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Iceland
 
[Flag of
                                    Denmark]
            1380 - 1 Dec 1918
 
[Flag of
                                  Jürgen Jürgensen 1809 (Iceland)]
         12 Jul 1809 - 22 Aug 1809
 
[Unofficial Flag of Iceland
                                    1897-1915]
    13 Mar 1897 - 19 Jun 1915 Unofficial
 
[Flag
                                    of Iceland 1915-1944]
          19 Jun 1915 - 17 Jun 1944
      (Officially Adopted 1 Dec 1918)
 
[Flag of
                                    Iceland]
             Adopted 17 Jun 1944
 
 

 Map of Iceland
 Hear National Anthem
"Lofsöngur" (Song of Praise)
 Hear National Anthem
Adopted 1 Dec 1918
Constitution
(17 Jun 1944)
---------------------------------
Proposed  Constitution
(24 May 2011)
Capital: Reykjavik
(Bessastadir 1262-1786;
Thingvellir: meeting site
of Althing  930-1800)
Currency: Icelandic Krona
(ISK) 
National Holiday: 17 Jun (1944)
Independence Day
Population: 315,281 (2013)
GDP: $13.11 billion (2013)
Exports: $5.2 billion (2013)
Imports: $4.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Icelandic 94%, European 4% (of which
Polish 1.9%, Nordic 0.5%), Asian 0.9%,other 1.1% (2006) 
Total Active Paramilitary Forces: 667 Police (2009)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland
(official) 76.2%, Roman Catholic 3.4%, Reykjavik Free
 Church 2.9%, Hafnarfjorour Free Church 1.9%,
The Independent Congregation 1%, other religions 3.6%
 (includes Pentecostal and Asatru Association), none 5.2%,
other or unspecified 5.9% (2013)
International Organizations/Treaties: AC, AG, APM, BIS, BTWC, CBSS, CCM (signatory), CE, CFE, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESCR, EU (candidate), Eutelsat, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, MTCR, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Iceland
Chronology

874                        Settlement begun from Norway, Ingólfur Arnarson
                             (b. c.849 - d. c.900) the first Norse settler.
11 Jun 930                 Commonwealth (republic).
Jun 1262                   Union with Norway (Jarldom [Earldom] of Iceland
                             to 1268).
12 Sep 1380                Danish rule over Norway (and dependencies) begins.
1425 - 1425                English pirates briefly occupy Reykjavik.
 6 Mar 1720 -  6 Mar 1775  Greenland and Faroe Islands (1721-1776)
                             administered as part of Iceland.
26 Jun 1809 - 22 Aug 1809  Independence proclaimed by Danish adventurer 
                             (Republic of Iceland).
24 Jan 1814                Recognized as Danish by the Treaty of Kiel.
 1 Feb 1904                Autonomy granted.
 1 Dec 1918                Kingdom of Iceland independent (in personal union
                             with Denmark).
10 Apr 1940                De facto end of personal union upon German
                             occupation of Denmark (de jure on 17 May 1941).
10 May 1940 - Dec 1944     Allied occupation (British to Apr 1942, then U.S.)
17 Jun 1944                Republic of Iceland

