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German States to 1918  N-Q


Note: The list below is only complete for those polities that survived beyond 1806.  Within 
the Holy Roman Empire, there existed countless minor states (ecclesiastical states, imperial
cities, imperial villages, lordships, counties, baronies, principalities, etc.), which
are nearly impossible to list with even partial accuracy.  A major reorganization was
brought about by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, when more than 100 polities were
abolished.  Polities listed prior to 1806 are a sample of the major or most well known
polities of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine.  After 1806, all the
polities that survived the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna are listed.
 
For the sake of providing a division between eras, after the republican revolutions 
of 1918, which overthrew the last German monarchies, remaining states are listed under
German states since 1918; these include the states and provinces of the Weimar Republic, Third Reich, and the modern period.  The provinces of Prussia are listed in a separate section following the entry for Prussia (Prussian provinces to 1946). Statistical data is given only for those polities that survived to 1918.
 

Noble titles: Edler/Edle = Noble; Erzherzog/Erzherzogin = Archduke/Archduchess;  Freiherr/Freifrau = Baron/Baroness; Fürst/Fürstin = Prince/Princess; Gefürsteter Graf/Gräfin = Princely Count/Countess; Graf/Gräfin = Count/Countess; Grossherzog/Grossherzogin = Grand Duke/Duchess; Herr/Herrin = Lord/Lady; Herzog/Herzogin = Duke/Duchess; Kaiser/Kaiserin = Emperor/Empress; Köing/Königin = King/Queen; Kurfürst/Kurfürstin = Prince/Princess Elector; Landgraf/Landgräfin = Landgrave/Landgravine; Markgraf/Markgräfin = Margrave/Margravine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin = Count/Countess Palatine; Pfalzgraf/Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein = Count/Countess Palatine of the Rhine; Prinz/Prinzessin = Prince/Princess; Reichsfreiherr = Imperial Baron; Reichsgraf/Reichsgräfin = Imperial Count/Countess; Rheingraf/Rheingräfin = Rhinegrave/Rhinegravine; Ritter = Knight; Wildgraf = Wildgrave.

Ecclesiastical titles: Äbt/Äbtissin = Abbot/Abbess; Bischof = bishop; Erzbischof = Archbishop; Fürstabte = Prince-Abbot; Fürstabtissin = Princess-Abbess; Fürstbischof = Prince-bishop
 
Maps showing some of the major territorial changes: Historical Map of Germany in 1660;
Historical map of Germany in 1789; Historical map of Germany in 1803; Map of Germany in 1812;
Map of German Confederation 1815; Map of German Empire 1871


Nassau

1159                       County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau) established.
16 Dec 1255                Dynasty divided into Ottonische Linie (leading to
                             Oranje-Nassau) and Walramische Linie (with which this
                             record is exclusively concerned).
25 Nov 1355                Division into Nassau-(Wiesbaden-)Idstein and
                             Nassau-Weilburg.

Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein

Nassau-Dietz

25 Nov 1355                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style: Graf von
                             Nassau, Herr zu Idstein und Wiesbaden.
19 Jun 1605 -  2 Jun 1677  Personal union with Nassau-Weilburg.
 4 Aug 1688                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                             Fürstentum Nassau-Idstein).
26 Oct 1721                Incorporated into Nassau-Ottweiler.

Count (title Graf von Nassau, Herr zu Idstein und Wiesbaden) 
 2 Jun 1677 -  4 Aug 1688  Georg August Samuel                (b. 1665 - d. 1721)
Prince (title Fürst zu Nassau)

 4 Aug 1688 - 26 Oct 1721  Georg August Samuel                (s.a.)


Nassau-Weilburg

[Nassau-Weilburg]

25 Nov 1355                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style: Graf von
                             Nassau, Herr zu Weilburg.
26 Sep 1366                Princely County of Nassau (Gefürstete Grafschaft Nassau);
                             style: Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau, Graf von Saarbrücken
                             (from 11 Mar 1381), Herr zu Weilburg.
27 Feb 1442                Nassau-Saarbrücken is split off.
1561 - 22 Mar 1602         Split into Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Weilnau.
 5 Sep 1737                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                             Fürstentum Nassau-Weilburg); title awarded 4 Aug 1688,
                             but only adopted 5 Sep 1737 upon confirmation of award.
30 Aug 1806                Combined with Nassau-Usingen into Duchy of Nassau.

Counts
18 Sep 1675 - 17 Feb 1719  Johann Ernst                       (b. 1664 - d. 1719)
17 Feb 1719 -  5 Sep 1737  Karl August                        (b. 1685 - d. 1753)
Princes
 5 Sep 1737 -  9 Nov 1753  Karl August                        (s.a.)
 9 Nov 1753 - 28 Nov 1788  Karl Christian                     (b. 1735 - d. 1788)
28 Nov 1788 - 30 Aug 1806  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1768 - d. 1816)

Directing president
1788 - 30 Aug 1806         Hans Christoph Ernst Freiherr      (b. 1766 - d. 1852)
                             von Gagern


Nassau-Saarbrücken
[Possible flag County
                  of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany)]

27 Feb 1442                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau); style:
                             Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau, Graf von Saarbrücken.
23 Nov 1574 -  5 Feb 1629  Personal union with Nassau-Weilburg.
1648                       Nassau-Saarbrücken re-founded.
10 Apr 1659                Divided into Nassau-Saarbrücken, Nassau-Ottweiler, and
                             Nassau-Usingen.
 6 Dec 1723                Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Ottweiler re-combined.
Oct 1792                   Incorporated into France.
Oct 1792 - 27 Apr 1797     The line continues in rebellion.

Counts
19 Oct 1677 - 14 Feb 1713  Ludwig Crato                       (b. 1663 - d. 1713)
                            (Nassau-Saarbrücken only)
14 Feb 1713 -  6 Dec 1723  Karl Ludwig                        (b. 1665 - d. 1723)
                            (Nassau-Saarbrücken only)
 9 Feb 1690 - 25 May 1728  Friedrich Ludwig                   (b. 1651 - d. 1728)
                            (to 6 Dec 1723 in Nassau-Ottweiler only)
25 May 1728 -  6 Dec 1735  Karl                               (b. 1712 - d. 1775)
 6 Dec 1735 - 24 Jul 1768  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1718 - d. 1768)
24 Jul 1768 -  2 Mar 1794  Ludwig                             (b. 1745 - d. 1794)
                            (from Oct 1792, in rebellion against France)
 2 Mar 1794 - 27 Apr 1797  Heinrich Ludwig Karl Albrecht      (b. 1768 - d. 1797)
                            (in rebellion against France)


Nassau-Usingen

[Nassau-Usingen (Germany)]

10 Apr 1659                County of Nassau (Grafschaft Nassau; commonly Grafschaft
                             Nassau-Usingen); style: Gefürsteter Graf von Nassau.
 4 Aug 1688                Principality of Nassau (Fürstentum Nassau; commonly
                             Fürstentum Nassau-Usingen); style: Fürst zu Nassau.
31 Jul 1806                The ruler takes the style Herzog zu Nassau, as mandated by
                             the provisions of the Rheinbundakte: "the head of the
                             house of Nassau shall take the style of Duke."
30 Aug 1806                Combined with Nassau-Weilburg into Duchy of Nassau.

Princes
 4 Aug 1688 - 17 Oct 1702  Walrad                             (b. 1635 - d. 1702)
17 Oct 1702 - 14 Feb 1718  Wilhelm Heinrich                   (b. 1684 - d. 1718)
14 Feb 1718 - 21 Jun 1775  Karl                               (b. 1712 - d. 1775)
14 Feb 1718 - 11 Oct 1738  Charlotte Amalia von Nassau-       (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
                             Dillenburg (f) -Regent
21 Jun 1775 - 17 May 1803  Karl Wilhelm                       (b. 1735 - d. 1803)
17 May 1803 - 31 Jul 1806  Friedrich August                   (b. 1738 - d. 1816)
Duke
31 Jul 1806 - 30 Aug 1806  Friedrich August                   (s.a.)

