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Lithuania 
 
[Lithuanian state flag to 1795,
                                    1918-1940, from 2004]
  c.1422 - 7 Jan 1795; 1 Jul - 10 Dec 1812;
State Flag 1 Aug 1922-15 Jun 1940, from 1 Sep 2004
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
             7 Jan 1795 - 18 Sep 1915 
 
[Lithuania unoffical flag
                                    1917-1918]
    18 Sep 1917 - 18 Apr 1918 Unofficial
 
[Lithuanian Flag]
  19 Apr 1918 - 3 Aug 1940 (officially 15 May 1920); 

      18 Nov 1941 - 1 Aug 1944 semi-official;

              Re-adopted 18 Nov 1988
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                      3 Aug 1940 - 24 Jun 1941; 
                     13 Jul 1944 - 11 Mar 1990
 
 Map of Lithuania  Hear National Anthem
"Tautiska Giesme"
 (The National Song)
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1918-1940, 1990
Constitution
 (30 Nov 1992)
-----------------------------------
Former Constitution
(14 May 1938-1 Jul 1940,
11 Mar 1990-30 Nov 1992
Capital: Vilnius
(Kaunas 1920-1939;
Vilnius 1323-1919, 1919-20;
Voruta c.1251)
Currency: Lithuanian Litas (LTL)
(1922-1940, 1993-)
(Euro [EUR] from 1 Jan 2015-)
National Holiday: 16 Feb (1918)
Independence Day
Population: 3,515,858 (2013)
2,575,363 (1938)
GDP: $67.43 billion (2013) Exports: $30.4 billion (2013)
Imports: $32.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%,
Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 8,850 (2010)
Merchant marine: 38 ships (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%,
Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical
Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish,
Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%,
unspecified 10.1% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: 1918-1941: BIS, ICRM, ILO, IOC, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCIJ, UPU; from 1990: AG, APM, BA, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CCM, CE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESCR, ESA (cooperating state), EU, Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Lithuania
Index
Chronology
 
bf.1203                    Semi-legendary Grand Principality of Lithuania¹ 
                             (Lietuvos Didzioji Kunigaikstyste), ruled by a
                             Grand Prince of Lithuania.
c.1236                     Unification of the state of Lithuania.
17 Jul 1251                Lithuania recognized as a state by Pope Innocent
                             IV.
 5 Jul 1253 - 12 Sep 1263  Grand Prince Mindaugas adopts style of Lithuanian
                             and Russian King, etc.
 2 Feb 1386                By marriage with the Polish regnant Queen 
                             (properly [female] king) Jadwiga, the Grand 
                             Prince Jogaila/Jagiello becomes Polish king 
                             (Wladyslaw II after baptism)(crowned 4 Mar 1386),
                             and his successors frequently occupy both thrones
18 Jan 1401 -  1 Jun 1434  Jogaila oversees the successive grand princes of
                             Lithuania with the style "Supreme Prince of 
                             Lithuania (supremus dux Lithuanie)"
 1 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of
                             Lublin", joining Poland and Lithuania 
                             officially, but not constitutionally, into 
                             United Commonwealth of the Two Nations, in 
                             short, The Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita).
 6 Jul 1572                Last hereditary Polish king dies. Kingship 
                             becomes elective; election as Polish King and 
                             Grand Prince of Lithuania is carried out 
                             jointly, but conduct of interregnum is 
                             separate. 
1691 - 1793                Lordships of Tauroggen (Taurage) and Serrey 
                             (Seiriai) in Prussian possession. Rulers of
                             Prussia additionally styled the" Lords of
                             Tauroggen and Serrey."
May 1702 - 1709            Occupied by Sweden (Vilnius, the capital, 
                             is occupied by Russia 1705 - Mar 1706).
 5 Aug 1772                First partition of Poland-Lithuania by Russia,
                             Prussia, and Austria. Lithuanian voivodeships of
                             Vitebsk, Polotsk and Mstislavl annexed by Russia.
 3 May 1791                First and only Constitution, giving formal 
                             sanction to the union with Lithuania, etc.
23 Jan 1793                Second partition by Russia and Prussia. Lithuanian
                             voivodeships of MinskBrest-Litovsk and parts of
                              Vilnius annexed by Russia.
12 Aug 1794                Occupied by Russia.
30 Oct 1794 - 12 Dec 1796  Divided into the Vilna governorate (Vilenskaya
                             guberniya) and Slonim governorate (Slonimskaya
                             guberniya) of Russia.
 7 Jan 1795                Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian 
                             Commonwealth: the Grand Principality of
                             Lithuania is incorporated into Russia, the
                             Emperor adopting the additional style of 
                             "Grand Prince of Lithuania."
12 Dec 1796                Lithuania governorate (Litovksaya guberniya).
 9 Sep 1801                Re-divided into Vilna governorate and
                             Grodno governorate (Grodnenskaya guberniya).
28 Jun 1812 - 10 Dec 1812  Occupied by France (on 1 Jul 1812 the Grand 
                             Principality of Lithuania nominally
                             re-established under joint French-Saxon
                             protectorate).
26 Mar 1831 -  9 Jul 1831  Russian rule interrupted by rebellion in 
                             conjunction with the "First Insurrection" in
                             Poland.
18 Jun 1840 - 30 Jun 1912  Vilna governorate (Vilenskaya guberniya) part of
                             Northwestern Region (Severozapadny kray)
                             (incl. Minsk, Grodno, Vitebsk and later Kovno).
 1 Jul 1843                Kovno governorate (Kovenskaya Guberniya) formed 
                             from the western part of Vilna governorate.
 2 Feb 1863 - 10 Feb 1864  Russian rule interrupted by rebellion in 
                             conjunction with the "Second Insurrection" in
                             Poland.
1870 - 1912                Vilna, Kovno and Grodno guberniyas constituted as
                             Government-general of Lithuania (seat in Vilna).
Apr 1915 - 18 Sep 1915     Lithuania (Russian provinces of Kovno and
                             Vilna) gradually occupied by Germany (18 Aug
                             1915 city of Kaunas, 18 Sep 1915 city of
                             Vilnius). German administrations for 
                             Administrative Region of Lithuania and 
                             Administrative Region of Vilnius established;
                             subordinated to commander of the Eastern front.
18-22 Jan 1917             A Congress demands independence for Lithuania
                            (as planned by the German administration).
 4 Mar 1917                Both German military administrations united into
                             central Military Administration of Lithuania
                             seated in Vilnius.
18 Sep 1917                Lithuanian Regional Council (Taryba) formed.
11 Dec 1917                Declaration of the re-establishment of Lithuanian
                             independence by Lithuanian National Council.
16 Feb 1918                Full independence of state of Lithuania declared 
                             by the Lithuanian Council; declaration prohibited
                             by German occupation authorities.
 3 Mar 1918                In the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Brzecz-Litewski)
                             Lithuania is "no longer subject to Russian 
                             sovereignty", but Germany to "determine the 
                             future status of the territories in agreement
                             with population".
23 Mar 1918                Independence recognized by Germany; Lithuanian
                             State (Lithuania and Republic of Lithuania also
                             in official use).
11 Nov 1918                In the Armistice at Compiegne the Treaty of 
                             Brest-Litovsk is declared void and the German
                             troops are be withdrawn (fixed time not given). 
15 Nov 1918 - 13 Dec 1919  German military administrations located
                             in Marijampole and Siauliai.
29 Nov 1918                The Principal Allied and Associated Powers 
                             recognize de facto independence of Lithuania.
16 Dec 1918 -  1 Sep 1919  Lithuanian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic (from 27
                             Feb 1919, part of Lithuanian-Belorussian "Litbel"
                             Soviet Socialist); in opposition to the
                             Republic of Lithuania), recognized by Soviet
                             Russia on 22 Dec 1918.
31 Dec 1918 - 25 Aug 1920  Polish and Soviet troops occupy Vilnius; capital
                             of Lithuania is moved to Kaunas.
 6 Oct 1919 - 18 Nov 1919  The Western Russian Government and Western
                             Russian Volunteer Army are in opposition to 
                             Lithuania (see under Latvia).
12 Jul 1920                Independence recognized by Russia.
 9 Oct 1920                Polish irregular occupation of Vilnius
                             (Central Lithuania).
24 Mar 1922                Vilnius annexed by Poland.
20 Dec 1922                Independence de jure recognized by the Principal
                             Allied and Associated Powers.
23 Jan 1923 - 22 Mar 1939  Lithuania annexes the Memel Territory.
23 Mar 1939 - 28 Jan 1945  Germany annexes Memel from Lithuania.
10 Oct 1939                Vilnius restored to Lithuania by Soviet Union.
15 Jun 1940                Lithuania occupied by the Soviet Union.
21 Jul 1940                Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.
 3 Aug 1940                Incorporation into Soviet Union (not 
                             internationally recognized).
22-26 Jun 1941             Gradually occupied by Germany (Kaunas and Vilnius
                             on 24 Jun 1941).
23 Jun 1941 -  5 Aug 1941  Independence of the Republic of Lithuania 
                             declared in Kaunas, government functions 
                             allowed in liberated areas and in German rear.
17 Jul 1941                Lithuania is made a General District 
                             (Generalbezirk Litauen), informally a Land 
                             within the Reichskommissariat of Ostland 
                             (see under Latvia).
Jun 1944 - 28 Jan 1945     Gradually re-occupied by the Soviet Union 
                             (Vilnius on 13 Jul 1944, Kaunas on 1 Aug 1944,
                             and Memel on 28 Jan 1945).
 7 Apr 1948                Klaipeda (Memel) re-integrated in Lithuanian S.S.R.
18 May 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty.
11 Mar 1990                Independence declared (Republic of Lithuania; use
                             of Lithuanian as alternate style approved).
 6 Sep 1991                Independence recognized by Soviet Union.
Counties
(since 1995)
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1940-1990)
Republic in Exile
(1940-1991)
Resistance
to German
and Soviet
Occupation

(1943-1956)
Lithuanian-
Belorussian SSR
(1919)
Central Lithuania
(1918-1922)
Samogitia
(1214-1795)
Memel
(1629-1635,
 1757-1758,

1920-1945)
German Eastern
Front

(1915-1918) 
German Military
Administrations

in Mrijampole
and Siauliai
(1918-1919) 
Historical Maps
of Lithuania
 

Note: After 1572, no Lithuanian held the title of Grand Prince. Dominance by Poland led to increased Polonization of the country and in 1698 Polish was declared the official state language of the entire commonwealth replacing Lithuanian and Belarusian in Lithuania. The cultural, political, and economic discourse of the nation was Polish and Lithuanian and Belarusian were relegated to languages spoken the illiterate peasants of the eastern regions of the commonwealth. The situation persisted under Russian rule, when Russian was the official, until 1905 when the rebirth of Lithuanian language (which had begun in 1863) was legally allowed inside Lithuania.

