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Latvia
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
           26 Apr 1795 - 20 Nov 1917
 
 
[Baltic
                                    State/Duchy proposed flag 1918]
            12 Apr 1918 - 28 Nov 1918 (proposed)
                      Baltic State/Duchy
 
[Lativan
                                    flag]
                 11 Nov 1918 -  5 Aug 1940;
                 28 Jun 1941 -  8 May 1945 unofficial
 
[Latvian Socialist Republic
                                    1919]
                 15 Jan 1919 - 29 May 1919
                  Latvian Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                     5  Aug 1940 -  1 Ju1 1940; 
                    13 Oct 1944  - 21 Aug 1991
 
[Latvian
                                    flag]
                    Re-adopted 27 Feb 1990
 
 
 Map of Latvia  Hear National Anthem
"Dievs, Sveti Latviju!"
(God Bless Latvia!) 
 Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1918-1940, 1990
 Constitution
  (15 Feb 1922-21 Jul 1940,
re-adopted 4 May 1990)
Capital: Riga Currency: Euro (EUR);
Latvian Lat (LVL) 1922-1940,
1993 - 31 Dec 2013
National Holiday: 18 Nov (1918)
Independence Day
Population: 2,178,443 (2013)
1,950,502 (1935)
GDP: $38.87 billion (2013) Exports: $12.6 billion (2013)
Imports: $15.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Latvian 61.1%, Russian 26.2%, Belarusian 3.5%,
Ukrainian 2.3%, Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.3%, other 3.4% (2013)
Total Active Armed Forces: 5,745 (2010)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
(93 ships [1937])
Religions: Lutheran 19.6%, Orthodox 15.3%, other
Christian 1%, other 0.4%, unspecified 63.7% (2006)

International Organizations/Treaties: 1918-1941: BIS, ICRM, ILO, IOC, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCIJ, UPU; from 1990: AG, APM, BA, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, GUAM (observer), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD (applicant), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Latvia Index
Chronology
 
853                        First written records of a state (Regnum Cori) in
                             present-day Latvia. The Couronian states are
                             later followed by states of other Latvian 
                             peoples, the Semigallians, Selonians and
                             Lettgallians, and a Finnic people the
                             Livonians (Livs).
1201                       Seat of Bishopric of Livonia (est. in 1186)
                             moved from Üxküll (Ikskile) to the newly 
                             founded city of Riga. Gradual conquest of the
                             peoples of modern Latvia begins; completed 1290
1207                       Bishop of Riga takes the style of Prince of
                             Livonia (Fürst von Livland) and makes Livonia 
                             part of the Holy Roman Empire (formally 1 Dec
                             1225). Part of bishop's territories given as 
                             a fief to his standing army, the Swordbrothers
                             Order (Schwertbrüderorden, formally Fratres 
                             Militiae Christi, established in c.1204).
12 May 1237                Swordbrothers Order is incorporated into the 
                             Teutonic Order as a separate branch or 
                             province, informally known as the Livonian Order
                             (Livländischer Orden) and administered by the
                             Land-Master of the Teutonic Order in Livonia
                             (Landmeister des Deutschen Ordens Livland).
1253                       Archbishop of Livonia, Prussia and Estonia,
                             previously having no separate diocese, becomes
                             also the Bishop of Riga. Both offices formally
                             merged 20 Jan 1255.
1282                       City of Riga becomes a member of the Hanseatic 
                             League. Later joined by 7 other cities: Wenden 
                             (Cesis), Lemsal (Limbazi), Kokenhusen 
                             (Koknese), Wolmar (Valmiera), Goldingen 
                             (Kuldiga), Windau (Ventspils) and Roop (Straupe).
 7 May 1366                Nominal suzerainty of Archbishop of Riga
                             over the possessions of the Livonian Order is 
                             formally abolished.
1413                       Livonian knights are entitled to elect their 
                             Land-Master. The Livonian Order becomes fully
                             autonomous.
1420                       Livonian Confederation (Livländischer Bund)
                             established, includes the Archbishop of Riga,
                             bishops of Dorpat, Courland, Ösel-Wiek and 
                             Reval, their chapters (Domkapitel), Land-Master
                             of Livonian Order, vassals of bishops and the 
                             Order and cities of Riga, Dorpat (Tartu) and 
                             Reval (Tallinn). Possessions of all these 
                             rulers were known in common as Livonia during 
                             13th-16th centuries.
24 Dec 1526                Land-Master of Livonian Order granted, by the 
                             Emperor, the style of Prince of Livonia 
                             (formally from in 1530; from this moment on the
                             Land-Master, the archbishop of Riga, and the 
                             King of Poland share this style). Style not 
                             used by the Land-Master before 1557.
28 Nov 1561                The Land-Master Gotthard Kettler becomes a
                             Protestant, a massive reorganization takes 
                             place. The treaty of subjugation between
                             the Land-Master, Archbishop of Riga and Grand
                             Prince of Lithuania comes into effect and 
                             establishes two secular Protestant countries:
                             Duchy of Courland as a hereditary fief of 
                             Lithuania given to the last Land-Master and
                             Principality (later Duchy) of Livonia in 
                             personal (actually subordinate) union with 
                             Lithuania (effective 5 Mar 1562).
26 Feb 1621                Sweden occupies Livonia, and annexes it de jure 
                             3 May 1660.
26 Sep 1621                City of Riga surrenders to the Swedish forces.
26 Sep 1629                Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth provisionally 
                             cedes the city of Riga and western part of 
                             Duchy of Livonia, (Livonia proper and southern
                             part of modern Estonia), to Sweden (extended 
                             in 12 Sep 1635 and confirmed in 3 May 1660).
                             The Commonwealth retains eastern part of Duchy 
                             of Livonia (Lettgallia).
Aug 1701 - Sep 1709        Courland and Semigallia occupied by Sweden and
                             Russia
15 Jul 1710                City of Riga surrenders to the Russian forces, 
                             Russian occupation of Swedish Livonia completed
10 Sep 1721                Swedish Livonia formally ceded by Sweden 
                             to Russia under the Treaty of Nystad.
30 Sep 1773                In the Second Partition of Poland-Lithuania, 
                             Lettgallia is annexed by the Russian Empire.
26 Apr 1795                Courland and Semigallia annexed by Russia in the
                             Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian
                             Commonwealth.
20 Jul 1812 - 20 Dec 1812  Province of Courland under the French occupation.
1889                       Full integration of Livonia and Courland into the
                             Russian Empire.
May 1915 - Oct 1915        Courland gradually occupied by Germany.
 5 Jul 1917                Autonomy granted to the provinces of Livonia and 
                             Courland by Russia
 3 Sep 1917                Germans occupy the city of Riga.
 9 Nov 1917 - 20 Nov 1917  Bolshevik troops gradually take over the province
                             of Livonia (in 21 Nov 1917 military 
                             administration of Livonia replaced by the 
                             United Latvian Workers, Soldiers and Landless
                             Peasants' Soviet, located in Valka).
29 Dec 1917                Autonomous Latvian Soviet government within the 
                             Russian Soviet Republic declared.
30 Jan 1918                Latvian Provisional National Council established 
                             in 30 Nov 1917 by the representatives of the 
                             Land Councils of Livonia, Courland and 
                             Lettgallia, declares (underground) that 
                             Latvia "shall be an independent republic."
18 Feb 1918 - 22 Feb 1918  Livonia and Lettgallia gradually occupied by 
                             Germany. 
 3 Mar 1918                In the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Brzecz-Litewski)
                             Courland, the city of Riga, and its 
                             surroundings are "no longer subject to Russia."
 8 Mar 1918                Land Council of Courland (Landesrat von Kurland),
                             set up by the local German elite in Jelgava 
                             (Mitau), proclaims the Duchy of Courland, and 
                             resolves to make it in personal union with 
                             Prussia (15 Mar 1918 independence recognized by
                             Germany).
12 Apr 1918                The Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and 
                             Ösel (Vereinigter Landesrat von Livland, 
                             Estland, Riga und Ösel), set up by set up by 
                             the local German elite, proclaims the 
                             independent Baltic State (Baltischer Staat),
                             also and resolves to make it into a Duchy in
                             personal union with the kingdom of Prussia. The
                             German Emperor, Wilhelm II, expresses his
                             gratitude to the delegation offering him
                             the ducal title and defers his answer (which 
                             never comes); (from 8 Nov 1918, state also 
                             includes Courland).
 1 Aug 1918                German administrations for the Administrative 
                             Regions of Livonia, Estonia, Courland, Ösel and
                             Riga united into a central Military 
                             Administration of the Baltic Lands in Riga.
27 Aug 1918                Treaty of Berlin the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is
                             amended, Russia relinquishes rights over the 
                             rest of Livonia and Krustpils (Kreuzburg), but 
                             (nominally) retains Lettgallia.
22 Sep 1918                Independence of the Baltic State is recognized by
                             Germany.
 8 Nov 1918                A regency council for the Baltic State is set up
                             by United Land Council of Livonia, Estonia, 
                             Riga, and Ösel, and the Land Council of 
                             Courland, incorporating the Duchy of Courland 
                             into the Baltic State, which is declared to be 
                             a federal state, consisting of 7 cantons: 
                             Estonia, Courland, Lettgallia, North Livonia,
                             Ösel, Riga and South Livonia (institutions of
                             the Baltic State function [from 17 Nov 1918 in
                             opposition] until their dissolution in 28 Nov
                             1918).
11 Nov 1918                Germany signs an Armistice at Compiegne, France, 
                             Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is declared void.
                             The German military administration of the 
                             Baltic Lands functions until 26 Nov 1918. 
                             Principal Allied and Associated Powers 
                             recognize the Latvian National Council as the 
                             de facto government of Latvia.
18 Nov 1918                Declaration of statehood (Latvia [styles Republic of
                             Latvia and Democratic Republic of Latvia also in
                             occasional use).
25 Nov 1918                Germany recognizes de facto independence of
                             Latvia
25 Nov 1918 - 26 Nov 1919  German and Allied military administrations in 
                             Liepaja (Libau), Riga and Jelgava (Mitau)
                             (see below).
17 Dec 1918                Latvian Conciliar ("Soviet")(from 15 Jan 1919,
                             Socialist Soviet) Republic proclaimed (in 
                             opposition to the Republic of Latvia); 
                             recognized by Soviet Russia on 22 Dec 1918. 
 3 Jan 1919 - 22 May 1919  Soviet Russian troops occupy Riga. 
22 May 1919                Soviet troops lose Riga, Latvian Socialist Soviet
                             Republic reduced to the eastern part of Latvia
                             (Russian occupied Lettgallia).
13 Jan 1920                Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic dissolved in exile
                             Soviet Russian troops leave on 1 Feb 1920.
11 Aug 1920                Latvian independence recognized by Russia
                             (effective 4 Oct 1920).
26 Jan 1921                Independence de jure recognized by the Principal 
                             Allied and Associated Powers.
 7 Nov 1922                Republic of Latvia.
17 Jun 1940                Occupied by the Soviet Union.
21 Jul 1940                Renamed Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic.
 5 Aug 1940                Incorporation into Soviet Union (the move is not 
                             internationally recognized). 
23 Jun 1941 -  9 Jul 1941  Gradually occupied by Germany (in Riga from 1 Jul 
                             1941).
28 Jun 1941                Independence of the Republic of Latvia declared, 
                             the government functions in the liberated areas
                             and in the German rear until 7 Jul 1941.
 1 Sep 1941                Latvia is made a General District (Generalbezirk
                             Lettland), informally Land, within the
                             Reichskommissariat of Ostland. The city of Riga
                             (Gebiet Riga Stadt) is directly administered by
                             the Reichskommissar for Ostland.
17 Jul 1944 - Nov 1944     Gradually re-occupied by Soviets, except the 
                             Courland peninsula, (in Riga from 13 Oct 1944).
19 Mar 1945                Autonomous state (Latvia) declared under the 
                             German protectorate.
 7 May 1945                Independence of the Republic of Latvia declared, 
                             the government functions in Liepaja to 8 May 
                             1945.
 8 May 1945                German troops in the Courland pocket surrender.
28 Jul 1989                Declaration of state sovereignty.
 4 May 1990                Republic of Latvia (Latvia used as an alternate
                             polity style to 6 Jul 1993); declaration of
                             restoration of independence.
21 Aug 1991                Constitutional law on the status of state
                             (independence).
 6 Sep 1991                Independence recognized by Soviet Union.
Latvian Soviet
Socialist Republic

(1940-1990)
Republic in Exile
(1940-1991)
Resistance
to occupation

(1943-1946)
 Courland
(1207-1918)
  Pilten
(1234-1795)
 Dondangen
(1585-1795)
 Livonia
(1186-1918)
 Polish Livonia
(1629-1772)
 Russian Baltic
Provinces
(1775-1917)
German and
Allied Military
Administrations

(1918-1919)
Ostland
(1941-1944)
Historical Maps
of Latvia
Orthodox Church
of Latvia


 
Note: Present-day Latvia originates in the combination of the following entities (Latvian, German and Russian names in parentheses): Livonia (Vidzeme/Livland/Liflyandiya), Lettgallia (Latgale/Lettgallen/Latgaliya), Courland (Kurzeme/Kurland/Kurlyandiya), and Semigallia (Zemgale/Semgallen/Zemgaliya). The name Livland/Livonia refers to the Livs, a people closely related to the Ests; this name is often (early and late) used for the whole "Baltic provinces," covering present-day Latvia and Estonia. During much of the country's history, from c.1209 until 1918, the dominant elite, under all regimes, consisted of German merchants and landholders, who provide much of the administration; Riga was a Hanseatic city.
 