Directing president
.... - 30 Aug 1806         Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr        (b. 1770 - d. 1834)
                             Marschall von Biberstein 


Nassau
 
[Nassau
                      1830-1839 (Germany)]
                   c.1830 - c.1839
[Nassau
                      1839-1866 (Germany)]
               c.1839 - 20 Sep 1866

Map of Nassau
Hear National Anthem
"Heil unserm Herzog, Heil!"
(Hail to our Duke, Hail!)

Text of National Anthem
Constitution
Capital: Wiesbaden
Population: 468,311 (1864)

30 Aug 1806                Duchy of Nassau, ruled jointly to 24 Mar 1816 by the Duke
                             of Nassau (formerly prince of Nassau-Usingen) and the
                             Prince of Nassau (formerly prince of Nassau-Weilburg)
20 Sep 1866                Annexation by Prussia.

Dukes
30 Aug 1806 - 24 Mar 1816  Friedrich August                   (b. 1738 - d. 1816)
                           - jointly with-
30 Aug 1806 -  9 Jan 1816  Friedrich Wilhelm -Prince          (b. 1768 - d. 1816)
 9 Jan 1816 - 20 Aug 1839  Wilhelm (prince to 24 Mar 1816)    (b. 1792 - d. 1839)
20 Aug 1839 - 20 Sep 1866  Adolf                              (b. 1817 - d. 1905)

Ministers
30 Aug 1806 - 1811         Hans Christoph Ernst Freiherr      (s.a.)
                             von Gagern
                           - jointly with-
30 Aug 1806 - 1815         Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr        (s.a.)
                             Marschall von Biberstein 
Directing Ministers of State
1815 - 22 Jan 1834         Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr        (b. 1770 - d. 1834)
                             Marschall von Biberstein 
1834 - 1842                Karl Wilderich Graf von            (b. 1799 - d. 1862)
                             Walderdorff
1842 - 1843                Friedrich Georg Karl Anton         (b. 1798 - d. 1866) 
                             Freiherr von Bock-Hermsdorff
1843 - 1848                Ernst August Freiherr von Dungern  (b. 1802 - d. 1862)
1848 -  2 Jan 1849         August Hergenhahn (1st time)       (b. 1804 - d. 1874)
11 Jun 1849 -  7 Feb 1852  Friedrich Gerhard Freiherr von     (b. 1799 - d. 1870) 
                             Winzingerode
 7 Feb 1852 - 31 Jul 1866  August Ludwig Prinz zu Sayn-       (b. 1788 - d. 1874)
                             Wittgenstein-Berleburg
 1 Sep 1866 - 22 Dec 1866  August Hergenhahn (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)


Neuburg: see Vorarlberg under Austrian Lands to 1918


Neuenburg (Neuchâtel): see Swiss Cantons
Neutral Moresnet: see under Belgium
La Neuveville: see Swiss Cantons
Nidwalden: see Swiss Cantons

Niedermünster in Regensburg 

c.900                      Benedictine Abbey of Niedermünster in Regensburg
                             (Reichsstift Niedermünster in Regensburg)
c.1491                     Abbesses also Princess of the Empire. 
1803                       Secularized an annexed to Regensburg.
1814                       Annexed to Bavaria.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstabtissin zu Niedermünster in Regensburg)
1697 - 1723                Johanna Franziska Sibylla von
                             Muggenthal 
1723 - 1757                Maria Katharina Helena von 
                             Aham auf Neuhauss 
1757 - 1768                Maria Anna Katharina Dücker- 
                             Hasslen-Urstein-Winkel
1769 - 1789                Maria Anna Febronia Elisabeth 
                             Speth von Zwyfalten 
1789 - 1793                Maria Franzisca Xaveria von
                             Königsfeld 
1793 - 1801                Maria Violanta von Lerchenfeld-   (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
                             Brennberg 
1801 - 1803                Maria Helena von Freien-
                             Seiboltsdorf (Freyen-Seyboldsdorf


Nivelles: see under Belgium
Novellara: see under Italian states


Nürnberg (Nuremberg)

[Imperial City of Nürnberg
                (Nuremberg) (Holy Roman Empire]  

c.1000                     Nürnberg castle (Burggraviate von Nürnberg) established.
1192                       Burggraviate is inherited by Zollern (later Hohenzollern) dynasty.
1200
                      Nürnberg town granted city rights.
 8 Nov 1219                Nürnberg town granted imperial privileges.
1320                       Imperial City of Nürnberg (Reichsstadt Nürnberg).
1420                       The castle is destroyed.
27 Jun 1427                Burggraviate territories are sold to the city. The territories
                             around Ansbach and Bayreuth are retained by the
                             
Hohenzollern, along with the title Burggraf von Nürnberg.
23 Sep 1526                Brandenburg claims some suzerain rights beyond the city walls.
22 Apr 1617                City offices of
Reichsschultheissen (governors) and Vorderster
                             
Losunger (heads of city council) formally entrusted to the
                             same person.
1753                       Nürnberg city boundaries with Brandenburg/Prussia fixed.
 4 Jul 1796                Prussian annexes the
burggraviate area.
 9 Aug 1796 - 23 Aug 1796  French occupation of
burggraviate.
 7 Dec 1797 - 11 Mar 1806  City under imperial administration.
30 Jun 1803                Burggraviate territories
divided between Bavaria and Prussia.
11 Mar 1806 - 15 Sep 1806  Burggraviate area occupied by France.
15 Sep 1806                
Nürnberg city annexed by Bavaria.


Reichsschultheissen
(also vorderster Losunger [heads of city council])
 
1696 - 1706                Johann Paul Paumgartner von Holnstein   (b. 1630 - d. 1706)
1706 - 1718                Johann Adam Georg Christoph Geuder      (b. 1641 - d. 1718)
                             von Heroldsberg                
1718 - 1725                Wolfgang Jacob Nützel                   (b. c.1660 - d. 1725)

1725 - 1732                Christoph Fürer von Haimendorf          (b. 1663 - d. 1732)
1732 - 1736                Johann Christoph von Imhof              (b. 1659 - d. 1736)
1736 - 1744                Karl Benedikt Geuder von Heroldsberg    (b. 1670 - d. 1744)
1744 - 1752                Christoph Gottlieb Volckamer von        (b. 1676 - d. 1752)
                             Kirchensittenbach
1752 - 1755                Johann Karl Welser von Neunhof          (b. 1685 - d. 1755)
1755 - 25 Oct 1758         Christoph Willibald Harsdörffer von     (b. 1674 - d. 1758)

                             Enderndorf
1758 - 1763                Karl Sigmund Ferdinand Grundherr von    (b. 1727 - d. 1796)
                             Altenthann
1763 - 19 Mar 1764         Johann Sigmund Pfinzing von Henfenfeld  (b. 1712 - d. 1764)

27 Mar 1764 - 18 Dec 1794  Christoph Friedrich Stromer von         (b. 1712 - d. 1794)
                             Reichenbach
                 
18 Dec 1794 - 1804         Johann Sigmund Haller von Hallerstein   (b. 1723 - d. 1805)
1804 - 15 Sep 1806        
Christoph Wilhelm Waldstromer von       (b. 1729 - d. 1810)
                             Reichelsdorf
President of the Imperial Subdelegation Commission

 7 Dec 1797 - 15 Sep 1806  Philipp Ernst Gemming 

French Military Governor
(of the 
burggraviate)
11 Mar 1806 - 15 Sep 1806  Bernard Georges François Frère          (b. 1764 – d. 1826)
Bavarian Commissar
15 Sep 1806 – 28 Oct 1808  
Lochner



Obermünster in Regensburg

c.833                      Imperial (Benedictine) Abbey of Obermünster in Regensburg
                             (Reichsstift Obermünster in Regensburg)
1219                       Under Direct Papal protection.
1315                       Abbess also Princess of the Empire.
1803                       Secularized.
1805                       Annexed to Bavaria.

Princess-Abbesses (title Fürstäbtissin zu Obermünster in Regensburg)
1683 - 1719                Maria Theresia von Sandizell           (b. 1643 - d. 1719) 
1719 - 1765                Anna Magdalena Franziska von Dondorff 
1765 - 1775                Maria Franzisca von Freudenberg 
1775 - 1803                Maria Josepha von Neuenstein-Hubacker  (b. 1739 - d. 1822)


Obwalden: see Swiss Cantons

Olbrück

1555                       Acquired from Runkel by Walbott von 
                             Bassenheim family (Herrschaft Olbrück).
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed to France.
1813 - 1815                Allied administration.
1815                       Annexed to Prussia.

