Gerden (in Nalse)
1267 - 1270                Sviendorog
1270 - 1275                Giemund
128. - 1293                Pukuveras (in Eiragola)
1294 - 1341                Lithuanian rule
1341 - 15 Aug 1382         Kestutis (Kynstute)               (b. 1297 - d. 1382) 
1382 - 1390                Skirgaila                         (b. c.1354 - d. 1396) 
1390 - 12 Oct 1398         Vytautas (Witold)                 (b. 1344/50 - d. 1430)
12 Oct 1398 -  1 Feb 1411  Teutonic Order rule
Elders (style Seniūnas)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
 1 Feb 1411 - 1412         Rumbaudas Valimantaitis           (b. c.1371 - d. 1432)
                             (Rumbold Walimuntowicz Kieżgajło)
1412 - 1432               
Mykolas Kęsgaila Valimantaitis    (b. c.1380 - d. 1451/52)
                             (Micha
ł Walimuntowicz Kieżgajło)
                             (1st time)
1432 - 1434/35             Jurgis Galminas (Jerzy Galiminas) (b. c.1409 - d. c.1438)
1435 - 1440?               Kontautas (1st time)
1440 - 1441
                Mykolas Kęsgaila Valimantaitis    (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
1441                       Daumantas
1441 - 1443
                Kontautas (2nd time)
1443 - 1451                Mykolas Kęsgaila Valimantaitis    (s.a.)
                            
(3rd time)
1451 - 1485                Jonas Kęsgaila                    (b. c.1400 - d. 1485)
                             (Jan Michałowicz Kieżgajło)
1486 - 1526                Stanislovas Jonavičius Kęsgaila   (b. c.1451 - d. 1527)
                             (Stanisław Janowicz Kieżgajł)
1527 - 1532                Stanislovas Stanislovaitis        (b. 1503 - d. 1532)
                             Kęsgaila Janavičius
                             (Stanisław Kieżgajło)
1532 - 1534                Petras Kiška                      (d. 1534)
                             (Piotr Kiszka z Ciechanowca)
1535 - 1542                Jonas Radvila                     (b. c.1492 - d. 1542)
                             (Jan Radziwiłł)
1542 - 1543                Motiejus Vaitiekaitis Kločka      (d. 1543)
                             (Maciej Kłoczko)
1543 - 1544                Jurgis Bilevičius                 (b. c.1513 - d. 1544)
                             (Jerzy Billewicz)
1544 - 1545                Stanislovas Mikalojaitis Kęsgaila
                             (Stanisław Kieżgajł)
1545 - 1561                Jeronimas Kotkevičius
            (b. c.1510 - d. 1561)
                             (or Chodkevičius)
                            
(Hieronim Chodkiewicz
)
1561 - 1563                Vacant

1563 -  4 Aug 1579         Jonas Kotkevičius (Chodkevičius)  (b. c.1537 - d. 1579)
                             (Jan Hieronim Chodkiewicz)
1579                       Мikalojus Talvosas
               (b. 15.. - d. 1598)
                             (Mikołaj Talwosz)(palatineą)
1579 - 1588                Jonas Kiška (Jan Janusz Kiszka)   (b. 1547 - d. 1592)
1589 - 1590                Mykolas Naruševičius              (b. c.1560 - d. 1603)
                             (Mikołaj Naruszewicz)(palatine)
1590 - 1595                Jurgis Kotkevičius (Chodkevičius) (b. 1570 - d. 1595)
                             (Jerzy Chodkiewicz)
1595 - 1599                Prince Stanislovas Radvila        (b. 1559 - d. 1599)
                             (Stanisław Radziwiłł)
1599 - 1616                Jonas Karolis Katkevičius         (b. 1560 - d. 1621)
                             (Chodkevičius)
                            
(Jan Karol Chodkiewicz
)
1616 - 1619                Adomas Tolvaišas
(Adam Talwosz)   (b. c.1550 - d. 1628)
                             (palatine)
1619 - 1636                Jeronimas Valavičius              (b. c.1573 - d. 1636)
                             (Hieronim Wołłowicz)
1636 - 1646                Jonas Alfonsas Liackis            (b. c.1581 - d. 1646)
                             (Jan Alfons Lacki)      
                             (palatine to 1643)
1646 - 1647                Aleksandras Narusevicius          (b. 1582 - d. 1653)
                             (Aleksander Naruszewicz)
                             (palatine)
1647 - 1653                Jonušas Radvila                   (b. 1612 - d. 1655)
                             (Janusz Radziwiłł)
1653 - 1668                Jurgis Karolis
Hlebavičius        (b. 1603 - d. 1669)
                             (or Glebavičius)
                            