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the United Workers,
Soldiers and Landless Peasants' Councils ("Soviets") of Latvia
21 Nov 1917 - 22 Nov 1917  Otto Karklins                     (b. 18.. - d. 1937)  LSD-M
22 Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918  Fricis Rozins                     (b. 1870 - d. 1919)  LSD-L
Chairman of the Latvian (Provisional to 23 Oct 1918) National Council
30 Nov 1917 - 17 Nov 1918  Voldemars Zamuels                 (b. 1872 - d. 1948)  Non-party
                            (to 11 Nov 1918 underground)
Chairman of the Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel
12 Apr 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Adolph Konstantin Jakob Baron     (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
                             Pilar von Pilchau
Reichskommissare for the Baltic Sea Region
 1 Aug 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Friedrich Karl Alexander Cäsar    (b. 1869 - d. 1946)  
                             Freiherr von Falkenhausen
 8 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918  August Winnig                     (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
Head of the Military Administration of the Baltic Lands
 1 Aug 1918 -  4 Dec 1918  Alfred Freiherr von Gossler       (b. 1867 - d. 1946)  Mil
Baltic Duke
 8 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich
                             Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b. 1873 - d. 1969)
                           (nominated, never assume office)
 8 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Adolph Konstantin Jakob Baron     (s.a.)
                             Pilar von Pilchau -Regent
                           (chairman of the Baltic Council of Regency)
Chairman of the Baltic Land Executive Committee
 8 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Eduard Julius Alexander Freiherr  (b. 1863 - d. 1939)
                             von Dellingshausen
Deputy Chairmen of the Latvian People's Council
18 Nov 1918 -  3 Jan 1919  Gustavs Zemgals                   (b. 1871 - d. 1939)  LSDSP
                           +
Margers Skujenieks              (b. 1886 - d. 1941)  LSDSP
                           (acting for absent Cakste)
Presidents

18 Nov 1918 -  3 Jan 1919  Janis Cakste (1st time)           (b. 1859 - d. 1927)  LZS
                            (chairman Latvian People's Council, continues
                             in opposition to Latvian SSR to 22 May 1919)
17 Dec 1918 - 22 May 1919  Peteris Stucka                    (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  LKP
                            (chairman Conciliar Government [in Russia to 22 Dec 1918]
                             to 13 Jan 1919, then chairman Central Executive Committee;
                             continues in Lettgallia to 3 Jan 1920)
22 May 1919 -  3 Nov 1925  Janis Cakste (2nd time)           (s.a.)               LZS:1922 DC
                            (chairman Latvian People's Council to 1 May 1920, then
                             president of Constitutional Assembly to 7 Nov 1922
)
22 May 1919 - 13 Jul 1919  Margers Skujenieks                (s.a.)               LSDSP

                           + Gustavs Zemgals                 (s.a.)               LSDSP
                           (acting for absent
Cakste)
 3 Nov 1925 - 10 Nov 1925  Pauls Kalnins (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1872 - d. 1945)  LSDSP
10 Nov 1925 - 14 Mar 1927  Janis Cakste (3rd time)           (s.a.)               DC
14 Mar 1927 -  8 Apr 1927  Pauls Kalnins (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)               LSDSP
 8 Apr 1927 -  8 Apr 1930  Gustavs Zemgals                   (s.a.)               DC
 8 Apr 1930 - 11 Apr 1930  Pauls Kalnins (3rd time)(acting)  (s.a.)               LSDSP
11 Apr 1930 - 11 Apr 1936  Alberts Kviesis                   (b. 1881 - d. 1944) LZS;1934 None
11 Apr 1936 - 21 Jul 1940  Karlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis   (b. 1877 - d. 1942)  Non-party
21 Jul 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Augusts Kirhensteins (acting)     (b. 1872 - d. 1963)  LDTB
                            (not recognized by Latvian diplomats abroad)  
Chairman of the Latvian Organization Central Committee
28 Jun 1941 -  7 Jul 1941  Ernests Kreismanis                (b. 1890 - d. 1965)  Mil
Commander-in-chief of German Army Group Nord
 1 Jul 1941 -  4 Jul 1941  Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb           (b. 1876 - d. 1956)
Commander of the German Army Region Nord
 5 Jul 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Franz von Roques                  (b. 1877 - d. 1967)
Generalkommissare für Lettland
 1 Sep 1941 - 12 Aug 1944  Otto Heinrich Drechsler           (b. 1895 - d. 1945)  NS
12 Aug 1944 - 20 Feb 1945  Hans-Otto von Borcke (acting)     (b. 1910 - d. 1989)  NS
Commanders of the German Army Group Kurland
15 Jan 1945 - 27 Jan 1945  Lothar Rendulic (1st time)        (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
27 Jan 1945 - 10 Mar 1945  Heinrich Gottfried Freiherr von
                             Vietinghoff gen. Scheel         (b. 1887 - d. 1952)
10 Mar 1945 - 25 Mar 1945  Lothar Rendulic (2nd time)        (s.a.)
25 Mar 1945 -  8 May 1945  Carl Hilpert                      (b. 1888 - d. 1948)
Plenipotentiary of the Reich
 2 Feb 1945 -  8 May 1945  Hermann Heinrich Behrend          (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
Chairman of the Latvian National Council
20 Feb 1945 -  7 May 1945  Oskars Dankers                    (b. 1883 - d. 1965)  Mil
Chairman of the Latvian People's Council
 7 May 1945 -  8 May 1945  Janis Andersons (at Liepaja)      (b. 1902 - d. 1969)  Non-party
Presidents
 3 May 1990 -  8 Jul 1993  Anatolijs Gorbunovs               (b. 1942)            LC
                            (chairman of Supreme Council to 6 Jul 1993 [this office is
                             declared to be that of the head of state 15 Sep 1992],
                             then acting president)
 8 Jul 1993 -  8 Jul 1999  Guntis Ulmanis                    (b. 1939)            LZS
 8 Jul 1999 -  8 Jul 2007  Vaira Vike-Freiberga (f)          (b. 1937)            Non-party
 8 Jul 2007 -  8 Jul 2011  Valdis Zatlers                    (b. 1955)            Non-party
 8 Jul 2011 -              Andris Berzins                    (b. 1944)            ZZS
 

Prime ministers
17 Nov 1918 -  3 Jan 1919  Karlis Ulmanis (1st time)         (s.a.)               LZS
                            (continues in opposition to Latvian SSR
                             at Liepaja to 26 Apr 1919)
13 Jan 1919 - 22 May 1919  Peteris Stucka                    (s.a.)               LKP
                            (chairman of the [Provisional to 15 Jan 1919]
                             Soviet Government of the Latvian SSR;
                             continues in Lettgallia to 3 Jan 1920)
16 Apr 1919 - 26 Apr 1919  Hans Joachim Paul Adolph Baron    (b. 1894 - d. 1919)  Mil
                             von Manteuffel gen. Szoege  
                            (chairman of the Security Committee of  
                             Local Front Troops; in opposition to Latvian SSR)
26 Apr 1919 - 27 Jun 1919  Andrievs Niedra                   (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  Non-party
                             (in opposition to Latvian SSR at Liepaja to 22 May 1919)
26 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  Oskars Borkovskis                 (b. 1872 - d. 1945)  Non-party
                             (acting for
Niedra)
27 Jun 1919 - 18 Jun 1921  Karlis Ulmanis (2nd time)         (s.a.)               LZS
18 Jun 1921 - 27 Jan 1923  Zigfrids Meierovics (1st time)    (b. 1887 - d. 1925)  LZS
27 Jan 1923 - 28 Jun 1923  Janis Pauluks                     (b. 1865 - d. 1937)  Non-party
28 Jun 1923 - 27 Jan 1924  Zigfrids Meierovics (2nd time)    (s.a.)               LZS
27 Jan 1924 - 17 Dec 1924  Voldemars Zamuels (1st time)      (b. 1872 - d. 1948)  DCP
17 Dec 1924 - 23 Dec 1925  Hugo Celmins (1st time)           (b. 1877 - d. 1941)  LZS
23 Dec 1925 -  6 May 1926  Karlis Ulmanis (3rd time)         (s.a.)               LZS
 6 May 1926 - 18 Dec 1926  Artur Alberings                   (b. 1876 - d. 1934)  LZS
18 Dec 1926 - 23 Jan 1928  Margers Skujenieks (1st time)     (s.a.)               LSDSP
23 Jan 1928 -  1 Dec 1928  Peteris Jurasevskis               (b. 1872 - d. 1945)  DCP
 1 Dec 1928 - 25 Mar 1931  Hugo Celmins (2nd time)           (s.a.)               LZS
25 Mar 1931 -  5 Dec 1931  Karlis Ulmanis (4th time)         (s.a.)               LZS
 5 Dec 1931 - 23 Mar 1933  Margers Skujenieks (2nd time)     (s.a.)               LSDSP
23 Mar 1933 - 17 Mar 1934  Adolfs Blodnieks                  (b. 1889 - d. 1962)  LJSP
17 Mar 1934 - 21 Jun 1940  Karlis Ulmanis (5th time)         (s.a.)               LZS
                           (from 15 May 1934, self-styled Tautas Vadonis [Leader of the Nation])
21 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Augusts Kirhensteins              (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (not recognized by Latvian diplomats abroad)
 1 Jul 1941 -  8 Jul 1941  Bernhards Einbergs (acting)       (b. 1893 - d. 1945)  Non-party
 8 Jul 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Alfreds Valdmanis                 (b. 1908 - d. 1978)  Non-party
                            (not recognized officially)
First Director-General of the Land Self-Government

 1 Sep 1941 - 20 Feb 1945  Oskars Dankers                    (s.a.)               Mil
                            (not recognized officially to 7 May 1942,
                             acting to 16 Mar 1944, suspended from 27 Sep 1944)
President of the Latvian National Committee
20 Feb 1945 -  3 May 1945  Rudolfs Bangerskis (at Liepaja)   (b. 1878 - d. 1958)  Mil
Prime ministers
 3 May 1945 -  8 May 1945  Roberts Osis                      (b. 1900 - d. 1973)  Mil
                             (provisional; at Liepaja)
 7 May 1990 - 20 Jul 1993  Ivars Godmanis (1st time)         (b. 1951)            LTF
                             (chairman of the Council of Ministers)
20 Jul 1993 - 15 Sep 1994  Valdis Birkavs                    (b. 1942)            LC
15 Sep 1994 - 21 Dec 1995  Maris Gailis                      (b. 1951)            LC
21 Dec 1995 -  7 Aug 1997  Andris Skele (1st time)           (b. 1958)            Non-party
 7 Aug 1997 - 26 Nov 1998  Guntars Krasts                    (b. 1957)            TB-LNNK
26 Nov 1998 - 16 Jul 1999  Vilis Kristopans                  (b. 1954)            LC
16 Jul 1999 -  5 May 2000  Andris Skele (2nd time)           (s.a.)               TP
 5 May 2000 -  7 Nov 2002  Andris Berzins                    (b. 1951)            LC
 7 Nov 2002 -  9 Mar 2004  Einars Repse                      (b. 1961)            JL
 9 Mar 2004 -  2 Dec 2004  Indulis Emsis                     (b. 1952)            LZP
 2 Dec 2004 - 20 Dec 2007  Aigars Kalvitis                   (b. 1966)            TP
20 Dec 2007 - 12 Mar 2009  Ivars Godmanis (2nd time)         (s.a.)               LC
12 Mar 2009 - 22 Jan 2014  Valdis Dombrovskis                (b. 1971)           JL:6-8-2011 VP

22 Jan 2014 -              Laimdota Straujuma (f)            (b. 1951)            VP

 

Republic of Latvia in Exile

[Latvian flag]

Acting Presidents
17 Jun 1940 -  8 Sep 1944  Vacant
 8 Sep 1944 - 27 Aug 1945  Pauls Kalnins (4th time)          (s.a.)               LSDSP
                             (underground to Oct 1944)
27 Aug 1945 -  2 Dec 1969  Bishop Jazeps Rancans             (b. 1886 - d. 1969)  LKZKP
 2 Dec 1969 - 21 Aug 1991  Vacant

Heads of the Diplomatic Service
17 Jun 1940 - 29 Apr 1963  Karlis Zarins (in London)         (b. 1879 - d. 1963)  Non-party
29 Apr 1963 -  1 Oct 1970  Arnolds Spekke                    (b. 1887 - d. 1972)  Non-party
                             (in Washington, DC)
 1 Oct 1970 - 21 Aug 1991  Anatols Dinbergs                  (b. 1911 - d. 1993)  Non-party
                             (in Washington, DC)

Resistance to German and Soviet occupation 1943-1946

Note: Anti-German (and also anti-Soviet) resistance groups united in 1943 to form Latvian Central Council, which organized military activities in late 1944. The anti-Soviet partisan movement in Latvia, mostly without overall leadership, continued into 1949 when their
activities were suppressed by Soviet troops.

Chairmen of the Latvian Central Council
13 Aug 1943 - 29 Apr 1944  Konstantins Cakste                (b. 1901 - d. 1945)  DCP
29 Apr 1944 - 12 Jul 1944  Bruno Kalnins (acting)            (b. 1899 - d. 1990)  LSDSP
Jul 1944 - 1946            Verners Tepfers                   (b. 1893 - d. 1958)  DCP
                            (from 1 Nov 1944 in Stockholm, Sweden exile)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Latvian Fatherland Guards (Partisans) Alliance
24 Aug 1945 - 10 Jan 1946  Antons Juhnevics                  (b. 1905 - d. 1947)  Mil
 

Territorial Disputes: Russia demands better Latvian treatment of ethnic Russians in Latvia; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Latvia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules with Russia.