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Lögsögumadhur (Lawspeakers of the Althing)
928 - 930                  Úlfljótur "Thórasson"
11 Jun 930 - 949           Hrafn Ketilsson "Haengsson"        (b. c.879 - d. 9..)
14 Jun 950 - 969           Thórarinn "Ragabródhir" Óleifsson  (b. c.920 - d. 9..)
10 Jun 970 - 982           Thorkell máni Thorsteinsson        (b. c.918 - d. 985)
12 Jun 985 - 1002          Thorgeirr Thorkelsson              (b. c.948 - d. 1002?)
19 Jun 1002 - 1003         Grímur Svertingsson                (b. c.924 - d. 10..)
23 Jun 1004 - 1030         Skapti Thórodsson                  (b. c.965 - d. 1030)
18 Jun 1031 - 1033         Steinn Thorgestsson                (b. c.975 - d. 1033?)
21 Jun 1034 - 1053         Thorkell Tjörvason                 (b. c.1002 - d. 1054?)
24 Jun 1054 - 1062         Gellir Bölverksson (1st time)      (b. c.1020 - d. 1074)
20 Jun 1063 - 1065         Gunnarr hinn spaki Thorgrímsson    (b. c.1026 - d. 1076?)
                             (1st time)
23 Jun 1066 - 1071         Kolbeinn Flosason                  (b. c.1015 - d. 1071)
22 Jun 1072 - 1074         Gellir Bölverksson (2nd time)      (s.a.)
19 Jun 1075 - 1076         Gunnarr "hinn Spaki" Thorgrímsson  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
17 Jun 1076 - 1084         Sighvatur Surtsson                 (b. c.1020 - d. 10..)
21 Jun 1084 - 1107         Markús Skeggjason                  (b. c.1028 - d. 1107)
15 Oct 1107 - 1116         Úlfhédhinn Gunnarsson              (b. c.1055 - d. 1116)
                             (acting to 19 Jun 1108)
1116 - 1122                Bergthórr Hrafnsson                (d. 1122) 
                             (acting to 22 Jun 1117)
1122 - 22 Jun 1123         Vacant  
22 Jun 1123 - 1135         Gudhmundur Thorgeirsson            (b. c.1076 - d. 11..)
21 Jun 1135 - 1139         Hrafn Úlfhédhinsson                (b. c.1090 - d. 1139)
1139 - 1145                Finnur Hallsson                    (b. c.1070 - d. 1145)
                             (acting to 23 Jun 1139)
1145 - 1146                Vacant
21 Jun 1146 - 1156         Gunnarr Úlfhédhinsson              (b. c.1095 - d. 11..)
22 Jun 1156 - 1170         Snorri Húnbogason                  (b. c.1110 - d. 1170)
1170 - 1171                Vacant
18 Jun 1171 - 1181         Styrkárr Oddason                   (b. c.1120 - d. 1181)
19 Jun 1181 - 1201         Gizurr Hallsson                    (b. 1130 - d. 1206)
22 Jun 1201 - 1210         Hallur Gizurarson                  (b. c.1157 - d. 1230)
18 Jun 1210 - 1216         Styrmir fródhi Kárason             (b. c.1180 - d. 1245)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1216 - 1219         Snorri Sturluson (1st time)        (b. c.1178 - d. 1241)
21 Jun 1219 - 1222         Teitur Thorvaldsson (1st time)     (b. c.1188 - d. 1259)
24 Jun 1222 - 1232         Snorri Sturluson (2nd time)        (s.a.)
18 Jun 1232 - 1236         Styrmir fródhi Kárason             (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Jun 1236 - 1248         Teitur Thorvaldsson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Jun 1248 - 1251         Ólafur hvítaskáld Thórdharsson     (b. c.1194 - d. 1259)
                             (1st time)
23 Jun 1251 - 1252         Sturla Thórdharsson                (b. c.1196 - d. 1284)
21 Jun 1252 - 1253         Ólafur hvítaskáld Thórdharsson     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
20 Jun 1253 - 1258         Teitur Einarsson                   (b. c.1215 - d. 1258)
1258 - 1259                Vacant
20 Jun 1259 - 1263         Ketill Thorláksson                 (b. 1200 - d. 1273)
1262 - 1264                Thorvardr Thorarinsson             (b. c.1205 - d. 1296)
                             (in opposition)
22 Jun 1263 - 24 Jun 1267  Thorleifr hreimr Ketilsson         (b. c.1222 - d. 1289)
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1267 - 22 Jun 1268  Jó
n gelgja Einarsson (1st time)    (b. c.1230 - d. 1306)
22 Jun 1268 - 21 Jun 1269  Thorleifr hreimr Ketilsson         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
21 Jun 1269 - 19 Jun 1271  
n gelgja Einarsson (2nd time)    (s.a.)
19 Jun 1271 - 24 Jun 1272  Thorleifr hreimr Ketilsson         (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