Grand Princes2 (Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
11.. - 1213                Daugirutis (Dangerutis, Dangeruthe)(d. 1213)
1213 - 12..                Zivinbudas        
12.. - 12..                Daujotas  
12.. - 12..                Dausprungas (Dovsprunk)            (d. af.1219)         
123. -  6 Jul 1253         Mindaugas (Mindovg, Mindowe      (b. c.1203 - d. 1263) 
King
 6 Jul 1253 - 12 Sep 1263  Mindaugas (I)                      (s.a.) 
Grand Princes2 (Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
1263 - 1264                Treniota (Troniata)
                (b. c.1210 - d. 1264) 
1264 - 1267                Vaisvilkas (Vojszalak, Vaiselga)   (b. 123. - d. 1268)
1267 - c.1269              Shvarn                             (b. c.1236 - d. c.1269)
                             (Szwarno, Svarnas, Shvarno, Shkvarno)   
c.1269 - c.1282            Traidenis (Trojden)                (b. 122. - d. c.1282)
c.1282 - c.1290            Butigeidis (Butegeyde)             (b. 124. - d. c.1290)
c.1290 - c.1294            Butvydas (Putaviras, Pukuveras)    (b. 124. - d. c.1294)
c.1294 - 1316              Vytenis (Vitsen, Vithenus        (b. 127. - d. 1316?)
1316 - Dec? 1341           Gediminas (Kgedimin)               (b. c.1275 - d. 1341)
Dec? 1341 - Feb? 1345      Jaunutis (Ioann, Jawnuta, Iwan)    (b. 1301 - d. af.1366)
Feb? 1345 -  2 May 1377    Algirdas (Olkgird)                 (b. c.1296 - d. 1377)
                           - jointly with - 
Feb? 1345 -  2 May 1377
    Kestutis (Kestutij, Kyestuti)      (b. c.1297 - d. 1382)
                             (1st time)         
 2 May 1377 - 10 Aug 1381  Jogaila (Jagajl) (1st time)        (b. c.1351 - d. 1434)
                           - jointly with - 

 2 May 1377 -  3 Aug 1382  Kestutis (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1382 -  5 Aug 1392  Jogaila (Jagajl) (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                             (from 15 Feb 1386 Vladislovas)
                             (from 4 Mar 1386, King of Poland from 
                             4 Mar 1386; supremus dux of Lithuaniae
                             to 1 Jun 1434)
Apr 1387 -  5 Aug 1392     Skirgaila (Kazimir Skirgajl)       (b. c.1353 - d. 1397)
                             (governor of Lithuania)
30 Jan 1384 - 27 Oct 1430 
Aleksandras (= Vytautas)           (b. 134. - d. 1430)
                             (Aleksandr [Vitovt])
                             (in rebellion to 5 Aug 1392)
27 Oct 1430 -  7 Nov 1430  Vladislovas (= Jogaila)            (s.a.)
                             (Wladyslaw II Jagiello)
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae
 7 Nov 1430 -  1 Sep 1432  Svitrigaila Boleslovas             (b. 137. - d. 1452)
                             (Boleslaw Svidrigajl)
                             (
in rebellion to 1 Sep 1435)
 1 Sep 1432 - 20 Mar 1440  Zygimantas I Kestutaitis           (b. c.1365 - d. 1440)
                             (Zygmunt)(officially recognized by King 
                             and Polish Royal Council from 15 Oct 1432)
20 Mar 1440 - 29 Jun 1440  Council of State
                           - Prince Jonas Daugirdas           (b. c.1392 - d. 1443)
                              (Jan Dowgird)
                           - Prince Pacas Ginvilavicius
 
                           - Prince Petras Montigerdavicius   (d. af.1456)
                              (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
                              (grand marshal)
                           - Prince Kristinas Astikas         (b. 1363 - d. 1442/43)
                              (Krystian Ostyk)

29 Jun 1440 -  7 Jun 1492  Kazimieras Jogailaitis             (b. 1427 - d. 1492)
                             (Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk)
                             (from 25 Jun 1447 King of Poland)
 7 Jun 1492 - 30 Jul 1492  Council of State
                           - Prince Mikalojus Radvilavicius   (b. 1478 - d. 1510)
                               (chancellor)
                           - Prince Petras Montigerdavicius   (s.a.)
                               (grand marshal)
                           - Prince Stanislovas Jonavicius    (b. 1451 - d. 1527)
                               Kesgaila
                               (Stanislaw Janowicz Kiezgajlo)

                           - Prince Jonas Jurevicius          (b. 1437 - d. 1508)
                               Zabzezinskas
                               (Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzezinski)
                           - Prince Aleksandras Jurevicius    (d. 1511)
                               Golsanskis
30 Jul 1492 - 19 Aug 1506  Aleksandras Jogailaitis            (b. 1461 - d. 1506) 
                             (Aleksander Jagiellonczyk)
                             (from 12 Dec 1501, also king of Poland)
19 Aug 1506 - 20 Oct 1506  Council of State
                           - Prince Mikalojus Radivilavicius  (s.a.)
                               (chancellor)
                           - Prince Mikalojus Mikalovicius    (b. 1470 - d. 1521)
                               Radvila (Mikolaj Radziwillowicz) 
                           - Prince Stanislovas Jonavicius    (s.a.)
                               Kesgaila
                           - Prince Aleksandras Jurevicius    (s.a.)
                               Golsanskis 
                           - Prince Jonas Jurevicius          (s.a.)
                               Zabzezinskas (grand marshal)
                           - Mykolas Liudvikas Glinskis       (b. 1460 - d. 1534)
                               (Michal Glinski)
                           -
Vaitiekus Tabaris, bishop of     (b. c.1453 - d. 1507)
                               Vilnius (Wojciech Tabor)  
20 Oct 1506 -  1 Apr 1548  Zygimantas II Senasis              (b. 1467 - d. 1548) 
                             (Zygmunt I Stary)
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae)
                           - jointly with -
18 Oct 1529
-  7 Jul 1572  Zygimantas III Augustas            (b. 1520 - d. 1572)
                             (Zygmunt II August)
                             (supremus dux Lithuaniae to 1 Jul 1569)
 7 Jul 1572 - 21 Feb 1574  Prince Jonas Jeronimaitis          (b. c.1537 - d. 1579)
                             Katkevicius Kosciesza -Grand Marshal
                             (Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz)
                             (1st time)
21 Feb 1574 - 19 Jun 1574  Henrikas Valezias 
(Henryk Walezy)  (b. 1551 - d. 1589)
                             (= Henri III, king of France)
                             (election proclaimed 16 May 1573)
19 Jun 1574 -  1 May 1576  Prince Jonas Jeronimaitis          (s.a.)
                             Katkevicius Kosciesza -Grand Marshal
                             (2nd time)
 1 May 1576 - 12 Dec 1586  Steponas Bastoras (Stefan Batory)  (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (election proclaimed 14 Dec 1575)
12 Dec 1586 - 27 Dec 1587  Prince Albertas                    (b. 1558 - d. 1592)
                             Radvila -Grand Marshal
                             (Albert Mikolajewicz Radziwill)
27 Dec 1587 - 30 Apr 1632  Zygimantas III Vaza
               (b. 1566 - d. 1632)
                             (Zygmunt III Waza)
                             (= Sigismund, king of Sweden)
                             (election proclaimed 19 Aug 1587)
30 Apr 1632 -  6 Feb 1633  Prince Jonas Stanislovas           (b. 1589 - d. 1635)
                             Sapiega -Grand Marshal
                             (Jan Stanislaw Sapieha)
 6 Feb 1633 - 20 May 1648  Vladislovas
IV Vaza                (b. 1595 - d. 1648)
                             (Wladyslaw IV Waza)
                             (election proclaimed 8 Nov 1632)
20 May 1648 - 17 Jan 1649  Prince Aleksandras Liudvikas       (b. 1594 - d. 1654)
                             Radvila -Grand Marshal
                             (Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill)
17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668  Jonas II Kazimieras Vaza           (b. 1609 - d. 1672)
                             (Jan II Kazimierz Waza)
                             (election proclaimed 20 Nov 1648)
16 Sep 1668 - 29 Sep 1669  Prince Kristupas                   (b. 1578 - d. 1670)
                             Zavisa -Grand Marshal
                             (Krzysztof Zawisza)
29 Sep 1669 - 10 Nov 1673  Mykolas Kaributas Visnioveckis     (b. 1640 - d. 1673)
                             (Michal Korybut)
                             (election proclaimed 19 Jun 1669)
10 Nov 1673 -  2 Feb 1676  Prince Aleksandras Hiliaris        (b. 1626 - d. 1679)
                             Palubinskis -Grand Marshal
                             (Aleksander Hilary Polubinski)
 2 Feb 1676 - 17 Jun 1696  Jonas III Sobieskis                (b. 1629 - d. 1696)
                             (Jan III Sobieski)
                             (election proclaimed 21 May 1674)
17 Jun 1696 - 15 Sep 1697  Prince Aleksandras Povilas         (b. 1672 - d. 1734) 
                             Sapiega -Court Marshal
                             (Aleksander Pawel Sapieha)
15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  Augustas II "Stiprusis" (1st time) (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
                            (August II Mocny)(election proclaimed
                             17 Jun 1697; continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706)
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Prince Aleksandras Povilas
                             Sapiega -Grand Marshal (1st time)(s.a.) 
                            (recognized by grand prince
                             Stanislovas Lescinskis) 
                           - opposed by -
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius   (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
                             (Marcjan Dominik Wollowicz)
                             (recognized by grand prince
                             Frydrichas Augustas II)
                             (Marcjan Dominik Wollowicz)
 4 Oct 1705 -  8 Aug 1709  Stanislovas I Lescinskis (1st time)(b. 1677 - d. 1766)
                             (Stanislaw I Leszczynski)
                             (election proclaimed 12 Jul 1704) 
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  Augustas II "Stiprusis" (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1733 - 12 Sep 1733  Prince Aleksandras Povilas        
                             Sapiega -Grand Marshal (2nd time)(s.a.)
12 Sep 1733 - 30 Jun 1734  Stanislovas I Lescinskis           (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)(abdicates 27 Jan 1736)
30 Jun 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  Augustas III (August III)          (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                             (election proclaimed 5 Oct 1733;
                             in opposition from 17 Jan 1734) 
 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764  Prince Ignotas                     (b. 1698 - d. 1775)
                             Oginskis -Grand Marshal 
                             (Ignacy Oginski)
25 Nov 1764 -  7 Jan 1795  Stanslovas II Augustas             (b. 1732 - d. 1798)
                             Poniatovskis 
                             (Stanislaw II August Poniatowski)
                             (election proclaimed 8 Sep 1764)
Russian Governors-general in Vilnius

