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Denmark
 
[Denmark
                                    flag]
          Adopted 15 Jun 1219,
       Officially from  1 May 1893
 
Map of Denmark
Hear National Anthem
"Der er et yndigt land"
(There is a Lovely Land) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1844
Constitution
  (5 Jun 1849/1953)
Map of Denmark in 1864
Hear Royal Anthem
"Kong Christian stod ved højen
mast
" (King Christian stood by
 the lofty mast)
Text of Royal Anthem
Adopted 1780
Succession to the Throne Act
(27 Mar 1953)
Capital: Copenhagen
(Roskilde c.930-1443)
Currency: Danish Krone
(DKK) 
National Holiday: 5 Jun (1849)
Constitution Day
Population: 5,556,452 (2013)
GDP: $211.3 billion (2013) 
Exports: $106 billion (2013)
Imports: $98.4 billion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Danish 91.9%, Turkish 0.6%, German 0.5%,
Iraqi 0.4%, Swedish 0.4%, Norwegian 0.3%, Bosniak 0.3%,
other 5.6% (2006)
Total Armed Forces: 26,585 (2010)
Merchant marine: 367 ships (2010)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 83%, other  Christian 1.3%,
Muslim 3.7%, non-religious 5.4%, atheist 1.5%, other 5.1% (2006)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, ADB (nonregional), AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CCM, CE, CERN, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Denmark Index
Chronology
c.930                      Kingdom of Denmark (Jutland, the Islands
                             and Skåne/Scania [now in southern Sweden]).
c.970 - 995                Danish rule over Norway.
 9 Sep 1000 - 1015         Danish rule over parts of Norway (Viken area).
Apr 1016 -  8 Jun 1042     Denmark in personal union with England.
Nov 1028 - 1035            Danish rule over Norway.
1042 - 25 Oct 1047         Denmark under Norwegian rule.
27 Jul 1361 - 1398         Gotland under Danish rule.
12 Sep 1380                Norway in (nominally personal) union with Denmark.
11 Jul 1396 -  6 Jun 1523  Union of Kalmar: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in 
                             personal union (United Kingdoms of Denmark, 
                             Norway and Sweden).
13 Nov 1408 - 23 Aug 1645  Gotland under Danish rule.
 8 Nov 1657 - 26 Feb 1658  Swedish occupation of Jutland.
26 Feb 1658                Skåne, Blekinge, and Halland ceded to Sweden
                             by Denmark according to Treaty of Roskilde.
24 Jan 1814                End of (nominally personal) union with Norway 
                            (ceded to Sweden).
 8 Mar 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Austro-Prussian occupation of Jutland.
30 Oct 1864                Duchy of Schleswig ceded to Austria (from 23 Aug
                             1866 to Prussia), Duchy of Holstein to Prussia;
                             Duchy of Lauenburg sold to Prussia.
 1 Dec 1918 - 17 Jun 1944  Kingdom of Iceland in personal union with Denmark.
15 Jun 1920                Northern Schleswig re-incorporated into Denmark
                             following the plebiscite of 10 Feb 1920.
 9 Apr 1940 -  5 May 1945  German occupation (German protectorate).
29 Aug 1943                Germans take over direct civil administration.
 5 May 1945 -  5 Nov 1945  Allied occupation (Bornholm occupied by Soviet 
                             Union to 5 Apr 1946).
Regions
Counties
(1970-2006)

Counties
(1793-1970)

Greenland
Faeroe Islands
German
Occupation

(1940-1945)
Anholt
(1809-1814)
Bornholm
(1645,1658,
1940-1946)
The Resistance
(1945)
Jutland
(1657,1864)
Historical Maps
of Denmark
 

Kings¹
c.800 - 810                Godafrid (Gudfred)
                (d. 810)
810 - 812                  Heming                             (d. 812)
812                        S
igifridus II (Sigfred)            (d. 812)
812 - 813                  H
arald "klak" Halfdanarson         (b. c.785 - d. 852)
                             (1st time)
812 - 813                  R
eginfredus Halfdanarson           (d. 814) 
813 - 814                  S
igifridus Godafridson             (d. 814)
813 - 854                  Rørik G
odafridson (Horik I)        (d. 854)
819 - 827                  Harald "klak" Halfdanarson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(co-ruler)
854 - 86.                  Rørik
(Horik II)                   (d. 86.)
8.. - 891                  Sigifridus III (Sigfred)           (d. 891)
89. - 90.                  Helghi (Helge)                     (d. 90.)
90. - c.934                Gnupa Olafsson                     (b. 86. - d. c.934)          
c.934 - c.936              Sigtryggr Gnupuson                 (b. 89. - d. c.936)
                             (defeated by
Hardeknud and Gorm
91. - 93.                  
Hardeknud Svendsen                 (b. 89. - d. 93.)      
93. - 958                  Gorm Hardeknudsen "de Gamle"       (b. 91. - d. 958)
                             ("the Old")
958 -  1 Nov 986           Harald I "Blåtand" Gormsen         (b. c.935 - d. 986)   
                            
("Bluetooth")  
 1 Nov 986 -  2 Feb 1014  
Svend I Haraldsen "Tveskaeg"       (b. c.960 - d. 1014)
                            