Barons (title Reichsfreiherr Waldbott von Bassenheim zu Olbrück)
 9 Feb 1681 - 19 Mar 1744  Karl Heinrich Franz Anton             (b. 1678 - d. 1744)
19 Mar 1744 - 29 Sep 1755  Johann Jakob                          (b. 1683 - d. 1755)
29 Sep 1755 - 1792         Klemens August                        (b. 1731 - d. 1792)
1792 -  9 Mar 1801         Maximilian Friedrich                  (b. 1764 - d. 1823)



Oldenburg
 
[Oldenburg to 1774]
                       to 1774 
[Civil Flag 1774-1918 and
                          1919-1935 (Oldenburg, Germany)]
              24 Aug 1774 - 1 May 1918
Map of Oldenburg
Hear National Anthem
"Heil dir, o Oldenburg!"
(Hail to thee O'  Oldenburg!)
Text of National Anthem
(to 1918)
Constitution
Capital: Oldenburg
Population: 438,195 (1905)
 
1148                       Count Christian II "der Streitbare" of the Oldenburg 
                             dynasty takes the style Graf von Oldenburg.
1667 - 1773                Personal union with Denmark.
22 Mar 1777                Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg; style Herzog zu Holstein-
                             Oldenburg conferred 29 Dec 1774, published 22 Mar 1777.
Nov 1806 -  8 Jan 1807     Occupied by Kingdom of Holland.
10 Dec 1810                Incorporated into France; from 1 Jan 1811 part of
                             département Bouches-du-Weser (see under Germany).
27 Nov 1813 -  1 Dec 1813  Allied administration.
 1 Dec 1813                Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg (restored).
28 May 1829                Grand Duchy of Oldenburg; style: Grossherzog von Oldenburg
                             (the style Grossherzog zu Holstein-Oldenburg awarded by
                             Final Act of Congress of Vienna 9 Jun 1815, but not used).
11 Nov 1918                Free State of Oldenburg (see German states since 1918).
Counts (title Graf von Oldenburg)
 4 Sep 1699 - 12 Oct 1730  Friedrich II                       (b. 1671 - d. 1730)
                            (King Frederik IV of Denmark)
12 Oct 1730 -  6 Aug 1746  Christian XI                       (b. 1699 - d. 1746)
                            (King Christian VI of Denmark)
 6 Aug 1746 - 14 Jan 1766  Friedrich III                      (b. 1723 - d. 1766)
                            (King Frederik V of Denmark)
14 Jan 1766 -  1 Jul 1773  Christian XII                      (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
                            (King Christian VII of Denmark)
 1 Jul 1773 - 14 Dec 1773  Paul (von Holstein-Gottorp)        (b. 1754 - d. 1801)
                            (1796-1801, Emperor Paul I of Russia)
14 Dec 1773 - 22 Mar 1777  Friedrich August                   (b. 1711 - d. 1785)
                            (Bishop of Lübeck)
Dukes (title Herzog von Oldenburg)
22 Mar 1777 -  6 Jul 1785  Friedrich August                   (s.a.)
 6 Jul 1785 - Nov 1806     Wilhelm (1st time)                 (b. 1754 - d. 1823)
 6 Jul 1785 - Nov 1806     Peter Friedrich Ludwig -Regent     (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
                             (1st time)
Dutch Governors
Nov 1806 - 24 Nov 1806     Broux
24 Nov 1806 -  8 Jan 1807  Henri Damas Bonhomme               (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
Duke (title s.a.)
 8 Jan 1807 - 10 Dec 1810  Wilhelm (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
 8 Jan 1807 - 10 Dec 1810  Peter Friedrich Ludwig -Regent     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
19 Mar 1813 - 23 Mar 1813  Christian Daniel von Finckh        (b. 1765 - d. 1813)
                             (chairman of provisional administration)
27 Nov 1813 -  2 Jul 1823  Wilhelm (3rd time)                 (s.a.)
27 Nov 1813 -  2 Jul 1823  Peter Friedrich Ludwig -Regent     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
 2 Jul 1823 - 21 May 1829  Peter I                            (s.a.)
21 May 1829 - 28 May 1829  August -Regent                     (b. 1783 - d. 1853)
Grand dukes (title Grossherzog von Oldenburg)
28 May 1829 - 27 Feb 1853  August                             (s.a.)
27 Feb 1853 - 13 Jun 1900  Peter II                           (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
13 Jun 1900 - 11 Nov 1918  Friedrich August                   (b. 1852 - d. 1931)
 

Governors
1667 - 27 Oct 1680         Anton Graf von Aldenburg           (b. 1633 - d. 1680)
27 Oct 1680 -  2 Jul 1692  Vacant
 2 Jul 1692 -  4 Dec 1703  Gustav Wilhelm Graf von Wedel      (b. 1641 - d. 1717)

 4 Dec 1703 - 30 Jan 1717  Georg Ernst Graf von Wedel-        (b. 1666 - d. 1717)
                             Jarlsberg
30 Jan 1717 - 15 Feb 1752  Vacant
15 Feb 1752 -  3 Dec 1765  Rochus Friedrich Graf zu Lynar     (b. 1708 - d. 1783)
Administrators

21 Jan 1766 - 11 Feb 1771  Henning von Qualen                 (b. 1703 - d. 1785)
11 Feb 1771 - 13 Mar 1772  Konrad Wilhelm Graf von Ahlefedt   (b. 1707 - d. 1791)
14 Apr 1772 - 10 Dec 1773  Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von     (b. 1724 - d. 1790)
                             Wedel-Jarlsberg
Commissioners
10 Dec 1773 - 14 Dec 1773  Caspar von Saldern                 (b. 1711 - d. 1786)
14 Dec 1773 - 29 Dec 1774  Friedrich August von Holstein-     (s.a.)
                             Gottorp 
Directing ministers
29 Dec 1774 - 10 May 1806  Friedrich Levin Graf von Holmer    (b. 1741 - d. 1806)
10 May 1806 - 10 Dec 1810  Hans Detlev Freiherr von           (b. 1768 - d. 1826)
                             Hammerstein
Oberlanddrosten
1807 - 28 Feb 1811         Burchard Otto Hans von der Decken  (b. 1769 - d. 1838)
28 Feb 1811 - 12 Oct 1814  Vacant
12 Oct 1814 - 23 Jul 1827  Karl Ludwig Friedrich Joseph       (b. 1760 - d. 1847)
                             Freiherr von Brandenstein
State and Cabinet ministers
23 Jul 1827 - 30 Jun 1842  Karl Ludwig Friedrich Joseph       (s.a.)
                             Freiherr von Brandenstein
 1 Jul 1842 -  9 Sep 1843  Günther Heinrich Freiherr von Berg (b. 1765 - d. 1843)
Chairmen of the State ministry
 9 Sep 1843 -  1 Aug 1848  Wilhelm Ernst Freiherr von         (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
                             Beaulieu-Marconnay
 1 Aug 1848 - 13 Aug 1849  Johann Heinrich Jakob Schloifer    (b. 1790 - d. 1867)
13 Aug 1849 -  1 May 1851  Christian Diedrich von Buttel      (b. 1801 - d. 1878)
 1 May 1851 - 23 Jun 1874  Peter Friedrich Ludwig             (b. 1805 - d. 1874)
                             Freiherr von Rössing
23 Jun 1874 -  1 Oct 1876  Carl Heinrich Ernst von Berg       (b. 1810 - d. 1894)
 1 Oct 1876 - 14 Mar 1890  Friedrich Andreas Ruhstrat         (b. 1818 - d. 1896)
14 Mar 1890 - 19 Aug 1900  Gerhard Friedrich Günther Jansen   (b. 1831 - d. 1914)
19 Aug 1900 - 17 Aug 1908  Wilhelm Friedrich Willich          (b. 1846 - d. 1917)
17 Aug 1908 -  3 Jan 1916  Friedrich Julius Heinrich Ruhstrat (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
 3 Jan 1916 -  6 Nov 1918  Franz Friedrich Paul Ruhstrat      (b. 1859 - d. 1935)


