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Estonia  
 
[Flag of
                                    Sweden]
            15 Jun 1561 - 10 Oct 1710
 
 
 
[Russian
                                    flag]
           10 Oct 1710 - 24 Feb 1918
 
 
 
[Estonian
                                    Flag]
            24 Feb 1918 - 12 Apr 1918; 
            21 Nov 1918 - 21 Jul 1940
            (temporary to 16 Jul 1922);
         Dec 1941 - Sep 1944 semi-official
 
[Baltic
                                    State/Duchy unofficial flag 1918]
         12 Apr 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 (unofficial)
                    Baltic State/Duchy
 
Estonian Workers Commune of
                                    1918
                   29 Nov 1918 - 5 Jun 1919 
                 Estonian Workers' Commune
 
[Flag of
                                    USSR]
                     6 Aug 1940 - Jul 1941;
                   22 Sep 1944 - 20 Aug 1991
 
[Estonian
                                    Flag]
              Re-adopted 8 May 1990
 


Map of Estonia
Hear National Anthem
"Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm"
(My Native Land,
My Pride and Joy)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1920-1940,
readopted
1990
Constitution
 (28 Jun 1992)
-------------------------
Constitution 1938
(1 Jan 1938-21 Jul 1940)
Capital: Tallinn
(Revel 1219-1918;
Tallinna 1918-c.1920)
Currency: Euro (EUR);
1992 - 31 Dec 2010 Estonian Kroon (EEK); 1924-40 Estonian
 Kroon
(EEN); 1918-24 Estonian
 Marka (EEM);
1918-22 German
Darlehenskasse Ost
Mark (DEOM)
National Holiday: 24 Feb (1918)
Independence Day
Population: 1,266,375 (2013)
1,117,361 (1934)
GDP: $29.9 billion (2013)
Exports: $15.11 billion (2013)
Imports: $16.38 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%,
Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 15,516 (2010)
Merchant marine: 25 ships (2010)
(170 ships [1937])
Religions: Lutheran 9.9%, Orthodox 16.2%, other Christian
 (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman
Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%,
unspecified 16.7% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: 1918-1941: BIS, ICRM, ILO, IOC, ITU, League of Nations, LORCS, PCIJ, UPU; from 1990: AG, ANT, APM, BA, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ENMOD, ESA (cooperating state), ESCR, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NPT, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Estonia Index
Chronology
 
1030 - 1061                Russian occupation of Dorpat (Tartu).
1211                       Estonian Bishopric, also called Bishopric of Leal
                             (Lihula) (after the nominal seat of the bishop)
                             established by the Bishop of Riga (confirmed by
                             the Holy See 31 Oct 1213), originally without
                             any temporal authority.
1216                       Southern part of present-day Estonia invaded by
                             the Swordbrothers Order, who establish a 
                             standing presence there (occasional raids
                             started from 1208, occupation of Estonian
                             lands completed by Feb 1227).
Jun 1219                   Danish rule (Estonian Duchy) in Reval (Tallinn) 
                             and northern part of present-day Estonia.
Feb 1227                   Danish duchy of (N-) Estonia was conquered by
                             Swordbrothers
21 Jul 1224                Estonian bishop takes temporal authority over the
                             southern part of present-day Estonia as a 
                             sovereign prince-bishop of the Holy Roman Empire
                             (formally from 6 Nov 1225), Bishop gives part of
                             his possessions as a fief to the Swordbrothers 
                             Order, and cedes the western part of the 
                             Estonian mainland (including Leal) to the bishop
                             of Riga (24 Jul 1224) and chooses Dorpat (Tartu)
                             as his new capital (Aug 1224). The Estonian
                             Bishopric thereafter renamed as Bishopric
                             of Dorpat, but bishops continues to use
                             the style of bishop of Leal to 8 Jan 1235.
12 May 1237                Swordbrothers Order incorporated into the Teutonic
                             Order as a separate branch or province, 
                             informally known as the Livonian Order.
 7 Jun 1238                After joining the Teutonic Order, lands of
                             Revalia, Hargia (Harjumaa) and Wironia 
                             (Virumaa) were retroceded to Denmark, but 
                             "Gierwia" (a landlocked area in central
                             Estonia, now Järvamaa) remained possession of
                             the Teutonic Order until 29 Aug 1346.
1285                       City of Reval (Tallinn) becomes a member of the
                             Hanseatic League and is later joined by 3 other 
                             cities in present-day Estonia: Dorpat (Tartu), 
                             Pernau (Pärnu), and Fellin (Viljandi).
 1 Nov 1346                Estonian Duchy, having been sold by Denmark (on 
                             29 Aug 1346), is handed over to the Grand Master
                             of Teutonic Order and by the later (on 7 Jun
                             1347) given up in a pledge and administration 
                             to the Land-Master of the Livonian Order
                            (Grand Master relinquishes rights 14 Jan 1525).
 6 Jun 1561                City of Reval and vassals of the Order in 
                             (4 Jun 1561) make an oath to Sweden (on 15 Jun 
                             1561) these territories are annexed by Sweden
                             but annexation is not recognized by the Livonian
                             Order or the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
                             until 13 Dec 1570. This part of Estonia, 
                             controlled by Sweden (until 1584) called 
                             Swedish Livonia.
 5 Mar 1562                Territories of the Livonian Order become part of
                             the Lithuanian principality of Livonia.
15 Jan 1582                Russia withdraws from Dorpat (occupied in 1558)
                             and transfers it to the Polish-Lithuanian
                             Commonwealth. 
20 Mar 1584                Territories annexed by Sweden are organized as the
                             Duchy or Province of Estonia (Estland in Swedish
                             and German), originally (to the 17th cent.) 
                             formally Estonian Duchy. The King of Sweden 
                             takes the style of "Duke of Estonia", 
                             originally "Estonian Duke" (Hertig af Esthen).
10 Oct 1710                Estonia is annexed by Russia and autonomous
                             province or government of Revel (Russian: 
                             Namestichestvo Revel'skaya) is established 
                             (formally from in 8 Aug 1713). Estonia called 
                             thereafter in semi-official local use Duchy
                             (rendered Principality in Russian) of Estonia 
                             (until 1783), the Russian Tsar uses the style 
                             of "Prince of Estonia" until 1917.
10 Sep 1721                Duchy of Estonia formally ceded by Sweden 
                             to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad.
1775 - Nov 1917            Subordinated, with some interruptions, to 
                             governors-general, or other overall 
                             administrations, of the Baltic Provinces
                             (see under Latvia).
14 Jul 1783                Province of Estonia, local autonomy is abolished.
28 Nov 1796                Limited local autonomy for Estonia restored 
                             (confirmed by all successive Emperors of Russia
                             on their accession before 1881, thereafter
                             gradually extinguished).
Nov 1917                   Bolshevik government abolishes autonomy.
28 Nov 1917                Estonian Provisional Province Assembly proclaimed
                             itself as supreme power in Estonia and 
                             authorized its Council of Elders to act as 
                             emergency body (this meeting of Province 
                             Assembly was dismissed by communists). The 
                             Council of Elders authorized, in 19 Feb 1918, 
                             the Estonian Liberation Committee to act as 
                             temporary supreme power.
19 Feb 1918                Estonian Salvation Committee appointed as the
                             temporary supreme authority after Russian
                             withdrawal, which occurs on 23 Feb 1918.
23 Feb 1918                Declaration of independence proclaimed on behalf
                             of the Estonian National Council in Pärnu.
24 Feb 1918                National government takes office and independence
                             is declared in Tallinn (Republic of Estonia).
25 Feb 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupied by Germany, (Apr-Nov 1918; German
                             occupation of the islands of Hiiumaa, Muhu, and
                             Saaremaa from 12 Oct 1917); for Baltic State
                             see under Latvia.
11 Nov 1918                Provisional government of Estonia founded on 
                             28 Feb 1918 is restored (Republic of Estonia 
                             [restored]).
22 Nov 1918 - 19 Jan 1919  Russian occupation of Narva area.
29 Nov 1918 -  1 Feb 1919  Estonian Workers' Commune (in Russian occupied
                             territory).
17 Jun 1940                Occupied by the Soviet Union.
21 Jul 1940                Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
 6 Aug 1940                Incorporation into Soviet Union (not                               internationally recognized).
28 Aug 1941 - 18 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany (on Hiiumaa, Muhu, and Saaremaa
                             islands to 24 Nov 1944).
29 Nov 1941 - 18 Sep 1944  Part of Reichskommissariat of Ostland
                             (see under Latvia), as Generalbezirk Estland.
18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944  Brief restoration of the Republic of Estonia.
22 Sep 1944                Re-incorporation into the Soviet Union (not
                             internationally recognized).
16 Nov 1988                Declaration of state sovereignty.
 8 May 1990                Republic of Estonia
20 Aug 1991                Independence declared.
 6 Sep 1991                Independence recognized by Soviet Union. 
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1940-1990)
Pro-Soviet
Resistance