Party abbreviations: LPP/LC = Latvijas Pirma Partija/Latvijas Cels (Latvia's First Party/Latvia's Way, liberal, est.2007); TB-LNNK = Apvieniba Tevzemei un Brivibai-Latvijas Nacionalas Neatkaribas Kustiba (Union For Fatherland and Freedom - Latvian National Independence Movement, national-conservative, est.1997); LSDSP = Latvijas Socialdemokratiska Stradnieku Partija (Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party, social-democratic, 1918-1934, re-est.1989); LZP = Latvijas Zaja Partija (Latvian Green Party, ecological, est.1990); LZS = Latvijas Zemnieku Savieniba (Latvian Farmers' Union, agrarian-conservative, 1917-1940, re-est.1990); VP = Vienotiba Partija (Unity Party, liberal conservative, former JL, est.2011); ZZS = Zalo un Zemnieku savieniba (Greens and Farmers Union, union LZS & LZP, green, centrist, est.2002); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: DCP = Demokratiskais Centrs Partija (Party Democratic Center, liberal, 1922-1934); JL = Partija Jaunais Laiks (New Era Party, reformist, center-right, 2002-2011, merged into VP); LJSP = Latvijas Jaunzemnieku un Sikgruntnieku Partija (Latvian New Farmers & Small Landowners' Party, 1924-1934); LC = Latvijas Cels (Latvia's Way, liberal, 1993-2007, then LPP-LC); LKP = Latvijas Komunistiska Partija (Latvian Communist Party, 1919-1991, branch of All- Russia/All-Union Communist Party 1919-1920 and 1940-1991, only legal party 1919-1920 and 1940-1989; 1940-1952 named Latvijas Komunistiska Bolseviku Partija [Latvian Communist Bolshevik Party]); LKZKP = Latvijas Kristigo Zemnieku un Katolu Partija (Latvian Christian Farmers and Catholics' Party, christian-democratic, 1920-1934); LSD-M/L = Latvijas Socialdemokratija - Mazinieki/Lielinieki (Latvian Social Democracy, social-democratic/communist, branch of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, former LSDSP, 1906-1919); LSDSP = Latvijas Socialdemokratiska Stradnieku Partija (Latvian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, social-democratic, 1904-1906 and 1918-1934); LTFLatvijas Tautas Fronte (Latvian People's Front, pro-independence, 1988-1996); LZP = Latvijas Zemturu Padome (Latvian Landholders' Council, conservative, former LTP, 1918-1919); LZS = Latvijas Zemnieku Savieniba (Latvian Farmers' Union, centrist, 1917-1934); NS = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, only legal party 1941-1944); TP = Tautas Partija (People's Party, conservative reformist, 1998-2011)



Courland

[Duchy of
                          Courland state flag 1562-1795]
            c.1562 - 26 Apr 1795  State flag
[Duchy of
                          Courland naval flag]
                 to 26 Apr 1795 Naval flag
[Russian flag]
       26 Apr 1795 - 20 Nov 1917
[Latvian flag]
            May 1917 - Nov 1917 (unofficial)

Map of Courland
Capital: Mitau
(Jelgava)
Population: 350,000 (1795)
(excluding Pilten)
Constitution:
Formula Regiminis
(28 Mar 1617)

1207                       Bishop of Riga takes the style of Prince of Livonia 
                             (Fürst von Livland) and makes Livonia part of the Holy 
                             Roman Empire (formally 1 Dec 1225). Part of Bishop's 
                             territories given as a fief to his standing army, the 
                             Swordbrothers Order (Schwertbrüderorden, formally
                             Fratres Militiae Christi, established in c.1204).
12 May 1237                Swordbrothers Order is incorporated into the Teutonic Order
                             as a separate branch or province, informally known as the
                             Livonian Order (Livländischer Orden) and administered by 
                             the Land-Master of the Teutonic Order in Livonia
                             (Landmeister des Deutschen Ordens Livland).
 7 May 1366                Nominal suzerainty of Archbishop of Riga over the possessions 
                             of the Livonian Order is formally abolished.
1413                       Livonian knights are entitled to elect their Land-Master. The 
                             Livonian Order becomes fully autonomous.
 5 Mar 1562                Duchy of Courland (in full Duchy of Courland and Semigallia)
                             established as a hereditary fief of Lithuania given to the last
                             Land-Master of Livonian Order Gotthard Kettler and covering 
                             former possessions of the Order south-west of the Daugava River.
 4 Jul 1569                Poland and Lithuania enjoy equal rights regarding Duchy of 
                             Courland and Semigallia.
31 May 1596 - 28 Mar 1617  Duchy of Courland and Semigallia informally partitioned into 
                             Duchies of Courland and Semigallia (recognized by the 
                             Commonwealth in 17 Apr 1598). Partition became nominal from 
                             14 May 1616 when Duke of Semigallia Friedrich became also regent
                             of Duchy of Courland.
Aug 1701 - Sep 1709        Courland and Semigallia occupied by Sweden (Aug 1705 - Mar 1706,
                             interrupted by Russian occupation).
28 Mar 1795                Courland Landtag approves annexation to Russia,
                             suzerainty of Poland-Lithuania declared void.
26 Apr 1795                Courland and Semigallia annexed by Russia, autonomy guaranteed. 
                             Russian Emperor adopts the style of "Prince of Courland and 
                             Semigallia".
26 Jan 1796                Province or Government of Courland (Kurlyandskaya Guberniya), 
                             autonomy abolished fully incorporated into Russia.
 1 Feb 1797                Limited local autonomy restored (confirmed by all successive
                             Emperors of Russia on their accession until 1855).
 8 Oct 1800 - Nov 1917     Province of Courland subordinated, with some interruptions,
                             to governors-general, or other overall administrations, of 
                             the Baltic Provinces.
20 Jul 1812 - 20 Dec 1812  Province of Courland under the French occupation (from 1 Aug 1812,
                             Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and District of Pilten nominally
                             re-established under joint French-Saxon protectorate); Russian
                             administration is evacuated to Riga.
1889                       Full integration of Livonia and Courland into the Russian Empire.
Oct 1905 - Jan 1906        Local revolutionary governments control most of the province of
                             Courland. Activities are coordinated by the Coordination
                             Committee of Liepaja (Libau).
May 1915 - Oct 1915        Courland gradually occupied by the Germans (Mitau [Jelgava], the
                             capital of province, on 1 Aug 1915). Russian administration is
                             evacuated to Dorpat (Tartu). German administration for the 
                             Administrative Region of Courland (Verwaltungsbezirk Kurland)
                             established; subordinated to Commander of Eastern front
                             (see Eastern Front under Lithuania).
 5 Jul 1917                Autonomy granted to the province of Courland (actually to its
                             administration in evacuation) by the Russian Provisional 
                             Government.
 3 Mar 1918                In the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Brzecz-Litewski) Courland is "no
                             longer subject to Russian sovereignty", but Germany "determines
                             the future status of these territories in agreement with their
                             population" (treaty declared void by the Armistice at Compiegne 
                             on 11 Nov 1918).
 8 Mar 1918                Land Council of Courland (Landesrat von Kurland), set up by the
                             local German elite in Jelgava (Mitau), proclaims the Duchy of
                             Courland, and resolves to make it in personal union with Prussia
                            (15 Mar 1918 independence recognized by Germany, but no answer
                             comes to the offer of the ducal title).
 1 Aug 1918                German administration for the Administrative Region of Courland
                             merged into a central Military Administration of the Baltic 
                             Lands.
 8 Nov 1918                A regency council for the Baltic State is set up by United Land
                             Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel, and the Land Council
                             of Courland, incorporating the Duchy of Courland into the Baltic
                             State.
18 Nov 1918                Part of independent Latvia.
Princes in Couronia
c.866 - c.894              Lokeris
c.894 - 12..               ....
12.. - c.1230              Lamikis
12.. - 1267                ....
Princes in Semigallia
c.1200 - c.1230            Vesthard
12.. - c.1250              Sabe
12.. - 1281                Nameisis

Land-Masters of Swordbrothers Order (Fratres Militiae Christi)
1207 - 1209                Vinno von Rohrbach                (d. 1209)
1209 - 22 Sep 1236         Volkwin von Naumburg zu           (d. 1236)
                             Winterstätten
22 Sep 1236 - 12 May 1237  Rutger (acting)
Land-Masters of the Teutonic Order in Livland 
(Landmeister des Deutschen Ordens in Livland)
12 May 1237 - 1238         Hermann Balk                      (b. 11.. - d. 1239)
1238 - 1241                Dietrich von Grüningen (1st time) (b. c.1210 - d. 1259)
1241 - 1242                Andreas von Velven (Felben)
                             
(1st time)
1242 - 1246                Dietrich von Grüningen (2nd time) (s.a.)
1246 - 1248                Heinrich von Heimburg
1248 - 1253                Andreas von Velven (Felben)
                             