(Sweyn "Forkbeard")  
 3 Feb 1014 - 1018
        Harald II Svendsen                 (b. c.989 - d. 1018)
1018 - 12 Nov 1035 
       Knud I Svendsen "den store"        (b. c.995 - d. 1035)   
                             (Canute "the Great")          
Aug 1020 - 25 Dec 1026     Ulf Thorgilsson (acting)           (b. c.993 - d. 1026)
25 Dec 1026 - 12 Nov 1035  
Knud III Knudsen Hardeknud         (b. 1018 - d. 1042)         
                             (co-ruler)
(Cnute "the Hardy")
12 Nov 1035 -  8 Jun 1042  Knud III Knudsen Hardeknud         (s.a.)
 8 Jun 1042 - 25 Oct 1047  Magnus I Olavsson "den gode"       (b. c.1024 - d. 1047)
                             ("the Good")
1042 - 25 Oct 1047         Svend Estridsen Ulufson -Regent
   (b. c.1019 - d. 1076)
                             (in
Jylland)
25 Oct 1047 - 28 Apr 1076  Svend II Estridsen (Sweyn II)      (s.a.)
28 Apr 1076 - 17 Apr 1080  Harald III                         (b. c.1041 - d. 1080)
17 Apr 1080 - 10 Jul 1086  Knud IV Svendsen "den hellige"     (b. c.1043 - d. 1086)
                             (Canute IV "the Saint")   
10 Jul 1086 - 18 Aug 1095  Oluf I Svendsen                    (b. c.1052 - d. 1095)
18 Aug 1095 - 10 Jul 1103  Erik I Svendsen Ejegod             (b. c.1056 - d. 1103)
1102 - 1104                Harald Eriksen Kesja (acting)      (b. 1080 - d. 1135)
1104 - 25 Jun 1134         Niels Svendsen                     (b. c.1064 - d. 1134)
 4 Jun 1134 - 18 Sep 1137  Erik II Eriksen Emune              (b. c.1090 - d. 1137) 
                             (in opposition to 25 Jun 1134)
18 Sep 1137 - 27 Aug 1146  Erik III
Hakunsen "Lam"("the Lame")(b. 112. - d. 1147)
1140 - 1141                Oluf Haraldsen (in Skåne)          (b. c.1114 - d. 1143)
                             (in opposition)
27 Aug 1146 - 23 Oct 1154  Svend III Eriksen Grathe (1st time)(b. 1131 - d. 1157)
1154 -  9 Aug 1157         Knud V Magnussen                   (b. c.1130 - d. 1157)
                             (in opposition in Jylland 1146 - 18 May 1152)
1154 - 
 9 Aug 1157         Valdemar I Knudsen "den store"     (b. 1131 - d. 1182)
                             ("the Great")(1st time)(co-ruler)      
 9 Aug 1157 - 23 Oct 1157  Swen III Eriksen Grathe (2nd time) (s.a.)
23 Oct 1157
 - 12 May 1182  Valdemar I Knudsen "den store"     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)   
25 Jun 1170 - 12 Nov 1202  Knud VI
Valdemarsen                (b. 1162? - d. 1202)
                             (co-ruler to 12 May 1182)
12 Nov 1202 - 28 Mar 1241  Valdemar II
Valdemarsen "Sejr"     (b. 1170 - d. 1241)
                             ("the Victorious")    

24 Jun 1218 - 28 Nov 1231  Valdemar Valdemarsen "den unge"    (b. 1209 - d. 1231)
                             ("the Younger")(co-ruler)
30 May 1232 - 10 Aug 1250  Erik IV 
Valdemarsen                (b. 1216 - d. 1250)
                             (co-ruler to 28 Mar 1241)
10 Aug 1250 - 29 Jun 1252  Abel
Valdemarsen                   (b. 1218 - d. 1252)
                             (acting to 1 Nov 1250)    
29 Jun 1252 - 29 May 1259  Christoffer I Valdemarsen          (b. 1219 - d. 1259)
28 May 1259 - 22 Nov 1286  Erik V Christoffersen              (b. 1249 - d. 1286)
29 May 1259 - 1266         Margareta Sambiria (f) -Regent     (b. 1230 - d. 1282)
22 Nov 1286 - 13 Nov 1319  Erik VI Christoffersen             (b. 1274 - d. 1319)
22 Nov 1286 - 1293         Agnes zu Brandenburg (f) -Regent   (b. c.1259 - d. 1304)
13 Nov 1319 -  7 Jun 1326  Christoffer II Eriksen (1st time)  (b. 1276 - d. 1332)
 7 Jun 1326 - 23 Feb 1330  Valdemar III Eriksen               (b. 1315 - d. 1364)
 7 Jun 1326 - 23 Feb 1330  Gerhard Graf zu Holstein und       (b. 1292 - d. 1340)
                             Stormarn -Regent
23 Feb 1330 -  2 Aug 1332  Christoffer II Eriksen (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1332 - 24 Jun 1340  Lords
                           - Gerhard Graf zu Holstein und     (s.a.)
                               Stormarn (in Nørrejylland & Fyn)
                              (to 1 Apr 1340) 
                           - Johan Graf zu Holstein und       (b. 1297? - d. 1359)
                               Stormarn     
                              (in Skane, Sjælland and Laaland
24 Jun 1340 - 24 Oct 1375  Valdemar IV Christoffersen         (b. 1320 - d. 1375)
24 Oct 1375 -  3 May 1376  Niels Jønsson Bild                 (b. 131. - d. 1379)
                             (chairman of state council)
 3 May 1376 -  3 Aug 1387  Oluf II Haakonsen                  (b. 1370 - d. 1387)
 3 May 1376 - 12 Sep 1380  King Haakon VI Magnusson den yngre (b. 1340 - d. 1380)
                             of Norway -Regent            
 3 May 1376 -  3 Aug 1387  
Margrethe Valdemarsdatter (f)Regent(b. 1353 - d. 1412)
                             (1st time)
 3 Aug 1387 - 10 Aug 1387  Magnus Nielsen
                    (b. 132. - d. 1390)
                             (chairman of state council)
10 Aug 1387 - 23 Jan 1396  Margrethe I -Queen                 (s.a.)
                             (styled: Denmarks Lady and Master, and
                             most mighty Guardian of the whole Realm)
23 Jan 1396 - 24 Jun 1439  Erik VII                           (b. 1382 - d. 1459)
                             (Erik XIII of Sweden, Erik II of Norway)
23 Jan 1396 - 28 Oct 1412  Margrethe Valdemarsdatter (f)Regent(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