(Jerzy Karol Hlebowicz
)
1668 - 1669                Aleksandras Hilaris Palubinskis   (b. 1626 - d. 1679)

                             (Aleksander Hilary Połubiński)
1669 - 1670                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (b. 16.. - d. 1689)
                             (Stanisław Wincenty Orda)
                             (palatine) (1st time)
1670 - 1678                Viktorinas Konstantas Mlečka      (b. c.1630 - d. 1678)
                             (Wiktoryn Konstanty Mleczko)
1678 - 1681                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (s.a.)
                             (palatine) (2nd time)
1681 - 1682                Kazimieras Jonas Povilas Sapiega  (b. 1642 - d. 1720)
                             (Kazimierz Jan Paweł Sapieha)
1682 - 1684                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (s.a.)
                             (palatine) (3rd time)
1684 - 1696                Petras Mykolas Pacas              (b. 1645 - d. 1696)
                             (Piotr Michał Pac)
1696 - 1698                Vilhelmas Eustachijus Grotuzas    (b. c.1640 - d. 1708)
                             (Wilhelm Eustachy Estachy Grothus)
                             (palatine)
23 Jun 1698 - 17 Oct 1709  Grigalius Antanas Oginskis        (b. 1654 - d. 1709)
                             (Grzegorz Antoni Ogiński)
31 Oct 1709 - 26 Oct 1710  Aleksandras Juozas Unichovskis    (b. 16.. - d. 1725)
                             (Aleksander Józef Unichowski)
                             (palatine)
26 Oct 1710 - 1729         Kazimieras Zaranekas-Horbovskis   (d. 1729)
                             (Kazimierz Zaranek-Horbowski)
1729 - 1736                Jurgis Jeronimas Krišpinas-       (b. c.1673 - d. 1736)
                             Kiršenšteinas (palatine)
                             (Jerzy Hieronim Kryszpin-
                             Kirszensztein
)
 8 Jul 1737 - Jan 1754     Juozas Tiškevičius                (b. c.1694 - d. 1754)
                             (Józef Tyszkiewicz)
                             (palatine to 21 May 1742)
Jan 1754 - 1765            Juozas Pacas                      (b. c.1685 - d. 1765)
                             (Józef Franciszek Pac)  
                             (palatine to ... 1754)
19 Aug 1765 -  2 Feb 1781  Jonas Mikalojus Ksaveras          (b. 1738 - d. 1781)
                             Chodkevičius
                             (Jan Miko
łaj Chodkiewicz)
                             (
palatine to 2 Oct 1765)
1781 - 25 Oct 1795         Antanas Gelgudas                  (b. 1729 - d. 1798)
                            (Antoni Onufry Giełgud)
                            (palatine to 25 Sep 1783)

 ąthe Palatines (in Lithuanian: Pilininkas; in Polish: Kasztelan); were the number two
officials in the provinces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Title Count = Grafas/Hrabia.



Tauroggen and Serrey

[Royal
                    (Polish) Prussia 1466-1772]

1688                       Duke of Prussia claims the manors of Tauroggen (in Lithuanian
                             Tauragė, Polish: Taurogi) and Serrey (Lithuanian: Seiriai/
                             Seirijai, Polish: Sereje) by inheritance.
1691                       Confirmed as fiefdoms (Lordships of Tauroggen and Serrey) to
                             the duke (from 1701, king) of Prussia by the Lithuanian Supreme
                             Tribunal while remaining politically part of Poland-Lithuania.
1702 – 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
1757 – 1762                Occupied by Russia.
29 Sep 1793                Restored to Poland-Lithuania (effective 3 Aug 1794).