(1941-1944)
Republic in Exile
(1940-1992)
 Ösel Island
(1228-1783)
Dorpat Bishopric
(1211-1558)
Estonian
Evangelical
Lutheran
Church


Estonian Orthodox
Church

First Estonian
Constitution
(20 Dec 1920 -
24 Jan 1934)
Historical Ma
of Estonia
 

Elders
- in Vironia (Virumaa), NE Estonia -
.... - 12..                Kyriavan
12.. - c.1221              Thabelin of Pudiviru (Tabelinus)   (d. c.1221)
- Sakala, SW Estonia -
1212                       Meme
1212? - 21 Sep 1217        Lembitu (in Leole/Lõhavere)        (d. 1217)
12.. - 21 Sep 1217         Wottele                            (d. 1217)
12.. - 21 Sep 1217         Maniwalde                          (d. 1217)
21 Sep 1217 - 12..         Unnepewe
Danish Governors (styled Capitaneus or Hauptmann)
1219 - 1221                Andreas Sunonis,                   (b. c.1167 - d. 1228)
                             Archbishop of Lund
1248 - 1249                Saxo Aginsun                       (d. c.1249)
1249                       Stigot Agison
1254 - 1257                Saxo
1259                       Jakob Ramessun
1262                       B. ....
1266                       Woghen Palissun
1270                       Siverith
1275 -  5 Mar 1279         Eilard von Oberch                  (d. 1279)
1279 - 1281                Odewart (Lode?)
c.1285                     Letgast
Mar 1287                   Friedrich Moltike
1287                       A. ....
1288                       Johann Sialanzfar
1296                       Nils Axelsson
1298                       Nikolaus Ubbison
1304                       Johann Saxesson
1310                       Johannes Canne (nuntius)
1312 - 1313                Ago Saxisson
1313 - 1314                Heinrich Bernauer
1323                       Johannes Kanna
1329                       Heinrich Spliit
1332 - 1335                Marquard Breide                    (d. 1335)
Jul 1340 - May 1343        Konrad Preen
May 1343                   Bertram von Parembeke (acting)     (d. 1343?)
16 May 1343 - 1344         the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order
16 May 1343 - 1344         Goswin von Herike                  (d. 1359) 
1344 -  1 Nov 1346         Stigot Andersson 
1344 - 1561                the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order
Swedish Governors
 2 Aug 1561 - 27 Feb 1562  Lars Ivarsson Fleming zu Sundholm, (b. c.1520 - d. 1562)
                             friherre af Nynäs
Aug 1561 - Aug 1561        Klaus Christiern Horn friherre     (b. 1517 - d. 1566)
                             af Amyne (acting)
27 Feb 1562 - Jun 1562     Henrik Klasson Horn zu Kanas       (b. 1512 - d. 1595)
                             (1st time)
30 Jun 1562 - 27 Jul 1564  Svante Stenson Sture               (b. 1517 - d. 1567)
1564 - 1565                Hermann Pederson Fleming zu        (b. c.1520 - d. 1583)
                             Lechtis
30 Jan 1565 - 1568         Henrik Klasson Horn zu Kanas       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Nov 1568 - 1570            Gabriel Kistiernsson, friherre     (b. 1520 - d. 1585)
                             Oxenstierna af Mörby
 9 Oct 1570 - 1572         Hans Björnsson Lejon               (b. 1530 - d. 1572) 
 6 Nov 1572 - 1574         Claes Åkeson Tott                  (b. 1525 - d. 1590)
 4 Jun 1574 - Dec 1575     Pontus de la Gardie                (b. 1520 - d. 1585)
Jan 1576 - May 1578        Karl Henriksson Horn (1st time)    (b. c.1550 - d. 1601)
19 Apr 1576 - 1577         Hans Eriksson Finne till           (d. 1608)
                             Brinkala (acting)
 1 Aug 1577 - 1579         Göran Nilsson Boije af Gennäs      (b. 1540 - d. 1615) 
                             (1st time)                
1579 - 1581                Svante Eriksson Stålarm            (d. 1585/89)
25 Apr 1582 - 1583         Göran Nilsson Boije af Gennäs      (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)                  

1583 -  5 Nov 1585         Pontus, friherre de la Gardie      (b. 1520 - d. 1585)
 8 Nov 1585 - 1588         Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna     (b. 1551 - d. 1597)
Jul 1588 - 13 Oct 1588     Hans Wachtmeister (acting)         (d. 1590)
13 Oct 1588 - 1590         Gustaf Axelson Banér zu Djurshom   (b. 1547 - d. 1600)
1590 - Jul 1592            Erik Gabrielsson Oxenstierna       (b. c.1546 - d. 1594)
1592 - Jun 1600            Göran Nilsson Boije af Gennäs      (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time)      

1600 - 30 Jan 1601         Karl Henriksson Horn (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1601 - Oct 1602            Moritz Stensson Leijonhufvud       (b. 1559 - d. 1607) 
                             greve Raseborg
Oct 1602 - May 1605        Anders Larsson Botilast (1st time) (d. 1613)
                             (acting)

10 May 1605 - Jun 1605     Nils Turesson Bielke               (b. 1569 - d. 1639)
1605 - 1608                Axel Nilsson Ryning                (b. 1552 - d. 1620) 
1608 - 1611                Anders Larsson Botilast (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1611 - 1617                Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna      (b. 1586 - d. 1656)
1617 - 1619                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud        (b. 1577 - d. 1657)
Jul 1619 - 1622            Jakob Pontusson de la Gardie       (b. 1583 - d. 1652) 
1622 - 1626                Per Gustafsson Banér               (b. 1588 - d. 1644)
1626 - 1628                Johan de la Gardie                 (b. 1582 – d. 1642)
 3 Mar 1628 - 17 Jul 1642  Philipp von Scheiding    
         (b. 1578 - d. 1646)
26 Jul 1642 - 1646         Gustaf Gabrielsson Oxenstierna     (b. 1613 - d. 1648)
 9 Sep 1646 - 1653         Erik Axelsson Oxenstierna af       (b. 1624 - d. 1656)
                             Södermöre
May 1653 - 16 Aug 1653     Wilhelm Ulrich (1st time)(acting)  (b. c.1604 - d. 1661) 
16 Aug 1653 - 1655         Heinrich von Thurn-Valsassina      (b. 1628 - d. 1656)
1655 - Aug 1655            Wilhelm Ulrich (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.) 
1655 - 1656                Bengt Skytte af Duderhof           (b. 1614 - d. 1683) 
1655 -  2 Aug 1656         Wilhelm Ulrich (3rd time)(acting)  (s.a.) 
 2 Aug 1656 - Nov 1674     Bengt Klasson Horn                 (b. 1623 - d. 1678)
1656 - 1659                Wilhelm Ulrich (4th time)          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Horn)      
1673                       Jakob Staël von Holstein
          (b. 1628 – d. 1679)
                             (acting for Horn)
1674                       Johan Christoph Scheiding          (b. 1634 - d. 1685)
                             (acting for Horn)
Governors-general