(2nd time)
1253 - 1254                Eberhard von Sayn (acting)        (d. 1258)
1254 - 1256                Anno von Sangerhausen             (d. af.1273)
1257 - 13 Jul 1260         Burchard von Hornhausen           (d. 1260)
1261                       Georg von Eichstädt
1261 - Feb 1263            Werner von Breithausen
Feb 1263 - 1266            Konrad von Mandern                (d. 1295)
1267 - 16 Feb 1270         Otto von Lauterberg               (d. 1270)
16 Feb 1270 - 1270         Andreas von Westfalen -Regent
1270 - 1273                Walter von Nordeck                (d. af.1287)
1274 -  5 Mar 1279         Ernst von Ratzeburg               (d. 1279)
1279 - 1281                Konrad von Feuchtwangen           (d. 1296)
 5 Mar 1279 - 1280         Gerhard Graf von
                             Katzenelnbogen
-Regent           (d. 1280)
1281 - 1282                Mangold von Sternberg -Regent     (d. 1283)
1282 - 26 Mar 1287         Wilken von Endorp (regent to 1283)(d. 1287)
                             (Wilhelm von Nindorf) 
1288 - 1289                Konrad von Hazzigenstein          (d. af.1303)
                             (Cuno von Hattenstein)
1290 - 1293                Balthasar Holte
1293 - 1295                ....
1295 - 28 Oct 1296         Hinrich von Dinkelaghe (Dincklage)(d. 1296)
28 Oct 1296 -  1 Jun 1298  Bruno (regent to 1297)            (d. 1298)
1298 - Nov 1307            Gottfried Rogge
Nov 1309 - 1322            Gerhard von Jork
1322 - 1324                Konrad Kesselhut -Regent          (d. 1334)
1324 - 25 May 1328         Reimar Hahn (Reymar Hane) 
25 May 1328 - 24 Jun 1340  Eberhard von Monheim              (b. c.1275 - d. af.1346)
24 Jun 1340 - 14 Dec 1345  Burchard von Dreileben            (b. 129. - d. af.1366)
                             (Borchart van Dreinlove)
14 Dec 1345 - 10 Sep 1359  Goswin von Herreke                (d. 1359)
10 Sep 1359 - Feb 1360     Andreas von Steinberg (1st time)  (d. af.1375)
                             (acting)
Feb 1306 - 11 Jul 1364     Arnold von Vietinghoff            (d. 1364)
11 Jul 1364 - 29 Sep 1364  Andreas von Steinberg (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Sep 1364 - Mar 1385     Wilhelm von Friemersheim          (d. 1385)
Mar 1385 - 10 Aug 1388     Robin von Eltz                    (d. 1388)
                             (acting to ... 1385)
Sep 1388 - 1389            Johann von Ohle (acting)          (d. af.1403)
1389 - 1401                Wennemar von Brüggenei            (d. 1401)
1401 - 21 Oct 1401         Bernhard Hövelmann (acting)       (d. af.1404)
21 Oct 1401 - 14 Feb 1413  Konrad von Vietinghoff            (d. 1413)
Feb 1413 - 17 Aug 1415     Dietrich Tork                     (d. 1415)
                             (acting to 13 May 1413)
Sep 1415 - 31 Mar 1424     Siegfried Lander von Sponheim     (d. 1424)
31 Mar 1424 - May 1424     Dietrich Kra (acting)             (d. af.1427)
May 1424 - Oct 1433        Cisse von dem Rutenberg           (d. 1433)
Oct 1433 -  1 Sep 1435     Frank Kirskorf (Franke Kerskorff) (d. 1435)
                             (acting to Jan 1434)
 1 Sep 1435 - Dec 1437     Heinrich von Böckenförde, gen.    (d. 1437)
                             Schüngel (acting to Oct 1435)
Dec 1437 - May 1438        Gottfried von Rodenberg (acting)  (d. af.1448)
May 1438 - 29 Jun 1450     Heidenrich Vincke von Overberg    (d. 1450)
                             (regent to 19 Jun 1439)
29 Jun 1450 -  6 Sep 1450  Gotthard von Plettenberg (acting) (d. af.1461)
 6 Sep 1450 - 15 Aug 1469  Johann von Mengede, gen. Osthof   (b. c.1421 - d. 1469)
15 Aug 1469 -  7 Jan 1470  Johann von Krieckenbeck, gen. Spor(d. 1472)
                             (acting)
 7 Jan 1470 - Oct 1471     Johann Wolthus von Herse          (d. 1472)
                             (Johann Waldhaus von Heerse)
Oct 1471 - Nov 1483        Bernhard (Bernd) von der Borch
    (d. 1488)
                             (acting to 1472)
Nov 1483 - 26 May 1494     Johann Freitag von Loringhofe     (b. 143. - d. 1494) 
                             (regent to 10 Jan 1485)
26 May 1494 - 28 Feb 1535  Wolter von Plettenberg            (b. c.1450 - d. 1535)
                             (acting to 7 Jul 1494)
1501 - 1502                Wennemar von Dellwig (acting)     (d. 1510)
28 Feb 1535 -  4 Feb 1549  Hermann Brüggenei, gen. Hasenkamp (b. c.1475 - d. 1549)
                             (co-adjutor from 1533)
 4 Feb 1549 - 18 May 1551  Johann von der Recke              (b. c.1480 - d. 1551)
                             (co-adjutor from 1541)
18 May 1551 - 30 May 1557  Heinrich von Galen                (b. 1480 - d. 1557)
                             (acting to Jun 1551)
 1 Jun 1557 - 17 Sep 1559  Johann Wilhelm Graf von           (b. c.1500 - d. 1568)
                             Fürstenberg (co-adjutor from 1556)
17 Sep 1559 -  5 Mar 1562  Gotthard Ketteler                 (b. 1517 - d. 1587)
                             (co-adjutor from 9 Jul 1558)
Dukes (title Von Gottes Gnaden Herzog in Livland zu Kurland und Semgallen - "By the Grace
of God, Duke in Livonia for Courland and Semigallia")1
 5 Mar 1562 - 17 May 1587  Gotthard                          (s.a.)
17 May 1587 - 16 Aug 1642  Friedrich                         (b. 1569 - d. 1642)
                           - jointly with -
21 May 1596 -  4 May 1616  Wilhelm                           (b. 1574 - d. 1640)
26 Aug 1642 - 31 Dec 1681  Jakob                             (b. 1610 - d. 1682)
31 Dec 1681 - 22 Jan 1698  Friedrich Kasimir                 (b. 1650 - d. 1698)
22 Jan 1698 - 21 Jan 1711  Friedrich Wilhelm                 (b. 1692 - d. 1711)
                            (1701 - 1710 in Bayreuth exile)
1698 - Nov 1709            Prince Ferdinand -Regent          (b. 1655 - d. 1737)
                            ("Duke-administrator"; from Aug 1701 
                             in Danzig exile)
1701 - 1702                Elisabeth Sophie Herzogin von     (b. 1674 - d. 1770)
                             Brandenburg (f) -Regent
Swedish Governors
Aug 1701 - 1702            Karl Magnus friherre Stuart       (b. 1650 - d. 1705)
1702 - Aug 1705            Adam Ludwig greve Lewenhaupt      (b. 1659 - d. 1719) 
                             (1st time)
Aug 1705 - Mar 1706        Rudolf Felix Bauer                (b. 1667 - d. 1717)
                             (Russian governor) 
Mar 1706 - Sep 1709        Adam Ludwig greve Lewenhaupt      (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) 
Dukes
21 Jan 1711 -  4 May 1737  Ferdinand (in Danzig exile)       (s.a.)
1711 - Jan 1730            Grand Princess Anna Ioannovna     (b. 1693 - d. 1740)
                             Romanova -Regent
                            (informal: "Duchess-dowager")
1726 - 1727                Moritz Graf von Sachsen           (b. 1696 - d. 1750)
                            (informal: "Duke-heir"; in competition)
 4 May 1737 - 13 Jul 1737  Christoph Friedrich von der Osten (b. 1697 - d. 1759)
                             gen. Sacken-Appricken -Regent 
                            (1st time)(Landhofmeister, in the name of 
                             the Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
13 Jul 1737 - 16 Nov 1758  Ernst Johann (1st time)           (b. 1690 - d. 1772)
                            (from 20 Nov 1740, Russian prisoner)
20 Nov 1740 - 16 Nov 1758  Christoph Friedrich von der Osten (s.a.)
                             gen. Sacken-Appricken -Regent 
                            (2nd time)(Landhofmeister, in the name of
                             the Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
16 Nov 1758 - 23 Jan 1763  Karl                              (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
                            (Karl Christian Joseph Herzog von Sachsen)
23 Jan 1763 - 21 Feb 1763  Heinrich Christain von            (b. 1696 - d. 1781)
                             Offenberg? -Regent (Landhofmeister, in 
                             the name of the Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
21 Feb 1763 - 25 Nov 1769  Ernst Johann (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Nov 1769 - 28 Mar 1795  Peter                             (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
28 Mar 1795 - 26 Apr 1795  Carl Ferdiand von Orgies gen.     (b. 1741 - d. 1801)
                             Rutenberg -Regent (Landhofmeister, in the 
                             name of the Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
Governor-general of Courland and Pilten
26 Apr 1795 - 28 Jan 1796  Peter Ludwig Freiherr von der     (b. 1745 - d. 1826) 
                             Pahlen
                             (Pyotr-Lyudvig Alekseyevich Graf Palen)
Governors
28 Jan 1796 -  9 Nov 1798  Gustav Matthias Jakob von der     (b. 1745 - d. 1823)
                             Wenge, gen. Lambsdorff 
 9 Nov 1798 - 20 Oct 1800  Carl Wilhelm Heinrich von der     (b. 1746 - d. 1827)
                             Osten, gen. Driesen
20 Oct 1800 - 18 Nov 1808  Nikolay Ivanovich Arsenyev        (b. 1760 - d. 1830)
18 Nov 1808 - 21 Nov 1808  Jakob Maximilian von Brieskorn
                             (1st time)(acting)
21 Nov 1808 - 18 Aug 1811  Johann Wilhelm Baron von Hogguer  (b. 1755 - d. 1838)
18 Aug 1811 - 12 Sep 1811  Jakob Maximilian von Brieskorn
                             (2nd time)(acting)
23 Sep 1811 - Jan 1816     Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von        (b. 1748 - d. 1823)
                             Sievers
                            (20 Jul 1812 - Dec 1812 in Riga exile)
French Commander
20 Jul 1812 -  1 Aug 1812  Jacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre  (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
                             MacDonald, duc de Tarente
Intendants
 1 Aug 1812 -  8 Oct 1812  Jules de Chambaudoin
                           + Charles de Montigny
Governor-General 
 8 Oct 1812 - 20 Dec 1812  Jacques David Martin, baron de    (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
                             Campredon
Governors
Jan 1816 - 18 Feb 1824     Emannuel von Stanecke             (b. 1750 - d. 1838)
                             (acting to 16 Feb 1816) 
18 Feb 1824 -  7 Dec 1827  Paul Baron von Hahn               (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
 7 Dec 1827 - 22 May 1853  Christoph Engelbrecht von Brevern (b. 1782 - d. 1863)
22 May 1853 - 14 Jun 1853  Aleksandr Petrovich Beklemishev
                             (acting)
14 Jun 1853 - 10 May 1858  Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev      (b. 1814 - d. 1890)
10 May 1858 - 21 May 1858  Julius Gustav von Cube (acting)   (b. 1815 - d. 1888)
21 May 1858 -  2 Sep 1868  Johann von Brevern                (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
 2 Sep 1868 - 23 Dec 1885  Paul Fromhold Ignatius von        (b. 1829 - d. 1903)
                             Lilienfeld
23 Dec 1885 - 31 Dec 1885  Aleksandr Alekseyevich Manyos
                             (Manjos) (acting)
31 Dec 1885 - 12 Apr 1888  Konstantin Ivanovich Pashchenko   (b. 1830 - d. 1900)
12 Apr 1888 -  1 Jan 1892  Dmitriy Sergeyevich Sipyagin      (b. 1850 - d. 1902)
 1 Jan 1892 - 23 Oct 1905  Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Sverbeyev    (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
23 Oct 1905 - 23 Jul 1910  Leonid Mikhailovich Knyazev       (b. 1851 - d. 1913)
Dec 1905 - Jan 1906        Janis Lencmanis                   (b. 1881 - d. 1939)  LSDSP
                           + Semyon Mikhailovich Nakhimson   (b. 1885 - d. 1918)  Bund
                           (leaders of the Coordination Committee 
                             of Liepaja [Libau]; in rebellion)
23 Jul 1910 - Sep 1910     Prince Nikolay Dmitriyevich       (b. 1872 - d. 1937)
                             Kropotkin (acting)
Sep 1910 - 25 May 1915     Sergey Dmitriyevich Nabokov       (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
May 1915 - May 1916        Tatishchev (in Tartu, Estonia exile)
30 May 1916 - 30 Dec 1916  Count Pyotr Vasilyevich Hendrikov (b. 1883 - d. 1942)
                             (in Tartu exile)(Peter Graf von Hendrik)
30 Dec 1916 - 1917         Strakhov (in Tartu exile)
Province Commissioner of Courland
17 May 1917 - Nov 1917     Janis Cakste (in Tartu exile)     (b. 1859 - d. 1927)  LZS
Commander of the German 8th Army
26 May 1915 - 16 Aug 1915  Friedrich von Scholtz             (b. 1851 - d. 1927)
Head of the German Military Administration for Courland
16 Aug 1915 -  1 Sep 1918  Alfred Freiherr von Gossler       (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
Reichskommissars for the Baltic Sea Regions
15 Mar 1918 -  5 Jun 1918  Robert Franz Karl Graf von        (b. 1866 - d. 1959)
                             Keyserlingk-Cammerau
 5 Jun 1918 - 31 Jun 1918  Friedrich Karl Alexander Casar    (b. 1869 - d. 1946)
                             Freiherr von Falkenhausen 

Chairmen of the Ducal (from 26 Apr 1795 Provisional) Government 
(styled Landhofmeister)
1562 - 1681                ....
1681 - 1701                Christoph Heinrich von Puttkammer (b. 16.. - d. 1701)
                            (to 1683 chancellor and acting chairman)
1701 - 1708                Friedrich von Brackel             (b. 1634 - d. 1708)
                             (to 1703 chancellor and acting chairman)
1708 - 1727                Heinrich Christian von den        (d. 1729)
                             Brincken (to 1709 chancellor 
                             and acting chairman)
1727 - 1729                Adam Kazimierz Kosciuszko         (d. 1730)
1729 - 18 Jan 1731         Casimir Christoph von Brackel     (b. 1686 - d. 1742)
18 Jan 1731 - 15 Apr 1736  Heinrich Georg von Mirbach        (b. 1674 - d. 1736)
15 Apr 1736 - 1759         Christoph Friedrich von der Osten,(s.a.)
                             gen. Sacken-Appricken 
1759 - 1763                Otto Christoph von der Howen      (b. 1699 - d. 1775)
                             (1st time) (to 1759 chancellor 
                             and acting chairman)
1763 - 1767                Heinrich Christian von Offenberg  (s.a.)
1767 - 8 Dec 1775          Otto Christoph von der Howen      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 8 Dec 1775 - 1786         Johann Ernst von Klopmann         (b. 1725 - d. 1786)
                             (to 1776 chancellor and acting chairman)
1786 - 21 Dec 1786         Ernst Johann von Taube (1st time) (b. 1740 - d. 1794)
                             (chancellor and acting chairman)
21 Dec 1786 - 1787         Christian Ernst von Oelsen        (b. 1729 - d. 1787)
1787 - 1794                Ernst Johann von Taube (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (to 1788 chancellor and acting chairman)
1794 - 28 Jan 1796         Carl Ferdinand von Orgies, gen.   (s.a.)
                             Rutenberg (to 1794 chancellor 
                             and acting chairman)
Chairman of the Land Government
 1 Aug 1812 - 20 Dec 1812  Karl Johann Friedrich Graf von    (b. 1762 - d. 1827)
                             Medem (under French occupation)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Provisional 
Land Council of Courland
10 May 1917 - Nov 1917     Karlis Pauluks (in Tartu exile)   (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  LZS
Chairman of the Land Council of Courland
 8 Mar 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Alexander Immanuel Baron von      (b. 1859 - d. 1920)
                             Rahden-Maihof

 1According to the Constitution (Formula Regiminis) of Courland of 28 Mar 1617, the ducal
authority during the vacancy, minority, disability and even absence of the duke is exercised by the cabinet, the Supreme Council (Kollegium der Oberräte), however, usually the actual 
regents were other persons in competition with the formal regents.

Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count, Friherre/Freiherr = Baron, Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess.