24 Jun 1439 - 25 Jul 1439  Hans Laksmand (Laxmand)            (b. 138. - d. 1443)
                             (chairman of state council)
25 Jul 1439 -  9 Apr 1440  Christoffer af Bayern -Regent      (b. 1416 - d. 1448)
 9 Apr 1440 -  6 Jan 1448  Christoffer III                    (s.a.)
                             (Christoffer af Bayern)
 6 Jan 1448 - 28 Sep 1448  Tuve Nielsen Juul                  (b. 141. - d. 1472)
 
                             (chairman of state council)
28 Sep 1448 - 21 May 1481  Christian I (Christiern I)         (b. 1426 - d. 1481)
                             (elected 1 Sep 1448)
22 May 1481 -  3 Feb 1483  Jens Henningsen Brostrup           (d. 1497)
                             (chairman of state council)
 3 Feb 1483 - 20 Feb 1513  Hans (Hans Christensen)            (b. 1455 - d. 1513)
20 Feb 1513 - 22 Jul 1513  Birger (Byrge) Gunnersen           (b. 1440 - d. 1519)
                             (chairman of state council)
22 Jul 1513 - 13 Apr 1523  Christian II (Christian Hansen)    (b. 1481 - d. 1559)
13 Apr 1523 - 10 Apr 1533  Frederik I                         (b. 1471 - d. 1533)
                             (proclaimed in dissidence 26 Mar 1523)
10 Apr 1533 -  6 Aug 1536  Torbern Steensen Bille -Regent     (b. c.1470 - d. 1552)
                             (chairman of state council)
18 Aug 1534 -  6 Aug 1536  Christof Graf zu Oldenburg -Regent (b. 1504 - d. 1566)
 6 Aug 1536 -  1 Jan 1559  Christian III                      (b. 1503 - d. 1559)
                             (proclaimed in dissidence 4 Jul 1534)
 1 Jan 1559 - 14 Apr 1588  Frederik II                        (b. 1534 - d. 1588)
14 Apr 1588 -  9 Mar 1648  Christian IV                       (b. 1577 - d. 1648)
 4 Apr 1588 - 17 Aug 1596  Regency
                           - Niels Kaas til Taarupgaard       (b. 1534 - d. 1594)
                             (to 29 Jun 1594)
                           - Jørgen Rosenkrantz til Rosenholm (b. 1523 - d. 1596)
                             (to 9 Apr 1596)
                           - Christoffer Walckendorff         (b. 1525 - d. 1601)
                           - Peder Munk til Estvadgaard       (b. 1534 - d. 1623)
28 Feb 1648 -  8 May 1648  Corfitz greve af Ulfeld -Regent    (b. 1606 - d. 1664)
 9 Mar 1648 - 16 Jul 1648  Christen Thomesen Sehested -Regent (b. 1590 - d. 1657)
16 Jul 1648 - 19 Feb 1670  Frederik III                       (b. 1609 - d. 1670)
19 Feb 1670 -  4 Sep 1699  Christian V                        (b. 1646 - d. 1699) 
 4 Sep 1699 - 12 Oct 1730  Frederik IV                        (b. 1671 - d. 1730)
12 Oct 1730 -  6 Aug 1746  Christian VI                       (b. 1699 - d. 1746)
 6 Aug 1746 - 14 Jan 1766  Frederik V                         (b. 1723 - d. 1766)
14 Jan 1766 - 13 Mar 1808  Christian VII                      (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
16 Jan 1772 - 14 Apr 1784  Queen Juliane von 
Braunschweig-    (b. 1729 - d. 1796)
                             Wolffenbüttel (f) -Regent     
14 Apr 1784 - 13 Mar 1808 
Crown Prince Frederik              (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
13 Mar 1808 -  3 Dec 1839  Frederik VI                        (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1839 - 20 Jan 1848  Christian VIII                     (b. 1786 - d. 1848)
20 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863  Frederik VII                       (b. 1808 - d. 1863)
15 Nov 1863 - 29 Jan 1906  Christian IX                       (b. 1818 - d. 1906)
29 Jan 1906 - 14 May 1912  Frederik VIII                      (b. 1843 - d. 1912)
14 May 1912 - 20 Apr 1947  Christian X                        (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
                            (under occupation 9 Apr 1940 - 5 May 1945)
19 Oct 1942 - 15 May 1943  Crown Prince Frederik -Regent      (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
 7 Apr 1947 - 20 Apr 1947  Crown Prince Frederik -Regent      (s.a.)
20 Apr 1947 - 14 Jan 1972  Frederik IX                        (s.a.)

Queen¹
14 Jan 1972 -              Margrethe II                       (b. 1940)
 