1674 - 1681                Andreas Lennartson Torstensson     (b. 1641 - d. 1686) 
Apr 1681 - 1687            Robert Johannson Lichton           (b. 1631 - d. 1692)
20 Jan 1687 - 19 Apr 1687  Nils Thuresson Bielke              (b. 1644 - d. 1716)
1687 - Dec 1704            Axel Julius greve de la Gardie af  (b. 1637 - d. 1710)
                             Leckö
Dec 1704 -  6 Jul 1706     Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach     (b. 1650 - d. 1739)
                             (governor)
 6 Jul 1706 - 23 Oct 1709  Nils Jönsson greve Strömberg af    (b. 1646 - d. 1723)
                             Clästorp
23 Oct 1709 - 10 Oct 1710  Carl Gustaf greve Nieroth          (b. 1650 - d. 1712)
Russian Governors-general
10 Oct 1710 - Mar 1711     Rudolf Felix Bauer (interim)       (b. 1667 - d. 1717)
 6 Mar 1711 - May 1719     Prince Aleksandr Danilovich        (b. 1673 - d. 1729)
                             Menshikov 
May 1719 - 21 Nov 1728     Fyodor Matveyevich Graf Apraksin   (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
Governors
21 Nov 1728 - 25 Mar 1736  Friedrich Baron von Löwen zu       (b. 1654 - d. 1744)
                             Sever (acting to Sep 1730)
25 Mar 1736 -  6 Aug 1736  Count Platon Ivanovich Musin-      (b. 1698 - d. 1742)
                             Pushkin 
11 Aug 1736 - Aug 1738     Ernst Sebastian von Manstein       (b. 1678 - d. 1747)
                             (acting)
11 Aug 1738 - 22 Mar 1740  Otto Gustag greve Douglas auf      (b. 1687 - d. 1771)
                             Alp og Kuckofer
Mar 1740 -  8 Nov 1743     Woldemar greve von Löwendahl       (b. 1700 - d. 1755)
 8 Nov 1743 - Jul 1753     Peter August Friedrich Herzog von  (b. 1696 - d. 1775)
                             Holstein-Beck
Aug 1753 - Jun 1758        Prince Vladimir Petrovich          (b. 1696 - d. 1761)
                             Dolgoruky 
Jun 1758 - 1762            Peter August Friedrich Herzog von  (s.a.)
                             Holstein-Beck 
Governors-general
1762 -  8 Mar 1775         Peter August Friedrich Herzog von  (s.a.)
                             Holstein-Beck
1775 - 29 Sep 1792         Count George Browne                (b. 1698 - d. 1792)
                             (Georg Graf Braun)
Governors (1775-1876, 1905-1909, 1914-1917, subordinated to the Baltic provinces)
13 Jul 1783 - 11 Oct 1786  Georg Friedrich von Grotenhielm    (b. 1721 - d. 1798)
11 Oct 1786 - 20 Jan 1797  Heinrich Johann Baron von          (b. 1736 - d. 1813)
                             Wrangell
25 Jan 1797 - 14 Jun 1808  Andreas von Langell                (b. 17.. - d. 1808)
Governors-general
19 Aug 1808 - 30 Apr 1809  Peter Friedrich Georg von          (b. 1785 - d. 1812)
                             Holstein-Oldenburg
30 Apr 1809 -  2 Nov 1811  Vacant
 2 Nov 1811 - May 1816     Paul Friedrich August Grossherzog  (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
                             von Holstein-Oldenburg
Governors
1808 - 1819                Berend Johann von Uexküll          (b. 1762 - d. 1827)
 4 Jan 1819 - 10 Aug 1832  Gotthard Wilhelm Baron Budberg,    (b. 1766 - d. 1832)
                             gen. von Bönninghausen
20 Sep 1832 - 27 Oct 1833  Otto Wilhelm von Essen             (b. 1761 - d. 1834)
 8 Nov 1833 - 14 Dec 1841  Paul Friedrich von Benckendorff    (b. 1784 - d. 1841)
14 Jan 1842 -  3 Jan 1859  Johann Christoph Engelbrecht von   (b. 1796 - d. 1862)
                             Grünewaldt
 3 Jan 1859 - 23 Oct 1868  Wilhelm Otto Cornelius Alexander   (b. 1810 - d. 1891)
                             Ulrich
1868 - 1870                Mikhail Nikolaiyevich Galkin-      (b. 1834 - d. 1916)
                            Vraskoy
 7 Oct 1870 - 26 Mar 1875  Prince Mikhail Valentinovich       (b. 1836 - d. 1892)
                             Shakhovskoy-Glebov-Strezhnev
26 Mar 1875 -  4 Apr 1885  Viktor Petrovich Polivanov         (d. 1889)
 4 Apr 1885 - 24 Oct 1894  Prince Sergey Vladimirovich        (b. 1852 - d. 1894)
                             Shakhovskoy
24 Oct 1894 - 28 Dec 1894  Sokrat Nikolayevich Dirin          (b. 1849 - d. 1924)
                             (1st time)(acting)

28 Dec 1894 -  9 Apr 1902  Yefstafiy Nikolayevich Skalon      (b. 1845 - d. 1902) 

 9 Apr 1902 - 30 Jul 1902  
Sokrat Nikolayevich Dirin          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
28 Dec 1894 -  3 Ju1 1902  Yefstafiy Nikolayevich Skalon      (b. 1845 - d. 1902) 
 3 Jul 1902 - 14 Mar 1905  Aleksey Valerianovich Bellegarde   (b. 1861 - d. 1942)
                             (acting to Apr 1904)
14 Mar 1905 - 20 Apr 1905  Aleksandr N
ikolayevich Giers (Girs)(b. 1861 - d. 19..)
                             (1st time)(acting)

20 Apr 1905 - Oct 1905     Aleksey Aleksandrovich Lopuhin     (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Oct 1905 - 31 Dec 1905     Aleksandr Nikolayevich Giers       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
31 Dec 1905 -  3 Feb 1906  Nikolay Georgiyevich von Bünting   (b. 1681 - d. 1917) 
 3 Feb 1906 - 12 Mar 1906  Aleksandr Nikolayevich Giers       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)(acting)

12 Mar 1906 - 31 Jul 1907  Pyotr Petrovich Bashilov           (b. 1857 - d. 1919)
31 Jul 1907 - 24 Aug 1907  Aleksey Theodorovich Girs (Giers)  (b. 1871 - d. 1958)
                             (1st time)(acting)

24 Aug 1907 - 12 Dec 1908  Izmail Vladimirovich K
orostovec    (b. 1863 - d. 1933)
                             (1st time)
12 Dec 1908 - 13 Jan 1909  
Aleksey Theodorovich Girs          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
13 Jan 1909 -
28 Nov 1910  Izmail Vladimirovich Korostovec    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

28 Nov 1910 - 11 Jan 1911  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Evreinov  (b. 1873 - d. 1928)
                             (acting)

11 Jan 1911 - 25 Nov 1915  Izmail Vladimirovich K
orostovec    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

25 Nov 1915 -  3 Jan 1916  Sergey Aleksandrovich Shidlovskiy  (b. 1864 - d. 1922)
                             (acting)

 3 Jan 1916 - Mar 1917     Pyotr Vladimirovich Veryovkin      (b. 1862 - d.af.1930) 
Commissar of the Provisional Government
19 Mar 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Jaan Poska (Ivan Ivanovich Poska)  (b. 1866 - d. 1920)  EDE
 9 Nov 1917 - 23 Feb 1918  ....
Heads of State
23 Feb 1918 - 25 Feb 1918  Estonian Salvation Committee 
                           (appointed 19 Feb 1918)
                           - Konstantin Päts                  (b. 1874 - d. 1956)  EML
                           - Jüri Wilms (to 13 Apr 1918)      (b. 1889 - d. 1918)  ETE
                           - Konstantin Konik                 (b. 1873 - d. 1936)  ETE
German Military governor

25 Feb 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Franz Adolf Freiherr von           (b. 1857 - d. 1941)  Mil
                             Seckendorff (from 12 Oct 1917, on
                             Hiiumaa, Muhu and Saaremaa islands)
Chairmen of the (Temporary) Provincial Assembly

11 Nov 1918 - 27 Nov 1918  Otto August Strandman              (b. 1875 - d. 1941)  ETE    
27 Nov 1918 -  3 Feb 1919  Ado Birk                           (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  EDE
 3 Feb 1919 - 23 Apr 1919  Karl Parts                         (b. 1873 - d. 1940)  Non-party