24 Jun 1272 - 25 Jun 1277  Sturla fródhi Thordarson           (b. 1214 - d. 1284)
Norwegian Representatives 
1237 - 1242                Gizurr Thorvaldsson (1st time)     (b. 1208 - d. 1268)
1242 - Aug 1244            Thórdhr kálkali Sighvatsson        (b. 1210 - d. 1256) 
                             (1st time)
Aug 1244 - Aug 1246        Gizurr Thorvaldsson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1247 - 1250                Thórdhr kálkali Sighvatsson        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1250 - 1254                Gizurr Thorvaldsson (3rd time)     (s.a.)
1254 - 22 Jan 1258         Thorgils skardhi Bödhvarsson       (b. 1226 - d. 1258)
Jarl
1258 - 12 Jan 1268         Gizurr Thorvaldsson                (s.a.)
Governors (title Hirdstjóri to 16th cent., then Höfudsmadur)
1270 - 127.                Hrafn Oddsson (1st time)           (b. c.1226 - d. 1289)
                             (in north and west)
1270 - 26 Sep 1270         Ormur Ormsson (in south and east)  (b. 1242 - d. 1270)
12.. - 127.                Eindhridhi Böggull 
1279 - 12..                Hrafn Oddsson (2nd time)           (s.a.)
12.. - 128.                Lodhinn Leppr 
12.. - 12..                Sveinn Thórisson 
128. - ....                Ólafr stallari Ragnheidharson 
c.1320                     Ketill Thorláksson                 (d. 1342)
1323 - 1341                Eiríkur riddari Sveinbjarnarson    (b. c.1277 - d. 1342)
                             (in north and west)
1341 - 1343                Bótólfur Andrésson                 (b. c.1310 - d. 13..)
1343 - 1346                Grímur Thorsteinsson               (b. 1283 - d. 1351)
1346 - 1348                Holti Thorgrímsson                 (d. 1348) 
1348 - 1350                ....
1350 - 1354                Ólafur Bjarnarson                  (b. c.1285 - d. 1354)
                             (in south and east)
1354 - 1357                Ivar Vigfússon hólmur (Hólm)       (d. 1371)
1357 - 1360                Árni Thórdarson                    (b. 1315 - d. 1361)
                           + Jón Guttormsson skráveifa        (d. 1362)
                           + Andrés G
íslason (1st time)       (d. 1375)
                           + Thorstein Eyjólfsson
(1st time)  (b. c.1320 - d. 1402)
1361 - 1362                Smidur Andrésson                   (d. 1362)
1362 - 1364                Thorsteinn Eyjólfsson (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (in south and east)
1364 - 1365                Ólafur Pétursson                   (b. c.1330 - d. 1410)
1366 - 1368                Ormur Snorrason                    (b. c.1320 - d. 1402)
                             (in north and west)
                           + Andrés Gíslason (2nd time)       (s.a.)
13.. - 13..                Guttormur Ormsson                  (b. c.1345 - d. 1381)
                             (in north and west)
1370 - 1372                Torgautur Jónsson                  (d. 1375)
1372 - 1387                Andrés Sveinsson
1387                       Thorsteinn Eyjólfsson (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1387 - 23 Feb 1388         Eirukur Gudmundsson                (d. 1388)
1388 - 1389                Thorsteinn Eyjólfsson (4th time)   (s.a.)
1389 - 1413                Vigfús Ívarsson
                    (b. 1360 - d. 1418)
1413 - 1415                Björn Einarsson Jórsalafari        (d. 1415)
1415 - 1419                Arni Ólafsson                      (d. 1425?)
1419 - 1420                Arfinnur Thorsteinson              (d. 1433)
1420 - 1423                Helgi Styrsson                     (b. c.1385 - d. af.1430)
                           + Thorsteinn Ólafsson (1st time)   (b. c.1378 - d. 1431)
1423 - 1425                Hannes Pálsson
                           + Balthazar van Damme
1425 - 1427?               Balthazar van Damme
1427 - 1430                Thorsteinn Ólafsson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
1427 - 1432                Loftur ríki Guttormsson            (b. 1375 - d. 1432)
                             (in north and west)
1432 - 1446                Ormur Loftsson                     (b. 1400 - d. 1446)
                             (in north and west)
1446 - 1450                Einar Thorleifsson                 (b. 1405 - d. 1459)
                             (in north and west)
1450 - 1457                Torfí Arason (in north and west)   (b. 1410? - d. 1459)
1457 - 1467                Björn ríki Thorleifsson            (b. 1408 - d. 1467)
1467 - 1470                ....
1470 - 147.                Hinrik Kepken
1478 - 1480                Didrik (
Dietrich) Pining (1st time)(b. c.1428 - d. 1491)
1480 - 1481                Hinrik Daníel

1481 - 1486                Thorleifur Björnsson               (b. 1430 - d. 1486)
1486 - 1490                Didrik Pining (2nd time)           (s.a.)             
1490 - 1491                Arnfinnur Thorsteinsson
1491 - 1493                Ambrosius Illiquad (
Illeqvat)
1494 - 1496                Pétur Trúels Tómasson
1497 - 1498?               Pétur Kláusson

1499 - 1502                Benedikt Hersten (
Histen)
1503 - 1505                Kai von Ahlefeldt                  (d. 1520)
1505 - 1507                ....
1507 - 1509                Vigfús Erlendsson                  (b. 1466 - d. 1521)
1510 - 1514                Hans Rantzau
1513 - 1517                Hannes Eggertsson (1st time)       (b. 1490 - d. 1530)
                            (in south and west)
1514 - 1515                Søren Andersen Norby af Uggerslev  (b. c.1470 - d. 1530)
1517 - 1520                Týli Pétursson                     (d. 1523)
1521 - 1524                Hannes Eggertsson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1524 - 1529                Jóhann Pétursson (Pedersen) 
1529 - 1534                Dietrich van Bramstedt 
1534 - 1536                Ögmundur Pálsson, Bishop of        (b. c.1506 - d. 1542)
                             Skálholti 
                           + Jón Arason, Bishop of Hólum      (b. 1484 - d. 1550)
                           (acting)
1536 - 1541                Klaus van Marwitzen 
1541 - 1542                Christoffer Huitfeldt til          (b. 1501 - d. 1559)
                             Berritsgaard 
1542 - 1547                Otte Hvide til Hynderup (1st time) (b. 15.. - d. 1567)
1547 - 1551                Laurids Mule                       (b. 15.. - d. 156.)
1551                       Otte Hvide til Hynderup (2nd time) (s.a.) 
1551 - 1553                Eggert Hannesson                   (b. c.1518 - d. 1584)
1553 - 1554                Poul Huitfeldt (Páll Hvítfeldur)   (b. c.1520 - d. 1592)
1554 - 1560                Knud Stensen 
1560 - 1566                Poul Stigsen Hvide (Páll Stígsson) (b. c.1500 - d. 1566)
24 Jun 1567 - 23 Jun 1569  Henrik Krag til Trinderup          (b. 1544 - d. 1620)
                             