Amtmaenner
1690 – 1697                Simon Mozschein
1697 – 1701                Andreas Wilzle
1701 – 1712                Gottfried Tilsit
1712 – 1723                Michael von Puttkammer
1723 – 1744                Christoph Lehmann
1744 – 1753                Christian Grumann
1753 – 1767                E. Pasch
1767 – 1783                J.Z. Stabenow
1773 – 1794                Gottlieb Dressler



Memel 
[Memel flag 1920-1923]
              25 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1923
Map of Memel Hear National Anthem
(None)
National Anthem Text Memel/Klaipėda Statute
(8 May 1924 - 23 Mar 1939)
Capital: Memel
 (Klaipėda)
Currency: 1920-23 Memel
 Mark (MML); 1923-29
 
Lithuanian Lita (LTL)
National Holiday: N/A Population: 145,000 (1939)
141,650 (1925)
GDP: N/A
Exports: 2480 million
German Marks (1922)

Imports: 1850 million
 German Marks (1922)
Ethnic Groups: German 45.2%, Lithuanian 26.5%,
Memellandish 24.2%, others (Couronians,
Latvians, Jews) 4.1% (1925)
Total Police Force: 350 (1923)
Merchant marine
: 6 (1924)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 94%,
Roman Catholic 5%, Jewish 0.78% (1925)
International Organizations/Treaties 1920-1925: None

29 Jul 1252               
Memele castrum or Memelburg (Memel castle), founded by Teutonic
                             Order in Prussia (Landmeister des Deutschen Orden in Preussen),
                             administered by Land-Master of Livonian Order.
 4 Mar 1253 - 30 Jun 1392  The Bishop of Courland holds a third of the area, Memel is called
                             Nova Tremonia (or Neu-Dortmund [New Dortmund]).
25 May 1328                Livonian Order rule replaced by the Teutonic Order.
27 Sep 1422                In the Treaty of Melno (ratified 18 May 1423) the Teutonic Knights
                             renounced all territorial, political, and missionary claims
                             against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Samogitia is permanently
                             ceded to Lithuania. The border is set between Poland-Lithuania
                             and the Knights, with the Knights retaining Memel.
 9 Apr 1525                Part of the Duchy of Prussia (which is a fief of Poland to 1772).
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Swedish occupation, part of Swedish Prussia (see under Poland).
18 Jan 1701                Part of the Kingdom of Prussia (and from 18 Jan 1871 Germany).
 5 Jul 1757 -  6 Aug 1762  Occupied (and from 24 Jan 1758) annexed by Russia.
18 Mar 1915-20/21 Mar 1915 Occupied by Russia.
10 Jan 1920                Treaty of Versailles goes into effect; Memel Territory is
                             detached from Germany and put under the administration of
                             the Principal Allied and Associated Powers (through the
                             Conference of Ambassadors [France, U.K., Italy and Japan]).
15 Feb 1920                German troops replaced by French troops; Allied administration
                             established.
10 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1923  Lithuanian "irregulars" invade and gradually occupy the territory 
                             in support to the alternative government, set up in Heydekrug
                             (Šilutė) on 9 Jan 1923.
23 Jan 1923                Annexed by Lithuania (not recognized by the Allies).
16 Feb 1923                Conference of Ambassadors acquiesces conditionally to
                             putting Memel Territory under Lithuanian sovereignty;
                             Lithuanian reply is regarded on 13 Mar 1923 as acceptance.
19 Feb 1923                French troops evacuated; Allied administration de facto terminated. 15 Mar 1923                Renamed Klaipėda by Lithuania.
 7 May 1923                Lithuania declares Memel autonomous.
27 Sep 1924                Memel Convention of 8 May 1924 (ratified by the Lithuanian Diet
                             on 30 Jul 1924) becomes effective de facto.
25 Aug 1925                With deposit of last Allied ratifications the Memel Convention goes
                             into effect de jure (the provisions are never fully adhered 
                             to by Lithuania).
22 Mar 1939                Lithuania cedes Memel Territory to Germany (ratified by Lithuanian
                             Diet on 30 Mar 1939). Germany formally annexes Memel on 23 Mar
                             1939 retroactive to 22 Mar 1939. Memel is re-incorporated
                             into the Prussian province of East Prussia (see Prussia prov.)
10 Oct 1944                Seige by Soviet Union forces begins.
28 Jan 1945                Occupied by Soviet Union.
 7 Apr 1946 -  7 Apr 1948  Memel part of the Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian S.F.S.R.
                             (see Russian SFSR admin.)
 7 Apr 1948                Definitively re-integrated into Lithuanian S.S.R.,
                             renamed Klaipėda.