Chairman of the Council of Estonian Workers' Commune

29 Nov 1918 -  1 Feb 1919  Jaan Anvelt (in rebellion)         (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  RSDRP
                             (at Narva, from 1 Feb 1919 in Võru;
                             leaves national territory after 26 Jan
                             1919, and approves the dissolution of 
                             state bodies on 5 Jun 1919 in exile)

Chairman of Constituent Assembly
23 Apr 1919 - 21 Dec 1920  August Rei                         (b. 1886 - d. 1963)  ESDTP
State Elders
21 Dec 1920 - 25 Jan 1921  Ants (Hans) Piip                   (b. 1884 - d. 1942)  ETE
25 Jan 1921 - 21 Nov 1922  Konstantin Päts (1st time)         (s.a.)               PK
21 Nov 1922 -  2 Aug 1923  Juhan (Johannes) Kukk              (s.a.)               ETE
 2 Aug 1923 - 26 Mar 1924  Konstantin Päts (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PK
26 Mar 1924 - 16 Dec 1924  Friedrich Karl Akel                (b. 1871 - d. 1941)  KRE
16 Dec 1924 - 15 Dec 1925  Jüri Jaakson                       (b. 1870 - d. 1942)  ER
15 Dec 1925 -  9 Dec 1927  Jaan Teemant (1st time)            (b. 1872 - d. 1941)  PK
 9 Dec 1927 -  4 Dec 1928  Jaan Tõnisson (1st time)           (b. 1868 - d. 1941?) ER
 4 Dec 1928 -  9 Jul 1929  August Rei                         (s.a.)               ESTP
 9 Jul 1929 - 12 Feb 1931  Otto August Strandmann             (s.a.)               ETE
12 Feb 1931 - 19 Feb 1932  Konstantin Päts (3rd time)         (s.a.)               PK
19 Feb 1932 - 19 Jul 1932  Jaan Teemant (2nd time)            (s.a.)               PK
19 Jul 1932 -  7 Nov 1932  Karl August Einbund                (b. 1888 - d. 1942)  UPE
                             (from 22 Feb 1935, Kaarel August Eenpalu) 
 7 Nov 1932 - 18 May 1933  Konstantin Päts (4th time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
18 May 1933 - 21 Oct 1933  Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time)           (s.a.)               RKE
21 Oct 1933 - 24 Jan 1934  Konstantin Päts (5th time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
Head of State
24 Jan 1934 - 24 Apr 1938  Konstantin Päts                    (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (acting to 3 Sep 1937; state-protector
                            [Riigihoidja] 3 Sep 1937 - 24 Apr 1938)
Presidents
24 Apr 1938 - 23 Jul 1940  Konstantin Päts                    (s.a.)               Non-party
23 Jul 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Johannes Vares "Barbarus" (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1946)  EKP
                            (not recognized by Estonian diplomats abroad)
German Military governor
(rear commander, German Army Group North)
28 Aug 1941 -  5 Dec 1941  Franz von Roques                   (b. 1877 - d. 1949)  Mil
Generalkommissar für
Estland
 5 Dec 1941 - 17 Sep 1944  Karl-Siegmund Litzmann             (b. 1893 - d. 1945)  NS
President

18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944  Jüri Uluots (acting)               (b. 1890 - d. 1945)  Non-party
Chairman of the Supreme Council
29 Mar 1990 -  5 Oct 1992  Arnold Rüütel                      (b. 1928)            ERR
Presidents 
 6 Oct 1992 -  8 Oct 2001  Lennart-Georg Meri                 (b. 1929 - d. 2006)  EI
 8 Oct 2001 -  9 Oct 2006  Arnold Rüütel                      (s.a.)               ERL
 9 Oct 2006 -              Toomas Hendrik Ilves               (b. 1953)            Non-party
 

Ritterschaftshauptleute
 1 Apr 1710 - Feb 1711     Fromhold Johann von Taube          (b. 1661 - d. 1711)
12 Feb 1711 - 23 Feb 1713  Berend Johann von Wrangell         (b. 1662 - d. 1731)
23 Feb 1713 - 19 Feb 1715  Berend Johann von Schulmann        (b. 1660 - d. 1746)
19 Feb 1715 - 18 Jan 1720  Erich Dietrich von Rosen           (b. 1689 - d. 1735)
18 Jan 1720 - 17 Feb 1723  Hans Heinrich von Fersen           (d. 1724)
17 Feb 1723 - 17 Feb 1724  Gustav Magnus von Rehbinder        (b. 1673 - d. 1734) 
                             Freiherr von Uddrich
17 Feb 1724 - 20 Jan 1725  Jakob Johann von Tiesenhausen      (b. 1686 - d. 1784)
                             Freiherr zu Erlaa
20 Jan 1725 - 16 Jan 1728  Jakob Heinrich von Ulrich          (d. 1743)
16 Jan 1728 -  1 Feb 1731  Hans Heinrich von Tiesenhausen     (b. 1685 - d. 1736) 
                             Freiherr zu Erlaa
 1 Feb 1731 -  1 Feb 1734  Otto Heinrich von Rehbinder        (b. 1686 - d. 1753) 
                             Freiherr von Uddrich
 1 Feb 1734 - 24 Jan 1737  Gustav Reinhold von Löwen          (b. 1690 – d. 1766)
24 Jan 1737 - 22 Jan 1740  Christoph Engelbrecht von Kursell  (b. 1685 - d. 1756)
22 Jan 1740 - 21 Jun 1741  Adam Friedrich Freiherr von        (b. 1703 - d. 1768)
                             Stackelberg
21 Jun 1741 -  5 Feb 1744  Berend Heinrich von Tiesenhausen   (b. 1703 - d. 1789)
                             Freiherr zu Erlaa (1st time)
 5 Feb 1744 - 25 Jan 1747  Magnus Wilhelm von Nieroth         (b. 1663 - d. 1770)
25 Jan 1747 - 15 Feb 1753  Otto Magnus von Stackelberg        (b. 1704 - d. 1765)
15 Feb 1753 - Mar 1770     Friedrich Johann von Ulrich        (b. 1717 - d. 1770)
26 Mar 1770 - 24 Mar 1771  Gustav von Ulrich (acting)
24 Mar 1771 - 24 Mar 1772  Fabian Ernst Staël von Holstein    (b. 1727 - d. 1772)
25 Mar 1772 -  6 Apr 1774  Berend Heinrich Graf von           (s.a.) 
                             Tiesenhausen Freiherr zu Erlaa
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 6 Apr 1774 -  5 Feb 1777  Ernst Johann von Fock              (b. 1721 - d. 1782)
 5 Feb 1777 -  7 Feb 1780  Otto Wilhelm Freiherr von Budberg  (b. 1730 - d. 1793)
                             gen. Bönninghausen
 7 Feb 1780 -  4 Feb 1783  Gustav Friedrich von Engelhardt    (b. 1732 - d. 1798)
 4 Feb 1783 - 22 Oct 1783  Moritz Engelbrecht von Kursell     (b. 1744 - d. 1799)
Chairmen of the County Government (elected by Provisional Province Assembly)
 4 Aug 1917 - 25 Oct 1917  Jaan Raamot                        (b. 1873 - d. 1927)  EML
                             (Ivan Matveyevich Ramot)
25 Oct 1917 -  9 Nov 1917  Konstantin Päts                    (s.a.)               EML
 9 Nov 1917 - 24 Feb 1918  ...
Prime ministers
24 Feb 1918 -  9 May 1919  Konstantin Päts (1st time)         (s.a.)               EML
                             (chairman Council of Ministers to 12 Nov 1918;  
                             German prisoner 11 Jun - 20 Nov 1918)