Stewards of the Realm (Rigets Hofmestere)
1373                       Frentzel
1385                       Degenhard Buggenhagen
1387                       Bent Byg Grubbe                    (d. 1391)
1397                       Mikkel Rud til Skjoldnæs
          (d. af.1401)
1400 - 1409                Jens Due (1st time)                (d. af.1419)
1412 - 1413                Anders Jacobsen Lunge (1st time)
1414 - 1416                Jens Due (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1417 - 1423                Anders Jacobsen Lunge (2nd time)
1424                       Erik Segebodsen Krummedige
         (d. 1439)
1439 - 1440                Albrecht Morer
1441 - 1442                Erik Nielsen Gyldenstjerne
1445 - 1452                Otte Nielsen Rosenkrantz
1453 - 1456                Niels Eriksen Gyldenstjerne
1456 - 1480                Erik Ottesen Rosenkrantz           (b. c.1427 - d. 1503)
1482 - 1487                Strange Nielsen Strangesen Bild
1489 - 22 Jun 1502         Poul Laxmand                       (d. 1502)
22 Jul 1513 -  2 Nov 1516  Niels Rosenkrantz til Bjørnholm    (b. 146. - d. 1516)
 2 Nov 1516 -  5 Apr 1544  Mogens Gjøe til Krenkerup          (b. 147. - d. 1544)
                             (acting to 26 Mar 1523)
 5 Ap 1544 - 1547          Johan Friis til Hesselager         (b. 1494 - d. 1570)
                             (1st time)(acting)
1547 -  9 Feb 1552         Eske Bilde (Bille) til Svanholm    (b. c.1480 - d. 1552)
 9 Feb 1552 -  7 Jan 1559  Johan Friis til Hesselager         (s.a.)  
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 7 Jan 1559 -  3 Jul 1565  Eyler Hardenberg til Mattrup og
   (b. 150. - d. 1565)
                             Widtoft    
 3 Jul 1565 - 17 Aug 1567  Johan Friis til Hesselager         (s.a.)  
                             (2rd time)(acting)
17 Aug 1567 - 24 Oct 1575  Peder Oxe til Gisselfeld           (b. 1520 - d. 1575)
24 Oct 1575 - 29 Jun 1594  Niels Kaas til Taarupgaard (acting)(b. 1534 - d. 1594)
29 Jun 1594 - 17 Jan 1601  Christoffer Valkendorff til Glorup (b. 1525 - d. 1601)
                             (acting to 7 Jun 1596)
17 Jan 1601 - 29 Jul 1616  Christian Friis til Borreby        (b. 1556 - d. 1616) 
                             (acting)
 1 Dec 1616 -  5 Apr 1632  Christian Friis til Kragerup       (b. 1581 - d. 1639)

                             (1st time)(acting)
 5 Apr 1632 -  5 Nov 1632  Frands Rantzau til Rantzausholm    (b. 1604 - d. 1632)   

 5 Nov 1632 -  1 Oct 1639  Christian Friis til Kragerup       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Oct 1639 - May 1640     Jørgen Urne til Alslev (acting)    (b. 1598 - d. 1642)   
May 1640 -  1 Apr 1643     Christian Sehested til Stougaard   (b. 1590 - d. 1657)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 1 Apr 1643 - 13 Jul 1651  Corfitz, greve af Ulfeld til
      (b. 1606 - d. 1664)
                              Ulfeldsholm           
13 Jul 1651 - 29 Oct1652   Christian Sehested til Stougaard   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
29 Oct 1652 - 26 Oct 1660  Joachim Gersdorff
til Tunbyholm    (b. 1611 - d. 1661)  
Chairmen of the State College (
Præsides i Statscollegio)
26 Oct 1660 - 19 Apr 1661  Joachim Gersdorff til Tunbyholm    (s.a.)
19 Apr 1661 - 23 Aug 1661  Peder Reetz til Tygestrup (acting) (b. 1614 - d. 1674)
23 Aug 1661 -  8 Nov 1663  Christian Rantzau, greve von
      (b. 1614 - d. 1663)
                             Rantzau  
 8 Nov 1663 - 10 Jul 1674  Peder Reetz til Tygestrup          (b. 1614 - d. 1674)
26 Nov 1673 -  3 Aug 1674  Peder, greve af Griffenfeld  
      (b. 1635 - d. 1699)
                             (Schumacher)(acting)        
Grand Chancellors (Storcantzlere)
 3 Aug 1674 - 11 Mar 1676  Peder, greve af Griffenfeld til    (s.a.)
                             Samøe
11 Mar 1676 - 13 May 1676  Ove Juel til Willestrup (acting)   (b. 1615 - d. 1686)
13 May 1676 -  7 Jul 1686  Friderich, greve Ahlefeldt til
    (b. 1623 - d. 1686)
                             Søgaard  
 7 Jul 1686 -  1 May 1690  Michael Wibe til Freienfeld        (b. 1627 - d. 1690)
                             (acting)
Chairmen of the Secret council (Præsides i Geheime-Conseilet)
 1 May 1690 - 25 Aug 1699  Ulrich Friderich, greve Gyldenløve (b. 1638 - d. 1704) 
                             til Laurwig
26 Jul 1690 - 31 Dec 1690  Jens Juel til Førslevgaard,
       (b. 1631 - d. 1700)
                             friherre til Juellinge
                             (acting for
Gyldenløve)
Grand Chancellor

26 Aug 1699 - 21 Jul 1708  Conrad, greve von Reventlow til    (b. 1644 - d. 1708)
                             Clausholm 
Chairmen of the Secret council

31 Jul 1708 - 17 May 1710  Christian von Lenthe zu Zarlhausen (b. 1649 - d. 1725)

17 May 1710 -  8 Jul 1717  Otto Krabbe til Egholm og 
        (b. 1641 - d. 1719)
                             Holmegaard   
 8 Jul 1717 - 20 Jun 1721 
Christian Sehested til Ravnholt    (b. 1666 - d. 1740)
Grand Chancellor
20 Jun 1721 - 11 Oct 1730  Ulrich Adolf, greve Holstein zu    (b. 1664 - d. 1737)
                             zu Holsteinborg 
Chairmen of the Secret council

11 Oct 1730 - 26 Dec 1730  Johan Georg von Holstein zu        (b. 1662 - d. 1730)
                             Møllenhagen  
26 Dec 1730 - 18 Jan 1734  Christian Ludwig von Plessen zu    
(b. 1676 - d. 1752)
                             Glorup  
18 Jan 1734 -
27 Apr 1740  Ivar Rosencrantz til Rosenholm     (b. 1674 - d. 1745)
27 Apr 1740 - 29 Jan 1763  
Johan Ludwig Holstein zu Ledreborg (b. 1694 - d. 1763)
                             (from 31 Mar 1750, greve Holstein zu Ledreborg)
29 Jan 1763 - 16 Sep 1770  Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorf (b. 1712 - d. 1772) 