30 Oct 1794 - 26 Nov 1798  Prince Nikolay Vasilyevich Repnin  (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
26 Nov 1798 - 26 Oct 1799  Boris Petrovich Lassie             (b. 1737 - d. 1820)
                             (Moritz de Lacy
13 Nov 1799 - 19 Dec 1799  Ivan Petrovich Gorichev (acting)   (b. 1745 - d. 1811)
19 Dec 1799 - 11 Jul 1801  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-
                             Kutuzov (1st time)               (b. 1745 - d. 1813)
11 Jul 1801 - 20 Sep 1806  Levin August Theophil Graf von     (b. 1745 - d. 1826)  
                             Bennigsen
                            (Leonty Leontyevich Graf von Bennigsen)
                      
 5 Oct 1806 -  3 Jul 1809  Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rimsky-     (b. 1753 - d. 1840)
                             Korsakov (1st time)          
 3 Jul 1809 - 17 Apr 1812  Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-
                             Kutuzov (2nd time)               (s.a.)
27 Mar 1811 - 17 Apr 1812  Ivan Stepanovich Guriev
                             
(acting for Golenischev)
17 Apr 1812 - 28 Jun 1812  Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rimsky-     (s.a.)
                             Korsakov (2nd time)         
Military governor
28 Jun 1812 -  1 Jul 1812  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
Chairmen of the Lithuanian Provisional Government Commission
 1 Jul 1812 - 24 Aug 1812  Stanislaw Soltan                   (b. 1758 - d. 1836)
24 Aug 1812 - 10 Dec 1812  Dirk, graaf van Hogendorp          (b. 1761 - d. 1822)
                            (continues in Dresden, Saxony exile to Jul 1813)
French Commissioner
13 Jul 1812 -  8 Dec 1812  Louis-Pierre-Édouard, baron Bignon (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
Russian Governors-general in Vilnius
 8 Dec 1812 - 24 Dec 1830  Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rimsky-
                             Korsakov (3rd time)              (s.a.)
24 Dec 1830 - 23 Aug 1831  Mikhail Yevgrafovich Khrapovitsky  (b. 1784 - d. 1847)
23 Aug 1831 - 18 Mar 1840  Prince Nikolay Andreyevich         (b. 1792 - d. 1847) 
                             Dolgorukov             
Chairman of the Supreme Central Committee of Lithuania (in dissidence)
26 Mar 1831 - 11 Jun 1831  Karolis Zaluskis?                  (b. 1794 - d. 1845)
Chairman of the Provisional Central Government in Lithuania
(in dissidence)
11 Jun 1831 -  9 Jul 1831  Antanas Gelgudas?                  (b. 1790 - d. 1831)
Chairman of the Provisional Provincial Government of Lithuania and Belarus
(in dissidence)
 2 Feb 1863 - 11 Mar 1863  Konstantinas Kalinauskas           (b. 1838 - d. 1864)
                             (Kanstantin "Kastus" Kalinawski)
Chairmen of the Lithuanian Provincial Government Commission (from 26 Jun 1863,
Lithuanian Executive Department; from 12 Aug 1864 also informally styled
the Red Council of Lithuania and Belarus)(in dissidence)
11 Mar 1863 - 31 Jul 1863  Jokubas Kazimieras Geistoras       (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
                             (Jakub Gieystor)
12 Aug 1863 - 10 Feb 1864  Konstantinas Kalinauskas (acting)  (s.a.)
Governors-general of
the Government-general of Lithuania and also Northwestern Region
(Vilna, Kovno,
Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev and Vitebsk)
 1 Apr 1840 - 10 Feb 1850  Fyodor Yakovlevich Mirkovich       (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
15 Mar 1850 - 10 Dec 1855  Ilya Gavrilovich Bibikov           (b. 1794 - d. 1867)
10 Dec 1855 -  1 May 1863  Vladimir Ivanovich Nazimov         (b. 1802 - d. 1874)

 1 May 1863 - 17 Apr 1865  Mikhail Nikolayevich (from 1865, 
  (b. 1796 - d. 1866)
                             Graf) Muravyov-Vilensky  
14 Jul 1864 - 17 Apr 1865  A
leksandr Lvovich Potapov          (b. 1818 - d. 1886)
                             (acting for Muravyov-Vilensky)
17 Apr 1865 -  9 Oct 1866  Konstantin Petrovich von Kauffmann (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
 9 Oct 1866 -  2 Mar 1868  Eduard Trofimovich Baranov         (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
 5 Sep 1867 -  2 Mar 1868  Mikhail Ivanovich Chertkov
        (b. 1829 - d. 1905)
                             (acting for Baranov)                
 2 Mar 1868 - 22 Jul 1874  Aleksandr Lvovich Potapov          (s.a.)
28 Mar 1868 - 22 Sep 1870  Prince Pyotr Romanovich Bagration  (b. 1818 - d. 1876)
                             (acting for
Potapov  
22 Jul 1874 - 18 May 1880  Pyotr Pavlovich Albedinsky         (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
18 May 1880 - 19 Jun 1884  Eduard Ivanovich Graf Totleben     (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
                             (or Todleben)
 5 Nov 1882 - 14 Jan 1884  Aleksandr Pavlovich Nikitin        (b. 1824 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Totleben
14 Jan 1884 -  1 Jan 1893  Ivan Semyonovich Kahanov (Kahane)  (b. 1825 - d. 1909) 
                             (acting to 6 Sep 1884)
 1 Jan 1893 - 31 May 1897  Pyotr Vasilyevich Orzhevsky        (b. 1839 - d. 1897)
31 May 1897 -  6 Dec 1897  Vacant
 6 Dec 1897 -  9 Mar 1901  Vitaly Nikolayevich Trotsky
       (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
 9 May 1901 - 15 Sep 1902  Vacant
15 Sep 1902 - 26 Sep 1904  Prince Pyotr Dmitriyevich          (b. 1857 - d. 1914)
                             Sviatopolk-Mirsky
12 Oct 1904 - 19 Dec 1905  Aleksandr Alekseyevich Frese       (b. 1840 - d. af.1917)
19 Dec 1905 - 1909         Konstantin Fadeyevich Krshivitsky  (b. 1840 - d. 1910) 
                             (Krzhevsky
1909 - 30 Jun 1912         Vacant
30 Jun 1912 - 23 Nov 1915  Post abolished
Governors of Vilna

 2 Jun 1906 -  7 May 1912  Dmitry N
ikolayevich Lyubimov       (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
 7 May 1912 - 1916         Pyotr
Vladimirovich Veryovkin      (b. 1862 - d. 1946)
                             (in exile from Sep 1915)
1916 - 1917                A
leksandr Nikolayevich Tolstoy
                             (in exile)
Governors of Kovno

24 Apr 1904 - 31 Dec 1912  Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin
     (s.a.)
31 Dec 1912 - 1917         Nikolay Dmitriyevich Gryazev       (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
                             (in exile from Aug 1915)
Heads of the German Military Administration for Vilnius

23 Nov 1915 - May 1916     Karl von Alten                     (b. 1852 - d. 1937)
May 1916 -  3 Mar 1917     Carl Franz Adolph von Harbou       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
Heads of the German Military Administration for Lithuania (Kaunas)
 4 Mar 1917 - 28 Feb 1918  Franz Joseph Fürst zu Isenburg-    (b. 1869 - d. 1939)
                             Birstein
 1 Mar 1918 -  1 Aug 1918  Theodor Alexander von Heppe        (b. 1870 - d. 1854)
Head of the German Military Administration of Lithuania
 1 Aug 1918 - Nov 1918     Carl Franz Adolph von Harbou       (s.a.)
Reichskommissare
15 Mar 1918 -  5 Jun 1918  Robert Franz Karl Graf von         (b. 1866 - d. 1959)
                             Keyserlingk-Cammerau
 5 Jun 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Friedrich Karl Alexander Cäsar     (b. 1869 - d. 1946)
                             Freiherr von Falkenhausen
Chairman of the Lithuanian Council
24 Sep 1917 - 11 Jul 1918  Antanas Smetona                    (b. 1874 - d. 1944)  TPP
King
3
11 Jul 1918 -  2 Nov 1918  Mindaugas II                       (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Presidents
11 Jun 1918 -  4 Apr 1919  Antanas Smetona (1st time)         (s.a.)               TPP
                            (chairman of Lithuanian State Council)
 
4 Apr 1919 -  6 Apr 1919  Justinas Staugaitis                (b. 1866 - d. 1943)  LKDP
                           + Stasys Silingas                  (b. 1885 - d. 1962)  LUS
                           (acting chairmen of Lithuanian State Council)
 6 Apr 1919 - 19 Jun 1920  Antanas Smetona (2nd time)         (s.a.)               TPP

19 Jun 1920 -  7 Jun 1926  Aleksandras Stulginskis            (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  LUS
                             (acting to 21 Dec 1922)
 8 Jun 1926 - 18 Dec 1926  Kazys Grinius                      (b. 1866 - d. 1950)  LSDP
19 Dec 1926 - 16 Jun 1940  Antanas Smetona (3rd time)         (s.a.)               LTS
                            
(left the country on 15 Jun 1940)
16 Jun 1940 - 17 Jun 1940  Antanas Merkys (acting)            (b. 1887 - d. 1953)  LTS
17 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Justas Paleckis (acting)           (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  LKP
                            (not recognized by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
Commander-in-chief of German Army Group Nord
 1 Jul 1941 -  4 Jul 1941  Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb            (b. 1876 - d. 1956)  Mil
Commander of the German Army Region Nord
 5 Jul 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Franz von Roques                   (b. 1877 - d. 1967)  Mil
Generalkommissar für Litauen
 1 Sep 1941 - 28 Jan 1945  Theodor Adrian von Renteln         (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  NSDAP
                             (from 13 Jul 1944 in Memel only)
Chairman of Supreme Committee for Liberation of Lithuania
25 Oct 1943 - 30 Apr 1944  
Steponas Kairys                    (b. 1878 - d. 1964)  Non-party
Presidents