11 Nov 1918 - 20 Nov 1918  Jaan Poska (acting for Päts)       (s.a.)               EDE
 9 May 1919 - 18 Nov 1919  Otto August Strandmann             (s.a.)               ETE
29 Nov 1918 -  1 Feb 1919  Jaan Anvelt (in rebellion)         (s.a.)               RSDRP
                            (chairman of the Council of Estonian
                             Workers' Commune
)
18 Nov 1919 - 28 Jul 1920  Jaan Tõnisson (1st time)           (s.a.)               ER
28 Jul 1920 - 30 Jul 1920  Ado Birk (did not assume office)   (s.a.)               ER
30 Jul 1920 - 26 Oct 1920  Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time)           (s.a.)               ER
                             (acting 29-30 Jul 1920)
26 Oct 1920 - 21 Dec 1920  Ants Piip                          (s.a.)               ETE
21 Dec 1920 - 24 Jan 1934  the heads of state
24 Jan 1934 -  3 Sep 1937  Konstantin Päts (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Non-party
 3 Sep 1937 - 21 Apr 1938  the head of state
21 Apr 1938 - 12 Oct 1939  Kaarel Eenpalu (= Karl Einbund)    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting to 9 May 1938)
12 Oct 1939 - 21 Jun 1940  Jüri Uluots                        (s.a.)               Non-party
21 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Johannes Vares "Barbarus"          (s.a.)               EKP
                            (not recognized by Estonian diplomats abroad)
Leader of the Estonian Self-Government
(Leiter der Estnischen Selbstverwaltung)
15 Sep 1941 - 17 Sep 1944  Hjalmar Mäe                        (b. 1901 - d. 1978)  Non-party
                             (to 4 Jan 1945 in Germany exile)
Prime ministers (Chairman of the government 30 Jan 1992 - 22 Oct 1992)
18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944  Jüri Uluots                        (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Sep 1944 - 22 Sep 1944  Otto Tief (acting for Uluots)      (b. 1889 - d. 1976)  Non-party
 3 Apr 1990 - 30 Jan 1992  Edgar Savisaar                     (b. 1950)            ERR
                             (chairmen of the Council of Ministers)
23 Jan 1992 - 30 Jan 1992  Jaak Leimann (acting for Savisaar) (b. 1941)            Non-party

30 Jan 1992 - 22 Oct 1992  Tiit Vähi (1st time)               (b. 1947)            Non-party
22 Oct 1992 -  8 Nov 1994  Mart Laar (1st time)               (b. 1960)            RKI
 8 Nov 1994 - 17 Apr 1995  Andres Tarand                      (b. 1940)            Non-party
17 Apr 1995 - 17 Mar 1997  Tiit Vähi (2nd time)               (s.a.)               EK
17 Mar 1997 - 25 Mar 1999  Mart Siimann                       (b. 1946)            EK
25 Mar 1999 - 28 Jan 2002  Mart Laar (2nd time)               (s.a.)               EI
28 Jan 2002 - 10 Apr 2003  Siim Kallas                        (b. 1948)            ERK
10 Apr 2003 - 13 Apr 2005  Juhan Parts                        (b. 1966)            ERP
13 Apr 2005 - 26 Mar 2014  Andrus Ansip                       (b. 1956)            ERK
26 Mar 2014 -              Taavi Rõivas                       (b. 1979)            ERK


Estonian Representatives in Exile

[Estonian flag]

Envoy
17 Jun 1940 - 12 Mar 1971  August Torma (in London exile)    (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
Consul-general in Charge of Legation
12 Mar 1971 - 20 Aug 1991  Ernst Jaakson                     (b. 1905 - d. 1998) 
                             (in Washington, DC exile)

Republic of Estonia in Exile: alternative administration (not internationally recognized)

[Estonian flag]

President
21 Jun 1940 - 18 Jan 1956  Konstantin Päts                    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 30 Jul 1940, Soviet prisoner)
Prime ministers acting as Presidents
21 Jun 1940 -  9 Jan 1945  Jüri Uluots                        (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (from 22 Sep 1944 in Stockholm, Sweden)
 9 Jan 1945 - 29 Mar 1963  August Rei                         (s.a.)
                            (in Stockholm, Sweden; from 12 Jan 1953 in Oslo, Norway;
                             then in Lund, Sweden; from 1 Jan 1962 in Stockholm)
 3 Mar 1953 - 20 Sep 1954  Alfred Maurer                      (b. 1888 - d. 1954)  
                             (in dissidence; in Germany
, later Stockholm, Sweden)
29 Mar 1963 - 23 Dec 1970  Aleksander Warma                   (b. 1890 - d. 1970)  Non-party
23 Dec 1970 -  1 Mar 1990  Tõnis Kint                         (b. 1896 - d. 1991) 
 1 Mar 1990 -  8 Oct 1992  Heinrich Mark                      (b. 1911 - d. 2004)
15 Sep 1992¹- 28 Nov 2003  Mihkel Mathiesen                   (b. 1918 - d. 2003)  MS  
                             (in Enebyberg, Sweden)
28 Nov 2003 -              Kalev Ots (in Nõmme, Estonia)      (b. 1949)            EKK
 

Acting Prime ministers
21 Jun 1940 - 15 Jun 1942  August Jürima                      (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
                             (Soviet prisoner from 5 Oct 1940)
15 Jun 1942 –  1 Oct 1942  Ants Piip                          (s.a.)
                             (acting; Soviet prisoner)
 1 Oct 1942 – 21 Apr 1944  Paul Kogerman                      (b. 1891 – d. 1951)
                             (acting; Soviet prisoner)
21 Apr 1944 - 18 Sep 1944  Alfred Maurer                      (s.a.)              
18 Sep 1944 - 12 Jan 1953  Otto Tief                          (s.a.)             
                             (Soviet captive from 10 Oct 1944)
12 Jan 1953 - 22 Aug 1960  Johannes Sikkar                    (b. 1897 - d. 1960)
 3 Mar 1953 -  8 Aug 1978  Johan Holberg                      (b. 1893 - d. 1978)  
                             (in dissidence; in Germany to 1952 then Canada, from 1953 U.S.)
22 Aug 1960 -  1 Jan 1962  Tõnis Kint (1st time)              (s.a.)              
 1 Jan 1962 - 29 Mar 1963  Aleksander Warma                   (s.a.) 
29 Mar 1963 - 23 Dec 1970  Tõnis Kint (2nd time)              (s.a.)              
                             (acting to 2 Apr 1963)
23 Dec 1970 –  8 May 1971  August Koern (acting)              (b. 1900 – d. 1989)
                             (in Copenhagen, Denmark)
 8 May 1971 -  1 Mar 1990  Heinrich Mark                      (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1990 -  7 Oct 1992  Enno Penno                         (b. 1930)
15 Sep 1992¹- 28 Nov 2003  Kalev Ots (in Nõmme, Estonia)      (s.a.)               EKK
28 Nov 2003 –  7 Dec 2003  Hando Kruuv (acting)               (b. 1937)            PK
                             (in Tartu, Estonia)
 7 Dec 2003 -              Ahti Mänd (in Nõmme, Estonia)      (b. 1958)            EKK

Russian Occupation of Narva 1918-1919

Commanders of Russian Red Army (7th army) in Narva (from 19 Jan 1919  Võru)             
28 Nov 1918 -  5 Dec 1918  Yevgeniy Matveyevich Golubintsev
  (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
 5 Dec 1918 - 27 Jan 1919  Nikolay Vladimirovch Henrikson
    (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
27 Jan 1919 -  1 Feb 1919  Aleksandr Kondratyevich Remezov
    (b. 1869 - d. af.1923)

 ¹The government set up on 15 Sep 1992 declared its intent to "continue to preserve constitutional continuity until the actual end of the occupation," referring to the large number of Russians living in Estonia. Russian troops were present in Estonia until 31 Aug 1994. The former exile government gave its mandate to the constitutionally elected government in Tallinn. The new exile government set up on 15 Sep 1992 is not recognized by any nation.

Noble titles: Greve/Graf = Count, Friherre/Freiherr = Baron, Herzog = Duke.

Territorial Disputes: Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in Jun 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia.
 