(1st time)
24 Jun 1569 - 23 Jun 1570  Christoffer Henningsen Walkendorff (b. 1525 - d. 1601)
                             (Valkendorf) til Glorup
24 Jun 1570 - 23 Jun 1587  Johann Bockholt (Buckholtz) til    (b. 1537 - d. 1601)
                             Klingstrup (1st time) 
24 Jun 1587 - 23 Jun 1588  Pétur Tómasson (Peder Thomassen)   (d. af.1601)
                             (acting)

24 Jun 1588 - 23 Jun 1591  Laurids Kruse til Svenstrup        (b. 155. - d. 1609)
24 Jun 1591 - 23 Jun 1595  Henrik Krag til Trinderup          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1595 - 23 Jun 1597  Brostrup Gedde til Tommerup        (b. c.1560 - d. 1614)
24 Jun 1597 -  1 Oct 1601  Johann Bockholt til Klingstrup     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)      
 1 Oct 1601 - 23 Jun 1602  Joachim Solke (acting)
24 Jun
1602 - 23 Jun 1606  Enevold Kruse til Vingegaard       (b. 1554 - d. 1621)
24 Jun 1606 - 23 Jun 1619  Herluf Trolle Daa til Snedinge     (b. 1565 - d. 1630)
24 Jun 1619 - 23 Jun 1620  Frederik Friis til Hasselager      (b. 1592 - d. 1619)
                             (acting)
24 Jun 1620 - 23 Jun 1633  Holger Rosenkrantz til Frøllinge
  (b. c.1590 - d. 1658)
24 Jun 1633 - 13 Oct 1644  Pros Mundt til Bjerkevold          (b. 1589? - d. 1644)
16 Oct 1644 - 23 Jun 1645  .... (acting)
24 Jun 1645 - 23 Jun 1648  Jens Søfrenssøn (Söffrinsson)      (d. 1659)
24 Jun 1648 - 28 Jul 1662  Henrik Bjelke til Elinegaard og    (b. 1615 - d. 1683)
                             Naesbyholm
Governors
(Stiftsbefalingsmen
n, from 1770 Stiftamtmenn [until 1770 in Copenhagen])
28 Jul 1662 - 16 Mar 1683  Henrik Bjelke til Elinegaard og    (s.a.)
                             Naesbyholm

16 Mar 1683 - 26 Jan 1684  Jóhann Pétursson Klein (acting)    (d. 1689)
26 Jan 1684 -  8 Dec 1719  Ulrich Christian Gyldenløve,       (b. 1678 - d. 1719) 
                             greve af Samsøe 
 6 Mar 1720 - 29 Sep 1727  Peter Raben                        (b. 1661 - d. 1727)
 2 Jul 1728 - 11 Dec 1730  Christian Gyldencrone              (b. 1676 - d. 1746)
11 Dec 1730 -  9 Sep 1750  Henrik Ocksen                      (b. 1660 - d. 1750)

10 Sep 1750 -  2 Oct 1768  Otto Manderup, greve Rantzau       (b. 1719 - d. 1768)

 1 Nov 1768 - 19 Dec 1769  Christian Lebrecht,                (b. 1718 - d. 1780)
                             baron von Prøck
23 Jan 1770 - 27 Apr 1785  Lauritz Andreas Thodal             (b. 1718? - d. 1808)
27 Apr 1785 - 23 Dec 1789  Hans Christoph Diederich Victor    (b. 1754 - d. 1829) 
                             von Levetzow
14 Apr 1790 - 22 Aug 1806  Ólafur Stefánsson (Stephensen)     (b. 1731 - d. 1812)
Aug 1803 -  7 May 1804     Ludvig Erichsen                    (b. 1766 - d. 1804)
 7 May 1804 - 22 Aug 1805  Stefán
Thórarinsson                (b. 1754 - d. 1823)
                           + Ísleifur Einarsson               (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
                           (acting for Stefánsson)
22 Aug 1805 - 26 Jun 1809  Fredrik Christopher, greve af      (b. 1779 - d. 1832)
                             Trampe (1st time)
                            (acting to 6 Jun 1806)