Swedish Governors
18 Sep 1629 - 1630         Alexander Leslie                   (b. 1585 - d. 1661)
1630 - Mar 1630            James Ramsay                       (b. 1589? - d. 1638)
Mar 1630 - Jan/Feb 1631    Patrick Ruthven                    (b. 1586 - d. 1652)
Jan/Feb 1631 - Jul 1635    Francis Ruthven 
                             (acting to 31 Aug 1632)
Russian Supreme commanders
 5 Jul 1757 -  1 Aug 1757  Wilhelm Graf von Fermor (1st time) (b. 1702 - d. 1771)
                            (Villim Villimovich Fermor)(acting)
 1 Aug 1757 - 18 Oct 1757  Stepan Fyodorvich Graf Apraksin    (b. 1702 - d. 1758)
18 Oct 1757 - 24 Jan 1758  Wilhelm Graf von Fermor (2nd time) (s.a.)
Imperial and (Prussian) State Commissioner for the Memel Territory (Memelgebiet)
10 Jan 1920 - 15 Feb 1920  Georg Franz Wilhelm Freiherr von   (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
                             der Wenge und Graf von Lambsdorff 
High Commissioners
15 Feb 1920 -  1 May 1921  Dominique Joseph Odry (France)     (b. 1865 - d. 1962)  Mil
 1 May 1921 - 19 Feb 1923  Jean-Gabriel Petisné (France)      (b. 1881 - d. 1931)
Plenipotentiaries
19 Feb 1923 - 24 Feb 1923  Jonas (Polovinskas) Budrys (acting)(b. 1889 - d. 1964)
                             (Lithuania)
24 Feb 1923 - 27 Oct 1924  Antanas Smetona (Lithuania)        (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
Governors (all from Lithuania)
27 Oct 1924 -  8 Nov 1925  Jonas (Polovinskas) Budrys         (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1925 -  1 Aug 1926  Jonas Žilius                       (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
 1 Aug 1926 -  1 Nov 1927  Karolis Žalkauskas                 (b. 1892 - d. 1961)
 1 Nov 1927 - 19 May 1932  Antanas Merkys                     (b. 1887 - d. 1953)
19 May 1932 - 25 Nov 1933  Vytautas Jonas Gylys               (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
25 Nov 1933 -  5 Feb 1935  Jonas Navakas                      (b. 1896 - d. 1956)
 5 Feb 1935 - 15 Oct 1936  Vladas Kurkauskas                  (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
15 Oct 1936 - 12 Dec 1938  Jurgis Kubilius                    (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
12 Dec 1938 - 22 Mar 1939  Viktoras Gailius                   (b. 1893 - d. 1956)
Transitional Commissioner for the Integration of Memelland

(Überleitungskommissar für die Eingliederung des Memellandes)
23 Mar 1939 - 30 Apr 1939
 Erich Koch                         (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
Fortress Commander of Memel (Festungskommandant von Memel
Oct 1944 - 28 Jan 1945     Hans Gollnick                      (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  Mil 


Presidents of the Directory
(German with Lithuanian names in parentheses)
17 Feb 1920 -  6 Aug 1921  Arthur Altenberg                   (b. 1862 - d. 1926)  Non-party
                             (Artūras Altenbergas)
 6 Aug 1921 - 15 Jan 1923  Wilhelm Stepputat                  (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  Non-party
                             (Vilius Steputaitis)
 9 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1923  Martynas Jankus                    (b. 1858 - d. 1946)  Lith
                            (chairman of the Supreme Lithuania Minor 
                             Liberation Committee, in opposition)
15 Jan 1923 - 14 Feb 1923  Erdmann Simoneit (1st time)        (b. 1888 - d. 1969)  Lith
                             (Erdmonas Simonaitis)
15 Feb 1923 -  4 Feb 1925  Viktor Gailius (Viktoras Gailius)  (s.a.)               Lith
 5 Feb 1925 - 15 Jan 1926  Andreas Borchert                   (b. 1891 - d. 1957)  Lith
                             (Endrius Borchertas)
16 Jan 1926 - 24 Nov 1926  Erdmann Simoneit (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Lith
25 Nov 1926 -  4 Jan 1927  Wilhelm Falk (Vilius Falkas)                            Lith
 5 Jan 1927 -  2 Dec 1927  Viktor Schwellnus                                       Lith
                             (Viktoras Švelnius [Švelnys])
 2 Dec 1927 - 15 Aug 1930  Otto Kadgiehn (Otas Kadgynas)      (b. 1860 - d.af.1935)
16 Aug 1930 - 12 Jan 1931  Martin Reisgys (1st time)          (b. 1886 - d. 1942)  Lith
                             (Martynas Reizgys)
13 Jan 1931 - 23 Feb 1932  Otto Böttcher (Otas Betcheris)     (b. 1872 - d. 1932)  MVP
                            (deposed illegally 6 Feb 1932 and replaced
                             on that date by the following)
23 Feb 1932 -  1 Mar 1932  Jan Tolischus (Jonas Tolišius)                          Lith
                             (acting)
 2 Mar 1932 -  6 Jun 1932  Eduard Simaitis (Eduardas Simaitis)(b. 1897 - d. 1942)  Lith/None
 6 Jun 1932 - 28 Jun 1934  Ottomar Schreiber                  (b. 1889 - d. 1955)  MVP
                             (Otomaras Šreiberis) 
28 Jun 1934 -  3 Dec 1934  Martin Reisgys (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Lith
 4 Dec 1934 - 27 Nov 1935  Georg Bruweleit                    (b. 1900 - d. 1995)  Lith
                             (Jurgis Brūvelaitis)
28 Nov 1935 - 20 Jan 1939  August Baldschus                   (b. 1883 - d. 1952)  MVP+MEL
                             (Augustas Baldžius)
20 Jan 1939 - 23 Mar 1939  Wilhelm "Willy" Bertuleit          (b. 1904 - d. 1941)  MVP+MEL
                             (Vilius Bertulaitas)