11 Mar 1990 - 25 Nov 1992  Vytautas Landsbergis               (b. 1932)            LPS
                             (Chairman of the Supreme Council) 
25 Nov 1992 - 25 Feb 1998  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (b. 1932 - d. 2010)  LDDP 
                             (acting to 25 Feb 1993)
26 Feb 1998 - 25 Feb 2003  Valdas Adamkus (1st time)          (b. 1926)            Non-party
26 Feb 2003 -  6 Apr 2004  Rolandas Paksas                    (b. 1956)            LLP
 6 Apr 2004 - 12 Jul 2004  Arturas Paulauskas (acting)        (b. 1953)            NS
12 Jul 2004 - 12 Jul 2009  Valdas Adamkus (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jul 2009 -              Dalia Grybauskaite (f)             (b. 1956
)            Non-party
 

Land Marshals (chief ministers)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)

c.13 Jan 1407-20 Apr 1411  Stanislovas Cupurna                (d. 1411)
                             (Stanislaw Czupurna)
c.31 May 1412-15 Oct 1432  Rumboldas Valimantavicius
         (b. 1371 - d. 1432)
                             (Rumbold Wolimuntowicz)
c.20 Jan 1433-27 Feb 1434  Radvila Astikaitis
(1st time)      (b. 1384 - d. 1477)
                             (Radziwill Ostykowicz)
c.28 May 1438- 9 Aug 1459  Prince Petras Montigerdavicius     (s.a.)
                             (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
c.27 May 1463-22 Nov 1474  
Radvila Astikaitis (2nd time)      (s.a.)
c.14 Jul 1477? - c.1479    Martynas Gostautas                 (b. 1430 - d. 1483)
                             (Marcjan Gasztold or Gasztoldowicz)
c.1 Nov 1480 - 30 Mar 1490 Bagdonas Andriejaitis Sakaitis     (d. 1491)
                             (Bohdan Andrejewicz Sakowicz)   
1490 -  6 Dec 1497         Prince Petras Montigerdavicius     (s.a.)
                             (Piotr Janowicz Montygerdowicz)
1497 - May 1498            Grigorijus A
stikas (1st time)       (b. 145. - d. 1518)
                             (Grigorij Stankovic Ostik)(acting)
May 1498 -  2 Feb 1508     Jonas Jurevicius Zabzezinskas      (s.a.)

                             (Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzezinski
)
 2 Feb 1508 - May 1512     Grigorijus Astikas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1512 - Sep? 1513       Stanislovas Piotrowicz             (b. 145. - d. 1513)
                             (or Pietraszkowicz)
                             (Stanislaw P
iotrowicz Kiszka
Sep? 1513 -  9 Apr 1514    Grigorijus Astikas (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 9 Apr 1514 - Mar? 1522    Jonas Mikolaj Radvila              (b. c.1474 - d. 1522)
                             (Jan Mikolajewicz Radziwill)
Mar? 1522 - May 1522
      Jurgis Ivanovicius Iljinicius      (b. 148. - d. 1526)
                             (Jerzy Iwanowicz Ilinicz)(
cting)  
May 1522 - Sep? 1537       Jonas Jonavicius Zabzezinskis      (b. 146. - d. 1537)
                             (Jan Janowicz Zabrzezinski)
Sep? 1537 - Apr 1541       Jurgis Mikalojaus Radvila (acting) (b. c.1480 - d. 1541)
                             (Jerzy Mikolajewicz Radziwill)
Apr 1541 - Oct 1544        Ivanas Hornostajus (acting)        (b. c.1480 - d. 1558)
                             (Iwan Hornostaj)

Oct 1544 - 28 May 1565     Mikalojus Radvila Juodasis         (b. 1515 - d. 1565)
                             (Mikolaj Janowicz Radziwill Czarny)
29 May 1565 - 11 Mar 1566  Ostapas (Eustachijus) Valavicius   (b. c.1520 - d. 1587)
                             (
Ostafi Bohdanowicz Wollowicz)
                             (acting)
11 Mar 1566 -  1 Jul 1569  
Prince Jonas Jeronimaitis          (s.a.)
                             Katkevicius Kosciesza
                             (Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz)
Grand Marshals
(chief ministers)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)

 1 Jul 1569 -  4 Aug 1579  Prince Jonas Jeronimaitis          (s.a.)
                             Katkevicius Kosciesza
 4 Aug 1579 -  1 Jun 1586  Mikalojus Kristupas Radvila        (b. 1549 - d. 1616)
                             Naslaiteli (acting to 25 Oct 1579)
                             (Mikolaj Krzysztof Radziwill Sierotka)
 1 Jun 1586 - 13 Jul 1592  Prince Albertas Radvila            (s.a.)
                             (Albrecht Mikolajewicz Radziwill)
13 Jul 1592 - 22 Oct 1592  Mikalojus Talvosas (1st time)      (b. 155. - d. 1598)
                             (acting)(Mikolaj Stanislawowicz Talwosz)    
22 Oct 1592 -  9 Oct 1595  Prince Stanislovas Radvila         (b. 1559 - d. 1599)
                             (Stanislaw Mikolajewicz Radziwill)
 9 Oct 1595 - May 1596     Mikalojus Talvosas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting)
May 1596 - 12 May 1615     Kristupas Dorohostaiskis           (b. 1562 - d. 1615)
                             (Krzysztof Mikolajewicz Dorohostajski)
                             (acting to 8 May 1597)
12 May 1615 - 10 Sep 1619  Petras Viesiolovskis               (b. 157. - d. 1621)
                             (Piotr Wiesiolowski)
                             (acting to 27 Jun 1615)
10 Sep 1619 - 10 Apr 1635  Prince Jonas Stanislovas Sapiega   (s.a.)
                             (Jan Stanislaw Sapieha)
                             (acting to 14 Nov 1621)
10 Apr 1635 - 19 Apr 1637  Kristupas Viesiolovskis
           (b. 159. - d. 1637)
                             (Krzysztof Wiesiolowski)
                             (acting to 20 Apr 1635)
19 Apr 1637 -  3 Mar 1654  Prince Aleksandras Liudvikas       (s.a.)
                             Radvila (acting to 2 May 1637)
                            (Aleksander Ludwik Radziwill)
 3 Mar 1654 - 11 Nov 1669  Prince Kristupas Zavisa            (s.a.)
                             (Krzysztof Zawisza)
                             (acting to 11 Apr 1654)
11 Nov 1669 -  3 Nov 1679  Prince Aleksandras Hiliaris        (s.a.)
                             Palubinskis
                             (Aleksander Hilary Polubinski)

 3 Nov 1679 - 1679         Teodoras Lackis (acting)           (b. c.1617 - d. 1683)
                             (Teodor Aleksander Lacki)  
1679 -  8 Dec 1690         Stanislovas Kazimieras Radvila
     (b. 1648 - d. 1690)
                             (Stanislaw Kazimierz Radziwill)
 8 Dec 1690 - 29 Apr 1695  Jonas Dolskis
(Jan Karol Dolski)   (b. 1637 - d. 1695)
                             (acting to 7 May 1691)
29 Apr 1695 - 27 Nov 1703  Prince Aleksandras Povilas         (s.a.) 
                             Sapiega (1st time)
                             (Aleksander Pawel Sapieha)
                             (acting to 14 Jul 1698; r
ecognized by
                             the Grand Prince Stanislovas Lescinskis
                             to 9 May 1708)
27 Nov 1703 -  4 Feb 1704  Prince Mykolas Servacijus          (b. 1680 - d. 1744)
                             Visnioveckis (grand hetman)
                             (Michal Serwacy Wiśniowiecki)
 4 Feb 1704 -  5 Aug 1712  Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius
   (s.a.)
                             (Marcjan Dominik Wollowicz)
 5 Aug 1712 - 10 Apr 1713  Juozas Vandalinas Mnisekas (acting)(b. 1670 - d. 1747)
                             (Józef Wandalin Mniszech)
10 Apr 1713 -  4 Jan 1734  Prince Aleksandras Povilas         (s.a.) 
                             Sapiega (2nd time)
 4 Jan 1734 - 15 Apr 1750  Prince Povilas Karolis Sanguska    (b. 1680 - d. 1750)
                             (Pawel Karol Sanguszko)
                             (acting to 4 Feb 1734)
15 Apr 1750 - 22 Feb 1768  Prince Ignotas Oginskis            (s.a.)
                             (Ignacy Oginski)
                             (a
cting to 21 Aug 1750)
22 Feb 1768 - 12 May 1781  Prince Juozapas Paulinas Sanguska  (b. 1740 - d. 1781)
                             (Józef Paulin Sanguszko) 
                             (acting to 7 Mar 1768)
12 May 1781 - 23 May 1790  Vladyslovas Rokas Gurovskis        (b. 1717 - d. 1790)
                             (Wladyslaw Roch Gurowski)
                             (
acting to 23 May 1781)
23 May 1790 -  3 May 1791  Count Romanas Ignacas Potockis     (b. 1750 - d. 1809)
                             (Roman Ignacy Franciszek Potocki)
                             (a
cting to 16 Apr 1791)
19 May 1791 -  7 May 1793  Stanislovas Soltanas (acting)      (s.a.) 
                             (Stanislaw Soltan)
 7 May 1793 - 24 Apr 1794  Count Liudvikas Skuminas           (b. 1748 - d. 1808)
                             Tiskevicius
                            (Ludwik 
Skumin Tyszkiewicz)
Chairmen of the Supreme Lithuanian Council
24 Apr 1794 - 12 Jun 1794  Jokubas Jasinskis                  (b. 1761 - d. 1794)
                             (Jakub Krzysztof Ignacy Jasinski)
12 Jun 1794 - 11 Oct 1794  Central Deputation
(chair rotating)
                           - Juozas Neselauskas               (b. 1728 - d. 1814)
                              (Józef Niesiolowski)
                           -
Antanas Tyzenhauzas              (b. 1756 - d. 1816)  
                              (Anton von Tiesenhausen, Antoni Tyzenhauz)
                           - 
Jurgis Belapetravicius           (b. 1740 - d. 1812) 
                              (Belapetryavichyus)
                              (
Jerzy Bialopiotrowicz)
                           - Stanislovas Mirskis              (b. 1756 - d. 1805)
                              (Stanislaw Wojciech Mirski)
                           - Grafas Benediktas Morikonis      (b. 1750? - d. 1812)