Oberlanddrosten
1680 - 1692                Burchard Graf Ahlefeld             (b. 1634 - d. 1695)
1692 - 1694                Anton Wolf Freiherr von Haxthausen (b. 1647 - d. 1694)
1697 - 1699                Georg Ernst Graf von Wedel-        (s.a.)
                             Jarlsberg
1699 - 1706                Johan Georg von Holstein           (b. 1662 - d. 1730)
 4 May 1706 - 1713         Ludwig Staats von Hahn             (b. 1656 - d. 1730)
1713 - 1718                Joachim von Pritzbuer              (b. 1665 - d. 1719)
28 Apr 1718 - 1736         Christian Thomesen von Sehested    (b. 1664 - d. 1736)
13 Dec 1736 - 26 Dec 1740  Christian Friedrich von Haxthausen (b. 1690 - d. 1740)
1741 - 1745                Adam Levin von Witzleben           (b. 1688 - d. 1745)
10 Dec 1745 - 1752         Christian Ernst von Beulwitz       (b. 1695 - d. 1759)

Amtmaend
1667 - 1673                Hans Rantzau                       (b. 1613 - d. 1673)
1673 - 1679                Jasper von Buchwald
1679 - 28 Aug 1689         Hans Blome                         (b. 1618 - d. 1689)
1690 - 1701                Joachim von Ahlefeldt              (b. 1650 - d. 1701)
1701 - 1703                Ditlev Brockdorff                  (b. 1642 - d. 1732)
1703 - 1710?               Ditlev Sivert von Ahlefeldt        (b. 1658 - d. 1714)
1710 - 1736                Cay von Brockdorff                 (b. 1670 - d. 1736)
1736 - 1739                Joachim Engel (1st time) (acting)
1739 - 1744                Johann Hieronymus Negelein         (b. 1673 - d. 1744)
1744 - 1750                Joachim Engel (2nd time) (acting)
1750 - 1762                Christian August von Brockdorff    (d. 1762)
1762 - 1769                David Reinhold von Sievers         (b. 1732 - d. 1814)


Birkenfeld

13th cent.                 Part of County of Sponheim (Grafschaft Sponheim).
1223                       After partition of Sponheim, part of the Rear County Sponheim
                             (Hintere Grafschaft Sponheim).
1437                       Partitioned between Margraviate of Baden and County of Veldenz.
1584 - 1717                Residence of the Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld branch of the
                             Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria.
Fall 1794                  Occupied by France.
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed by France, part of département of Sarre
                             (see under Germany).
Jan 1814 - 15 Jun 1814     Allied administration.
15 Jun 1814 -  1 Jul 1816  Joint Austrian and Bavarian administration with seat in Kreuznach
                             then in Worms.
 1 Jul 1816 - 16 Apr 1817  Prussian rule.
16 Apr 1817                Principality of Birkenfeld (Fürstentum Birkenfeld), in (nominal)
                             personal union with Oldenburg. Birkenfeld an exclave of
                             Oldenburg inside Prussia's province of Rhein.
14 Jul 1919                Land of Birkenfeld within the Free State of Oldenburg
                             (from 1918 see German states since 1918).

Princes (title Fürst zu Birkenfeld)
16 Apr 1817 - 11 Nov 1918  the Grand Dukes of Oldenburg

Chairmen of Joint Austro-Bavarian Administration (rotated every 15 days)
1814                       von Drosdick (1st time)(Austria)
1814 - 1816                Franz-Xaver Freiherr von Zwackh-
                             Holzhausen (Bavaria)                (b. 1755 - d. 1843)
1814 - 1815                von Hess (Austria)
1815 - 1816                von Drosdick (2nd time)(Austria)
Prussian Director for Koblenz

1816 - 1817                Franz Edmund Freiherr von Schmitz-    (b. 1776 - d. 1844)
                             Grollenburg
Chairman of the Provisional Administrative Commission
16 Apr 1817 -  2 Sep 1817  Ludwig Conrad Leopold Wibel           (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
Directors of Government
 2 Sep 1817 -  1 Aug 1831  Ludwig Conrad Leopold Wibel           (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1831 - 1844         Laurenz Martin Hannibal Christian     (b. 1784 - d. 1867)
                             Fischer
Presidents and directors of the government(Regierungspräsidenten) in Birkenfeld
1844 - 1848                Laurenz Martin Hannibal Christian     (s.a.)
                             Fischer
Mar 1848 -  1 Oct 1881     Alexander Christian von Finckh        (b. 1806 - d. 1888)
                             (acting to 19 Feb 1866)
 1 Oct 1881 -  1 May 1901  Karl August Barnstedt                 (b. 1823 - d. 1914)
 1 May 1881 -  1 May 1909  Georg Adolf Moritz Alhorn             (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
 1 May 1909 - 29 Nov 1917  Wilhelm Friedrich Willich             (b. 1846 - d. 1917)
29 Nov 1917 - 15 Jun 1919  Hermann Gerhard Pralle (acting)       (b. 1863 - d. 1939)

Oettingen (Öttingen)


1147?                      County of Oettingen
1423 - 1517                Oettingen-Wallerstein was created as a partition of Oettingen.
23 Mar 1557                County of Oettingen-Wallerstein split from Oettingen-Oettingen. 
14 Oct 1602                Oettingen-Spielberg split from Oettingen-Wallerstein.
10 Oct 1674                Oettingen-Oettingen raised to a principality.
30 Mar 1731                Oettingen-Oettingen extinct; divided between Oettingen-Wallerstein
                             (two-thirds) and Oettingen-Spielberg (one-third). 
18 Jul 1734                Oettingen-Spielberg raised to a principality.
14 Apr 1774                Oettingen-Wallerstein raised to a principality.
12 Jul 1806                Oettingen-Wallerstein and Oettingen-Spielberg are annexed to 
                             Bavaria, then divided between Bavaria and Württemberg in 1810.

Oettingen-Oettingen (Öttingen-Öttingen)

Counts (title Graf zu Oettingen-Oettingen)
 8 Sep 1622 -  8 Aug 1659  Joachim Ernst                      (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
 8 Aug 1659 - 10 Oct 1674  Albrecht Ernst I                   (b. 1642 - d. 1683)
Princes (tile Reichsfürst zu Oettingen-Oettingen
)
10 Oct 1674 -  8 Feb 1683  A
lbrecht Ernst I                   (s.a.)
 8 Feb 1683 - 30 Mar 1731  A
lbrecht Ernst II                  (b. 1669 - d. 1731) 


Oettingen-Spielberg
 
14 Oct 1602                County of Oettingen-Spielberg split from Oettingen-Oettingen.
18 Jul 1734                Principality of Oettingen-Spielberg
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Bavaria.
1810                       Divided between Bavaria and Württemberg.

Counts (title Graf von Oettingen zu Spielberg)
25 Nov 1665 - 13 Sep 1675  Johann Sebastian                   (b. 1655 - d. 1675)
13 Sep 1675 - 10 Oct 1685  Johann Wilhelm                     (b. 1655 - d. 1685)
10 Oct 1685 - 18 Jul 1734  Franz Albrecht                     (b. 1663 - d. 1737)
Princes (title Reichsfürst zu Oettingen-Spielberg)
18 Jul 1734 -  3 Feb 1737  Franz Albrecht                     (s.a.)
 3 Feb 1737 - 23 May 1768  Anton Ernst                        (b. 1712 - d. 1768)
                           - jointly with -
 3 Feb 1737 - 16 Feb 1780  Johann Aloys I                     (b. 1707 - d. 1780)
16 Feb 1780 - 27 Jun 1797  Johann Aloys II                    (b. 1758 - d. 1797)
27 Jun 1797 - 12 Jul 1806  Johann Aloys III                   (b. 1788 - d. 1855)


Oettingen-Wallerstein

1423 - 1517                County of Oettingen-Wallerstein was created as a partition of
                             Oettingen, then inherited by Oettingen-Oettingen.
23 Mar 1557                County of Oettingen-Wallerstein split from Oettingen-Oettingen. 
14 Apr 1774                Principality of Oettingen-Wallerstein
12 Jul 1806                Annexed to Bavaria.
1810                       Divided between Bavaria and Württemberg.