Sovereign (from 12 Jul 1809
styled "Protector")¹
26 Jun 1809 - 22 Aug 1809  Jürgen Jürgensen                   (b. 1780 - d. 1841)
                             "Hundedagskongen/Hundadagakonungur"
                             ("the Dog-Day King") 
Governors (Stiftamtmenn; from 1 Jun 1873 Landshøfding)
22 Aug 1809 - 23 Jul 1810  Fredrik Christopher, greve af      (s.a.)
                             Trampe (2nd time)
22 Aug 1809 - 27 Jul 1810  Magnús Ólafsson Stephensen         (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
                             (acting [for Trampe to 23 Jul 1810])
27 Jul 1810 - Jul 1813     Commission
                           - Stefán Thór
arinsson              (s.a.)
                           - Ísleifur Einarsson               (s.a.)
                           - Rasmus Frydensberg               (b. 1778 - d. 1840)
20 Mar 1813 - 18 Jun 1819  Johan Carl Thuerecht von           (b. 1787 - d. 1844)
                             Castenschiold          
1814 - 20 May 1815         Bjarni Vigfússon Thórarensen       (b. 1786 - d. 1841)
                             (acting for
Castenschiold)
1815 - 12 May 1816         Ísleifur Einarsson                 (s.a.)
                             (acting for Castenschiold)
Jun 1817 - 18 Jun 1819     Bjarni Vigfússon Thórarensen       (s.a.)
                             (acting for
Castenschiold)
18 Jun 1819 - 30 Sep 1823  Ehrenreich Christopher Ludvig,     (b. 1790 - d. 1864)
                             greve Moltke (acting to 9 Oct 1819) 
 7 Aug 1823 -  2 Aug 1824  Bjarni Thorsteinsson (1st time)    (b. 1781 - d. 1876)
                             (acting)
 2 Aug 1824 -  6 Sep 1825 
Peder Fieldsted Hoppe (1st time)   (b. 1794 - d. 1848)
                             (acting)
 6 Sep 1825 -  7 Jun 1826  Bjarni Thorsteinsson (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
 7 Jun 1826 - Jun 1829     Peder Fieldsted Hoppe (2nd time)   (s.a.) 
Jun 1829 - Jun 1837        Lorentz Angel Krieger              (b. 1797 - d. 1837)
                             (acting to 2 Apr 1831)
 1 Aug 1834 - 24 Feb 1836  Ólafur Hannesson Finsen            (b. 1793 - d. 1836)
                             (acting for Krieger)
24 Feb 1836 - 25 May 1836  Thórdur Sveinbjórnsson             (b. 1786 - d. 1856)
                             (acting for Krieger)
Jun 1837 - 12 May 1841     Carl Emil Bardenfleth              (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
                             (acting to 28 Jun 1838)
13 Jun 1840 - 19 Jun 1841  Jón Jónsson (Johnsen)              (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
                             (acting [for Bardenfleth to 12 May 1841])
19 Jun 1841 -  1 Aug 1847  Torkild Abraham Hoppe              (b. 1800 - d. 1871)
 9 Aug 1844 - 20 May 1845  Jón Jónsson (acting for Hoppe)     (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1847 - Aug 1849     Mathias Hans von Rosenørn          (b. 1814 - d. 1902)
Jun 1850 -  2 Aug 1860     Jørgen Ditlev, greve Trampe        (b. 1807 - d. 1868)
 1 Mar 1855 - 26 Jun 1855  Thórdur Jónasson (1st time)        (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
                             (acting for Trampe)
Nov 1859 - 15 Jun 1860     Thórdur Jónasson (2nd time)        (s.s.)
                             (acting for Trampe)
 2 Aug 1860 -  3 Aug 1865  Thórdur Jónassen (acting)          (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1865 -  7 May 1883  Søren Hilmar Steindor Finsen       (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
 7 May 1883 - 21 Jan 1886  Bergur Ólafsson Thorberg           (b. 1829 - d. 1886)
21 Jan 1886 -  1 Feb 1904  Magnús Magnússon Stephensen        (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
                             (acting to 10 Apr 1886)
Ministers of Iceland
(in Reykjavik)
 1 Feb 1904 - 31 Mar 1909  Hannes Hafstein (1st time)         (b. 1861 - d. 1922)  HTF
31 Mar 1909 - 14 Mar 1911  Björn Jonssón                      (b. 1846 - d. 1912)  SSF
14 Mar 1911 - 24 Jul 1912  Kristján Jónsson                   (b. 1852 - d. 1926)  Non-party
25 Jul 1912 - 21 Jul 1914  Hannes Hafstein (2nd time)         (s.a.)               SF
21 Jul 1914 -  4 May 1915  Sigurdur Eggerz                    (b. 1875 - d. 1945)  SSF
 4 May 1915 -  4 Jan 1917  Einar Arnórsson                    (b. 1880 - d. 1955)  SSF
King¹
 1 Dec 1918 - 17 Jun 1944  Kristján                           (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
                            (Christian X of Denmark)
10 Apr 1940 - 17 Jun 1941  Regency                  
                           - Hermann Jónasson
                 (b. 1896 - d. 1976)  FSF
                           - Stefán Jóhann Stefánsson         (b. 1894 - d. 1980)  AF
                           - Eysteinn Jónsson                 (b. 1906 - d. 1993)  FSF
                           - Jakob Ragnar Valdimar Möller     (b. 1880 - d. 1955)  SSF  
                           - Ólafur Thors                     (b. 1892 - d. 1962)  SSF
17 Jun 1941 - 17 Jun 1944  Sveinn Björnsson -Regent           (b. 1881 - d. 1952)  Non-party
Presidents
17 Jun 1944 - 25 Jan 1952  Sveinn Björnsson                   (s.a.)               Non-party
25 Jan 1952 - 31 Jul 1952  Interim Triumvirate
                           - Steingrímur Steinthórsson        (b. 1893 - d. 1966)  FSF
                           - Jón Pálmason                     (b. 1888 - d. 1973)  SSF
                           - Jón Ásbjörnsson                  (b. 1890 - d. 1966)  Non-party
 1 Aug 1952 - 31 Jul 1968  Ásgeir Ásgeirsson                  (b. 1894 - d. 1972)  AF
 1 Aug 1968 - 31 Jul 1980  Kristján Eldjárn                   (b. 1916 - d. 1982)  Non-party
 1 Aug 1980 - 31 Jul 1996  Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (f)          (b. 1930)            Non-party
 1 Aug 1996 -              Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson             (b. 1943)            AP