                             (from 14 Feb 1767, greve von Bernstorff)
16 Sep 1770 - 10 Dec 1770  Otto, greve Thott til Gavnøe       (b. 1703 - d. 1785)
10 Dec 1770 - 14 Jul 1771  the King
Secret Cabinet Minister
(Gehejmecabinetsminister)
14 Jul 1771 - 17 Jan 1772  Johann Fridrich Struensee,         (b. 1737 - d. 1772) 
                             (from 22 Jul 1771) greve Struensee
Chairmen of the Privy Council (
Præsides i Gehejmestatsraadet)
18 Jan 1772 - 10 Sep 1785  Otto, greve Thott til Gavnøe       (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1780 - 14 Jun 1784  Ove Høegh-Guldberg
                (b. 1731 - d. 1808)
                             (acting for Thott)    
10 Sep 1785 -  3 Jun 1788  Joachim Otto Schack-Rathlou til
   (b. 1728 - d. 1800)
                             Sneumgaard   
 3 Jun 1788 - 21 Jun 1797  Andreas Peter, greve von           (b. 1735 - d. 1797)
                             Bernstorff
21 Jun 1797 -  7 Dec 1813  Ernst Heinrich, greve von          (b. 1747 - d. 1831)
                             Schimmelmann

 7 Dec 1813 - 24 Aug 1818  Joachim Godske, greve von Moltke   (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
                             til Bregentved
 5 Oct 1818 -  7 Jan 1824  Niels Rosenkrantz til Ryegaard     (b. 1757 - d. 1824)
 7 Jan 1824 - 11 Jan 1827  Fredrik Julius von Kaas            (b. 1758 - d. 1827)
11 Jan 1827 - 26 Feb 1842  Johan Sigismund von Møsting        (b. 1759 - d. 1843)

26 Feb 1842 - 30 Mar 1842  Otto Joachim, greve Moltke         (b. 1770 - d. 1853)

                             til Espe
30 Mar 1842 - 22 Mar 1848  Poul Christian Stemann             (b. 1764 - d. 1855)
Prime ministers (Premierminister to 1855; Konseilspræsident 1855-1918; then Statsminister)
22 Mar 1848 - 27 Jan 1852  Adam Wilhelm, greve Moltke         (b. 1785 - d. 1864)  Non-party
                             til Bregentved
27 Jan 1852 - 21 Apr 1853  Christian Albrecht Bluhme          (b. 1794 - d. 1866)  Con

                             (1st time)
21 Apr 1853 - 12 Dec 1854  Anders Sandøe Ørsted               (b. 1788 - d. 1860)  Con
12 Dec 1854 - 18 Oct 1856  Peder Georg Bang                   (b. 1797 - d. 1861)  Con
                             (acting to 5 Jan 1855)
24 Jun 1855 -  4 Aug 1855  Ludvig Nicolaus Scheele            (b. 1796 - d. 1874)  Con
                             (acting for Bang)
11 Jul 1856 - 22 Aug 1856  Ludvig Nicolaus Scheele            (s.a.)               Con

                             (acting for Bang)