Counts (title Graf von Oettingen zu Wallerstein)
 3 Mar 1670 - 11 Dec 1692  Wilhelm IV                         (b. 1627 - d. 1692)
11 Dec 1692 -  6 Oct 1708  Wolfgang IV                        (b. 1629 - d. 1708)
 6 Oct 1708 - 25 Oct 1717  Dominik Josef                      (b. 1676 - d. 1717)
25 Oct 1717 -  3 Oct 1728  Franz Ignaz Josef                  (b. 1672 - d. 1728)
 3 Oct 1728 - 14 Apr 1738  Anton Karl                         (b. 1679 - d. 1738)
14 Apr 1738 - 16 Jul 1744  Johann Karl Friedrich              (b. 1715 - d. 1744)
16 Jul 1744 - 17 Oct 1745  Maximilian Ignaz Philipp           (b. 1743 - d. 1745)
17 Oct 1745 - 14 Apr 1766  Philip Carl Dominikus              (b. 1722 - d. 1766)
14 Apr 1766 - 14 Apr 1774  Kraft Ernst                        (b. 1748 - d. 1802)
Princes (title Reichsfürst zu Oettingen-Oettingen)
14 Apr 1774 -  6 Oct 1802  Kraft Ernst                        (s.a.)
 6 Oct 1802 - 12 Jul 1806  Ludwig Kraft Ernst                 (b. 1791 - d. 1870)


Orange (Oranien): see Provence under Provence



Osnabrück

[Bishopric of
                Osnabrück]

10 Apr 783                 Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück)
1574 - 19 Sep 1625         Controlled by Protestant Bishops.
19 Sep 1626 -  4 Nov 1802  Catholic and Protestant Bishops alternate.
 4 Nov 1802                Part of Hanover.
14 Nov 1806 - 28 Aug 1807  Occupied by Prussia.
28 Aug 1807                Part of Kingdom of Westphalia.
 4 Jul 1811                Annexed to France.
Oct 1813 -  9 Nov 1813     Allied administration.
 9 Nov 1813 - 20 Dec 1813  Administered by Hanover. 
20 Dec 1813                Part of Hanover.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Osnabrück)
14 Apr 1698 -  4 Dec 1715  Karl Joseph Ignaz Herzog von Lothringen,(b. 1680 - d. 1715)
                             archbishop of Trier (Roman Catholic)
 2 Mar 1716 - 14 Aug 1728  Ernst August II Herzog von Braunschweig (b. 1678 - d. 1728)
                             -Lüneburg (Protestant)
 4 Nov 1728 -  6 Feb 1761  Clemens Augustv Herzog von Bayern,      (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
                             archbishop of Cologne (Roman Catholic)
 6 Feb 1761 - 26 Feb 1764  Georg Herzog von Braunschweig-
                             Lüneburg -Regent
26 Feb 1764 -  4 Nov 1802  Friedrich August Herzog von York und    (b. 1763 - d. 1827)
                             Albany (Protestant)
26 Feb 1764 - 16 Aug 1783  Regierungsräte -Regents
Military governor
26 Oct 1806 - 1807         Louis-Henri Loison                      (b. 1771 - d. 1816)
Chairman of the government commission
Nov 1813 - Aug 1816        Carl Wilhelm August Freiherr von        (b. 1777 - d. 1847)
                             Stralenheim

Regierungsräte (government councillors)
- First Line -
1764 - Dec 1764            Albert Friedrich von Lenthe             (b. 1707 - d. 1779)
Dec 1764 - 16 Aug 1783     Gotthelf Dietrich von Ende              (b. 1725 - d. 1798)
- Second Line -
1764 - Sep 1772            August Wilhelm von dem Bussche          (b. 1727 - d. 1789)
17 Sep 1772 -  1 May 1780  Johann Wilhelm Riedesel zu Eisenbach    (b. 1705 - d. 1782)
May 1780 - Aug 1783        Christian Ludwig August von Arnswaldt   (b. 1733 - d. 1815)



Paderborn

[Bishopric of Paderborn]

795                        Bishopric of Paderborn (Hochstift Paderborn)
15 Oct 1127                Bishops also Princes of the Empire.
 3 Aug 1802                Annexed to Prussia.
28 Aug 1807                Part of Kingdom of Westphalia.
Oct 1813 - 25 May 1815     Allied administration.
25 May 1815                Re-incorporated into Prussia.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Paderborn)
15 Sep 1683 - 21 May 1704  Hermann Werner Reichsfreiherr von          (b. 1625 - d. 1704)  
                             Wolf-Metternich zu Gracht
21 May 1704 - 25 Dec 1718  Franz Arnold Reichsfreiherr von            (b. 1658 - d. 1718)
                             Wolf-Metternich zur Gracht
21 Mar 1719 -  6 Feb 1761  Clemens August Herzog von Bayern           (b. 1700 - d. 1761)
25 Jan 1763 - 26 Dec 1782  Wilhelm Anton Freiherr von der Asseburg    (b. 1707 - d. 1782)
                             zu Hinnenburg
26 Dec 1782 -  6 Jan 1789  Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Westphalen  (b. 1727 - d. 1789)
 6 Jan 1789 -  3 Aug 1802  Franz Egon Freiherr von Fürstenberg        (b. 1737 - d. 1825)
President of the government commission
1814 - 25 May 1815         Johann Georg Julius von Schlechtendahl     (b. 1770 - d. 1833)



Palatinate of the Rhine (Pfalz)

[Palatinate of the Rhine,
                          1329-1776]
                       1329 - 1776
[Palatinate of the Rhine,
                          1776-1799]
                        1776 - 1799
945                        Palatinate of Lorraine (Pfalzgrafschaft Lothringen).
1093                       Palatinate of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein);
                             style: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (count palatine of the Rhine -
                             more literally "at the Rhine").
25 Dec 1356                Golden Bull confirms electoral status of the ruler; the
                             polity is often styled Kurfürstentum Pfalz bei Rhein
                             (Electorate Palatinate of the Rhine); style: Pfalzgraf bei
                             Rhein, Erztruchsess und Kurfürst des Heiligen Römischen
                             Reiches (count palatine of the Rhine, archsteward and
                             prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire).
 7 Mar 1623                The polity is forfeited to the king, the electoral dignity
                             is transferred to Bavaria.
 3 Mar 1628                Incorporated into Bavaria.
24 Oct 1648                Polity reconstituted; new electorate created Jun 1653;
                             style: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Erzschatzmeister und Kurfürst
                             des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (count palatine of the Rhine,
                             archtreasurer and prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire).
23 Jun 1708                After the (temporary) dissolution of Bavaria, the count
                             palatine recovers the earlier electoral style
                             (Erztruchsess), and maintains it, in dispute with the
                             restored Bavaria.
30 Dec 1777                The ruler inherits Bavaria, and the dispute regarding the
                             electoral style ends.
1795                       Territories on left bank of the Rhine are occupied, and then
                             annexed 9 Mar 1801, by France.
1803                       Right-bank of the Palatinate incorporated into Baden.
1815                       Left-bank of the Palatinate incorporated into Bavaria.
Counts Palatine and Electors (title Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Erztruchsess und Kurfürst des
Heiligen Römischen Reiches - count palatine of the Rhine, Archsteward and prince-elector of
the Holy Roman Empire)
 2 Sep 1690 -  8 Jun 1716  Johann Wilhelm                        (b. 1658 - d. 1716)
 8 Jun 1716 - 31 Dec 1742  Karl III Philipp                      (b. 1661 - d. 1742)
31 Dec 1742 - 16 Feb 1799  Karl IV Philipp Theodor               (b. 1724 - d. 1799)
16 Feb 1799 - 27 Apr 1803  Maximilian I Joseph                   (b. 1756 - d. 1825)


Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Pfalz-Zweibrücken)

1182                       County of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Pflazgrafschaft Zweibrücken).
1385 - 18 May 1410         Incorporated into the Palatinate (s.a.).
1444                       Unification of County of Zweibrücken, County of Veldenz and
                             Palatinate-Simmern and Zweibrücken as the Principality of
                             Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Fürstentum Pfalz-Zweibrücken).
 9 Jul 1661                Duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Herzogtum Pfalz-Zweibrücken).
1681 - 11 Dec 1718         Personal union with Sweden.
17 Sep 1731                Duchy of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Herzogtum
                             
Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld).
16 Feb 1799                Incorporated into Bavaria.
 9 Mar 1801                Incorporated into France; part of the département Sarre
                             (see under Germany).
1813 - 1816                Allied administration.
16 Apr 1816                Re-incorporated into Bavaria.