Ministers in Charge of Icelandic Affairs (in Copenhagen)
(the Danish Foreign Ministers; from 15 Jan 1855 the Ministers of Justice)
16 Nov 1848 - 21 Sep 1849  Peter Georg Bang (1st time)        (b. 1797 - d. 1861)  Con
21 Sep 1849 - 13 Jul 1851  Mathias Hans Rosenørn              (b. 1814 - d. 1902)  Con
13 Jul 1851 - 27 Jan 1852  Frederik Ferdinand Tillisch        (b. 1801 - d. 1889)  NL
                             (1st time)

27 Jan 1852 - 21 Apr 1853  Peter Georg Bang (2nd time)        (s.a.)               Con
21 Apr 1853 - 29 Apr 1854  Anders Sandøe Ørsted               (b. 1778 - d. 1860)  Con
29 Apr 1854 - 12 Dec 1854  Frederik Ferdinand Tillisch        (s.a.)               NL
                             (2nd time)
12 Dec 1854 - 15 Jan 1855  Peter Georg Bang (3rd time)        (s.a.)               Con

15 Jan 1855 -  2 Dec 1859  Carl Frederik Simony               (b. 1806 - d. 1872)  NL
 2 Dec 1859 -  8 Feb 1860  Carl Edvard Rotwitt                (b. 1812 - d. 1860)  FF
 8 Feb 1860 - 24 Feb 1860  Johan Christian Jessen             (b. 1817 - d. 1884)  NL
24 Feb 1860 - 11 Jul 1864  Andreas Lorentz Casse              (b. 1803 - d. 1886)  NL
11 Jul 1864 - 30 Mar 1865  Eugenius Sophus Ernst Heltzen      (b. 1818 - d. 1898)  Con
30 Mar 1865 -  7 Apr 1865  George Joachim Quaade              (b. 1813 - d. 1889)  Non-party
 7 Apr 1865 -  6 Nov 1865  Christian Jacob Cosmus Braestrup   (b. 1789 - d. 1870)  Con
 6 Nov 1865 - 21 Jul 1867  Carl Peter Gram Leuning            (b. 1820 - d. 1867)  NL
21 Jul 1867 - 10 Aug 1868  Christian Peder Rosenørn-Teilmann  (b. 1817 - d. 1879)  Con
10 Aug 1868 - 28 May 1870  Carl Ludvig Rømer von Nutzhorn
    (b. 1828 - d. 1899)  Con
28 May 1870 - 26 Jun 1872  Andreas Frederik Krieger           (b. 1817 - d. 1893)  Con
26 Jun 1872 - 14 Jul 1874  Christian Sophus Klein             (b. 1824 - d. 1900)  NL