Party abbreviations: EKK = Eesti Kodanike Keskerakond (Center Party of Estonian Citizens, claims complete restitution of pre-WWII Republic, based on citizens in 1940 and their descendants, est.1991); ERK = Eesti Reformierakond (Estonian Reform Party, liberal, center-right, est.1994); PK = Põllumeeste Kogud (Farmers Union [Farmers' Assemblies], agrarian, 1920-1932, merged into UPE 1932-1935, re-est.1992); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties (political parties suspended 20 Mar 1935-1940): EDE = Eesti Demokraatlik Erakond (Estonian Democratic Party, 1917-1919); EI = Erakond Isamaaliit (Fatherland [Pro Patria] Union, christian-democratic, 1995-2006, from 2006 Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit [IRL]); EK = Eesti Koonderakond (Estonian Coalition Party, liberal, 1991-2002); EKP = Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei (Estonian Communist Party, communist, 1920-1991, only legal party 1940 - 24 Feb 1990); EML = Eesti Maarahva Liitt (Estonian Rural Union, agrarian, conservative, 1917-1920, replaced by PK); ER = Eesti Rahvaerakond (Estonia People's Party, center-right, 1919-1932, then joined to RKE); ERL = Eestimaa Rahvaliit (Estonian People's Union, conservative, 1999-2012, renamed EKRE); ERP = Erakond Res Publica (Res Publica Party, formerly Ühendus Vabariigi Eest – Res Publica [For the Republic-Res Publica], center-right, populist, 2001-2006, then IRL); ERR = Eestimaa Rahvarinne (Estonian People's Front, pro-Perestroika, democratic, 1988-1993); ESDTP = Eesti Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Tööliste Partei (Estonian Social Democratic Workers' Party, 1917-1925, merged into ESTP); ESTP = Eesti Sotsialistlik Tööliste Partei (Estonian Socialist Workers Party, social-democratic, 1918-1935); ETE = Eesti Tööerakond (Estonian Labour Party, center-left, 1917-1932, joined to RKE); Ism = Isamaaliit (Fatherland Union [Patriotic League] "Pro Patria", Estonian nationalist, only legal party 1935-1940); KRE = Kristlik Rahvaerakond (Christian People's Party, christian-democratic, 1918-1935); MS = Moderata Samlingspartiet (Swedish Moderate Coalition Party, conservative); NS = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, only legal party 1941-1944); PKK = Põllumeestekogude ja Põllumeeste - Asunikkude ning Väikemaapidajate Koondis (Farmers' Assemblies - Association of Settlers, State's Leaseholders and Little-farmers, agrarian, center-left, 1932-1933, then UPE); RKE = Rahvuslik Keskerakond (National Centre Party, centrist, 1932-1935); RKI = Rahvuslik Koonderakond "Isamaa" (National Coalition Party "Pro Patria", christian-democratic, 1992-1995, from 1995 EI); RSDRP = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (communist, 1903-1918, "Bolsheviks" [majority]; from 1918 Russian Communist Party); UPE = Ühinenud Põllumeeste Erakond (United Peasants Party, agrarian, center-left, merger of PK & PKK, 1933-1935)


 
Bishopric of Dorpat (Tartu)
 
1211                       Estonian Bishopric, also called Bishopric of Leal (Lihula)
                             (after the nominal seat of the bishop) established by
                             the Bishop of Riga (confirmed by the Holy See 31 Oct 1213), 
                             originally without any temporal authority.
21 Jul 1224                Estonian bishop takes temporal authority over the southern part
                             of present-day Estonia as a sovereign prince-bishop of the 
                             Holy Roman Empire (formally from 6 Nov 1225), Bishop gives 
                             part of his possessions as a fief to the Swordbrothers 
                             Order, and cedes the western part of the Estonian mainland 
                            (including Leal) to the bishop of Riga (24 Jul 1224) and chooses 
                             Dorpat (Tartu) as his new capital (Aug 1224). The Estonian
                             Bishopric thereafter renamed as Bishopric of Dorpat, but bishops
                             continues to use the style of bishop of Leal to 8 Jan 1235.
18 Jul 1558                City of Dorpat surrenders to Russian forces.
18 Jul 1558 - 15 Jan 1582  Russian occupation of the former bishopric.
15 Jan 1582                Russia withdraws from Dorpat and transfers it to the 
                             Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Former bishopric is made part
                             of Duchy of Livonia (the southern part of present-day Estonia
                             remains part of Livonia [see Latvia] until 12 Apr 1917).
1704 - 1710                Russians controlled only inland parts of Livonia and Estonia.
 

Bishops of Leal
1211 - 15 Jun 1219         Theodoric (= Dietrich I)               (d. 1219?)
10 Apr 1220 - 21 Jul 1224  Hermann von Buxhöwden                  (b. 1163 - d. af.1248) 
Prince-Bishops of Dorpat
21 Jul 1224 - 1247         Hermann I von Buxhöwden                (s.a.) 
                            (approved on 18 Apr 1220)
1247 - 26 Jul 1251         Vacant
26 Jul 1251 - 10 Sep 1263  Bernhard I                             (d. 1263)
10 Sep 1263 - 18 Feb 1268  Alexander                              (d. 1268)
1268 -  4 Dec 1288         Friedrich von Haseldorf                (b. c.1220 - d. 1288)
1289 - 1302?               Bernhard II
1303 - 1312                Dietrich II Vyshusen                   (d. 1312)
14 Jan 1313 - 1323         Nikolaus (acting)                      (d. 1323)
26 Nov 1323 - 18 Oct 1341  Engelbert von Dolen (Dahlen)           (d. 1347)
27 Sep 1342 - 1344         Wescelus (Wessel)                      (d. 1344)
23 Oct 1346 - 1373         Johannes I Viffhusen (Funfhausen)      (d. 1373)
 5 Sep 1373 - 1377         Heinrich I Velde                       (d. 1377)
 5 Aug 1379 -  2 Jul 1400  Dietrich III Damerow                   (d. af.1408/12)
15 Dec 1400 - 1410         Heinrich II Wrangel                    (d. 1410)
 7 Jan 1411 - 1413         Bernhard III Bulowe (von Bülow)        (d. 1413)
14 Apr 1413 - Mar 1441     Dietrich IV Resler                     (b. c.1365 - d. 1441)
17 Mar 1442 - 1459         Bartholomäus Sawijerwe                 (d. 1461)
10 Dec 1459 - 23 Mar 1468  Helmich von Mallinkrodt                (d. af.1485)
 5 Dec 1468 - Feb 1473     Andreas Peper (Pepler)                 (d. 1473)
 6 Jun 1473 - Feb 1485     Johannes II Bertkow                    (d. 1485)
18 Jul 1485 - 1498         Dietrich V Hake                        (d. 1498)
20 Mar 1499 - 1505         Johannes III von der Rope              (d. 1505)
22 Dec 1505 - 1513         Gerhard Schrove                        (d. 1513)
1513 - 1514                Johannes IV Duesborg
                             (approved before 4 May 1514)
1514                       Bernhard IV
30 Oct 1514 - 15 Apr 1518  Christian Bornhower                    (b. c.1469 - d. 1518)
14 Jun 1518 -  9 Sep 1527  Johannes V Blankenfeld                 (b. 1471 - d. 1527)
                             (also Archbishop of Riga)
15 Aug 1528 - 1534         Johannes VI Bey
1534 - 1543                Johannes VII Gellingshausen
1543 - May 1543            Hermann II Bey
21 Apr 1544 - 18 Apr 1551  Jodokus von der Recke (Jost von Recke)
(d. 1567)
                             (abanoned Dorpat 18 Apr 1551,
                             in opposition to 22 Oct 1553)
25 Jun 1554 - 18 Jul 1558  Hermann III Wesel                      (d. 1563) 
                             (deported to Russia 23 Aug 1558)
Administrator
1704 - 1710                Boris Petrovich Sheremetev             (b. 1652 – d. 1719)
                             (from 1706, Boris
Petrovich Graf Sheremetev)



Ösel Island (Saaremaa) 
 
Map of Ösel Island
Capital: Arensburg (Kuressare)
(Leal to c.1251; Perona
c.1251-c.1263; Hapsal
c.1263- c.1381)
Population: 20,000 (1782 est.)
 