Party abbreviations: Bund = Jewish Workers’ Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia "Bund" (Jewish social-democratic, 1897-19..); LSDSP = Latvijas Socialdemokratiska Stradnieku Partija (Latvian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, social-democratic, 1904-1906 and 1918-1934); LZS = Latvijas Zemnieku Savieniba (Latvian Farmers' Union, centrist, 1917-1934)


Pilten
[Pilten flag to 1795]
                      to 26 Apr 1795
 
Capital: Hesenpth
(Aizpute)
Population: 40,000 (1795)
Constitution:
Ordinatio Regiminis
(9 May 1617)
 
Sep 1234                   Bishopric of Courland (Bistum Kurland) established (formally 
                             declared in 11 Feb 1232), consisting of three separate enclaves
                             after numerous distributions of the Couronian lands among the 
                             Bishops of Courland, and of Riga, and the Teutonic Order. 
                             Note: the bishops were also rulers of the island of Runö 
                             (now Ruhnu in SW-Estonia) from at least 1341.
1290                       The cathedral chapter is incorporated into the Teutonic Order 
                             lands, the bishopric is subjected to the Order.
1520                       Made a sovereign principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy Roman 
                             Empire (formally from Jan 1521), but style of prince not used.
20 May 1560                Sold to the King of Denmark, given as an appanage (Stift Kurland)
                             to the brother of the King, Magnus Herzog von Holstein.
1578                       Bishop Magnus accepts sovereignty of Poland-Lithuania (not 
                             ratified by the Diet of Poland-Lithuania, or recognized by 
                             Denmark).
20 Apr 1585                Sold by Denmark to Poland-Lithuania.
17 Jun 1585                Informal subdivisions established: Pilten (administered by pledges
                             to 1660), Dondangen (Polish "throne fief" to 1795) and Amboten
                             (Polish "throne fief" to 16..).
28 Oct 1611                Incorporation into Poland-Lithuania as the District of Pilten
                             (German: Kreis Pilten, Polish: Powiat Piltynski) as part 
                             of Polish Livonia declared (not effected).
 9 May 1617                Bishopric of Pilten (Stift Pilten) in personal (actually
                             subordinated) union with Poland-Lithuania.
1656                       The rights of pledge bought by the Duke of Courland.
 3 May 1660                Fief of Poland-Lithuanian to the Duke of Courland.
25 Feb 1661                Formal personal union with Courland.
1701 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden (1705 - 1706 interrupted by Russian occupation).
1717                       Personal union with the Commonwealth restored.
28 Mar 1795                Pilten Landtag approves annexation to Russia, suzerainty of
                             Poland-Lithuania declared void.
26 Apr 1795                Annexed by Russia, autonomy guaranteed.
28 Jan 1796                Autonomy abolished, fully incorporated into Courland.
 1 Feb 1797                Local autonomy restored, within the province of Courland.
Jul 1812 - Nov 1812        Occupied by France and made part of the Duchy of Courland,
                             Semigallia and Pilten.
 2 Mar 1818                Fully incorporated into Courland.


Bishops of Courland
1232 - 1234                Balduin Alnast                      (d. 1243)
1234 - 1236/37             Engelbrecht                         (d. c.1240)
1236/37 - 1250             .... (unknown)
 3 Mar 1251 -  5 Mar 1263  Heinrich I von Lützelburg           (d. 1273)
 5 Mar 1263 - 1298         Edmund von Werth                    (d. 1298)
1300 - 1311                Burchard                            (d. c.1320)
 5 Mar 1322 - 1326         Paul I
11 Oct 1328 - 1331/32      Johannes I                          (d. 1331/32)
1332 -  5 Jun 1353         Johannes II                         (d. 1353)
14 Mar 1354 - 1359         Ludolf                              (d. 1359)
25 Jan 1360 - 1371         Jakob                               (d. 1371)
 8 Jun 1371 - 1398         Otto                                (d. 1398)
12 Jun 1399 - 1404         Rutger von Brüggenei                (d. 1404)
12 Jan 1405 - 17 Nov 1424  Gottschalk Schutte                  (d. 1424)
1424 - 1425                Dietrich Tanke
15 Jan 1425 - 28 Nov 1456  Johannes III Tiergart               (d. 1456)
20 Jun 1457 -  9 Jul 1473  Paul II Einwald
 9 Jul 1473 - 31 Jan 1500  Martin Lewitz                       (d. 1500)
 4 May 1500 -  4 Nov 1500  Michael Sculteti                    (d. 1500)
12 Feb 1501 - 1523         Heinrich II Basedow                 (b. bf.1459 - d. 1523)
 2 Mar 1524 - 1539         Hermann II Ronneberg                (d. 1539)
16 Jul 1540 - Apr 1560     Johannes IV von Münchhausen         (d. 1572)
1560 - 28 Feb 1583         Magnus Herzog von Holstein          (b. 1540 - d. 1583)
Princes
 3 May 1660 - 1717         the Dukes of Courland
1717 - 26 Apr 1795         the Kings of Poland
Oberhauptleute (Polish: Starostes)
1562 - 1574                Heinrich Wolf von Lüdinghausen      (d. 1574)
c.1579                     Emmerich von Mirbach
1585 - 1603                Johann von Behr-Edwahlen
1603 - 1611                Christoph von Rappe-Telsen
1611 - 1616                the Duke of Courland
1621 - 1633                Hermann von Maydell
1633 - af.1667             Otto von Maydell
16.. - 16..                
Otto Ernst von Maydell              (b. 1608 - d. 1670)
1698 - 1705                Georg Johann von Keyserlingk        (b. 1629 - d. 1705)
1705 - 1715                Ulrich von Behr                     (b. 1667 - d. 1722)
1715 - 1717                Ernst Ewald von Heyking             (d. 1724)
1717 - 26 Apr 1795         Vacant

Präsidenten des Landratskollegiums
1667 - 16..                Otto von Maydell
1697 - 1710                Friedrich von der Osten,gen. Sacken (d. 1714)
1710 - 1714                Wilhelm Alexander von Heyking       (b. 1649 - d. 1714)
1714 - 1735                Ulrich von Behr                     (b. 1669 - d. 1749)
                             (acting to 1717)
1735 - 15 Jun 1750         Ernst von Koskull                   (b. 1678 - d. 1750)
1750 - 23 Feb 1764         Magnus Ernst von Fircks             (b. 1703 - d. 1764)
1764 - 1779                Johann Ernst von Heyking            (b. 1716 - d. 1782)
1779 - 1782                Friedrich Hermann von Behr          (b. 1729 - d. 1807)
1782 - 28 Jan 1796         Otto Ulrich von der Osten, gen.     (b. 1741 - d. 1818)
                             Sacken (acting to 1783)


Dondangen (Dundaga)

1232                       Part of the Bishopric (from 1255, Archbishopric) of Riga.
1435                       Sold to Bishop of Courland.
17 Jun 1585                Lordship of Dondangen (Herrschaft Dondangen), a
                             "throne fief" (thronlehen) of the Polish crown.
1639                       Formal union with Pilten; retains special status and privileges.
1656                       Passed to the house von Maydell.
1701 - 1709                Occupied by Sweden (1705 - 1706 under Russian occupation).
21 Jun 1711                Passed to the house von Osten-Sacken.
26 Apr 1795                Annexed by Russia as a part of Pilten.

Lords (style Erbherr/Erbherrin an Dondangen)
17 Jun 1585 - 1588         Martin Berzowicz
1588 - 1610                Levin von Bülow                     (d. 1610)
1610 - 1652                Friedrich von Bülow                 (d. 1652)
1652 - 1656                Anna Sibylla von Maydell (f) -Lady  (d. 1687)
                             (1st time)
1656 - 30 Jul 1670         Otto Ernst von Maydell              (b. 1608 - d. 1670)
30 Jul 1670 - 1687         Anna Sibylla von Maydell (f) -Lady  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1687 - 21 Jun 1711         Dietrich von Maydell                (b. c.1648 - d. 1711)
21 Jun 1711 - 1718         Ewald von der Osten-Sacken          (b. 1665 - d. 1718)
1718 -  6 Aug 1731         Johann Ulrich von der Osten-Sacken  (b. 1674 - d. 1731)
 6 Aug 1731 - 31 Dec 1794  Carl von der Osten-Sacken           (b. 1721 - d. 1794)
                            (from 8 Mar 1763, Karl Graf von der
                             Osten, gen. Sacken; from 15 Oct 1786 Karl
                             Fürst von der Osten, gen. Sacken) 
31 Dec 1794 - 26 Apr 1795  Christiane (Charlotte Sophie Freiin 
                             von Dieskau) (f) -Lady            (b. 1733 - d. 1811)



Livonia
 
[Riga merchant
                          flag, 1270]
                  1270 - 14 Jan 1582
[Poland]
           14 Jan 1582 - 26 Sep 1621
[Flag of Sweden]
         26 Sep 1621 - 15 Jul 1710
[Russian flag]
        15 Jul 1710 - 20 Nov 1917
[Latvian flag]
         May 1917 - 20 Nov 1917 (unofficial)

[Latvian
                          Communist govt 1917]
              21 Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918



Map of Livonia
Capital: Riga
Population: 430,000 (1782)
Constitution:
Articles of Accord
(1710-1783)
 
1201                       Seat of Bishopric of Livonia (est. in 1186) moved from Üxküll
                             (Ikskile) to the newly founded city of Riga. Gradual conquest 
                             of the peoples of modern Latvia begins; completed 1290.
1207                       Bishop of Riga takes the style of Prince of Livonia 
                            (Fürst von Livland) and makes Livonia part of the Holy Roman
                             Empire (formally 1 Dec 1225). Part of bishop's territories 
                             given as a fief to his standing army, the Swordbrothers
                             Order (Schwertbrüderorden, formally Fratres Militiae Christi
                             established in c.1204).
12 May 1237                Swordbrothers Order is incorporated into the Teutonic Order as
                             a separate branch or province, informally known as the Livonian
                             Order (Livländischer Orden) and administered by the Land-Master
                             of the Teutonic Order in Livonia (see under Courland).
1253                       Archbishop of Livonia, Prussia and Estonia, previously having no 
                             separate diocese, becomes also the Bishop of Riga. Both offices
                             formally merged 20 Jan 1255.
 7 May 1366                Nominal suzerainty of Archbishop of Riga over the possessions
                             of the Livonian Order is formally abolished.
1420                       Livonian Confederation (Livländischer Bund) established, 
                             includes the Archbishop of Riga, bishops of Dorpat, Courland,
                             Ösel-Wiek and Reval, their chapters (Domkapitel), Land-Master
                             of Livonian Order, vassals of bishops and the Order and 
                             cities of Riga, Dorpat (Tartu) and Reval (Tallinn). 
                             Possessions of all these rulers were known in common as 
                             Livonia during 13th-16th centuries. 
1520                       Government of Livonia formally shared between the Archbishop 
                             of Riga and the Landmeister of the Livonian Province of the 
                             Teutonic Order {Landmeister des Deutschen Ordens in Livland}.
1561 - 1660                Constant conflict among Poland-Lithuania, Russia, and
                             Sweden over possession of Livonia.
 5 Mar 1562                Principality of Livonia (includes Livonia proper [except the city
                             of Riga] and Lettgallia) established in personal (actually 
                             subordinate) union with Lithuania.
26 Dec 1566                Principality of Livonia becomes Duchy (formal name Ducatus
                             Livoniae Ultradunensis [Transdunenian Duchy]) in full union with
                             Lithuania. In Latin and German the style is Duke of Livonia, in 
                             Lithuanian and Polish the style is rendered as Prince of Livonia.
 4 Jul 1569                Poland and Lithuania enjoy equal rights regarding Duchy of 
                             Livonia (Inflanty in Polish).
1570 - 1578                Ivan IV of Russia installs Magnus Herzog von Holstein as the king 
                             of Livonia and grants him as a fief some parts of the area 
                             controlled by Russia (in present-day central and southern Estonia
                             and northern Latvia). 
14 Jan 1582                Riga, having been the Free City (Freie Stadt Riga) of Empire since
                             5 March 1562, incorporated into the Commonwealth as a part of 
                             Livonia (remains an autonomous City under the Polish-Lithuanian
                             sovereignty to 1621).
26 Sep 1621                City of Riga surrenders to the Swedish forces (occupation of the
                             western part of Duchy of Livonia completed by 1625).
26 Sep 1629                Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth provisionally cedes the
                             western part of Duchy of Livonia (Livonia (proper) and 
                             southern part of modern Estonia) to Sweden (extended in 
                             12 Sep 1635 and confirmed in 3 May 1660). The Commonwealth 
                             retains eastern part of Duchy of Livonia (Lettgallia), 
                             informally called thereafter Polish Livonia.
30 May 1630                Swedish part of Livonia, informally known as "Swedish Livonia", 
                             Livland or "Great Livonia" formally organized as the Duchy (or 
                             Province) of Livonia with capital in Riga. King of Sweden
                             additionally styled the "Duke of Livonia" from 1660.
15 Jul 1710                City of Riga surrenders to Russian forces (occupation of
                             Swedish Livonia, begun in 1704, completed). Swedish Livonia
                             is annexed by Russia and autonomy guaranteed. Thereafter 
                             informally Russian Livonia (until 1772) and in semi-official 
                             local usage Duchy (rendered Principality in Russian) of Livonia
                             (until 1783). The Russian Tsar adopts the style of Prince of 
                             Livonia.
 8 Aug 1713                Province or Government of Riga (Rizhskaya Guberniya) formed.
10 Sep 1721                Swedish Livonia formally ceded by Sweden to Russia under the 
                             Peace of Nystad.
30 Sep 1773                In the Second Partition of Poland-Lithuania, Lettgallia 
                             (Polish Livonia) annexed by the Russian Empire.
1775 - Nov 1917            Province of Livonia subordinated, with some interruptions, to
                             governors-general, or other overall administrations, of
                             the Baltic Provinces.
14 Jul 1783                Province of Livonia (Liflyandskaya Guberniya) autonomy is
                             abolished and is fully incorporated into Russia.
28 Nov 1796                Limited local autonomy restored (confirmed by all successive
                             Emperors of Russia on their accession until 1855).
1889                       Full integration of Livonia and Courland into the Russian Empire.
Oct 1905 - Jan 1906        Local revolutionary governments (action committees) control most of
                             the province of Livonia. Their activities coordinated by
                             Federated Committee of Riga.
 5 Jul 1917                Autonomy granted to the province of Livonia.
 3 Sep 1917                Germany occupies the city of Riga and its surroundings. Russian
                             administrations of Livonia and the Baltic Provinces evacuated to
                             Valmiera. German administration for Administrative Region of
                             Riga (Verwaltungsbezirk Riga) established (subordinated to 
                             Commander of Eastern front [see Eastern Front under Lithuania]).
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Bolshevik troops gradually take over the province of Livonia (on 
                             21 Nov 1917 military administration of Livonia replaced by the
                             United Latvian Workers, Soldiers and Landless Peasants' Soviet 
                             which is located in Valka).
29 Dec 1917                Autonomous Latvian Soviet government within the Russian Soviet
                             Republic declared, covering the province of Livonia (excluding
                             German-occupied Riga), which from 27 Dec 1917 includes also 
                             Lettgallia (sometimes called Iskolata Republika).
18 Feb 1918 - 22 Feb 1918  Livonia and Lettgallia gradually occupied by Germany. German 
                             administration for the Administrative Region of Livonia
                             (Verwaltungsbezirk Livland) established in Tartu (Dorpat)
                             (subordinated to Commander of Eastern front)(see Eastern
                             Front under Lithuania).
 3 Mar 1918                By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Brzecz-Litewski) the city of Riga
                             and its surroundings are "no longer subject to Russian 
                             sovereignty", but Germany "determines the future status of these
                             territories in agreement with their population". Russia retains
                             (nominally) Lettgallia and sovereignty over the rest of Livonia 
                            (including the Lettgallian town of Krustpils [Kreuzburg] and its
                             surroundings), which is to remain "occupied by a German police
                             force until security is insured by proper national institutions".
 1 Aug 1918                German administrations for the Administrative Regions of Livonia,
                             Estonia, Courland, Ösel, and Riga united into a central Military
                             Administration of the Baltic Lands (Militärverwaltung der 
                             Baltischen Lände), located in Riga.
11 Nov 1918                In the Armistice at Compiegne, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is
                             declared void and all German troops to be withdrawn (fixed time
                             not given). Military Administration of the Baltic Lands 
                             functions until 26 Nov 1918.
18 Nov 1918                Part of independent Latvia.