Ministers for Iceland (the Danish Ministers of Justice; in Copenhagen)
14 Jul 1874
 - 11 Jun 1875  Christian Sophus Klein             (s.a.)               NL
11 Jun 1875 - 13 Jun 1896  Johannes Magnus Valdemar Nellemann
(b. 1831 - d. 1906)  H
13 Jun 1896 - 28 Aug 1899  Nicolai Reimer Rump                (b. 1834 - d. 1900)  H
28 Aug 1899 - 27 Apr 1900  Hugo Egmont Hørring                (b. 1842 - d. 1909)  H
27 Apr 1900 - 24 Jul 1901  August Herman Carl Ferdinand Goos  (b. 1835 - d. 1917)  H
24 Jul 1901 -  1 Feb 1904  Peter Adler Alberti                (b. 1851 - d. 1932)  LP-V
Prime ministers
 4 Jan 1917 -  7 Mar 1922  Jón Magnússon (1st time)           (b. 1859 - d. 1926)  HTF;1919 IF
 7 Mar 1922 - 22 Mar 1924  Sigurdur Eggerz                    (s.a.)               SSF
22 Mar 1924 - 23 Jun 1926  Jón Magnússon (2nd time)           (s.a.)               IF
23 Jun 1926 -  8 Jul 1926  Magnús Gudmundsson                 (b. 1879 - d. 1937)  IF
 8 Jul 1926 - 28 Aug 1927  Jón Thorláksson                    (b. 1877 - d. 1935)  IF
28 Aug 1927 -  3 Jun 1932  Tryggvi Thórhallsson               (b. 1889 - d. 1935)  IF;1929 SSF
 3 Jun 1932 - 29 Jul 1934  Ásgeir Ásgeirsson                  (s.a.)               FSF
29 Jul 1934 - 16 May 1942  Hermann Jónasson (1st time)        (s.a.)               FSF
16 May 1942 - 16 Dec 1942  Ólafur Thors (1st time)            (s.a.)               SSF 
16 Dec 1942 - 21 Oct 1944  Björn Thórdarson                   (b. 1879 - d. 1963)  Non-party
21 Oct 1944 -  4 Feb 1947  Ólafur Thors (2nd time)            (s.a.)               SSF 
 4 Feb 1947 -  6 Dec 1949  Stefán Jóhann Stefánsson           (s.a.)               AF 
 6 Dec 1949 - 14 Mar 1950  Ólafur Thors (3rd time)            (s.a.)               SSF 
14 Mar 1950 - 11 Sep 1953  Steingrímur Steinthórsson          (s.a.)               FSF
11 Sep 1953 - 24 Jul 1956  Ólafur Thors (4th time)            (s.a.)               SSF 
24 Jul 1956 - 23 Dec 1958  Hermann Jónasson (2nd time)        (s.a.)               FSF 
23 Dec 1958 - 20 Nov 1959  Emil Jónsson                       (b. 1902 - d. 1986)  AF
20 Nov 1959 - 14 Nov 1963  Ólafur Thors (5th time)            (s.a.)               SSF 
14 Sep 1961 - 31 Dec 1961  Bjarni Benediktsson                (b. 1908 - d. 1970)  SSF 
                             (acting for Thors)
14 Nov 1963 - 10 Jul 1970  Bjarni Benediktsson                (s.a.)               SSF
10 Jul 1970 - 14 Jul 1971  Jóhann Hafstein                    (b. 1915 - d. 1980)  SSF 
14 Jul 1971 - 28 Aug 1974  Ólafur Jóhannesson (1st time)      (b. 1913 - d. 1984)  FSF 
28 Aug 1974 -  1 Sep 1978  Geir Hallgrímsson                  (b. 1926 - d. 1990)  SSF 
 1 Sep 1978 - 15 Oct 1979  Ólafur Jóhannesson (2nd time)      (s.a.)               FSF
15 Oct 1979 -  8 Feb 1980  Benedikt Gröndal                   (b. 1924 - d. 2010)  AF
 8 Feb 1980 - 26 May 1983  Gunnar Thoroddsen                  (b. 1910 - d. 1983)  SSF
26 May 1983 -  8 Jul 1987  Steingrímur Hermannsson (1st time) (b. 1928 - d. 2010)  FSF
 8 Jul 1987 - 28 Sep 1988  Thorsteinn Pálsson                 (b. 1947)            SSF 
28 Sep 1988 - 30 Apr 1991  Steingrímur Hermannsson (2nd time) (s.a.)               FSF 
30 Apr 1991 - 15 Sep 2004  Davíd Oddsson                      (b. 1948)            SSF
15 Sep 2004 - 15 Jun 2006  Halldór Ásgrímsson                 (b. 1947)            FSF
                             (acting for Oddson from 22 Jul 2004)
15 Jun 2006 -  1 Feb 2009  Geir Hilmar Haarde                 (b. 1951)            SSF
 1 Feb 2009 - 23 May 2013  Jóhanna Sigurdardóttir (f)         (b. 1942)            SFK
23 May 2013 -              Sigmundur Davíd Gunnlaugsson       (b. 1975)            FSF