Dukes (title Herzog Pfalz-Zweibrücken; from 1731, Herzog Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld)
15 Apr 1697 - 11 Dec 1718  Karl II Ritter av Sverige     (b. 1682 - d. 1718)
11 Dec 1718 - 17 Sep 1731  Gustav Samuel Leopold         (b. 1670 - d. 1731)
                             Pfalzgraf von Kleeburg 
17 Sep 1731 -  3 Feb 1735  Christian III                 (b. 1674 - d. 1735)
 3 Feb 1735 -  5 Nov 1775  Christian IV                  (b. 1722 - d. 1775)
 3 Feb 1735 -  6 Sep 1740  Karoline, Gräfin von Nassau-  (b. 1704 - d. 1774) 
                             Saarbrücken -Regent
 5 Nov 1775 -  1 Apr 1795  Karl III August Christian     (b. 1746 - d. 1795)
 1 Apr 1795 - 16 Feb 1799  Maximilian I Joseph           (b. 1756 - d. 1825)

Swedish governor
1714 - 1718                Stanislaw Leszczynski         (b. 1677 - d. 1766)



Passau

[Bishopric of Passau]

739                        Bishopric of Passau (Hochstift Passau)
22 Feb 1803                Annexed to Salzburg.
26 Dec 1805                Annexed to Bavaria.

Prince-Bishops (title Fürstbischof zu Passau)
24 May 1689 - 30 Oct 1712  Johann Philipp Graf von Lamberg      (b. 1652 - d. 1712)
18 Jan 1713 - 25 Oct 1722  Raimund Ferdinand Graf von Rabatta   (b. 1669 - d. 1722)
 2 Jan 1723 - 30 Aug 1761  Joseph Dominicus Franz Kilian        (b. 1680 - d. 1761) 
                             Cardinal Graf von Lamberg
19 Nov 1761 - 15 Jun 1763  Josef Maria Graf von Thun und        (b. 1713 - d. 1763)
                             Hohenstein
 1 Sep 1763 - 13 Mar 1783  Leopold Ernst Cardinal von Firmian   (b. 1708 - d. 1783)
19 May 1783 - 21 Aug 1795  Joseph Franz Anton Cardinal von      (b. 1734 - d. 1795)
                             Auersperg
 4 Nov 1795 -  7 Oct 1796  Thomas Johann Kaspar Graf von Thun   (b. 1737 - d. 1796)
                             und Hohenstein
13 Nov 1796 - 22 Feb 1803  Leopold Leonhard Graf von Thun       (b. 1748 - d. 1826)


Piombino: see Italian states
Pomerania (Pommern): see Prussian provinces and Swedish Pomerania

Porrentruy: see Basel Bishopric Swiss Cantons

Prüm

23 Jun 720                 Benedictine Abbey of Abbey of Prüm (Stift Prüm).
24 Aug 1574                Ceded to Archbishop of Trier by Pope Gregory XIII.
1576                       Possession of the Archbishops of Trier.
 9 Mar 1801                Annexed to France.
1815                       Incorporated into Prussia.

Prince-Abbots (title Fürstabt zu Prüm)
1576 -  9 Mar 1801         the Archbishops of Trier



Prussia
 
[Brandenburg
                          flag 1657-1701]
             1657 - 1701  Brandenburg 
[Royal (Polish) Prussia 1466-1772]
     Royal (West) Prussia 1466/1525 - 1772
[Prussia 1701
                          (Germany)]
1701/15 Aug 1739-22 May 1818 Prussia
[Prussia
                          1818-1823 (Prussia, Germany)]
      22 May 1818 - 12 Mar 1823 Prussia
[Prussia
                          1823-1862]
       12 Mar 1823 - 6 Jul 1863 Prussia
 
[State Flag
                          1863-1918 (Prussia, Germany)]
           6 Jul 1863 - 9 Nov 1918 Prussia
 


Maps of Prussia Hear National Anthem
"'Preussenlied"
(Song of Prussia)

Royal Anthem
"Heil Dir im Siegerkranz"
(Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown)

 Constitution
(5 Dec 1848; in German)
Prussia Provinces to 1946 Capital: Berlin
(Memel [de facto] 1808-1812)
Religions: Protestant 63.7%,
Roman Catholic 35%,
Jewish 1.3% (1905)
Population: 37,278,820 (1905)
International Organizations/Treaties to 1871: ICRM, IMO, ITU

Note: What is usually regarded as the Prussian state is based (with various additions) on two distinct polities, the Mark Brandenburg and Preussen (originally a Polish fief). In the period covered here, the rulers of both entities are identical, but their institutional histories are distinct enough to treat them separately before listing the rulers.

Brandenburg

20 May 965                 Nordmark founded, ruled by a Markgraf.
11 Jun 1157                The holdings of the Markgraf are renamed Mark Brandenburg.
1258 - 1356                The Mark Brandenburg suffers numerous divisions and creations
                             of side-lines.
25 Dec 1356                The Golden Bull confirms the ruler of the principal line as
                             prince-elector and decrees the indivisibility of the Mark
                             Brandenburg to which the electorate is attached; the style of
                             the elector is von Gottes Gnaden Markgraf zu Brandenburg, des
                             Heiligen Römischen Reichs Erzkämmerer und Kurfürst ("By the
                             grace of God margrave of Brandenburg, Archchamberlain and
                             Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire"), to which numerous
                             actual as well as notional styles are attached.
18 Jul 1618                Upon the death of the duke of Prussia, and with the 
                             succession of Johann Sigismund, Markgraf von Brandenburg
                             (b. 1573 - d. 1619) the two polities are united in 
                             personal union, colloquially called Brandenburg-Prussia,
                             while the territory of Brandenburg is later known as
                             Kurmark province.
 6 Aug 1806                With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire the effective
                             function of the electors ceases, the Mark Brandenburg itself
                             having been long incorporated into the royal Prussian
                             conglomerate (see below); it is notable that the later kings of
                             Prussia, while continuing to use Markgraf von Brandenburg
                             in their style, do not include the electoral Kurfürst.
27 Oct 1806 - 10 Dec 1808  Occupied by France.
 