Party abbreviations: LA-LVP = Litauische Autonomisten und Litauische Volkspartei (Lithuanian Autonomists and Lithuanian People's Party, pro-Lithuania); Lith = Lithuanian (independent ethnic Lithuanian politicians); MAP = Memelländische Arbeiterpartei (Memelland Workers' Party, communist, 1925-1935); MEL = Memelländische Einheitsliste (Memelland Unity List, German coalition of MAP, MVP, and SPM, 1935-1939); MLP = Memelländische Landwirtschaftspartei (Memelland Farmers' Party, agrarian, centrist, 1925-1934, banned 1934); MVP = Memelländische Volkspartei (Memelland People's Party, German nationalist, 1925-1935); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist, 1920-1945); SPM = Sozialdemokratische Partei des Memelgebietes (Social Democratic Party of Memel Region, social-democratic, 1925-1935); Mil = Military



German Administrative Area of the Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Front 1915 - 1918

 
[North German
                Confederation 1867-1870 (Germany)]

 6 Jul 1915                Administrative Area of the Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Front
                             (Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten Deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten),
                             in short Ober-Ost, established (not formally recognized by the
                             German government until 4 Nov 1915) as a German supreme military 
                             administration over occupied north-western part of the Russian
                             Empire (by late 1918 covers present-day Lithuania, Latvia,
                             Estonia and parts of Poland [Suwałki, Białystok] and parts
                             Russia [Pskov]). Seat of administration in Kaunas, Lithuania.
11 Nov 1918                By the Armistice at Compiegne the German troops to be withdrawn
                             from the East (fixed time not given); effective German
                             administration gradually collapses.
26 Dec 1918                Ober-Ost abolished. Headquarters of commander-in-chief moved
                             to Königsberg in East Prussia on 20 Dec 1918.
21 Jan 1919                Office of commander-in-chief of the Eastern Front abolished.

Commanders-in-Chief of All German Armed Forces in the East ("Ober-Ost")
 1 Nov 1914 - 29 Aug 1916  Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von         (b. 1847 - d. 1934)  Mil
                             Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg
29 Aug 1916 - 26 Dec 1918  Leopold Maximilian Joseph Maria    (b. 1846 - d. 1930)  Mil
                             Prinz von Bayern



Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

 
[Lithuanian SSR
                          Flag of 1940-1953]
                   25 Aug 1940 - 15 Jul 1953
 
[Lithuanian SSR
                          Flag 1953-1989]
                   15 Jul 1953 - 20 Mar 1989
Capital: Vilnius
(Vilna)
Hear SSR Anthem
"Lietuvos Tarybų
Socialistinės Respublikos
Vvalstybinį Himną"
(State Anthem of the
 Lithuanian SSR)
(1950-1990)
Constitution
(21 Apr 1978; in Lithuanian)
Population: 3,420,000 (1980)

 3 Aug 1940                Accession to the Soviet Union.
25 Jul 1941 - 13 Jul 1944  German occupation, part of Reichskommissariat of Ostland
                             (see under Latvia).
18 Nov 1988                Lithuanian made the only official language.
18 May 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty.
11 Mar 1990                Republic of Lithuania

Note: Lithuanian with Russian names in parentheses.