                              (Benedykt Morykoni)
                           - Davidas Pilchauskas (Pilshauskas)
(b. 1735 - d. 1808)
                              (Dawid Zygmunt Pilchowski
)
Prime ministers
11 Nov 1918 - 26 Dec 1918  Augustinas Voldemaras (1st time)   (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  TPP
26 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1919  Mykolas Slezevicius (1st time)     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)  LVS 
12 Mar 1919 - 12 Apr 1919  Pranas (Franz) Dovydaitis          (b. 1886 - d. 1942)  LKDP
12 Apr 1919 -  7 Oct 1919  Mykolas Slezevicius (2nd time)     (s.a.)               LVS
 7 Oct 1919 - 19 Jun 1920  Ernestas Galvanauskas (1st time)   (b. 1882 - d. 1967)  Non-party
19 Jun 1920 -  2 Feb 1922  Kazys Grinius                      (s.a.)               LSDP
 2 Feb 1922 - 18 Jun 1924  Ernestas Galvanauskas (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Jun 1924 -  4 Feb 1925  Antanas Tumenas                    (b. 1880 - d. 1946)  LKDP
 4 Feb 1925 - 19 Sep 1925  Vytautas Petrulis                  (b. 1890 - d. 1942)  LKDP
25 Sep 1925 - 15 Jun 1926  Leonas Bistras                     (b. 1890 - d. 1971)  LKDP
15 Jun 1926 - 17 Dec 1926  Mykolas Slezevicius (3rd time)     (s.a.)               LVLS
17 Dec 1926 - 23 Sep 1929  Augustinas Voldemaras (2nd time)   (s.a.)               LTS
23 Sep 1929 - 24 Mar 1938  Juozas Tubelis                     (b. 1882 - d. 1939)  LTS
24 Mar 1938 - 28 Mar 1939  Vladas (Vladislovas) Mironas       (b. 1880 - d. 1954)  LTS 
28 Mar 1939 - 21 Nov 1939  Jonas Kazimeras Cernius            (b. 1898 - d. 1977)  LTS 
21 Nov 1939 - 17 Jun 1940  Antanas Merkys                     (s.a.)               LTS 
15 Jun 1940 - 17 Jun 1940  Kazimieras Bizauskas               (b. 1893 - d. 1941)  LTS 
                            (acting for Merkys)
17 Jun 1940 - 24 Jun 1940  Justas Paleckis                    (s.a.)               LKP
                            (not recognized by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
24 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Vincas Kreve-Mickevicius (acting)  (b. 1882 - d. 1954)  Non-party
                            (not recognized by Lithuanian diplomats abroad)
23 Jun 1941 - 24 Jun 1941  Kazys Skirpa (in Berlin)           (b. 1895 - d. 1979)  LAF
24 Jun 1941 -  5 Aug 1941  Juozas Ambrazevicius (acting)      (b. 1903 - d. 1974)  LAF
                             (in rebellion)
First General Councillor of the Land Self-Government
 1 Sep 1941 - 13 Jul 1944  Petras Kubiliunas                  (b. 1894 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (not recognized officially until 18 Mar 1942)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime minister)
17 Mar 1990 - 10 Jan 1991  Kazimiera Danute Prunskiene (f)    (b. 1943)            LPS
10 Jan 1991 - 13 Jan 1991  Albertas Simenas                   (b. 1950)            LKDP
13 Jan 1991 - 23 Jul 1992  Gediminas Vagnorius (1st time)     (b. 1957)            LPS
17 Jul 1992 - 23 Jul 1992  Algis Dobravolskas                 (b. 1951)            Non-party
                             (acting for Vagnorius
23 Jul 1992 - 25 Nov 1992  Aleksandras Algirdas
Abisala       (b. 1955)            Non-party
Prime ministers
25 Nov 1992 - 17 Dec 1992  Aleksandras Algirdas Abisala       (s.a.)               Non-party
17 Dec 1992 - 31 Mar 1993  Bronislovas Lubys                  (b. 1938 - d. 2011)  Non-party
31 Mar 1993 -  8 Feb 1996  Adolfas Slezevicius                (b. 1948)            LDDP
 8 Feb 1996 - 10 Dec 1996  Laurynas Mindaugas Stankevicius    (b. 1935)            LDDP
                             (acting to 19 Mar 1996)
10 Dec 1996 -  4 May 1999  Gediminas Vagnorius (2nd time)     (s.a.)               TS-LK
 4 May 1999 - 10 Jun 1999  Irena Degutiene (f)(1st time)      (b. 1949)            TS-LK
                             (acting) 
10 Jun 1999 - 27 Oct 1999  Rolandas Paksas                    (s.a.)               TS-LK
27 Oct 1999 - 11 Nov 1999  Irena Degutiene (f)(2nd time)      (s.a.)               TS-LK
                             (acting) 
11 Nov 1999 -  9 Nov 2000  Andrius Kubilius (1st time)        (b. 1956)            TS-LK
 9 Nov 2000 - 20 Jun 2001  Rolandas Paksas (2nd time)         (s.a.)               LLS
20 Jun 2001 - 12 Jul 2001  Eugenijus Gentvilas (acting)       (b. 1960)            LLS
12 Jul 2001 -  1 Jun 2006  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (s.a.)               LSDP
 1 Jun 2006 -  4 Jul 2006  Zigmantas Balcytis (acting)        (b. 1953)            LSDP
 4 Jul 2006 -  8 Dec 2008  Gediminas Kirkilas                 (b. 1951)            LSDP
 8 Dec 2008 -
13 Dec 2012  Andrius Kubilius (2nd time)        (s.a.)               TS-LKD
13 Dec 2012 -              Algirdas Butkevicius               (b. 1958)            LSDP

 

Republic of Lithuania in Exile

[Lithuanian Flag]

Heads of the Diplomatic Service
15 Jun 1940 - 24 Dec 1983  Stasys Lozoraitis, Sr.             (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
                            (in Rome; from 19.. in Washington, D.C.)
24 Dec 1983 - 15 Nov 1987  Stasys Backis (in Washington, D.C.)(b. 1906 - d. 1999)
15 Nov 1987 -  6 Sep 1991  Stasys Lozoraitis, Jr.             (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
                            (in Washington, D.C.) 

Resistance to German and Soviet Occupation 1943-1956

Note: Anti-German (at the same time also anti-Soviet) resistance already began in 1941 by establishment of Lithuanian Freedom Army. All resistance groups united in 1943 to form Supreme Lithuanian Liberation Committee. After the World War II anti-Soviet resistance groups united in 1949, sometimes having full control over large areas of western Lithuania. Resistance continued into 1956 when their activities were suppressed by Soviet troops.

Chairman of the Supreme Lithuanian Liberation Committee
25 Nov 1943 - 1945         Steponas Kairys                    (b. 1879 - d. 1964)  LSDP

Chairmen of the Lithuanian Freedom Fighters' Council and
Commanders of the Lithuanian Defence Forces
10 Feb 1949 - Jan 1950     Jonas Zemaitis (1st time)          (b. 1919 - d. 1953)  Mil
Jan 1950 - Feb 1953        Adolfas Ramanauskas (1st time)     (b. 1918 - d. 1957)  Mil
Feb 1953 - 30 May 1953     Jonas Zemaitis (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Mil
30 May 1953 - 12 Oct 1956  Adolfas Ramanauskas (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Mil

Noble titles: Count = Grafas/Hrabia (in German: Graf); Prince/Princess = Ksiaze/Ksiezna (in Russian: Knyaz) the style Kniaz/Kniahini or Kniagini (title was also used is easten parts of Poland for old families of tribal rulers, equal to prince/ksiaze, but more distinguished).

 ¹The style "didysis kunigaikstis" is better rendered "grand prince" rather than "grand duke", just as is the case with the Russian "veliki knyaz". The confusion arises from the fact that the same Russian style is used for what is definitely "grand duke" in the case of Finland. 
The style of the polity should therefore be correctly rendered as "Grand Principality".

 2Under the elective monarchy, a grand prince assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. From 6 Jan 1573, during a vacancy, the primate of Poland ex officio (occasionally another prelate, in emergency situations) headed the state with the style Interrex. Informally from 4 Jul 1569, constitutionally from 3 May 1791, Poland and Lithuania constituted the United Commonwealth of Two Nations; the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. Although de jure the Polish Interrex only dealt with Poland during a vacancy in the monarchy (the Lithuanian Council of State [Lietuvos Ponu Taryba], chaired by the Grand Marshal [Lietuvos didysis marsalka] dealing with Lithuania), this is de facto a spurious distinction.
  The full style of Grand Princes of Lithuania (and Polish kings) from 1573 was (in official Latin): Dei Gratiae Rex Poloniae, Magnus Dux Lituaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogithiae, Kiioviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Livoniae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque. In Polish: Z Bozej laski Król Polski, Wielki Ksiaze Litewski, Ruski, Pruski, Mazowiecki, Zmudzki, Kijowski, Wolynski, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smolenski, Siewierski i Czernihowski ("By the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov").

 3On 11 Jul 1918, the State Council declared Lithuania to be a monarchy and invited Wilhelm Herzog von Urach, Graf von Württemberg (s.a.) to be king, under the unofficially proposed style of Mindaugas II, he accepted the offer, but he did not come to Lithuania and was not installed and was not recognized by the German occupation authorities. On 2 Nov 1918, the State Council suspended the invitation and Lithuania was organized as a republic.

Territorial Disputes: Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of Jan 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation.
 

Party abbreviations: LKDP = Lietuvos Kriscioniu Demokratu Partija (Lithuanian Christian- Democratic Party, christian-democratic, 1905-36, re-est.1990); LLP = Lietuvos Liberaldemokratu Partija (Lithuanian Liberal-Democratic Party, populist, est.2002); LLS = Lietuvos Liberalu Sajunga (Lithuanian Liberal Union, liberal, est.1990); LSDP = Lietuvos Socialdemokratu Partija (Lithuanian Social-Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1896-1936, est.1989, merger with LDDP 2001); TS-LKD = Tevynes Sajunga-Lietuvos Lrikscionys Demokratai (Homeland Union–Lithuanian Christian Democrats, center-right, from 17 May 2008, est.1993 as TS-LK); Mil = Military;
- Former parties
: LAF = Lietuvos Aktyvistu Frontas (Lithuanian Activist Front, 17 Nov 1940-26 Sep 1941); LDDP = Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija (Democratic Labor Party of Lithuania, socialist [ex-LKP], 1989-2001, named Lithuanian Independent Communist Party 1989-1990, in 2001 merged with LDSP); LDTS = Lietuvos Darbo Tautos Sajunga (Lithuanian Working People's Union, communist front bloc, in 1940); LKP = Lietuvos Komunistu Partija (Lithuanian Communist Party, 1918-91, only legal party in LSSR and Litbel, 1919-20 named Lithuanian-Belorussian Communist Bolshevik Party [LBKP], only legal party 1940-1989); LPS = Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sajudis (Lithuanian Reform Movement, pro-independence, from 1990 shortened to Lietuvos Sajudis, called "Sajudis", 1988-1993, then part of TS-LK); LTS = Lietuviu Tautininku Sajunga (Lithuanian Nationalist Union, called "Tautininkai", nationalist, 1924-1940, only legal party 1936-1939); LUS = Lietuvos Ukininku Sajunga (Farmer's Union, agrarian, 1919-36); LVS = Lietuvos Valstiecis Sajunga (Peasant Union, 1905-1922, then LVLS); LVLS = Lietuvos Valstieciu Liaudininku Sajunga (Lithuanian Peasant Populist Union, called "Liaudininkai", populist, 1922-1936);
NS = Naujoji Sajunga (New Union, social-liberal, 1998-2011); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist -only legal party 1941-1944); TPP = Tautos Pazangos Partija (Party of National Progress, 1916-1924, renamed LTS); TS-LK = Tevynes Sajunga-Lietuvos Konservatoriai (Homeland Union-Conservatives of Lithuania, conservative reformist, 1993-2008, renamed TS-LKD)