Prussia
 

 5 Mar 1198                The Teutonic Order, or in full the Order of the Knights
                             (or Brethren) of the Hospital of Saint Mary of the 
                             Teutonic House in Jerusalem (Orden der Ritter [or Brüder]
                             des Hospitals Sankt Marien des Deutschen Hauses zu Jerusalem)
                             organized at Akko in the Holy Land as a military order.
1226                       Grand Master (Hochmeister) of the Teutonic Order is granted by
                             the Emperor all the privileges and (from 1230) style of the
                             prince of the Empire. The knights are entitled to subject the 
                             Prussians on behalf of the Empire.
1231                       Invaded by the Teutonic knights (occupation completed by 1283). 
                             Prussia a separate branch or province, administered by the
                             Land-Master of the Teutonic Order in Prussia (Landmeister des
                             Deutschen Orden in Preussen).
1280                       City of Thorn (Torun) a member of the Hanseatic League. Thorn 
                             is later joined by 4 other cities in Prussia: Königsberg 
                             (later Kaliningrad), Elbing (Elblag), Kulm (Chelmno), 
                             Braunsberg (Braniewo).
 9 Sep 1309                Seat of the Grand Master (Hochmeister) is moved from Venice
                             to Marienburg (Malbork) in Prussia. The Grand Master takes
                             over direct administration of the Prussian branch (the area
                             later designated East Prussia).
 6 Mar 1454                Royal Prussia (Königlisches Preussen in German, Prusy Krolewskie
                             in Polish)(West Prussia) made a principality in personal union 
                             with king of Poland, who takes the style of Prince of Prussia.
                             Royal Prussia originates in the Prussian Confederation 
                             (Preussischer Bund), established in 14 Mar 1440 by the local 
                             estates (die Stände) - 19 cities and 53 vassals (Ritterschaft)
                             who asked for protection of Poland on 4 Feb 1454.
19 Oct 1466                Prussia (East Prussia) a Polish fief (not recognized by the
                             Empire). Grand Master granted the Polish style of Prince of 
                             Prussia.
 9 Apr 1525                The Hochmeister Albrecht Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach
                             having converted to Protestantism, becomes hereditary 
                             Herzog von Preussen (duke of Prussia), as a vassal of the king 
                             of Poland.
18 Jul 1618                Upon the death of the duke of Prussia, and with the 
                             succession of Johann Sigismund, Markgraf von Brandenburg
                             (b. 1573 - d. 1619) the two polities are united in 
                             personal union, colloquially called Brandenburg-Prussia.
26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635  "Swedish Prussia" temporarily ceded by Poland to Sweden covering
                             the following port cities: Elbing (Elblag), Braunsberg 
                             (Braniewo [in Ermland]), Memel (Klaipeda), and Pillau (Baltiysk).
                             (see under Poland).
19 Sep 1657                Poland relinquishes sovereignty over the duchy, and on 6 Nov
                             1657 the duke (prince-elector and margrave of Brandenburg
                             Friedrich Wilhelm "der Grosse Kurfürst") takes the style
                             Souveräner Herzog von Preussen (Sovereign Duke of Prussia).
18 Jan 1701                The duke/elector's attempts at getting the king/emperor to
                             accept his accession to royal rank having failed, he accepts
                             on 16 Dec 1700 the royal crown of a Prussia outside the Empire,
                             and is proclaimed König in Preussen (king in Prussia).
 3 Nov 1707 - 16 Jun 1857  Personal union with Principality of Neuenburg (see Neuchâtel).
1703 - 1709                West Prussia occupied by Sweden.
22 Jan 1758 - Sep 1762     East Prussia occupied by Russia (from 24 Jan 1758 annexed
                             to Russia as the province of Prussia).
 5 Aug 1772                West Prussia annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of
                             the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
13 Sep 1772                The almost fictional distinction between the electorate inside
                             The empire and the kingdom outside the empire having become
                             blurred in practice, the king (Friedrich II "der Grosse")
                             assumes the style König von Preussen (king of Prussia);
                             the combined polity (with several accretions over time) is
                             usually styled Königreich Preussen (Kingdom of Prussia),
                             but technically the official use is Königlich Preussische
                             Staaten (Royal Prussian States).
16 Jun 1807 -  9 Jul 1807  East Prussia occupied by France.
Dec 1812 - Jan 1813        East Prussia occupied by France.
 1 Jul 1867 - 18 Jan 1871  Prussian king is Chairman of the North German Confederation.
18 Jan 1871                King of Prussia becomes German Emperor.
 9 Nov 1918                Free State of Prussia (see German states since 1918).
Land-Masters of the Teutonic Order in Prussia (see above regarding style)
Jun 1230 -  3 Mar 1239     Hermann von Balk                   (d. 1239)
1240 - 1241                Poppo von Osternohe (or Osterna)   (d. 1266/67)
                             (1st time)(acting)       
1242 - 1244                Heinrich von Weida (acting)        (b. bf.1200 - d. 1246)
1244 - 1247                Poppo von Osternohe                (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)       
1249 - 1259                Dietrich von Grüningen             (b. c.1210 - d. 1259)
                             (or Groningen)(did not come to Prussia)
1247 - 1250                Heinrich von Weida (acting)
1250 - 1255                Ludwig von Queden (acting)
1255 - 1257                Burkhard von Hornhausen (acting)   (d. 1260)
1257 - 1259                Gerhard von Hirzberg (acting)
1259 - 1262                Hartmud von Grumbach               (d. 1263)
1262 - 12 Jul 1263         Helmerich von Würzburg             (d. 1263)
12 Jul 1263 - 1263         Johann von Wegeleben (or Wegelewe)
                             (acting)
1264 - 1270                Ludwig von Baldersheim             (d. af.1272)
                             (or Baldensheim)
1270 - 1273                Dietrich von Gatersleben
                             (or Gatirslebe)
1273 - 1276/79             Konrad I von Thierbach "der Alte"  (d. 1276/79)
                             (or Thierberg)    
1279 - 1280                Konrad von Feuchtwangen            (b. c.1230 - d. 1296)
1280 - 1283                Mangold von Sternberg              (d. 1283)
1283 - 1288                Konrad II von Thierbach            (d. af.1290)
                             (or Thierberg)            
1288 - 1299                Meinhard von Querfurt              (d. 1299)
                             (or Querenvord, Querenforth)
1299 - 1300                Konrad von Bamberg (or Babenberch) (d. af.1300)
1300                       Ludwig von Schüpf (or Schippe)     (d. 1300) 
1300 - 1300                Berthold Brühan (acting)
1300 - 1302                Helwig von Goldbach
1302 - 1306                Konrad von Sack                    (d. af.1306)
1306 - 1306                Sieghard von Schwarzburg           (d. af.1336)
1307 - 14 Sep 1309         Heinrich von Plötzkau (or Plotzke) (d. 1320)
Prince-Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order (see above regarding style)
 9 Sep 1309 -  9 Apr 1525  the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order
Dukes of Prussia (see above regarding style)
 9 Apr 1525 - 20 Mar 1568  Albrecht                           (b. 1490 - d. 1568)
20 Mar 1568 - 25 Apr 1578  Albrecht Friedrich (1st time)      (b. 1553 - d. 1618)
27 Feb 1578 - 25 Apr 1603  Georg Friedrich I                  (b. 1539 - d. 1603) 
25 Apr 1603 - 18 Jul 1618  Albrecht Friedrich (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Dukes and Electors (see above regarding style)
18 Jul 1618 -  3 Mar 1619  Johann Sigmund                     (b. 1572 - d. 1620)
 3 Mar 1619 -  1 Dec 1640  Georg Wilhelm                      (b. 1595 - d. 1540)
 1 Dec 1640 -  9 May 1688  Friedrich II Wilhelm               (b. 1620 - d. 1688)
 9 May 1688 - 18 Jan 1701  Friedrich III                      (b. 1657 - d. 1713)
Kings (see above regarding style)
18 Jan 1701 - 25 Feb 1713  Friedrich I (Friedrich III)        (s.a.)
25 Feb 1713 - 31 May 1740  Friedrich Wilhelm I                (b. 1688 - d. 1740)
31 May 1740 - 17 Aug 1786  Friedrich II "der Grosse"          (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
                             (Frederick "the Great")
17 Aug 1786 - 16 Nov 1797  Friedrich Wilhelm II               (b. 1744 - d. 1797)
16 Nov 1797 -  7 Jun 1840  Friedrich Wilhelm III              (b. 1770 - d. 1840)
 7 Jun 1840 -  2 Jan 1861  Friedrich Wilhelm IV               (b. 1795 - d. 1861)
 2 Jan 1861 -  9 Mar 1888  Wilhelm I                          (b. 1797 - d. 1888)
                             (7 Oct 1858 - 2 Jan 1861 regent for Friedrich Wilhelm IV)
 9 Mar 1888 - 15 Jun 1888  Friedrich III                      (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
15 Jun 1888 -  9 Nov 1918  Wilhelm II                         (b. 1859 - d. 1941)