18 Oct 1856 - 13 May 1857  
Carl Christopher Georg Andrae      (b. 1812 - d. 1893)  Non-party
13 May 1857 -  2 Dec 1859  Carl Christian Hall (1st time)     (b. 1812 - d. 1888)  NL
 2 Dec 1859 -  8 Feb 1860  Carl Edvard Rotwitt                (b. 1812 - d. 1860)  FF
 8 Feb 1860 - 24 Feb 1860  Carl Frederik Axel Bror, baron     (b. 1822 - d. 1873)  Con
                             Blixen-Finecke (acting) 
24 Feb 1860 - 31 Dec 1863  Carl Christian Hall (2nd time)     (s.a.)               NL
31 Dec 1863 - 11 Jul 1864  Ditlev Gothard Monrad              (b. 1811 - d. 1887)  NL
11 Jul 1864 -  6 Nov 1865  Christian Albrecht Bluhme          (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
 6 Nov 1865 - 28 May 1870  Christian Emil, greve Krag         (b. 1817 - d. 1896)  Con
                             (from 8 Jul 1867, Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs)
28 May 1870 - 14 Jul 1874  Ludvig Henrik Carl Herman,         (b. 1815 - d. 1892)  Con
                             greve Holstein 
14 Jul 1874 - 11 Jun 1875  Christen Andreas Fonnesbech        (b. 1817 - d. 1880)  Con
11 Jun 1875 -  7 Aug 1894  Jakob Brønnum Scavenius Estrup     (b. 1825 - d. 1913)  Rp
 7 Aug 1894 - 23 May 1897  Kjeld Thor Tage Otto, baron        (b. 1839 - d. 1923)  Rp
                             Reedtz-Thott
23 May 1897 - 27 Apr 1900  Hugo Egmont Hørring                (b. 1842 - d. 1909)  Rp
27 Apr 1900 - 24 Jul 1901  Hannibal Sehested til Broholm      (b. 1842 - d. 1924)  Rp
24 Jul 1901 - 15 Jan 1905  Johan Hendrik Deuntzer             (b. 1845 - d. 1918)  LP-V
15 Jan 1905 - 11 Oct 1908  Jens Christian Christensen         (b. 1856 - d. 1930)  LP-V
11 Oct 1908 - 16 Aug 1909  Niels Thomasius Neergaard          (b. 1854 - d. 1936)  LP-V
                             (1st time) 
16 Aug 1909 - 28 Oct 1909  Johan Ludvig Carl Christian,       (b. 1839 - d. 1912)  LP-V
                             greve Holstein-Ledreborg
28 Oct 1909 -  4 Jul 1910  Carl Theodor Zahle (1st time)      (b. 1866 - d. 1946)  RV
 4 Jul 1910 - 21 Jun 1913  Klaus Berntsen                     (b. 1844 - d. 1927)  LP-V
21 Jun 1913 - 30 Mar 1920  Carl Theodor Zahle (2nd time)      (s.a.)               RV
30 Mar 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Carl Julius Otto Liebe             (b. 1860 - d. 1929)  Non-party
 5 Apr 1920 -  5 May 1920  Michael Petersen Friis             (b. 1857 - d. 1949)  Non-party
 5 May 1920 - 23 Apr 1924  Niels Thomasius Neergaard          (s.a.)               LP-V
                             (2nd time)
23 Apr 1924 - 13 Dec 1926  Thorvald August Marinus Stauning   (b. 1873 - d. 1942)  SD 
                             (1st time) 
13 Dec 1926 - 28 Apr 1929  Thomas Madsen-Mygdal               (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  KF
28 Apr 1929 -  1 May 1942  Thorvald August Marinus Stauning   (s.a.)               SP
                             (2nd time)
 1 May 1942 - 10 Nov 1942  Vilhelm Buhl (1st time)            (b. 1881 - d. 1954)  SD
                             (acting to 4 May 1942)
10 Nov 1942 -  5 May 1945² 
Erik Julius Christian Scavenius    (b. 1877 - d. 1962)  Non-party
29 Aug 1943 -  5 May 1945  Nils Svenningsen (acting)          (b. 1894 - d. 1985)  Non-party
 5 May 1945 -  8 Nov 1945  Vilhelm Buhl (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SD
 8 Nov 1945 - 13 Nov 1947  Knud Kristensen                    (b. 1880 - d. 1962)  LP-V
13 Nov 1947 - 27 Oct 1950  Hans Hedtoft (1st time)            (b. 1903 - d. 1955)  SD
27 Oct 1950 - 30 Sep 1953  Erik Eriksen                       (b. 1902 - d. 1972)  LP-V
30 Sep 1953 - 29 Jan 1955  Hans Hedtoft (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SD
29 Jan 1955 - 19 Feb 1960  Hans Christian Svane Hansen        (b. 1906 - d. 1960)  SD
                             (acting to 1 Feb 1955)
19 Feb 1960 -  3 Sep 1962  
Olfert Viggo Fischer Kampmann      (b. 1910 - d. 1976)  SD
                             (acting to 21 Feb 1960)
 6 May 1962 - 15 Aug 1962  Jens Otto Krag                     (b. 1914 - d. 1978)  SD
                             (acting for Kampmann)       
28 Aug 1962 - 18 Feb 1968  Jens Otto Krag (1st time)          (s.a.)               SD
                             (acting for Kampmann to 3 Sep 1962)
18 Feb 1968 -  9 Oct 1971  
Hilmar Tormod Ingolf Baunsgaard    (b. 1920 - d. 1989)  RV
 9 Oct 1971 -  5 Oct 1972  Jens Otto Krag (2nd time)          (s.a.)               SD
 5 Oct 1972 - 18 Dec 1973  Anker Henrik Jørgensen (1st time)  (b. 1922)            SD
18 Dec 1973 - 13 Feb 1975  Poul Hartling                      (b. 1914 - d. 2000)  LP-V
13 Feb 1975 - 10 Sep 1982  Anker Henrik Jørgensen (2nd time)  (s.a.)               SD
10 Sep 1982 - 25 Jan 1993  Poul Holmskov Schlüter             (b. 1929)            KF
25 Jan 1993 - 27 Nov 2001  Poul Nyrup Rasmussen               (b. 1943)            SD
27 Nov 2001 -  5 Apr 2009  Anders Fogh Rasmussen              (b. 1953)            LP-V
 5 Apr 2009 -  3 Oct 2011  Lars Løkke Rasmussen               (b. 1964)            LP-V
 3 Oct 2011 -              Helle Thorning-Schmidt (f)         (b. 1966)            SD


German Occupation 1940-1945

German Plenipotentiaries
 9 Apr 1940 -  5 Nov 1942  Cecil von Renthe-Fink              (b. 1885 - d. 1964)  NSDAP
 5 Nov 1942 -  5 May 1945  Werner Best                        (b. 1903 - d. 1989)  NSDAP
Commanders of German Troops
 9 Apr 1940 - 31 May 1940  Leonhard Kaupisch                  (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
 1 Jun 1940 - 26 Sep 1942  Erich Lüdke                        (b. 1882 - d. 1946)
27 Sep 1942 - 26 Jan 1945  Hermann von Hanneken               (b. 1890 - d. 1981)
27 Jan 1945 -  5 May 1945  Georg Lindemann                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
Head of the Allied Military Administration
 5 May 1945 - Aug 1945     Richard Henry Dewing (U.K.)        (b. 1891 - d. 1981) 

Resistance

Chairmen of the Free Danish Council³
30 Sep 1940 - 15 May 1942  Karl Gustav Anker-Petersen         (b. 1898 - d. 1956)
                             (acting; in London exile) 
15 May 1942 -  5 May 1945  John Guido Leo Christmas Møller    (b. 1898 - d. 1948)
                             (acting; in London exile)

NoteFreedom Council (Frihedsråd) was formed to unify the various resistance groups in Denmark. six persons formed the council on 16 Sep 1943, which was later expanded to 15 persons. There was no leader or president. These were the members as announced after the liberation.