Princes in Letgale (Lettgallia)
118. - c.1203              Vasilko (in Gersik [Gerzike])
118. - 1206                Vyacheslav Borisovich             (d. 1206)
                             (in Kukenois [Koknese])
c.1203 - 123.              Vsevolod (in Gersik [Gerzike])
1206 - 1215                Occupied by Polock
12.. - 1244                Vyachko (in Varka)
Princes of Letts and Livs
11.. - c.1200              Vesike (in Metzepole [Vidzeme])
12.. - c.1214              Talivaldis (in Talva [Letgale])

Bishops of Livonia (in Üxküll) 
1186 - 12 Oct 1196         Meinhard (Meinhardus)             (d. 1196) 
1196 - 24 Aug 1198         Berthold Schulte                  (d. 1198)
Mar 1199 - 1201            Albrecht von Buxhövden            (b. c.1165 - d. 1229)
Bishops of Riga (from 1207, also Princes of Livland)
1201 - 17 Jan 1229         Albrecht I von Buxhövden          (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1231 - Dec 1253     Nikolaus von Nauen                (d. 1253)
1254 - 20 Jan 1255         Albrecht II Suerbeer              (d. 1273)
Archbishops of Riga and Princes of Livland
20 Jan 1255 - 1273         Albrecht II Suerbeer              (s.a.)
17 May 1274 - 1285         Johannes I von Lünen              (d. 1285)
10 Jan 1286 - 1294         Johannes II von Vechten           (d. 1294)
18 Apr 1295 - 1300         Johannes III Graf von Schwerin    (d. 1300)
19 Dec 1300 - 11 Apr 1302  Isarno Morlane                    (d. 1303)
                            (= Isarno Tacconi = Isarnus Fontianost)
11 Apr 1302 - 1304         Jens Grand
21 Mar 1304 - 1340         Friedrich Banner von Pernstein    (b. c.1270 - d. 1340)
                            (= Friedrich Baro)
18 Oct 1341 -  9 Sep 1347  Engelbrecht von Dolen             (d. 1347)
17 Mar 1348 - 28 Dec 1369  Fromhold von Vyshusen (Vyffhusen) (d. 1369)
11 Feb 1370 - 30 Jun 1374  Siegfried von Blomberg            (d. 1374)
23 Oct 1374 - 24 Sep 1393  Johannes IV von Ziten             (d. 1397)
 8 Apr 1395 - 30 May 1418  Johannes V von Wallenrode         (d. 1419)
11 Jul 1418 - 14 May 1424  Johannes VI Ambundi               (d. 1424)
13 Oct 1424 -  5 Apr 1448  Henning Scharpenberg              (d. 1448)
 9 Oct 1448 - 12 Jul 1479  Silvester Stodewäscher            (d. 1479)
22 Mar 1480 - 20 Dec 1483  Stephan Grube                     (d. 1483)
 4 Jun 1484 -  5 Feb 1509  Michael Hildebrand                (b. 1433 - d. 1509)
23 May 1509 - 29 Jun 1524  Casper (Jasper) Linde             (d. 1524)
29 Jun 1524 -  9 Sep 1527  Johannes VII Blankenfeld          (b. 1481 - d. 1527)
18 Jan 1531 - 11 Aug 1539  Thomas Schöning                   (d. 1539)
 7 Sep 1539 -  4 Feb 1563  Wilhelm von Hohenzollern Markgraf
                             von Brandenburg                 (b. 1498 - d. 1563)
Administrator
1520 -  5 Mar 1562         the Land-Masters of the Teutonic 
                           Order in Livland
Military governors
1559 - 1560                Jan Chodkiewicz                   (b. c.1537 - d. 1579)
                           - jointly with -
1559 - 1560                Jerzy Zenowicz                    (d. 1614) 
16 Jun 1560 - 28 Nov 1561  Mikolaj Radziwill Rudy            (b. 1512 - d. 1584)
Polish Governors
28 Nov 1561 - 15 May 1562? Mikolaj Radziwill Rudy (1st time) (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1562 - 26 Dec 1566  Gotthard Ketteler Herzog von      (b. 1517 - d. 1587)
                             Kurland und Semgallen
 2 Aug 1566 - 26 May 1578  Jan Chodkiewicz (administrator)   (s.a.)
14 Jan 1578-af.2 Apr 1578  Aleksander Chodkiewicz (acting)   (d. 1578/80)
 3 Jun 1578 - 11 Nov 1584  Mikolaj Radziwill Rudy (2nd time) (s.a.)
Mar/Apr1582-bf.12 Jul 1588 Stanislaw Pekoslawski (commissar) (d. 1588)
1588 - 1589                Vacant
1589 - 20 Nov 1603         Krzysztof Radziwill Piorun        (b. 1547 - d. 1603) 
 2 Nov 1589 - Apr 1601     Jan Abramowicz (or Abrahamowicz)  (d. 1602)
                            (president of Dorpat province)
1603 - 24 Sep 1621         Jan Karol Chodkiewicz             (b. 1560 - d. 1621)
                            (administrator; from 
                             c.17 Mar 1604 also commissar)
Swedish Governors
1621 - 1622                Kaspar Kruse
19 Aug 1622 - Jun 1628     Jakob Pontusson de la Gardie,     (b. 1583 - d. 1652)
                             greve Lecko
Jun 1628 - 1629            Gustaf Horn (acting)              (b. 1577 - d. 1645)
29 Nov 1629 - 1633         Johann Bengtson Schroderus,       (b. 1577 - d. 1645)
                             friherre Skytte af Duderhof 
1633 - 1634                Nils Assersson Mannersköld        (b. 1586 - d. 1655) 
                             (acting)
16 Oct 1634 -  9 Jun 1643  Bengt Bengtsson friherre          (b. 1591 - d. 1643)
                             Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö
 2 Aug 1643 - 11 Mar 1644  Hermann Hansson Wrangell          (b. 1587 - d. 1643)
30 May 1644 - 1644         Erik Erikson friherre Ryning      (b. 1592 - d. 1654)
Oct 1645 -  8 Sep 1647     Gabriel Bengtson friherre         (b. 1586 - d. 1656)
                             Oxenstierna 
1647 - 1649                Erik Gustavsson Stenbock
11 May 1649 - 1652         Magnus Gabriel Jakobson greve     (b. 1622 - d. 1686)
                             de la Gardie (1st time)
12 Oct 1652 - 21 Feb 1653  Gustaf Karlsson Horn af Kankas,   (b. 1592 - d. 1657)
                             greve Björneburg
1653 - 1655                Gustav Adolf Lewenhaupt           (b. 1619 - d. 1656)
19 May 1655 - 1658         Magnus Gabriel Jakobson greve     (s.a.)
                             de la Gardie (2nd time)
25 May 1658 - Jul 1661     Robert Patrickson greve Douglas   (b. 1611 - d. 1662)
1661 - 1662                Axel Gustafson greve Lillje       (b. 1603 - d. 1662)
1662 - 11 Aug 1666         Bengt Gabrielson Oxenstierna,     (b. 1623 - d. 1702)
                             greve Korsholm
Sep 1666 - 14 Jul 1671     Claes Akesson greve Tott          (b. 1616 - d. 1674)
1671 - 1674                Fabian von Fersen friherre von    (b. 1626 - d. 1677)
                             Cronendahl (acting)
1674 - 1686                Krister Claesson friherre         (b. 1622 - d. 1692)
                             Horn af Amyne
14 Jun 1686 - 24 Dec 1695  Jakob Johann Ewoldson greve       (b. 1647 - d. 1695)
                             Hastfer
 1 Oct 1696 - 18 Apr 1702  Erik Jonsson greve Dahlberg       (b. 1625 - d. 1703)
18 Apr 1702 - 17 Jan 1706  Karl Gustaf Hansson friherre      (b. 1637 - d. 1714)
                             Frölich
17 Jan 1706 - Sep 1709     Adam Ludwig greve Lewenhaupt      (b. 1659 - d. 1719)
Sep 1709 - 23 Oct 1709     Henrik Otto von Albedyl (acting)  (b. 1666 - d. 1738)
23 Oct 1709 - 15 Jul 1710  Niels Jonsson greve Strömberg af  (b. 1646 - d. 1723)
                             Clästorp
Russian Governors
15 Jul 1710 - Mar 1711     Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin-  (b. 1668 - d. 1726)
                             Obolenskiy (1st time)(interim)
Mar 1711 - May 1719        Prince Aleksandr Danilovich       (b. 1673 - d. 1729)
                             Menshikov (also of Estonia)
May 1719 - 14 Jul 1726     Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin-  (s.a.)
                             Obolenskiy (2nd time)
Jul 1726 - Jan 1727        Herman Jensen de Bohn (acting)    (b. 1672 - d. 1743)
Jan 1727 - May 1729        Count Grigoriy Petrovich          (b. 1672 - d. 1745) 
                             Chernoyshov
27 May 1729 - 30 Apr 1751  Count Peter von Lacy              (b. 1678 - d. 1751)
                            (from 25 Feb 1740 governor-general)
30 Apr 1751 - Jun 1753     Vladimir Chernoyshov (acting)
Jun 1753 -  1 Apr 1758     Fyodor Matveyevich Voyeikov       (b. 1703 - d. 1778)
                             (acting)
 1 Apr 1758 - 11 Jun 1761  Prince Vladimir Petrovich         (b. 1696 - d. 1761)
                             Dolgoruky
1761 - 1762                Yakov Arshenevsky (acting)
Governor-general
12 Mar 1762 - 29 Sep 1792  Count George Browne               (b. 1698 - d. 1792)
                             (Georg Graf Braun)
                             (from 1775, also in Estonia)
Governors
Jul 1783 - 1783            Nikolay Naumov                    (d. 1783)
19 Dec 1783 -  5 Dec 1790  Aleksandr Andreyevich Bekleshov   (b. 1745 - d. 1808)
 5 Dec 1790 - 17 Mar 1792  Johann von Reck
17 Mar 1792 - 28 May 1795  Peter Ludwig Freiherr von der     (b. 1745 - d. 1826)
                             Pahlen
                            (Pyotr Lyudvig Alekseyevich Graf Palen)
28 May 1795 - 24 Jan 1797  Gerhard Konrad Kasimir Freiherr   (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
                             von Meyendorff
24 Jan 1797 - Feb 1797     Balthasar Freiherr von            (b. 1745 - d. 1800)
                             Campenhausen
26 Feb 1797 -  6 Sep 1797  Ernst Burchard Graf von Mengden,  (b. 1738 - d. 1797)
                             Freiherr von Altenwoga
12 Sep 1797 - 29 Aug 1808  Christoph Adam von Richter        (b. 1751 - d. 1815)
29 Aug 1808 - 13 May 1811  Ivan Nikolayevich Repyev          (b. 1755 - d. 1833)
13 May 1811 -  5 Nov 1827  Joseph Du Hamel (von Dühamel)     (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
27 Nov 1827 - 29 Apr 1829  Paul Baron von Hahn               (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
29 Apr 1829 - 23 May 1829  Ludwig Johann Ferdinand von       (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
                             Cube (1st time) (acting)    
23 May 1829 - 25 Feb 1847  Georg Friedrich Baron von         (b. 1764 - d. 1848)
                             Fölkersahm
25 Feb 1847 -  8 Jun 1847  Ludwig Johann Ferdinand von       (s.a.)
                             Cube (2nd time) (acting)
 8 Jun 1847 - 30 May 1862  Heinrich Magnus Wilhelm von       (b. 1796 - d. 1869)
                             Essen 
30 May 1862 - 31 Jan 1868  August Georg Friedrich von        (b. 1823 - d. 1908)
                             Öttingen 
31 Jan 1868 - 24 Nov 1871  Friedrich Woldemar von Lysander   (b. 1816 - d. 1893)
24 Nov 1871 - 10 Feb 1872  Julius Gustav von Cube            (b. 1815 - d. 1888)
                             (acting)
10 Feb 1872 - Dec 1874     Michael Baron von Wrangell        (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
Dec 1874 -  1 Dec 1882     Alexander Karl Abraham Baron
                             von Üxküll-Güldenbandt          (b. 1840 - d. 1912)
                             (acting to 18 Dec 1874)
 1 Dec 1882 - 18 Jan 1883  Hermann Friedrich Johannes von    (b. 1845 - d. 1917)
                             Tobiesen
(1st time)(acting)
18 Jan 1883 - 13 May 1885  Ivan Yegorovich Shevich           (b. 1838 - d. 1912)
13 May 1885 - 21 Jun 1885  Hermann Friedrich Johannes von    (s.a.)
                             Tobiesen
(2nd time) (acting)
21 Jun 1885 - 14 Dec 1895  Mikhail Alekseyevich Zinovyev     (b. 1838 - d. 1895)
14 Dec 1895 -  7 Mar 1896  Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin
                             (1st time) (acting)
 7 Mar 1896 - 21 Sep 1900  Vladimir Dmitriyevich Surovtsev   (b. 1856 - d. 1900)
21 Sep 1900 - Jan 1901     Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin
                             (2nd time) (acting)
Jan 1901 - 27 Jun 1905     Mikhail Alekseyevich Pashkov      (b. 1853 - d. 1908)
28 Jun 1905 - 28 Jul 1905  Pyotr Petrovich Neklyudov (acting)
28 Jul 1905 - 17 Aug 1905  Yakov Dmitriyevich Bologovskoy    (b. 1863 - d. 1913?) 
                             (acting)
17 Aug 1905 - 23 Nov 1914  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Zvegintsov (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
Oct 1905 - Jan 1906        Janis Ozols                       (b. 1878 - d. 1968)  LSDSP
                           + Samuil "Maksim" Klevansky                            Bund
                            (leaders of the Federated Committee 
                             of Riga; in rebellion)
23 Nov 1914 - Jan 1916     Arkady Ippolitovich Kelepovsky    (b. 1870 - d. 1925) 
Jan 1916 -  1 Feb 1916     Sergey Sergeyevich Podolinsky     (b. 1879 - d. 1944) 
                             (acting)
 1 Feb 1916 -  8 Feb 1917  Nikolay Nikolayevich Lavrinovsky  (b. 1875 - d. 1930)
20 Feb 1917 - 18 Mar 1917  Sergey Alekseyevich Shidlovsky    (b. 1864 - d. 1922)
                             (Schidlowski)
Russian Government Commissioners 
18 Mar 1917 -  3 Apr 1917  Andrey Krastkalns                 (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  LTP
 3 Apr 1917 - 20 Nov 1917  Andrey Priedkalns                 (b. 1873 - d. 1923)  LSD-M
                             (acting to 27 May 1917)
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the 12th Army
 9 Nov 1917 - 21 Nov 1917  Juris Carins                      (b. 1887 - d. 1922)  LSD-L
Commissar for the 12th Army
Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918     Semyon Mikhailovich Nakhimson     (b. 1885 - d. 1918)  Bund
Head of the German Military Administration for Riga district
 3 Sep 1917 -  4 Sep 1917  Oskar von Hutier                  (b. 1857 - d. 1934)
Commander of the German 8th Army
18 Feb 1918 -  8 Mar 1918  Günther Graf von Kirchbach        (b. 1850 - d. 1925)
                             (in Livonia)
Jul 1918 - 31 Jul 1918     Arnold von Engelbrechten          (b. 1870 - d. 1953)
Head of the Military Administration for Livland
 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Jul 1918  Albert Wilhelm Heinrich Fürst     (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
                             von Hohenzollern 
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Soviet (Council) of Workers, Soldiers
and Landless Deputies of Latvia