Alternative government: Central Lithuania 

[Central Lithuanian flag
                1920-1922]
              12 Oct 1920 - 24 Mar 1922 

Map of Central
Lithuania
Capital: Wilno
(Vilnius)
Currency: Vilno (Vilnius)
Population: 489,000
(1922)
Religions: Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish
Ethnic groups: Poles 58.0%, Lithuanians 18.5%,
Jewish 14.7%, Belarusians 6.4%, Russians 1.2%,
other 1.2% (1916)

31 Dec 1918 -  4 Jan 1919  Polish administration of Vilnius.
 5 Jan 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Part of Lithuanian Soviet Republic (from 27 Feb
                             1919 Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic [s.a.]).
19 Apr 1919 - 14 Jul 1920  Polish administration.
 4 Jul 1920                Provisionally recognized by Poland as part of Lithuania by the
                             Treaty of Spa (confirmed 7 Oct 1920 by the Treaty of Suwalki).
12 Jul 1920                Recognized by Soviet Russia as part of Lithuania.
14 Jul 1920                Occupied by Soviet Russia.
25 Aug 1920                Transferred to Lithuania.
 9 Oct 1920                Polish "irregular" occupation of Vilnius.
12 Oct 1920                Central Lithuania (in Polish: Litwa Srodkowa).
 8 Jan 1922                Pro-Polish plebiscite held.
20 Feb 1922                Territory occupied by Central Lithuania (and referred to as Ziemia
                             Wileńska) is proclaimed part of Poland, resolution of the Sejm.
24 Mar 1922                Annexation to Poland (not recognized by Lithuania).
19 Sep 1939                Occupied by Soviet Union.
10 Oct 1939                Re-incorporated into Lithuania.

Polish Commanders
31 Dec 1918 -  4 Jan 1919  Wladyslaw Wejtko                   (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
19 Apr 1919 - 22 Apr 1919  Gustaw Zygadlowicz                 (b. 1869 - d. 1923)
Chief of civil administration of the eastern regions
22 Apr 1919 - 14 Jul 1920  Jerzy Osmolowski                   (b. 1872 - d. 1954)
Supreme Commander of the Army of Central Lithuania
 9 Oct 1920 - 1? Dec 1921  Lucjan Zeligowski                  (b. 1865 - d. 1947) 

Presidents of Provisional Government Commission
12? Oct 1920 - 16 Jan 1921 Witold Abramowicz                  (b. 1874 - d. 1940/41)
                             (acting to 29 Nov 1920)
16 Jan 1921 - 30 Nov 1921  Stefan Mokrzecki (acting)          (b. 1862 - d. 1932)
30 Nov 1921 - 13? Apr 1922 Aleksander Michal Marian           (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
                             Meysztowicz 



Samogitia (Zemaitija)

[Samogitia (Zemaitija) flag
                to 1795]
                     c.1565 - 26 Apr 1795

Map of Samogitia
Capital: Raseiniai (from 1569)
Population: N/A 

....                       Principality of Samogitia established.
124.                       Vassal of Lithuania.
c.1294 - 1341              Incorporated into Lithuania
31 Oct 1382                Ceded by Lithuania to the Teutonic Order.
 1 Feb 1411                Provisionally returned to Lithuania (confirmed 27 Sep 1422).
1413                       Autonomous within Lithuania, governed by an elected
                             ruler, the Elder (Seniunas), with capital (from 1569)
                             in Raseiniai. Grand Prince of Lithuania takes style of the
                             "Prince of Samogitia."
1701 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden.
 3 May 1791                Autonomy formally abolished under the first constitution of the
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (de facto continues until 1795).
25 Oct 1795                Annexed by Russia in the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian
                             Commonwealth, the Russian Emperor adopts additional style of
                             "Prince of Samogitia" (de facto from 26 Apr 1795).

Princes
.... - 1214                Dangeruther                       (d. 1214)
1214 - c.1236              ....
c.1236 - 1251              Vykantas (Vykynt)                 (d. 1261)
c.1240 - 12..              Dausprungas (Dovsprynk)
c.1248 - 12..              Erdzivil 
                             (in Brest, Grodno, and  Smolensk)
c.1248 - 1263              Tautvila (Tovtivil) (in Polock)
1263 - 1264                Treniota
126. - 1267                Gerden (in Nalse)
1267 - 1270                Sviendorog
1270 - 1275                Giemund
128. - 1293                Pukuveras (in Eiragola)
1294 - 1341                Lithuanian rule
1341 - 15 Aug 1382         Kestutis (Kynstute)               (b. 1297 - d. 1382) 
1382 - 1390                Skirgaila                         (b. c.1354 - d. 1396) 
1390 - 12 Oct 1398         Vytautas (Witold)                 (b. 1344/50 - d. 1430)
12 Oct 1398 -  1 Feb 1411  Teutonic Order rule
Elders (style Seniunas)
(Lithuanian with Polish names in parentheses)
 1 Feb 1411 - 1412         Rumbaudas Valimantaitis           (b. c.1371 - d. 1432)
                             (Rumbold Walimuntowicz Kiezgajlo)
1412 - 1432                
Mykolas Kssgaila Valimantaitis    (b. c.1380 - d. 1451/52)
                             (Michal
Walimuntowicz Kiezgajlo)
                             (1st time)
1432 - 1434/35             Jurgis Galminas (Jerzy Galiminas) (b. c.1409 - d. c.1438)
1435 - 1440?               Kontautas (1st time)
1440 - 1441
                Mykolas Kssgaila Valimantaitis    (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
1441                       Daumantas
1441 - 1443
                Kontautas (2nd time)
1443 - 1451                Mykolas Kssgaila Valimantaitis    (s.a.)
                            
(3rd time)
1451 - 1485                Jonas Kesgaila                    (b. c.1400 - d. 1485)
                             (Jan Michalowicz Kiezgajlo)
1486 - 1526                Stanislovas Kesgaila Janavicius   (b. c.1451 - d. 1527)
                             (Stanislaw Janowicz Kiezgajlo)
1527 - 1532                Stanislovas Stanislovaitis        (b. 1503 - d. 1532)
                             Kesgaila Janavicius
                             (Stanislaw Kiezgajlo)
1532 - 1534                Petras Kiska                      (d. 1534)
                             (Piotr Kiszka z Ciechanowca)
1535 - 1542                Jonas Radvila                     (b. c.1492 - d. 1542)
                             (Jan Radziwill)
1542 - 1543                Motiejus Vaitkevicius-Janavicius  (d. 1543)
                             (Maciej Kloczko)
1543 - 1544                Jurgis Bilevicius                 (b. c.1513 - d. 1544)
                             (Jerzy Billewicz)
1545 - 1561                Jeronimas Kotkevicius             (b. c.1510 - d. 1561)
                             (Hieronim Chodkiewicz)
1561 - 1563                Vacant

1563 -  4 Aug 1579         Jonas Kotkevicius                 (b. c.1537 - d. 1579)
                             (Jan Hieronim Chodkiewicz)
1579                       Мikalojus Talvosas
               (b. 15.. - d. 1598)
                             (Mikolaj Talwosz)(palatine¹)
1579 - 1588                Jonas Kiska (Jan Janusz Kiszka)   (b. 1547 - d. 1592)
1589 - 1590                Mykolas Narusevicius              (b. c.1560 - d. 1603)
                             (Mikolaj Naruszewicz)(palatine)
1590 - 1595                Jurgis Kotkevicius                (b. 1570 - d. 1595)
                             (Jerzy Chodkiewicz)
1595 - 1599                Prince Stanislovas Radvila        (b. 1559 - d. 1599)
                             (Stanislaw Radziwill)
1599 - 1616                Jonas Karolis Katkevicius         (b. 1560 - d. 1621)
                             (Jan Karol Chodkiewicz)
1616 - 1619                Adomas Tolvaisas 
(Adam Talwosz)   (b. c.1550 - d. 1628)
                             (palatine)
1619 - 1636                Jeronimas Valavicius              (b. c.1573 - d. 1636)
                             (Hieronim Wollowicz)
1636 - 1646                Jonas Alfonsas Lackis             (b. c.1581 - d. 1646)
                             (Jan Alfons Lacki)      
                             (palatine to 1643)
1646 - 1647                Aleksandras Narusevicius          (b. 1582 - d. 1653)
                             (Aleksander Naruszewicz)
                             (palatine)
1647 - 1653                Prince Jonas Radvila              (b. 1612 - d. 1655)
                             (Janusz Radziwill)
1653 - 1668                Jurgis Karolis Glebavicius        (b. 1603 - d. 1669)
                             (Jerzy Karol Hlebowicz)
1668 - 1669                Prince Aleksandras Hiliaris       (b. 1626 - d. 1679)
                             Palubinskis 
                             (Aleksander Hilary Polubinski)
1669 - 1670                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (b. 16.. - d. 1689)
                             (Stanislaw Wincenty Orda)
                             (palatine) (1st time)
1670 - 1678                Viktorinas Konstantas Mlecka      (b. 1630 - d. 1678)
                             (Wiktoryn Konstanty Mleczko)
1678 - 1681                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (s.a.)
                             (palatine)(2nd time)
1681 - 1682                Kazimieras Jonas Povilas Sapiega  (b. 1642 - d. 1720)
                             (Kazimierz Jan Pawel Sapieha)
1682 - 1684                Stanislovas Vincentas Orda        (s.a.)
                             (palatine)(3rd time)
1684 - 1696                Petras Mykolas Pacas              (b. 1645 - d. 1696)
                             (Piotr Michal Pac)
1696 - 1698                Vilhelmas Eustachijus Grotuzas    (b. 16.. - d. 1708)
                             (Wilhelm Eustachy Grothus)
                             (palatine)
23 Jun 1698 - 17 Oct 1709  Prince Grigalius Antanas          (b. 1654 - d. 1709)
                             Oginskis (Grzegorz Antoni Oginski)
31 Oct 1709 - 26 Oct 1710  Aleksandras Juozas Unichovskis    (b. 16.. - d. 1725)
                             (Aleksander Józef Unichowski)
                             (palatine)
26 Oct 1710 - 1729         Kazimieras Zaranekas-Horbovskis   (d. 1729)
                             (Kazimierz Zaranek-Horbowski)
1729 - 1736                Jurgis Jeronimas Kryspinas-       (b. c.1673 - d. 1736)
                             Kirsensteinas (palatine)
                             (Jerzy Hieronim Kryszpin-
                             Kirszensztein
)
 8 Jul 1737 - Jan 1754     Count Juozas Tiskevicius          (b. c.1694 - d. 1754)
                             (Józef Tyszkiewicz)
                             (palatine to 21 May 1742)
Jan 1754 - 1765            Count Juozas Pacas                (d. 1765)
                             (Józef Franciszek Pac)  
                             (palatine to ... 1754)
19 Aug 1765 -  2 Feb 1781  Count Jonas Mikalojus Ksaveras    (b. 1738 - d. 1781)
                             Chodkevicius (Jan Mikolaj Chodkiewicz)
                             (
palatine to 2 Oct 1765)
1781 - 25 Oct 1795         Antanas Gelgudas                  (b. 1729 - d. 1798)
                            (Antoni Onufry Gielgud)
                            (palatine to 25 Sep 1783)

 ¹the Palatines (in Lithuanian: Pilininkas; in Polish: Kasztelan); were the number two
officials in the provinces of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Title Count = Grafas/Hrabia.