Aug 1228                   Bishopric of Ösel (Ösel-Wiek) established, covering the islands
                             of Ösel (Saaremaa), Dagö (Hiiumaa) and Moon (Muhu), and Wiek 
                             (Läänemaa) western part of the Estonian mainland, as a sovereign 
                             principality (prince-bishopric) of the Holy Roman Empire
                             (formally from 1 Oct 1228). Some parts of bishop's possessions 
                             (on the islands and mainland) given as a fief to the
                             Swordbrothers Order (later Livonian Order)(approved by Holy See
                             8 Jan 1235).
1229 - 1234                Ruled by the Bishop of Riga and the Swordbrothers Order.
1241 - 1343                Ösel (Saaremaa) Island an autonomous part of Ösel-Wiek (autonomy
                             renewed 27 Aug 1255).
15 Apr 1560                Bishopric, sold by the last prince-bishop to Denmark, given as an
                             appanage to the brother of the King of Denmark, Magnus Herzog von
                             Holstein (elected to bishop 13 May 1560).
 5 Mar 1562                Territories of the Livonian Order a part of the Lithuanian 
                             principality of Livonia. 
1563                       Sweden occupies Wiek and the island of Dagö (not recognized by
                             Denmark). Denmark cedes Wiek to Lithuania in exchange for the
                             Livonian territories on the islands, including Soneburg.
13 Dec 1570                Denmark and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth recognize Swedish
                             sovereignty over Wiek and the island of Dagö (made part of 
                             the Swedish Duchy of Estonia on 1584).
 9 May 1572                Former prince-bishopric, now covering only the islands of Ösel
                             and Moon, transferred to direct administration of Denmark as 
                             a Danish fiefdom.
13 Sep 1572                Holy Roman Empire recognized Danish rule of Ösel. Denmark
                             reciprocally recognized suzerainty of Empire over the island,
                             which thus remained a nominal part of Empire.
23 Aug 1645                Ösel ceded by Denmark to Sweden and subordinated to the Swedish 
                             governors-general of Livonia. The King of Sweden adopts the 
                             style of "Prince of Ösel."
26 Sep 1710                City of Arensburg (Kuressaare), the capital of Ösel, surrenders 
                             to Russian forces. Occupation of Ösel (Ezel' in Russian)
                             completed (formally ceded by Sweden to Russia 10 Sep 1721).
 8 Aug 1713                An autonomous part of the province of Livonia, directly
                             administered by the governor-general of Livonia to 1781.
14 Jul 1783                Autonomy abolished, remains part of Livonia to 12 Apr 1917.
28 Nov 1796                Limited local autonomy for Ösel restored (confirmed by all
                             successive Emperors of Russia on their accession before 1881,
                             thereafter gradually extinguished).
17 Sep 1944 – 24 Nov 1944  Separate German occupation of islands after evacuation of Tallinn.
Prince-Bishops of Ösel (later Ösel-Wiek)
 1 Oct 1228 - 26 Jul 1229  Gottfried                              (d. af.1257)
                            (elected 29 Jun 1228; approved Aug 1228)
1229 - 1234                Interregnum
10 Sep 1234 - 10 Mar 1260  Heinrich I                             (d. 1260)
Sep 1262 - 1285?           Hermann I de Bekeshoevede              (b. 1230 - d. 1285)
1290? - 1294               Heinrch II                             (d. 1294)
1294/97 - 1307?            Konrad I
1310 - 23 Mar 1321         Hartung (Garttungus)                   (d. 1321)
 3 Mar 1322 - 1337         Jakob                                  (d. 1337)
23 Feb 1338 - 1362         Hermann II Osenbrügge                  (b. bf.1272? - d. 1362)
24 Jul 1363 - 1374         Konrad II                              (d. 1374)
23 Oct 1374 - 1381         Heinrich III                           (b. c.1300 - d. 1381)
1381 - 1385                Interregnum
1385 -  6 Nov 1419         Winrich von Kniprode                   (d. 1419)
 8 Jan 1420 - 10 Aug 1423  Kaspar Schuwenflug                     (d. 1423)
 5 Sep 1423 - 21 Jul 1432  Christian Kuband                       (d. 1432)
22 Oct 1432 - 12 Sep 1438  Johannes I Schutte                     (d. 1438)
1439 - 11 Mar 1458         Ludolf Grove                           (d. 1458) 
                            (to 1 Dec 1449 in opposition to Pope;
                             then on Oesel and Dagö styled Elder
                             Bishop 1 Dec 1449 - 1457)
20 Mar 1439 - Feb 1457     Johannes II Creul                      (d. 1457) 
                             (appointed by Pope, to 9 Mar 1449
                             in exile; then at Wiek styled Younger Bishop)
23 Aug 1460 - 17 Jan 1471  Jodokus Hoenstein                      (d. 1471)
                             (to 1469 in exile)
17 Jun 1471 - 1491         Peter Wetberg (Wetberch)               (d. 1491)
26 Mar 1491 - 19 Mar 1515  Johannes III Orgas                     (b. c.1420 - d. 1515)
19 Mar 1515 - 22 Apr 1527  Johannes IV Kievel                     (d. 1527)
 4 May 1527 -  2 Oct 1530  Georg von Tiesenhausen                 (b. 1507 - d. 1530)
 3 Aug 1532 - 13 Jul 1541  Reinhold von Buxhövden                 (d. 1557)
 9 Jan 1542 - 1560         Johannes V von Münchhausen             (d. 1572)
                             (administrator)
Prince-Bishop Elect of Ösel-Wiek
13 May 1560 - 
20 Mar 1567  Magnus, Duke of Holstein               (b. 1540 - d. 1583)
Lord of
Ösel (style Stieffte Ozel und Wieck Herr)
20 Mar 1567 -  9 May 1572  Magnus, Duke of Holstein               (s.a.)
Governors (Statthalter)
1560 - Oct 1563            Dietrich von Behr                      (b. c.1505 - d. 1575)
 5 Mar 1562 - 1574         Heinrich Wolf von Lüdinghausen         (d. 1574)
Oct 1563 - 1567            Christoffer Valkendorf                 (b. 1525 — d. 1601?)

                             (self-proclaimed; in eastern Ösel Island)
1574 - 1576                Claus von Ungern zu Dalby              (d. 1577)
1576 - 1579                Johann von Mentz
1579 - 1579                Vincents Jensen Juel til Hesselmed     (b. c.1530 – d. 1579)
1579 - 1584                Georg Fahrensbach til Nelvi
1584 - 1589                Mathias Budde til Tøllist              (b. c.1553 – d. 1591)
1589 - 1594                Johann Schwalbe (Swabe) 
              (d. 1594)
1594 - 1612                Claus Maltesen Sehested til Højris
    (b. 1558 - d. 1612)
1612 - 1613                Niels Mogensen Krag til Trudsholm      (b. 1574 - d. 1650)
1613 - 1622                Jacob Lavesen Beck til Gladsaxe        (b. 1570 - d. 1622)

1622 - 1634                Frederik Frandsen Rantzau til          (b. 1590 - d. 1645)
                             Krapperup
1635 - 1643                Anders Bille                           (b. 1600 - d. 1657)
1644 - 31 Oct 1645         Ebbe Ulfeldt til Ovesholm              (b. 1616 - d. 1682)
31 Oct 1645 - 1646         Erik Gustafsson greve Stenbock         (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
1646 - 1648                Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud            (b. 1577 - d. 1657) 
1648 - 1654                Johan Persson Utter                    (b. 1605 - d. 1654)
1654 - 1660                Reinhold von Lieven                    (b. 1621 - d. 1665)
1660 - 1676                Carl Larsson Sparre                    (b. 1627 - d. 1702)
1676 - 1678                Carl Johansson Siöblad (1st time)      (b. 1611 - d. 1696)
1678 - 1687                Jürgen von der Osten-Sacken (1st time) (b. 1630 - d. 1690)
1687 - 1689                Carl Johansson Siöblad (2nd time)      (s.a.)
30 Jul 1689 - 1690         Jürgen von der Osten-Sacken (2nd time) (s.a.)
21 Apr 1690 - 1701         Peter Örneklou (Per Örneklow)          (b. 1631 - d. 1701)
1701 - 1710                Engelbrecht Mannerburg                 (b. 1649 - d. 1719)
Vice-governor

1781 - 14 Jul 1783         Balthasar Baron von Campenhausen       (b. 1745 - d. 1800)
German Commandant of the Baltic Islands