 

Commanders of the Allied Occupation Forces

10 May 1940 - Apr 1942     Henry Osborn Curtis (U.K.)         (b. 1888 - d. 1964)
Apr 1942 - Jun 1943        Charles Hartwell Bonesteel (U.S.)  (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
Jun 1943 - Dec 1944        William Shaffer Key (U.S.)         (b. 1889 - d. 1959)
Dec 1944 - 31 Dec 1945     Early Edward W. Duncan (U.S.)      (b. 1894 - d. 1966)

Bailiffs²
1640 - 10 Dec 1651         Matthias Söffrinson                (d. 1651)     
1653 - 1665                Tómas Nikulásson                   (d. 1665)
22 Nov 1665 -  5 Apr 1683  Jóhann Pétursson Klein             (s.a.)   
1665 - 1672                Jakob Benediktsson (acting for Klein)     
1672 - 1679                Oluf Jensson Klow (acting for Klein)   
1679 - 1683                Lauritz Christensen Gottrup        (b. 1649 - d. 1721)
 5 Apr 1683 - 1688         Kristoffer Heidemann               (b. c.1623 - d. 1703)
Prefects (Amtmaend)²
Aug 1688 -  5 Nov 1718     Christian Müller til Kattrup       (b. 1638 - d. 1720) 
 5 Nov 1718 - 19 Jun 1733  Niels Fuhrmann                     (b. 1685 - d. 1733)
Aug 1734 - 17 Jan 1744     Joachim Henriksen Lafrentz         (b. 1674 - d. 1744)
23 Oct 1744 - Aug 1752     Johan Kristian Pingel              (b. c.1713 - d. 1779)
Aug 1752 -  3 Nov 1766     Magnús Gíslason                    (b. 1704 - d. 1766)
 4 Nov 1766 - Aug 1770     Ólafur Stefánsson (Stephensen)     (s.a.)  

 ¹Full style of the rulers:
(a) 12 Jul 1809 - 22 Aug 1809: Beskytter af Hele Øen Island ("Protector of Land of Iceland");
(b) 1 Dec 1918 - 16 Jun 1944: Af gueds náed konungur Íslands og Danmerkur, Vinda og Gauta, hertogi í Slésvík, Holtsetalandi, Stórmaeri, Théttmerski, Láenborg og Aldinborg ("by the Grace of God, King of Iceland and Denmark, the Wends and the Goths, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Lauenburg and Oldenburg").

 ²The Danish officers in Iceland when the governors resided in Denmark 1662 - 1770.

Noble titles: Friherre = Baron, Greve = Count

Territorial Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the U.K. (Ireland and the U.K. have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area) remains dormant; Iceland, the U.K., and Ireland dispute Denmark's claim that the Faroe Islands' continental shelf extends beyond 200 nm; the European Free Trade Association Surveillance Authority filed a suit against Iceland, claiming the country violated the European Economic Area agreement in failing to pay minimum compensation to Icesave depositors.

Party abbreviations: AF = Althyduflokkurinn (Labor Party, social-democratic, est.1916); FSF = Framsóknarflokkurinn (Progressive Party, centrist, agrarian-liberal, est.1917); SFK = Samfylkingin (Social Democratic Alliance, social-democratic, center-left, est.2000); SSF = Sjálfstaedisflokkurinn (Independence Party, center-right, [former SSF 1908-1923, pro-independence], est.1929); 
- Former parties: Con = Højre (Danish Conservative Party, 1848-1866); FF = Bondevennernes Selskab (Danish Society of the Friends of Farmers, agrarian, 1846-1872); H = Højre (Danish Conservative Party, 1881-1915); HTF = Heimastjórnarflokkurinn (Home Rule Party, center-right, pro-autonomy, 1899-1919); IF = Íhaldsflokkurin (Conservative Party, SSF predecessor, 1929 united with Liberal Party to form SSF); AP = Althýdubandalagid (People's [Folk] Alliance, socialist, 1968-1998, former Socialist Party and AF splinters, from 2000 merged with SFK); LP-V = Danmarks liberale parti "Venstre" (Liberal Party of Denmark "Left", moderate-liberal, est.1870); NL = Nationalliberale (Danish National Liberal Party, liberal 1830s-c.1880); SF = Sambandsflokkurinn (Federal Party, pro-home rule, 1911-1914, rejoined HTF)







©  Ben Cahoon