Ministers of State
1619 - 1640                Adam Graf von Schwarzenburg        (b. 1583 - d. 1641)
1653 - 1658                Georg Friedrich Graf von Waldeck   (b. 1620 - d. 1692)
                             (from 1682, Georg Friedrich Furst von Waldeck)
1658 -  4 Nov 1679         Otto Freiherr von Schwerin         (b. 1616 - d. 1679)
1695 - Dec 1697            Eberhard Freiherr von Danckelmann  (b. 1643 - d. 1617)
1697 - 1711                Johann Kasimir Reichsgraf          (b. 1643 - d. 1712)
                             Kolbe von Wartenberg
1711 -  6 Dec 1728         Heinrich Rüdiger von Ilgen         (b. 1650 - d. 1728)
 6 Dec 1728 - 18 Mar 1739  Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow     (b. 1678 - d. 1739)
18 Mar 1739 -  Jun 1749    Heinrch Graf Podewils              (b. 1695 - d. 1760)
Jun 1749 - 20 Oct 1753     Georg Dietlof von Arnim-           (b. 1679 - d. 1753)
                             Boitzenburg
 3 Jun 1749 - 1777         Karl Wilhelm Graf von Finck        (b. 1714 - d. 1800)
                             und Finckenstein 
1777 - 15 May 1802         Friedrich Anton Freiherr von       (b. 1725 - d. 1802)
                             Heinitz 
 8 Nov 1786 - 1798         Friedrich Wilhelm Graf Arnim       (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
                             (acting) 
15 May 1802 - Apr 1804     Christian Heinrich Kurt Graf von   (b. 1752 - d. 1832)
                             Haugwiz (1st time)
Apr 1804 - Feb 1806        Karl August Graf von Hardenberg    (b. 1750 - d. 1822)
                             (1st time) 
Feb 1806 - Nov 1806        Christian Heinrich Kurt Graf von   (s.a.)
                             Haugwiz (2nd time) 
Nov 1806 - Apr 1807        Karl Friedrich von Beyme           (b. 1765 - d. 1838)
26 Apr 1807 - 14 Jul 1807  Karl August von Hardenberg         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
14 Jul 1807 -  3 Oct 1807  .... (acting)
 3 Oct 1807 - 24 Nov 1808  Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr   (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
                             vom und zum Stein 
24 Nov 1808 -  4 Jun 1810  Karl Friedrich Ferdiand Alexander  (b. 1771 - d. 1831)
                             Graf von Dohna-Schlobitten 
Chancellors
 4 Jun 1810 - Jun 1822     Karl August von Hardenberg         (s.a.) 
Jun 1822 - 30 Jun 1823     Otto Karl Friderich von Voss       (b. 1755 - d. 1823)
Cabinet ministers
1823 - 14 Feb 1841         Karl Friedrich Heinrich Graf von   (b. 1767 - d. 1841)
                             Wylich und Lottum
 9 Mar 1841 - 19 Mar 1848  Ludwig Gustav von Thile            (b. 1781 - d. 1852)
Minister-presidents (Prime ministers)
19 Mar 1848 - 29 Mar 1848  Adolf Heinrich Graf von            (b. 1803 - d. 1868)
                             Arnim-Boitzenburg 
29 Mar 1848 - 20 Jun 1848  Gottfried Ludolf Camphausen        (b. 1803 - d. 1890)
25 Jun 1848 - 21 Sep 1848  Rudolf Ludwig Cäsar von Auerswald  (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
21 Sep 1848 -  1 Nov 1848  Ernst von Pfuel                    (b. 1799 - d. 1866)
 1 Nov 1848 - 19 Dec 1850  Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von         (b. 1792 - d. 1850)
                             Brandenburg 
19 Dec 1850 -  6 Nov 1858  Otto Theodor Freiherr von          (b. 1805 - d. 1882)
                             Manteuffel 
 6 Nov 1858 - 17 Mar 1862  Karl Anton Fürst von Hohenzollern- (b. 1811 - d. 1885)
                             Sigmaringen 
17 Mar 1862 - 23 Sep 1862  Adolf Fürst von Hohenlohe-         (b. 1797 - d. 1873)                              Ingelfingen      
23 Sep 1862 -  1 Jan 1873  Otto von Bismarck                  (b. 1815 - d. 1898)  Non-party
                            (from 15 Sep 1865, Otto Graf von Bismarck;
                             from 21 Mar 1871, Otto Fürst von
                             Bismarck)(1st time)
 1 Jan 1873 -  9 Nov 1873  Albrecht Graf von Roon             (b. 1803 - d. 1879)  Non-party
 9 Nov 1873 - 20 Mar 1890  Otto Fürst von Bismarck            (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (2nd time)
20 Mar 1890 - 23 Mar 1892  Leo von Caprivi                    (b. 1831 - d. 1899)  Non-party
                            (from 18 Dec 1891, Leo Graf von Caprivi) 
23 Mar 1892 - 29 Oct 1894  Botho Julius August Graf zu        (b. 1831 - d. 1912)  Non-party
                             Eulenburg 
29 Oct 1894 -  9 Nov 1918  the Imperial Chancellors
- vice-prime ministers acting for the Imperial Chancellors [who
were also the Prime ministers of Prussia] -
 9 Nov 1873 - 23 Mar 1878  Otto von Camphausen                (b. 1812 - d. 1896)
29 May 1878 - 20 Jun 1881  Otto Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode  (b. 1837 - d. 1896)
 8 Oct 1881 - 29 Oct 1894  Robert Victor von Puttkamer        (b. 1828 - d. 1900)
16 Aug 1888 - 30 Jun 1897  Carl Heinrich von Boetticher       (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1897 -  5 May 1901  Johannes Franz von Miquel          (b. 1828 - d. 1901)  NLP
29 Jun 1901 - 14 Jul 1909  Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg      (s.a.)               Non-party
16 Aug 1914 - 22 May 1916  Clemens Gottlieb Ernst von         (b. 1856 - d. 1921)
                             Delbrück 
22 May 1916 -  9 Nov 1917  Paul von Breitenbach               (b. 1850 - d. 1930)
 9 Nov 1917 -  9 Nov 1918  Robert Friedberg                   (b. 1851 - d. 1920)  NLP

Party abbreviations: Zen = Deutsche Zentrumspartei 'Zentrum' (German Centre Party, catholic, centrist, 1870-1933); NLP = Nationalliberale Partei (National Liberal Party, 1867-1918)


Pyrmont: see Waldeck-Pyrmont

Quadt and Wickrath

1310                       Wickrath (sometimes spelled Wyckerad), a fief of Guelden. 
1488 - 1502                Wickrath, an imperial barony, granted to the 
                             Knights of Hompesch.
1502                       Wickrath passes to Quadt
16 Apr 1752                County of Quadt (Grafschaft Quadt) an imperial estate.
1794 - 1798                Occupied by France.
1798                       Annexed to France.
1803                       Counts acquire city of Isny.
1806                       Annexed to Württemberg.
1814                       Annexed to Prussia.

Count (title Graf von Quadt zu Wykradt [from 1803] und Isny)
1785 - 1806                Wilhelm Otto Friedrich Albert          (b. 1783 - d. 1849)



Quedlinburg

931                         Praemonstratensian Abbey of Quedlinburg (Stift Quedlinburg).
af.931                      Abbesses also Princesses of the Empire.
1539                        Protestant Stift
 9 Mar 1801                 Secularized.
27 Apr 1803                 Annexed to Prussia.
28 Aug 1807                 Annexed to Kingdom of Westphalia.
28 Oct 1813 - 21 Jun 1815   Prussian administration.
21 Jun 1815                 Re-incorporated into Prussia.

Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Quedlinburg)
Jan 1684 - 24 Jun 1704      Anna Dorothea Herzogin von             (b. 1657 - d. 1704)
                              Sachsen-Weimar
1698 - 1718                 Marie Aurora Gräfin von                (b. 1662 - d. 1728)
                              Königsmarck -Coadjutor 
                             (1704-1710, acting Princess-Abbess)
1704 - 25 Sep 1710          Magdalena Sibylle Herzogin von         (b. 1673 - d. 1726)
                              Sachsen-Weissenfels -Administrator
25 Sep 1710 - 17 Jul 1755   Maria Elisabeth Herzogin von           (b. 1678 - d. 1755)
                              Holstein-Gottorp
1710 - 1718                 Marie Aurora Gräfin von                (s.a.)
                              Königsmarck -Pröbstin
17 Jul 1755 - 30 Mar 1787   Anna Amalie Prinzessin von Preussen    (b. 1723 - d. 1787)
30 Mar 1787 -  9 Mar 1801   Sophie Albertine von Schweden          (b. 1753 - d. 1829)
Sovereign Princess (title Fürstin zu Quedlinburg
 9 Mar 1801 - 27 Apr 1803   Sophie Albertine von Schweden          (s.a.)







© Ben Cahoon