Memel 
[Memel flag 1920-1923]
            25 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1923
 
Map of Memel Capital: Memel Memel Statute
(8 May 1924 - 23 Mar 1939)
Population: 145,000 (1939)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Currency: Memel Mark (MML) 1920-1923; Lithuanian Litas (LTL) 1923-1929 Ethnic groups: German 45.2%,
Lithuanian 26.5%,
Memellandish 24.2% (1925)
Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 5%, Jewish 0.78% (1925)
International Organizations/Treaties 1920-1925: None
29 Jul 1252                Memele castrum or Memelburg (Memel castle), founded by Teutonic
                             Order in Prussia (Landmeister des Deutschen Orden in Preussen),
                             administered by Land-Master of Livonian Order.
 4 Mar 1253 - 30 Jun 1392  The Bishop of Courland holds a third of the area, Memel is called
                             Nova Tremonia (or Neu-Dortmund [New Dortmund]).
25 May 1328                Livonian Order rule replaced by the Teutonic Order.
27 Sep 1422                In the Treaty of Melno (ratified 18 May 1423) the Teutonic Knights
                             renounced all territorial, political, and missionary claims
                             against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Samogitia is permanently
                             ceded to Lithuania. The border is set between Poland-Lithuania
                             and the Knights, with the Knights retaining Memel.
 9 Apr 1525                Part of the Duchy of Prussia (which is a fief of Poland to 1772).
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  Swedish occupation, part of Swedish Prussia (see under Poland).
18 Jan 1701                Part of the Kingdom of Prussia (and from 18 Jan 1871 Germany).
 5 Jul 1757 -  6 Aug 1762  Occupied (and from 24 Jan 1758) annexed by Russia.
18 Mar 1915-20/21 Mar 1915 Occupied by Russia.
10 Jan 1920                Treaty of Versailles goes into effect; Memel Territory is
                             detached from Germany and put under the administration of
                             the Principal Allied and Associated Powers (through the
                             Conference of Ambassadors [France, U.K., Italy and Japan]).
15 Feb 1920                German troops replaced by French troops; Allied administration
                             established.
10 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1923  Lithuanian "irregulars" invade and gradually occupy the territory 
                             in support to the alternative government, set up in Heydekrug
                             (Silute) on 9 Jan 1923.
23 Jan 1923                Annexed by Lithuania (not recognized by the Allies).
16 Feb 1923                Conference of Ambassadors acquiesces conditionally to
                             putting Memel Territory under Lithuanian sovereignty;
                             Lithuanian reply is regarded on 13 Mar 1923 as acceptance.
19 Feb 1923                French troops evacuated; Allied administration de facto terminated. 15 Mar 1923                Renamed Klaipeda by Lithuania.
 7 May 1923                Lithuania declares Memel autonomous.
27 Sep 1924                Memel Convention of 8 May 1924 (ratified by the Lithuanian Diet
                             on 30 Jul 1924) becomes effective de facto.
25 Aug 1925                With deposit of last Allied ratifications the Memel Convention goes
                             into effect de jure (the provisions are never fully adhered 
                             to by Lithuania).
22 Mar 1939                Lithuania cedes Memel Territory to Germany (ratified by Lithuanian
                             Diet on 30 Mar 1939). Germany formally annexes Memel on 23 Mar
                             1939 retroactive to 22 Mar 1939. Memel re-incorporated
                             into the Prussian province of East Prussia (see Prussia prov.)
10 Oct 1944                Seige by Soviet Union forces begins.
28 Jan 1945                Conquered by Soviet Union.
 7 Apr 1946 -  7 Apr 1948  Memel part of the Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian S.F.S.R.
                             (see Russian SFSR admin.)
 7 Apr 1948                Definitively re-integrated into Lithuanian S.S.R.,
                             renamed Klaipeda.

Swedish Governors
18 Sep 1629 - 1630         Alexander Leslie                   (b. 1585 - d. 1661)
1630 - Mar 1630            James Ramsay                       (b. 1589? - d. 1638)
Mar 1630 - Jan/Feb 1631    Patrick Ruthwen                    (b. 1586 - d. 1652)
Jan/Feb 1631 - Jul 1635    Francis Ruthwen 
                             (acting to 31 Aug 1632)
Russian Supreme commanders
 5 Jul 1757 -  1 Aug 1757  Willem Graf Fermor (1st time)      (b. 1702 - d. 1771)
                             (acting)
 1 Aug 1757 - 18 Oct 1757  Stepan Fyodorvich Graf Apraksin    (b. 1702 - d. 1758)
18 Oct 1757 - 24 Jan 1758  Willem Graf Fermor (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Imperial and (Prussian) State Commissioner for the Memel Territory (Memelgebiet)
10 Jan 1920 - 15 Feb 1920  Georg Franz Wilhelm Freiherr von   (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
                             der Wenge und Graf von Lambsdorff 
High Commissioners
15 Feb 1920 -  1 May 1921  Dominique Joseph Odry (France)     (b. 1865 - d. 1962)
 1 May 1921 - 19 Feb 1923  Jean Gabriel Petisné (France)      (b. 1881 - d. 1931)
Plenipotentiaries
19 Feb 1923 - 24 Feb 1923  Jonas Polovinskas-Budrys (acting)  (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
                             (Lithuania)
24 Feb 1923 - 27 Oct 1924  Antanas Smetona (Lithuania)        (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
Governors (all from Lithuania)
27 Oct 1924 -  8 Nov 1925  Jonas Polovinskas-Budrys           (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1925 -  1 Aug 1926  Jonas Zilius                       (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
 1 Aug 1926 -  1 Nov 1927  Karolis Zalkauskas                 (b. 1892 - d. 1961)
 1 Nov 1927 - 19 May 1932  Antanas Merkys                     (b. 1887 - d. 1953)
19 May 1932 - 25 Nov 1933  Vytautas Jonas Gylys               (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
25 Nov 1933 -  5 Feb 1935  Jonas Navakas                      (b. 1896 - d. 1956)
 5 Feb 1935 - 15 Oct 1936  Vladas Kurkauskas                  (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
15 Oct 1936 - 12 Dec 1938  Jurgis Kubilius                    (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
12 Dec 1938 - 22 Mar 1939  Viktoras Gailius                   (b. 1893 - d. 1956)
Transitional Commissioner for the Integration of Memelland

(Überleitungskommissar für die Eingliederung des Memellandes)
23 Mar 1939 - 30 Apr 1939
 Erich Koch                         (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP
German military commander 
1944 - 28 Jan 1945         Hans Gollnick                      (b. 1892 - d. 1970)
Soviet military Commander
1944 - 1945                Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan     (b. 1897 - d. 1982)


Presidents of the Directory
(German with Lithuanian names in parentheses)
17 Feb 1920 -  6 Aug 1921  Arthur Altenberg                   (b. 1862 - d. 1926)  Non-party
                             (Arturas Altenbergas)
 6 Aug 1921 - 15 Jan 1923  Wilhelm Stepputat                  (b. 1868 - d. 1941)  Non-party
                             (Vilius Steputaitis)
 9 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1923  Martynas Jankus                    (b. 1858 - d. 1946)  Lith
                            (chairman of the Supreme Lithuania Minor 
                             Liberation Committee, in opposition)
15 Jan 1923 - 14 Feb 1923  Erdmann Simoneit                   (b. 1888 - d. 1969)  Lith
                             (Erdmonas Simonaitis) (1st time)
15 Feb 1923 -  4 Feb 1925  Viktor Gailius (Viktoras Gailius)  (b. 1893 - d. 1956)  Non-party
 5 Feb 1925 - 15 Jan 1926  Andreas Borchert                   (b. 1891 - d. 1957)  Lith
                             (Endrius Borchertas)
16 Jan 1926 - 24 Nov 1926  Erdmann Simoneit                   (s.a.)               Lith
                             (Erdmonas Simonaitis) (2nd time)
25 Nov 1926 -  4 Jan 1927  Wilhelm Falk (Vilius Falkas)                            Lith
 5 Jan 1927 -  2 Dec 1927  Viktor Schwellnus                                       Lith
                             (Viktoras Svelnius)
 2 Dec 1927 - 15 Aug 1930  Otto Kadgiehn (Otoans Kadgynas)    (b. 1860 - d. af.1935)
16 Aug 1930 - 12 Jan 1931  Martin Reisgys (Martinas Reizgys)  (b. 1886 - d. 1942)  Lith
                             (1st time)
13 Jan 1931 - 23 Feb 1932  Otto Böttcher (Otonas Betcheris)   (b. 1872 - d. 1932)  MVP
                            (deposed illegally 6 Feb 1932 and replaced
                             on that date by the following)
23 Feb 1932 -  1 Mar 1932  Jan Tolischus (Jonas Tolisius)                          Lith
                             (acting)
 2 Mar 1932 -  6 Jun 1932  Eduard Simaitis (Eduardas Simaitis)(b. 1897 - d. 1942)  Lith/None
 6 Jun 1932 - 28 Jun 1934  Ottomar Schreiber                  (b. 1889 - d. 1955)  MVP
                             (Otomaras Sreiberis) 
28 Jun 1934 -  3 Dec 1934  Martin Reisgys (Martinas Reizgys)  (s.a.)               Lith
                             (2nd time)
 4 Dec 1934 - 27 Nov 1935  Georg Bruweleit                    (b. 1900 - d. 1995)  Lith
                             (Jurgis Bruvelaitis)
28 Nov 1935 - 20 Jan 1939  August Baldschus                   (b. 1883 - d. 1952)  MVP/MEL
                             (Augustas Baldzius)
20 Jan 1939 - 23 Mar 1939  Wilhelm "Willy" Bertuleit          (b. 1904 - d. 1941)  MVP/MEL
                             (Vilius Bertulaitas)