Freedom Council
16 Sep 1943 - 1945         Council Members
                           - Niels Banke (from 194.)         (b. 1907 - d. 1983)
                           - Carl Adolf Bodelsen (from 1944) (b. 1894 - d. 1978)
                           - Ole Chievitz (from 1944)        (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
                           - Mogens Fog (to 1944)            (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
                           - Erling Foss                     (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
                               (from 1944, in Sweden)
                           - Børge Houmann                   (b. 1904 - d. 1994)
                           - Erik Husfeldt (194. - 194.)     (b. 1901 - d. 1984)
                           - Frode Jakobsen                  (b. 1906 - d. 1997)
                           - Alfred Jensen (194. - 194.)     (b. 1903 - d. 1988)
                           - Flemming B. Muus                (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
                           - Arne Nøe-Nygaard (to 1943)      (b. 1908 - d. 1991)
                           - Aage Schoch (to 1944)           (b. 1898 - d. 1968)
                           - Arne Sørensen (from 1943)       (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
                           - Hans Øllgaard (from 1944)       (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
                           - Ole Lippmann (from 194.)        (b. 1916 – d. 2002)
                           - Ebbe Munck (in Stockholm)       (b. 1905 – d. 1974) 
                           - John Christmas Møller           (b. 1894 – d. 1948)   
                               (in London)
                           - Thomas Døssing (in Moscow)      (b. 1887 – d. 1947)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) from c.1186: Danorum Sclauorumquae Rex ("Danish, Scanian King");
(b) 24 Jun 1340 - 3 May 1376: Dei gracia Danorum Sclavorumquae Rex et Dux Estoniae ("by the Grace of God, of Danish, Scanians King and Duke of Estonia"); from 1346 Dei gracia Danorum Sclavorumquae Rex ("by the Grace of God, of Danes, Scanians King"); from 1361 Dei gracia Danorum Sclavorum Gotorumquae Rex ("by the Grace of God, of Danish, Scanians, Goths King");
(c) 3 May 1376 - 10 Aug 1387: Dei gracia Danorum Sclavorum Gotorumquae Rex (from 12 Sep 1380 Dei gracia Danorum Sclavorum Gotorum et Norvegiae Rex) ("by the Grace of God, Danish, Scanian, Goths, and Norwegian King");
(d) 10 Aug 1387 - 24 Jan 1396: Fulmaegtig Frue og Husbonde og til ganske Riget af Danmarks Formynder ("Empowered Lady and Master and Guardian of the whole Realm of Denmark "); also in official use: Danmarks Frue og Husbonde og til hele Rigets fulmægtige Formynder ("Denmark's Lady and Master and empowered Guardian of the whole Realm"), occasional use of styles suggestive of a queen regnant;
(e) 24 Jan 1396 - 25 Jul 1439: Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Sveriges Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge og Hertug i Pommern ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths King and Duke in Pomerania");
(f) 9 Apr 1440 - 5 Jan 1448: Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Sveriges Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Palatsgreve pa Riin og Hertug i Beyern ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths King, Count Palatine and Duke in Bavaria");
(g) 28 Sep 1448 - 14 Feb 1474: Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Vendes og Gotes Konge, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Wends and Goths King, Count in Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst"); from 20 Nov 1449 Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Norway, Wends and Goths King, Count in Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst"); from 2 Jul 1457 Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Sveriges Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths King, Count in Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst"); from 5 Mar 1460 Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Sveriges Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Hertug i Slesvig og Greve i Holsten Stormarn Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the grace of God, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths King, Duke in Schelswig and Count in Holstein, Stormarn, Oldenburg and Delmenhorst");
(h) 14 Feb 1474 - 21 Apr 1524: Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Sveriges Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Hertug i Slesvig Holsten Stormarn og Ditmarsken, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the Grace of God, of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths King, Duke in Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarschen, Count in Oldenburg and Delmenhorst");
(i) 21 Aug 1524 - 19 Feb 1670: Med Guds Nåde Danmarks Norges Vendes og Gotes Konge, Hertug i Slesvig Holsten Stromarn og Ditmarsken, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("with the Grace of God, of Denmark, Norway, the Wends and Goths King, Duke in Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen, Count in Oldenburg and Delmenhorst");
(j) 19 Feb 1670 - 22 Mar 1777: af Guds Nåde, Konge til Danmark og Norge, de Venders og Goters, Hertug til Slesvig, Holsten, Stormarn og Ditmersken, Greve i Oldenborg og Delmenhorst ("by the Grace of God, King to Denmark and Norway, the Wends and Goths, Duke to Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarschen, Count in Oldenburg and Delmenhorst");
(k) 22 Mar 1777 - 7 Feb 1814: af Guds Nåde Konge til Danmark og Norge, de Venders og Goters, Hertug til Slesvig, Holsten, Stormarn, Ditmarsken og Oldenborg ("by the Grace of God, King to Denmark and Norway, the Wends and Goths, Duke to Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen, and Oldenburg");
(l) 7 Feb 1814 - 9 Jun 1815: Af Guds Nåde Konge til Danmark, de Venders og Goters, Hertug til Slesvig, Holsten, Stormarn, Ditmarsken, Oldenborg og Pommern, Fyrste til Rügen ("by the Grace of God, King to Denmark, the Wends and Goths, Duke to Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen, Oldenburg and Pomerania, Prince of Rugen");
(m) 9 Jun 1815 - 1 Dec 1918: Af Guds Nåde Konge til Danmark, de Venders og Goters, Hertug til Slesvig, Holsten, Stormarn, Ditmarsken, Lauenborg og Oldenborg ("by the Grace of God, King to Denmark, the Wends and Goths, Duke to Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen, Oldenburg and Pomerania, Prince of Rugen");
(n) 1 Dec 1918 - 17 Jun 1944: af Guds Nåde Konge til Danmark og Island, de Venders og Goters, Hertug til Slesvig, Holsten, Stormarn, Ditmarsken, Lauenborg og Oldenborg ("by the Grace of God, King to Denmark, of Iceland, the Wends and Goths, Duke to Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarschen, Lauenburg, and Oldenburg");
(o) 17 Jun 1944 - 15 Jan 1972: Af Guds Nåde, Konge/Dronning til Danmark, de Venders og Goters ("by the Grace of God, King/Queen of Denmark, the Wends and the Goths"); 
(p) from 15 Jan 1972: af Guds Nåde Danmarks Dronning ("by the Grace of God Queen of Denmark").