 7 Sep 1944 – 24 Nov 1944  Hans Schirmer                          (b. 1888 - d. 1955
)

Ritterschaftshauptmann 
1655 – 1661                Friedrich Sasse
1661                       Odert Poll
1670                       Christian Poll
Landschaftshauptmann
1699 – 1707                Johann von Vietinghoff
1707                       Carl Adam von Stackelberg              (b. 1669 - d. 1749)
                             (Ritterschaftshauptmann)
1716                       Wolmar Freiherr von Stackelberg        (b. 1680 - d. 1744)
1725                       Friedrich Johann von Lode              (b. 1683 - d. 1753)
Ritterschaftshauptmann
1739                       Nicolas von Krämer                     (b. 1693 - d. 1739)
1740                       Otto Friedrich von Vietinghoff         (b. 1692 - d. 1777)
1748                       Christian Friedrich von Poll           (b. 1672 - d. 1748)
Landmarschälle
1753 - 1760                Reinhold Gustav von Nolcken            (d. 1762)
1760 - 1765                Hermann Gustav von Weymarn             (b. 1717 - d. 1771)
1762 - 1772                Carl Gustav von Güldenstubbe           (b. 1739 - d. 1814)
1772 - 1780                Otto Fromhold von Buhrmeister (1st time)      
1780 - 1783                Johann Christoph von Nolcken -Assessor
1797 - 1800                Karl Johann Gustav von Ekesparre       (b. 1746 - d. 1806)
1800 - 1806                Georg Friedrich von Sass               (b. 1751 - d. 1810)
1806 - 1808                Otto Fromhold von Buhrmeister (2nd time)
1808 - 1813                Otto von Buxhoeveden                   (b. 1770 - d. 1830)
1813 - 1816                Reinhold Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau   (b. 1781 - d. 1860)
1816 - 1818                Peter Anton von Sass                   (b. 1782 - d. 1832)
1818 - 26 Jun 1841         Peter von Buxhoeveden                  (b. 1787 - d. 1841)
1841 - 1841                Alexander von Nolcken (acting)         (b. 1804 - d. 1867)
1841 - 1843                Karl von Güldenstubbe (acting)         (b. 1798 - d. 1867)
1843 - 1849                Georg von Ditmar                       (b. 1789 - d. 1852)
1849 - 22 Mar 1862         Karl von Güldenstubbe                  (b. 1816 - d. 1862)
1862 - 1864                Ernst Baron Nolcken (acting)(1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
1864 - 1865                Ottokar von Aderkas                    (b. 1806 - d. 1869)
1865 - 1867                Ernst Baron Nolcken (acting)(2nd time) (s.a.)
1867 - 1876                Karl Freytagh von Loringhoven          (b. 1816 - d. 1887)
1876 - 1906                Oskar von Ekesparre                    (b. 1839 - d. 1925)
1906 - 16 Feb 1919         Axel Baron Buxhöveden                  (b. 1856 - d. 1919)



Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
Flag of Estonian
                          SSR in 1940-1953
                     25 Aug 1940 - 6 Feb 1953
 
[Flag of Estonian
                          SSR in 1953]
                     6 Feb 1953 - 8 May 1990
 
Capital: Taillinn Hear SSR Anthem
"Eesti Nõukogude
 Sotsialistliku Vabariigi hümn"
(State Anthem of the
Estonian SSR)

(1945-1990)
Constitution
(15 Apr 1978)
Population: 1,474,000 (1980)
 
21 Jul 1940                Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
 6 Aug 1940                Accession to the Soviet Union.
 7 Jul 1941 - 22 Sep 1944  Occupied by Germany, part of Reichskommissariat of Ostland.
                             (see under Latvia).
16 Nov 1988                Declaration of state sovereignty.
 8 May 1990                Republic of Estonia

Note: Estonian with Russian names in parentheses.

First secretaries of the Estonian Communist Party (EKP)
28 Aug 1940 - 1943         Karl Säre (Karl Yanovich Syare)    (b. 1903 - d. 1943?)
                             (German prisoner from 3 Sep 1941)
 3 Sep 1941 - 26 Mar 1950  Nikolai Karotamm                   (b. 1901 - d. 1969)
                             (Nikolay Georgievich Karotamm)
                             (acting [for S
äre to 1943] to 28 Sep 1944)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile to 28 Sep 1944)
26 Mar 1950 - 26 Jul 1978  Johannes Käbin                     (b. 1905 - d. 1999)
                             (Ivan Gustavovich Kebin)
26 Jul 1978 - 16 Jun 1988  Karl Vaino (
Karl Genrihovich Vaino)(b. 1923)
16 Jun 1988 - 22 Aug 1991  Vaino Väljas                       (b. 1931)
                             (Vaino Iosipovich Vyalyas)
                             (from 25 Mar 1990, chairman)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 24 Feb 1990)  

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
25 Aug 1940 - 29 Nov 1946  Johannes Vares "Barbarus"          (b. 1890 - d. 1946)  EKP
                             (Ivan Yanovich Vares)
                             (
in Russian SFSR exile 28 Aug 1941 - 29 Sep 1944)
29 Nov 1946 -  5 Mar 1947  Nigol Andresen (acting)            (b. 1899 - d. 1985)  EKP
                             (Nikolay Gustavovich Andrezen)
 5 Mar 1947 -  7 Jul 1950  Eduard Päll
                       (b. 1903 - d. 1989)  EKP
                             (Eduard Nikolayevich Pyall)
 7 Jul 1950 -  4 Feb 1958  August Jakobson                    (b. 1904 - d. 1963)  EKP
                             (Avgust Mikhkelevich Yakobson)    
 4 Feb 1958 - 12 Oct 1961  Johan Gansovich Eichfeld           (b. 1893 - d. 1989)  EKP
                             (Iogan Gansovich Eyhfeld)
12 Oct 1961 -  7 Oct 1970  Aleksei Müürisepp                  (b. 1902 - d. 1970)  EKP
                             (Aleksey Aleksandrovich Myurisep)
 7 Oct 1970 - 22 Dec 1970  Aleksander Ansberg (acting)        (b. 1909 - d. 1975)  EKP
                             (Aleksander Yanovich Ansberg)
22 Dec 1970 - 25 May 1978  Artur Vader (
Artur Pavlovich Vader)(b. 1920 - d. 1978)  EKP
25 May 1978 - 26 Jul 1978  Meta Vannas (f)(acting)            (b. 1924 - d. 2002)  EKP
                             (Meta Villemovna Vannas)
26 Jul 1978 -  8 Apr 1983  Johannes Käbin                     (s.a.)               EKP
 8 Apr 1983 - 29 Mar 1990  Arnold Rüütel                      (b. 1928)            EKP
                             (
Arnold Fyodorovich Ruutel

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
25 Aug 1940 - 28 Aug 1941  Johannes Lauristin                 (b. 1899 - d. 1941)  EKP
                             (Ivan Hansovich Lauristin)
28 Aug 1941 -
17 Jun 1942  Vacant
17 Jun 1942
- 28 Sep 1944  Oskar Sepre (acting)               (b. 1900 - d. 1965)  EKP
                             (Oskar Adovich Sepre)
28 Sep 1944 - 25 Mar 1946  Arnold Veimer                    
  (b. 1903 - d. 1977)  EKP
                             (Arnold Tynuvich Veimer)  
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
25 Mar 1946 - 29 Mar 1951  Arnold Veimer                      (s.a.)               EKP
29 Mar 1951 - 12 Oct 1961  Aleksei Müürisepp                  (s.a.)               EKP
12 Oct 1961 - 18 Jan 1984  Valter Klauson                     (b. 1914 - d. 1988)  EKP
                             (Valter Ivanovich Klauson)         
18 Jan 1984 - 16 Nov 1988  Bruno Saul (Bruno Eduardovich Saul)(b. 1932)            EKP
16 Nov 1988 -  3 Apr 1990  Indrek Toome                       (b. 1943)            EKP
                             (Indrek Herbertovich Toome)  

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German occupation 1941-1944

Note: Soviet resistance, consisting mainly of straggling party-members and soldiers, organized into partisan units subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan Units in Moscow.

Commander of the Estonian Partisan Units
1941 - 1944                Nikolai Karotamm                   (s.a.)               Mil/EKP

Party abbreviations: EKPEestimaa Kommunistlik Partei (Estonian Communist Party, communist, only legal party 1940 - 24 Feb 1990)







© Ben Cahoon