Party abbreviations: LA-LVP = Litauische Autonomisten und Litauische Volkspartei (Lithuanian Autonomists and Lithuanian People's Party); Lith = Lithuanian (Lithuanian politicians); MAP = Memelländische Arbeiterpartei (Memelland Workers' Party, communist, 1925-1935); MEL = Memelländische Einheitsliste (Memelland Unity List, German coalition of MAP, MVP, and SPM, 1935-1939); MLP = Memelländische Landwirtschaftspartei (Memelland Farmers' Party, centrist, 1925-1934, banned 1934); MVP = Memelländische Volkspartei (Memelland People's Party, German nationalist, 1925-1935); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, German nationalist, Nazi fascist, 1920-1945); SPM = Sozialdemokratische Partei des Memelgebietes (Social Democratic Party of Memel Region, social-democratic, 1925-1935); Mil = Military



German Eastern Front 1915 - 1918

 
[North German
                Confederation 1867-1870 (Germany)]

            6 Jul 1915 - 11 Nov 1918

 6 Jul 1915                Administrative Area of the Commander-in-Chief of the Eastern Front
                             (Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten),
                             in short Ober-Ost, established (not formally recognized by the
                             German government until 4 Nov 1915) as a German supreme military 
                             administration over occupied north-western part of the Russian
                             Empire (by late 1918 covers present-day Lithuania, Latvia,
                             Estonia and parts of Poland [Suwalki, Bialystok] and parts
                             Russia [Pskov]). Seat of administration in Kaunas.
11 Nov 1918                By the Armistice at Compiegne the German troops to be withdrawn
                             from the East (fixed time not given); effective German
                             administration gradually collapses.
26 Dec 1918                Ober-Ost abolished. Headquarters of commander-in-chief moved
                             to Königsberg in East Prussia on 20 Dec 1918.
21 Jan 1919                Office of commander-in-chief of the Eastern Front abolished.

German Commanders-in-Chief of the Eastern Front
 1 Nov 1914 - 28 Aug 1916  Paul von Beneckendorff und von     (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
                             Hindenburg
29 Aug 1916 - 26 Dec 1918  Leopold Maximilian Joseph Prinz    (b. 1846 - d. 1930)
                             von Bayern 


German Military Administration 1918 - 1919

Commanders of the German Troops in Lithuania
 4 Mar 1918 - 25 Feb 1919  Erich von Falkenhayn               (b. 1861 - d. 1922)
25 Feb 1919 - 28 Nov 1919  see under Latvia

German General Commissioner for Lithuania (Generalkommissar Litauen)
15 Nov 1918 - Feb 1919     Ludwig Zimmerle                    (b. 1867 - d. 1925)

Military governors of Siauliai (Schaulen)
Jan 1919 - 13 Mar 1919     under Soviet Lithuanian administration
13 Mar 1919 - Jul 1919     E. Engelien
Jul 1919 - 21 Sep 1919     Fischer
21 Sep 1919 - 18 Nov 1919  under Western Russian administration
                           (see under Latvia)
18 Nov 1919 -  8 Dec 1919  ....

Military governors of Marijampole
1918 - 1919                ....



Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Lithuanian-Belorussian SSR Flag
                of 1919
                   27 Feb 1919 - 1 Sep 1919
 
Capital: Vilnius
(Minsk 19 Apr 1919-8 Aug 1919;
Babruysk 8 Aug 1919-Sep 1919)
Constitution
Population: N/A (1919)

16 Dec 1918                Lithuanian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic, recognized by Soviet
                             Russia 22 Dec 1918, in opposition to the Republic of Lithuania.
 5 Jan 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Soviet troops occupy Vilnius.
27 Feb 1919                Merged with the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic to form
                             Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic ("Litbel").
19 Apr 1919                Soviet troops lost Vilnius; the government of Litbel, soon
                             reduced to Belarus only, moves to Minsk.
 8 Aug 1919                Soviet troops lose Minsk, the government of Litbel moves to
                             Babruysk.
 1 Sep 1919                Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic dissolved in
                             exile in Smolensk, Russia; all territory lost to Poland and 
                             Lithuania already by 25 Aug 1919.

Chairman of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party (LKP)
(from 27 Feb1919 Lithuanian-Belorussian Communist Party [LBKP])
16 Dec 1918 -  1 Sep 1919  Vincas Mickevicius-Kapsukas        (b. 1880 - d. 1935) 

Chairman of the Revolutionary Government
16 Dec 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Vincas Mickevicius-Kapsukas        (s.a.)               LBKP
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Sep 1919  Kazimieras Cihovskis               (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  LBKP
                           (Kazimierz Cichowski [in Polish],
                            Kazimir Genrykhavich Tsykhouski [in Belorussian])

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Workers and Peasant's Government
 8 Dec 1918 - 27 Feb 1919  Vincas Mickevicius-Kapsukas        (s.a.)               LBKP
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
27 Feb 1919 - 19 Apr 1919  Vincas Mickevicius-Kapsukas        (s.a.)               LBKP 



Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

 
[Lithuanian SSR
                          Flag of 1940-1953]
                   25 Aug 1940 - 15 Jul 1953
 
[Lithuanian SSR
                          Flag 1953-1989]
                   15 Jul 1953 - 20 Mar 1989
Capital: Vilnius Hear SSR Anthem
"Lietuvos Tarybu
 Socialistinės Respublikos
 Valstybinis Himnas"
(State Anthem of the
 Lithuanian SSR)
(1950-1990)
Constitution
(21 Apr 1978; in Lithuanian)
Population: 3,420,000 (1980)

 3 Aug 1940                Accession to the Soviet Union.
23 Jun 1941 -  5 Aug 1941  Independence declared (s.a.).
26 Jun 1941 - 28 Jan 1945  German occupation (in Vilnius to 13 Jul 1944, from 1 Aug 1944,
                             in Memel only); part
of Reichskommissariat of Ostland
                            (see under Latvia).
18 May 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty
.
11 Mar 1990                Republic of Lithuania

Note: Lithuanian with Russian names in parentheses.

First secretaries of the Lithuanian Communist Party (LKP)
25 Aug 1940 - 22 Jan 1974  Antanas Snieckus                   (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
                             (Antanas Yuozovich Sniechkus)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile
24 Jun 1941 - Oct 1944)
22 Jan 1974 - 18 Feb 1974  Valerijus Charazovas (acting)      (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
                             (Valery Innokentevich Kharazov)        
18 Feb 1974 - 14 Nov 1987  Petras Griskevicius                (b. 1924 - d. 1987)
                             (Petras Pyatrovich Grishkyavichyus)
14 Nov 1987 -  1 Dec 1987  Nikolajus Mitkinas (acting)        (b. 1929)  
                             (
Nikolay Andreyevich Mitkin)
 1 Dec 1987 - 20 Oct 1988  Ringaudas Bronislavas
Songaila     (b. 1929)
                             (Ringaudas Bronislavas Ignovich Songaila)  
20 Oct 1988 -  7 Dec 1989  Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                            (Algirdas Mykolas Kazevich Brazauskas)
                            (continues as first secretary of Independent
                          
  Communist Party to 8 Dec 1990)
23 Dec 1989 - 24 Aug 1991  Mykolas Burokevicius               (b. 1927)
                            (Mykolas Martinovich Burokyavichyus)
                            (of separate 
Communist Party of Lithuania-CPSU)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 7 Dec 1989)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
25 Aug 1940 - 15 Apr 1967  Justas Paleckis                    (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  LKP
                             (Iustas Ignovich Paleckis)        
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 24 Jun 1941 - 1 Aug 1944)
15 Apr 1967 - 24 Dec 1975  Motiejus Sumauskas                 (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  LKP
                             (Motieyus Yuozovich Shumauskas)
24 Dec 1975 - 18 Nov 1985  Antanas Barkauskas                 (b. 1917 - d. 2008)  LKP
                             (Antanas Stasevich Barkauskas)
18 Nov 1985 -  7 Dec 1987  Ringaudas Bronislavas 
Songaila     (s.a.)               LKP
 7 Dec 1987 - 15 Jan 1990  Vytautas Astrauskas                (b. 1930)            LKP
                             (Vytautas Stasevich Astrauskas)
15 Jan 1990 - 11 Mar 1990  
Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas        (s.a.)         LKP;Dec 1989 LDDP

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Aug 1940 -  2 Apr 1946  Mecislovas Gedvilas                (b. 1901 - d. 1981)  LKP 
                             (Mechislovas Aleksandrovich Gedvilas)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 
24 Jun 1941 - 13 Jul 1944)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 2 Apr 1946 - 16 Jan 1956  Mecislovas Gedvilas                (s.a.)               LKP
16 Jan 1956 - 15 Apr 1967  Motiejus Sumauskas                 (s.a.)               LKP
15 Apr 1967 - 16 Jan 1981  Juozas Maniusis                    (b. 1910 - d. 1987)  LKP
                             (Iosif Antonovich Maniushis)
16 Jan 1981 - 18 Nov 1985  Ringaudas Bronislavas 
Songaila     (s.a.)               LKP
18 Nov 1985 - 11 Mar 1990  Vytautas Sakalauskas               (b. 1933 - d. 2001)  LKP
                             (
Vytautas Vladovich Sakalauskas)
11 Mar 1990 - 17 Mar 1990  Kazimira Danute Prunskiene (f)     (b. 1943)            LKP 
                             (Kazimiera Danute Prunskiene)
    

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation 1942-1944

Note: Soviet resistance groups in Lithuania were united in 1942 in a separate command directly subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan Units in Moscow.

Chief of Staff of the Partisan Units
26 Nov 1942 - 1944         Antanas Snieckus                   (s.a.)                LKP

Party abbreviations: LDDP = Lietuvos Demokratine Darbo Partija (Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party, socialist [ex-LKP], 1989-2001, named Lithuanian Independent Communist Party 1989-90); LKP = Lietuvos Komunistu Partija (Lithuanian Communist Party, 1918-1991, only legal party 1940-1989)








 © Ben Cahoon