21 Nov 1917 - 22 Nov 1917  Otto Karklins                     (s.a.)               LSD-L
22 Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918  Fricis Rozins                     (b. 1870 - d. 1919)  LSD-L

Landmarschälle
1710                       Georg Reinhold von Tiesenhausen   (b. 1650 - d. 1734)
                             Freiherr zu Erlaa
1710                       Johann Albrecht von Mengden       (b. 1663 - d. 1720)
                             Freiherr von Altenwoga
1710 - 1712                Magnus Gustav von Mengden         (b. 1663 - d. 1726)
                             Freiherr von Altenwoga
1712 - 1715                Magnus Johann von dem Broele,     (d. 1718)
                             gen. Plater
1715 - 1717                Berend Dietrich von Bock          (b. 1670 - d. 1737)
1717 - 1720                Otto Chistoph von Richter         (b. 1678 - d. 1729)
1720 - 1723                Woldemar Johann Freiherr von      (b. 1684 - d. 1741)
                             Ungern-Sternberg
1723 - 1727                Gotthard Wilhelm Freiherr von     (b. 1685 - d. 1749) 
                             Budberg, gen. Bönninghausen
1727 - 1730                Gotthard Wilhelm von Berg         (b. 1682 - d. 1756)
1730 - 1737                Caspar Friedrich von Buddenbrock  (d. 1737)
1737 - 1742                Johann Gustav Freiherr von        (b. 1693 - d. 1754)
                             Budberg, gen. Bönninghausen 
1742 - 1747                Heinrich Gustav von Patkul        (b. 1698 - d. 1778)
1747 - 1759                Gustav Henrich von Igelström      (b. 1695 - d. 1771)
1759 - 1765                Leonhard Johann Freiherr von      (b. 1727 - d. 1796)
                             Budberg, gen. Bönninghausen
1765 - 1769                Adolf Heinrich von Anrep          (b. 1717 - d. 1765)
1769 - 1775                Carl Gustav von Mengden Freiherr  (b. 1723 - d. 1775)
                             von Altenwoga
1775 - 1777                Caspar Heinrich von Rosenkampf    (b. 1734 - d. 1790)
1777 - 1783                Franz Wilhelm von Rennenkampf     (b. 1743 - d. 1784)

 1In co-charge of the Landratskollegium, a body of 12 members, were two Residierende Landräte, rotating every month. Their monthly terms and division in 12 lines are currently unavailable.

Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count, Friherre/Freiherr = Baron, Herzog = Duke.

Party abbreviations: Bund = Jewish Workers’ Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia "Bund" (Jewish social-democratic, 1897-19..); LSD-M/L = Latvijas Socialdemokratija - Mazinieki/Lielinieki (Latvian Social Democracy, social-democratic/communist, branch of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, former LSDSP, 1906-1919); LSDSP = Latvijas Socialdemokratiska Stradnieku Partija (Latvian Social-Democratic Workers' Party, social-democratic, 1904-1906 and 1918-1934); LTP = Latviesu Tautas Partija (Latvian People's Party, conservative, 1905-1918); LZS = Latvijas Zemnieku Savieniba (Latvian Farmers' Union, centrist, 1917-1934)


Polish Livonia 
[Polish Livonia
                  1629-1772]
             26 Sep 1629 - 30 Sep 1772
Map of Polish Livonia Capital: Dyneburg (Daugavpils) Population: 190,000 (1782) Constitution:
Ordinatio
(1677-1772)

26 Sep 1629                Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth retains the eastern part of the
                             Duchy of Livonia (i.e., Lettgallia), thereafter informally 
                             called "Polish Livonia" (Inflanty Polskie) or "Little
                             Livonia", which is in full union with the Polish-Lithuanian
                             crown. King continues to use the style of the "Prince of
                             Livonia" (Ksiaze Inflancki).
1677                       Formally made a province (Wojewodztwo Inflancki in Polish;
                             in Lithuanian Inflantijos Vaivadija) of the Commonwealth,
                             administered as a part of Lithuania, but nominally a common 
                             possession of both nations. Provincial capital in
                             Dyneburk (Daugavpils).
30 Sep 1772                Annexed by Russia in the First Partition of the Polish-
                             Lithuanian Commonwealth and made an integral part of Russia.
                             Province of Dvinsk (Dvinskaya Provintsiya) established as a
                             subdivision of the Government of Pskov. Dyneburk is renamed 
                             Dvinsk.
 2 Apr 1777                Province of Dvinsk becomes a part of the Government of 
                             Polotsk (abolished in 1794).
23 Dec 1796                Part of the province of Belarus.
 1 Mar 1802                Part of the province of Vitebsk.
Mar 1863                   Rebellion in Kreslav (Kraslava) in support of the "Second
                             insurrection" in Poland.
27 Dec 1917                Transferred by Soviet Russia to Livonia.

Governors (wojewoda) of Polish Livonia
(from 30 Sep 1772, only nominally)
Aug 1677 - 10 Jan 1695     Jan Teodor Schlieben            (b. 1638 - d. 1695)
28 Feb 1695 - 24 Feb 1696  Jan Andrzej Plater              (b. c.1626 - d. 1696)
                             (to 28 Feb 1695, palatine)
17Mar/Aug?1696-27Nov 1705  Otto Fryderyk Felkerzamb        (b. 1641 - d. 1705)
27 Nov 1705-bf.24Jan 1707  Fabian Plater                   (b. c.1628 - d. 1707)
                             (to 8 Dec 1705, palatine)
24 Jan 1707 - 1709         Stefan Karol Grothus            (b. 1662 - d. 1717)
 4 Nov 1709 - Feb 1713     Józef Mikolaj Koss              (b. 1680 - d. 1717)
20 Feb 1713 - 21 Nov 1722  Piotr Jerzy Przebendowski       (b. c.1674 - d. 1755)
21 Nov 1722 - 11 Oct 1735  Antoni Andrzej Morsztyn         (b. 1677 - d. 1735)
11 Oct 1735 - 24 Nov 1736  Jan Ludwik Plater               (b. c.1686 - d. 1736)
                             (to 17 Nov 1735, palatine)
 8 Jul 1737 - 25 Jun 1765  Franciszek Jakub Szembek        (b. 1690 - d. 1765)
 9 Jul 1765 - 19 Oct 1767  Jan Jedrzej Józef Borch         (b. 1715 - d. 1780)
                            (Johann Andreas Joseph von   
                             der Borch)
 3 Nov 1767 -  8 Apr 1769  Stanislaw Brzostowski           (b. 1733 - d. 1769)
20 Jun 1769 - 23 Mar 1775  Jozafat Zyberk                  (b. 1694 - d. 1776)
10 Apr 1775 - 1778         Jan Tadeusz Zyberk              (b. 1739 - d. 1806)
3 Oct1778-24Feb/1 Nov1788  Kasper Rogalinski               (b. c.1725 - d. 1788)
20 Oct 1790 - 23 Feb 1794  Adam Ewald Felkerzamb           (b. 1734 - d. 1794)
Commander in Kreslav
Mar 1863                   Count Leon Joachim Plater       (b. 1836 - d. 1863)



Russian Baltic Provinces

  [Russian flag]
              1775 -  20 Nov 1917

1775                       Russian governors-general of province of Livonia also permanently
                             governors-general of province of Estonia.
14 Jul 1783                Offices of governors of Livonia and Estonia established,
                             subordinated to governor-general, owing reorganization of 
                             administration and incorporation of Livonia and Estonia
                             into Russia.
 8 Oct 1800                Livonia, Estonia and Courland permanently under single governor-
                             general for all three provinces with residence in Riga.
30 Jun 1801                Office of single overall governor-general of Livonia, Estonia and
                             Courland formally established. All three provinces know
                             thereafter informally as the "Baltic Provinces" or "Baltic Sea 
                             Provinces" (Ostseeprovinzen or [from the late 19th century]
                             Baltische Provinzen in German; Pribaltiyskiye Gubernii or
                             Ostzeyskiye Gubernii in Russian) or "Baltic Region"
                             (Pribaltiyskiy Kray).
19 Aug 1808 -  5 Apr 1819  Separate governor-general for Estonia (office sometimes vacant).
 7 Feb 1876                Government-general abolished.
23 Aug 1905 - 28 Apr 1909  Government-general temporarily restored in Courland (11 Dec 1905
                             in Livonia, 25 Dec 1905 in Estonia).
 2 Aug 1914 - 20 Nov 1917  Temporary overall administration of special plenipotentiaries.