 ²Prime Minister Scavenius and his government laid down their functions 29 Aug 1943. From then the Germans governed Denmark alone. However, Scavenius and his government constitutionally still were Denmark's government until 1945. After resignation of Scavenius, the government was administered informally by Andreas Møller (b. 1882 - d. 1954), Chief of staff in department of the Prime minister, and Nils Thomas Svenningsen (b. 1894 - d. 1985), Director in the ministry of Foreign Affairs.

 ³External resistance against the Germans started immediately in 1940, the Danish diplomatic representatives abroad refusing to recognize the new situation created by the occupation. The most important among them was Henrik Kauffmann, the Minister to the U.S., who, in 1941, placed Greenland under American protection. This was soon followed by the establishment, in London, of a Danish Council, acting as a representative of the Free Danish. The Council had no Chairman for most of the war. It was only in the last month before the liberation that Frode Jacobsen (s.a.)(the founder of the Council) emerged as de facto leader. The Council continued to function for some time after liberation.

Noble titles: Friherre = Baron; Greve = Count; Hertug = Duke. 

Territorial Disputes: Iceland, the U.K., and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; Faroese continue to study proposals for full independence; sovereignty dispute with Canada over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the U.K. (Ireland and the U.K. have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area) remains dormant.

Party abbreviations: KF = Konservative Folkeparti (Conservative People's Party, center-right, former Højre, est.1915); LP-V = Danmarks Liberale Parti "Venstre" (Liberal Party of Denmark "Left", moderate-liberal, center-right, 1870-95 named Forenede Venstre [United Left], 1895-1910 named Venstrereformpartiet [Left Reform Party], est.1870); RV = Radikale Venestre (Radical Left [Radical Liberal], social-liberal, center-left, split from LP-V, est.1905); SD = Socialdemokratiet i Danmark (Social Democracy in Denmark, social-democratic, center-left, est.1871);
- Former parties: Con = Højre ("Right", Conservative Party, 1848-1866, merged into Rp); FF = Bondevennernes Selskab (Society of the Friends of Farmers, agrarian, 1846-1872); NL = Nationalliberale (National Liberal, liberal 1842-1882); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, xenophobic, 1920-1945); Rp = Højre (Right Party, conservative, 1881-1915, merged into KF)



Anholt Island

May 1809 - 18 Sep 1814     British occupation of Anholt island in the Kattegat,
                             midway between Jutland and Sweden.

British Commandants

 3 May 1809 - 17 May 1810  Edward Nicolls                     (b. 1779 – d. 1865)
                             (Governor and Commandant)
Aug 1810 - Sep 1812        James Wilkes Maurice               (b. 1775 – d. 1857)
 7 Sep 1812 - 18 Sep 1814  Thomas Berkeley Campbell
                             (
Commandant and Lieutenant governor)


Bornholm Island

17 Jun 1645 - 29 Oct 1645  Swedish occupation. 
15 Mar 1658 -  9 Dec 1658  Swedish occupation. 
 9 Apr 1940 -  9 May 1945  German occupation (subordinated to Denmark
                             occupation forces).
 9 May 1945 -  5 Apr 1946  Soviet Union occupation.

Swedish Commanders
17 Jun 1645 - 29 Oct 1645  John Burdon
15 Mar 1658 -  8 Dec 1658  Johan Printzenskold                (b. 1618 - d. 1658)
German Commandants
Oct 1940 - May 1941        Georg West                         (b. 1872 - d. 19..)
May 1941 - Oct 1942        Hans Köhler                        (b. 1902 - d. 1949)
Oct 1942 - Aug 1943        Eduard Rabe                        (b. 1890 - d. 19..)  
Aug 1943 - Jul 1944        Joachim von Rosenberg              (b. 1891 - d. 1944) 
30 Jul 1944 -  1 Mar 1945  Robert Wilhelm Moraht              (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
 5 Mar 1945 -  6 May 1945  Gerhard von Kamptz                 (b. 1902 - d. 1998)
 6 May 1945 -  9 May 1945  Rolf Wuthmann                      (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
Soviet Military Governors
 9 May 1945 - 22 May 1945  P.D. Strebkov (acting)
22 May 1945 - 13 Jul 1945  Fyodor Fyodorovich Korotkov        (b. 1902 - d. 1973)
13 Jul 1945 -  5 Apr 1946  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Yakushev


Jutland

 8 Nov 1657 - 26 Feb 1658  Jutland peninsula occupied by Sweden.
 8 Mar 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Jutland peninsula occupied by Prussia and Austria. 

Swedish Military Governor
 8 Nov 1657 - 26 Feb 1658  Jakob Kasimir de la Gardie         (b. 1629 - d. 1658)
Prussian Commanders of the Allied Army
 8 Mar 1864 - 18 May 1864  Friedrich Heinrich Ernst Graf von  (b. 1784 - d. 1877)
                             Wrangel 
18 May 1864 - 24 Jun 1864  Friedrich Karl von Preussen        (b. 1828 - d. 1885)
Prussian Military governor of Jutland   
24 Jun 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Ernst Eduard Vogel von             (b. 1797 - d. 1885) 
                             Falckenstein

Supreme Civil Commissioners
18 May 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Adolf Prinz zu Hohenlohe-          (b. 1797 - d. 1873)
                             Ingelfingen
18 May 1864 - 16 Nov 1864  Anton Halbhuber Freiherr von       (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
                             Festwill      








© Ben Cahoon