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party (LKP)
(1940 - 13 Oct 1952,
Lithuanian Communist [Bolshevik] Party)
25 Aug 1940 - 2
1 Jan 1974  Antanas Sniečkus                   (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
                             (Antanas Yuozovich Snechkuss)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 24 Jun 1941 - Oct 1944)
21 Jan 1974 - 18 Feb 1974  Valerijus Charazovas (acting)      (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
                             (Valeriy Innokentyevich Kharazov)        
18 Feb 1974 - 14 Nov 1987  Petras Griškevičius                (b. 1924 - d. 1987)
                             (Pyatras Pyatrovich Grishkyavichyus)
14 Nov 1987 -  1 Dec 1987  Nikolajus Mitkinas (acting)        (b. 1929)  
                             (Nikolay Andreyevich Mitkin)
 1 Dec 1987 - 20 Oct 1988  Ringaudas-Bronislavas Songaila     (b. 1929)
                             (Ringaudas-Bronislovas Ignovich Songayla)  
20 Oct 1988 -  7 Dec 1989  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                             (Algirdas-Mikolas Kazevich Brazauskas)
                             (continues until 8 Dec 1990)
23 Dec 1989 - 24 Aug 1991  Mykolas Burokevičius               (b. 1927)
                             (Mykolas Martinovich Burokyavichyus [Burokyavichus])
                             (of separate Communist Party of Lithuania-CPSU)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 7 Dec 1989)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
25 Aug 1940 - 15 Apr 1967  Justas Paleckis                    (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  LKP
                             (Yustas Ignovich Paletskis)        
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 24 Jun 1941 - 1 Aug 1944)
15 Apr 1967 - 24 Dec 1975  Motiejus Šumauskas                 (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  LKP
                             (Moteyus Yuozovich Shumauskas)
24 Dec 1975 - 18 Nov 1985  Antanas Barkauskas                 (b. 1917 - d. 2008)  LKP
                             (Antanas Stasevich Barkauskas)
18 Nov 1985 -  7 Dec 1987  Ringaudas-Bronislavas Songaila     (s.a.)               LKP
 7 Dec 1987 - 15 Jan 1990  Vytautas Astrauskas                (b. 1930)            LKP
                             (Vytautas Stasevich Astrauskas)
15 Jan 1990 - 11 Mar 1990  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (s.a.)               LKP

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Aug 1940 -  2 Apr 1946  Mečislovas Gedvilas                (b. 1901 - d. 1981)  LKP 
                             (Mechislovas Aleksandrovich Gedvilas)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 24 Jun 1941 - 13 Jul 1944)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 2 Apr 1946 - 16 Jan 1956  Mečislovas Gedvilas                (s.a.)               LKP
16 Jan 1956 - 15 Apr 1967  Motiejus Šumauskas                 (s.a.)               LKP
15 Apr 1967 - 16 Jan 1981  Juozas Maniušis                    (b. 1910 - d. 1987)  LKP
                             (Iosif Antonovich Manyushis)
16 Jan 1981 - 18 Nov 1985  Ringaudas-Bronislavas Songaila     (s.a.)               LKP
18 Nov 1985 - 11 Mar 1990  Vytautas Sakalauskas               (b. 1933 - d. 2001)  LKP
                             (Vytautas Vladovich Sakalauskas)
11 Mar 1990 - 17 Mar 1990  Kazimira Danutė Prunskienė (f)     (b. 1943)            LKP 
                             (Kazimyra Danute Prunskene)    

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation 1942-1944

Note: Soviet resistance groups in Lithuania were united in 1942 in a separate command directly subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan Units in Moscow.

Chief of Staff of the Partisan Units
26 Nov 1942 - 1944         Antanas Sniečkus                   (s.a.)                LKP

Party abbreviations: LDDP = Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija (Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania, democratic socialist former LKP, 8 Dec 1990-27 Jan 2001, renamed LSDP); LKP = Lietuvos Komunistų Partijos/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Litvy (Communist Party of Lithuania, communist, named 1940-13 Oct 1952 Lietuvos Komunistų [Bolševikų] Partijos [Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Lithuania], 1940-20 Dec 1989 part of CPSU, 3 Oct 1918-Nov 1920 part of LBKP, 1940-7 Dec 1989 state party, Nov 1920-8 Dec 1990, renamed LDDP)








 © Ben Cahoon