Presidents of the Baltic Committee (in the Russian government)
 5 Jun 1846 - 1859         Peter Graf von der Pahlen          (b. 1778 - d. 1864)
                             (Pyotr Petrovich graf Palen)
1859 - 23 Apr 1876         Moritz von Grünewaldt              (b. 1797 - d. 1877)

Governors-general of Livonia and Estonia
14 Jul 1783 - 29 Sep 1792  Count George Browne                (b. 1698 - d. 1792)
                             (Georg Graf Braun)
29 Sep 1792 - 11 Oct 1792  Vacant
11 Oct 1792 - Oct 1798     Prince Nikolay Vasilyevich Repnin  (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
Oct 1798 -  9 Nov 1798     Vacant
 9 Nov 1798 -  8 Oct 1800  Ludwig von Nagell                  (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
Governors-General of Livonia, Estonia and Courland
 8 Oct 1800 - 29 Jun 1801  Peter Ludwig Graf von der Pahlen   (b. 1745 - d. 1826)
                             (Pyotr Lyudvig Alekseyevich von Palen)
29 Jun 1801 - 21 Jul 1801  Vacant
21 Jul 1801 - 23 Sep 1803  Prince Sergey Fyodorovich Golitsyn (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
23 Sep 1803 -  6 Feb 1807  Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1750 - d. 1811)
                             Buxhövden (1st time)
                             (Fyodor Fyodorovich Graf Buksgevden)
 6 Feb 1807 - 27 Mar 1807  Vacant
27 Mar 1807 - 25 Dec 1807  Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov       (b. 1752 - d. 1819)
                             (acting)
25 Dec 1807 - 19 Aug 1808  Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (s.a.)
                             Buxhövden (2nd time)
Governors-General of Livonia and Courland
19 Aug 1808 - 29 Dec 1810  Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (s.a.)
                             Buxhövden
29 Dec 1810 - 17 Jun 1812  Prince Dmitriy Ivanovich           (b. 1758 - d. 1838)
                             Lobanov-Rostovsky
17 Jun 1812 - 24 Oct 1812  Johann Magnus Gustav von Essen     (b. 1758 - d. 1813)
24 Oct 1812 -  9 Nov 1812  Vacant
 9 Nov 1812 -  5 Apr 1819  Marquis Filipo Paulucci            (b. 1779 - d. 1849)
                             (Markiz Filipp Osipovich Pauluchchi)
                             (to 4 Jan 1813, governor-general of Livonia)
Governors-General of Livonia, Estonia and Courland
 5 Apr 1819 - 11 Jan 1830  Marquis Filipo Paulucci            (s.a.)
12 Jan 1830 - 29 Mar 1845  Carl Magnus Baron von der          (b. 1779 - d. 1863)
                             Pahlen (Matvey Ivanovich Baron Palen)
29 Mar 1845 -  9 Apr 1845  Vacant
 9 Apr 1845 - 13 Jan 1848  Count Yevgeny Aleksandrovich       (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
                             Golovin 
13 Jan 1848 - 13 Nov 1861  Count Aleksander Arkadyevich       (b. 1804 - d. 1882)
                             Suvorov-Rymniksky, Prince 
                             Italiysky
13 Nov 1861 - 14 Dec 1861  Vacant
14 Dec 1861 - 27 Dec 1864  Wilhelm Heinrich Baron von         (b. 1799 - d. 1880)
                             Lieven
27 Dec 1864 - 30 Apr 1866  Count Pytor Andreyevich Shuvalov   (b. 1827 - d. 1889)
30 Apr 1866 - 21 Oct 1866  Count Eduard Trofimovich Baranov   (b. 1811 - d. 1884)
21 Oct 1866 - 29 Jan 1876  Prince Pyotr Romanovich Bagration  (b. 1818 - d. 1876)
Temporary Governors-General of Livonia, Estonia and Courland
23 Aug 1905 - 25 Dec 1905  Woldemar von Böckmann              (b. 1848 - d. 1923)
                            (to 11 Dec 1905 temporary governor-
                             general of Courland, then temporary 
                             governor-general of Livonia and Courland)
25 Dec 1905 - 30 Oct 1906  Count Vasiliy Yustinovich Sollogub (b. 1848 - d. 1914)
30 Oct 1906 - 28 Apr 1909  Baron Aleksandr Nikolayevich       (b. 1844 - d. 1928)
                             Möller-Zakomelsky 
Special Plenipotentiaries for Civil Administration of Livonia, Estonia and Courland
 2 Aug 1914 - Nov 1917     Aleksandr Mikhailovich Gerasimov   (b. 1861 - d. 1931)
                            (to 7 Dec 1914 for Estonia and Livonia, 
                             except district of Riga, then for Reval
                             [Tallinn], Baltischport [Paldiski] 
                             and Dünamünde [Daugavgriva])
 2 Aug 1914 -  7 Dec 1914  Churin
                            (for Courland and district of Riga)
 7 Dec 1914 - 15 Aug 1915  Pavel Grigoryevich Komarov-Kurlov  (b. 1860 - d. 1923)
15 Aug 1915 - 21 Oct 1915  .... (acting)
21 Oct 1915 - 28 Jul 1917  Radko Ruskov Dimitrov (acting)     (b. 1859 - d. 1918)
28 Jul 1917 - 20 Nov 1917  Vladimir Savelyevich Voitinsky     (b. 1887 - d. 1960)
                            (commissioner for civil administration
                             of Livonia, Estonia and Courland)



German and Allied Military Administrations in Liepaja, Riga  and Jelgava 1918 - 1919

Commanders of the German troops in Latvia, Estonia (to Feb 1919) 
and Lithuania (from Feb 1919)
31 Jul 1918 - 14 Jan 1919  Hugo Karl Gottlieb von Kathen     (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
14 Jan 1919 - 27 Jan 1919  Ludwig von Estorff                (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
27 Jan 1919 -  3 Feb 1919  Ferdinand von Quast               (b. 1850 - d. 1939)
 3 Feb 1919 -  3 Oct 1919  Rüdiger Gustav Graf von der Goltz (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
 3 Oct 1919 - 13 Dec 1919  Walter von Eberhardt              (b. 1855 - d. 1939) 

German General Plenipotentiaries of the Reich for Baltic Lands (Latvia and Estonia)
14 Nov 1918 - Jan 1919     August Winnig                     (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
Jan 1919 - Feb 1919        Wilhelm Burchard
Head of the Allied Military Mission to the Baltic States
1919 - 1919                Sir Hubert de la Poer Gough (U.K.)(b. 1870 - d. 1963)

Commanders of the Allied Forces in the Baltic Sea
28 Nov 1918 - 6  Jan 1919  Sir Edwin Alexander-Sinclair      (b. 1865 - d. 1945)
                             of Freswick (U.K.)
 6 Jan 1919 - Dec 1919     Walter Henry Cowan (U.K.)         (b. 1871 - d. 1956)

Military governors of Liepaja (Libau)
Nov 1918 -  1 Feb 1919     Johann Wilhelm Neugebauer         (b. 1854 - d. 1932)
                             (Germany)
 1 Feb 1919 - 23 Jun 1919  Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz        (s.a.) 
                             (Germany)
23 Jun 1919 - 11 Jul 1919  Henry Rowan-Robinson (U.K.)       (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
11 Jul 1919 - Oct 1919     Latvian administration
Oct 1919 -  7 Nov 1919     Lawrence Leopold Dundas (U.K.)    (b. 1874 - d. 1939) 
 7 Nov 1919 - 26 Nov 1919  John Alfred Moreton (U.K.)

Military governors of Riga
 3 Jan 1919 - 22 May 1919  the Latvian Soviet (Communist) administration
22 May 1919 - 29 Jun 1919  Alfred Fletcher (Germany)         (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
29 Jun 1919 -  5 Jul 1919  Hans Heinrich Sixt von Arnim      (b. 1890 - d. 1952)
                             (Germany)
 5 Jul 1919 -  8 Jul 1919  Stephen George Tallents (U.K.)    (b. 1884 - d. 1958)
                           + Ernest J. Dawley (U.S.)         (b. 1886 - d. 1973)
 

Military governors of Jelgava (Mitau)
 9 Jan 1919 - 26 Mar 1919  the Latvian Soviet (Communist) administration
26 Mar 1919 - 23 Jun 1919  .... (Germany)
23 Jun 1919 - 21 Sep 1919  Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz        (s.a.) 
                            (Germany)
 2 Sep 1919 -  2 Dec 1919  Pavel Rafaylovich Bermondt,       (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
                             Prince Avalov 
                            (commander Western Russian Volunteer Army)
 6 Oct 1919 - 19 Nov 1919  Konstantin Johann Georg graf von  (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             der Pahlen (Western Russian Volunteer Army)
                            (chairman military-administrative council)
18 Nov 1919 - 21 Nov 1919  Walter von Eberhardt (Germany)    (s.a.) 



Reichskommissariat of Ostland (Eastland)

[War Ensign 1935-1945
                (Germany)]
 
Map of Ostland
Capital: Riga
Currency: German
Reichsmark
(DER)
Population: 8,000,000
(1943 est.)
Constitution
Ordinance
(18 Aug 1941;
in German)

17 Jul 1941                Ostland (Reichskommissariat für das Ostland) established,
                             includes German occupied Lithuania, Latvia (from 1 Sep 1941),
                             Estonia (from 5 Dec 1941) and Belarus. Ostland consists
                             of four General Distrikts (Generalbezirke) or (informally)
                             Lands, and the city of Riga (Gebiet Riga Stadt), is directly 
                             administered by the Reichskommissar.
13 Oct 1944                Riga taken by Soviet troops.
 2 Feb 1945                Ostland is formally dissolved.

Reichskommissare
17 Jul 1941 - 26 Sep 1944  Hinrich Lohse                     (b. 1896 - d. 1964)  NSDAP
26 Sep 1944 - 13 Oct 1944  Erich Koch                        (b. 1896 - d. 1986)  NSDAP 
                            (nominally to 2 Feb 1945)

Head Chief of Division I Central Office
 1 Sep 1942 - 1944?        Wilhelm Burmeister                (b. 1905 - d. 1983)  NSDAP

Party abbreviation: NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Worker's Party, nationalist, Nazi German fascist, only legal party 1941-44)



Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
Flag of 1942
                    25 Aug 1940 - 17 Jan 1953 
 
Flag of Latvian
                          SSR in 1953
                  17 Jan 1953 - 27 Feb 1990
 
Capital: Riga Hear SSR Anthem
"Latvijas Padomju
 Socialistiskas Republikas
 valsts himna"
(State Anthem of the
 Latvian SSR)
(1945-1990)
Constitution
(19 Apr 1978)
Population: 2,529,000 (1980)

 5 Aug 1940                Accession to the Soviet Union.
 1 Jul 1941 - 13 Oct 1944  German occupation; occupied Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
                             and Belorussia formed the Ostland territory (s.a.).
28 Jul 1989                
Declaration of state sovereignty.
 4 May 1990                Republic of Latvia 

Note: Latvian with Russian names in parentheses.

First secretaries of the Latvian Communist Party (LKP)
25 Aug 1940 - 25 Nov 1959  Janis Kalnberzins                  (b. 1893 - d. 1986)
                             (Ian Eduardovich Kalnberzin)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1 Jul 1941 - 13 Oct 1944)

25 Nov 1959 - 15 Apr 1966  Arvids Pelse                      
(b. 1899 - d. 1983)
                             (Arvid Yanovich Pelshe)
15 Apr 1966 - 14 Apr 1984  Augusts Voss                       (b. 1916 - d. 1994)
                             (Avgust Eduardovich Voss)
14 Apr 1984 -  4 Oct 1988  Boriss Pugo (
Boris Karlovich Pugo) (b. 1937 - d. 1991)
 4 Oct 1988 -  7 Apr 1990  Janis Vagris (Jan Yanovich Vagris) (b. 1930)
 7 Apr 1990 - 24 Aug 1991  Alfreds Rubiks                     (b. 1935)
                             (Alfred Petrovich Rubiks)
                           ("leading role" of the Party abolished 11 Jan 1990)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
25 Aug 1940 - 11 Apr 1952  Augusts Kirhensteins               (b. 1872 - d. 1963)  LKP
                             (Avgust Martynovich Kirchenshteyn)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 1 Jul 1941 - 13 Oct 1944)
11 Apr 1952 - 27 Nov 1959  Karlis Ozolins                     (b. 1905 - d. 1987)  LKP
                             (Karl Martynovich Ozolin)
27 Nov 1959 -  5 May 1970  Janis Kalnberzins                  (s.a.)               LKP
 5 May 1970 - 20 Aug 1974  Vitalijs Rubenis                   (b. 1914 - d. 1994)  LKP
                             (Vitaly Petrovich Rubenis)
20 Aug 1974 - 22 Jun 1985  Peteris Strautmanis                (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  LKP
                             (Pyotr Yakubovich Strautmanis)
22 Jun 1985 -  6 Oct 1988  Janis Vagris                       (s.a.)               LKP
 6 Oct 1988 -  3 May 1990  Anatolijs Gorbunovs                (b. 1942)            LKP
                             (Anatoly Valeryanovich Gorbunov)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Aug 1940 - 26 Jul 1946  Vilis Lacis                        (b. 1904 - d. 1966)  LKP
                             (Vilis Tenisovich Lacis)
                             (
in Russian SFSR exile 1 Jul 1941 - 13 Oct 1944)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
26 Jul 1946 - 27 Nov 1959  Vilis Lacis                        (s.a.)               LKP
27 Nov 1959 - 23 Apr 1962  Janis Peive                        (b. 1906 - d. 1976)  LKP
                             (Ian Voldemarovich Peyve)
23 Apr 1962 -  5 May 1970  Vitalijs Rubenis                   (s.a.)               LKP
 5 May 1970 -  6 Oct 1988  Jurijs Rubenis                     (b. 1925 - d. 2004)  LKP
                             (Yury Yanovich Ruben)
 6 Oct 1988 -  7 May 1990  Vilnis Edvins Bresis               (b. 1938)            LKP
                             (
Vilnis Edvins Gedertovich Bresis)

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation 1942-1944

Note: Soviet resistance groups in Latvia, originally from 1942 under Russian and Byelorussian supervision, were united in Jan 1943 in a separate command directly subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan Units in Moscow.

Chief of Staff of the Partisan Units
Jan 1943 - 1944            Arturs Sprogis                     (b. 1904 - d. 1980)  Mil/LKP








© Ben Cahoon