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Belarus
 
[Russian flag]
            23 Jan 1793 - 19 Feb 1918
 
[Belarus
                              white-red flag 1918, 1991-1995]
             9 - 27 Mar 1918, 5 Sep - 31 Dec 1918;
              27 Jul 1942 - 3 Jul 1944 Semi-official
[Flag of
                              Byelorussian SSR in 1919]
                    3 Feb 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  
[Flag of Byelorussian SSR in 1919]
                    3 Feb 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  
Flag of
                              Byelorussian SSR in 1920
                     31 Jul 1920 - 30 Dec 1922
[Flag of USSR]
                  30 Dec 1922 - 25 Dec 1991
[Belarus white-red flag 1918,
                            1991-1995]
                    25 Aug 1991 - 7 Jun 1995
[Belarus flag
                            1995-2008]
                       7 Jun 1995 - 19 Mar 2008
                 
[Belarus flag 2008-2010]
                     19 Mar 2008 - 1 Jan 2010
[Belarus flag, 2010-2012]
                      1 Jan 2010 - 1 May 2012

[Belarus flag]
                        Adopted 1 May 2012

Map of Belarus
Hear National Anthem
"Dzyarzhawny Himn
Respubliki Belarus"
(National Anthem of
Republic of Belarus)

(1991-2002 without lyrics)
Adopted 1991 (lyrics 2 Jul 2002)
Former National  Anthem
"Vayatski Marsh"
(Warriors March)
(1919)
Constitution
 (1 Mar 1994)
--------------------------
Constituent Charter
(9 Mar 1918-1920)
Capital: Minsk
(Communist: Minsk [excl. 19 Feb
 1918-10 Dec 1918 Smolensk, 27
 Feb 1919-19 Apr 1919 Vilnius, 8
 Aug-1 Sep 1919 Babruysk])
 (Non-Communist: Minsk [excl.
 Dec 1918-Dec 1919 Hrodna])
Currency: Belarusian Ruble
(BYB/BYR); 1991-92 Russian Ruble (RUR); 1942-44 German Reichskreditkassenscheine
(XDEK);
1918-1919  Darlehenskasse Ost Mark
 (DEOM); 1918 German
 Darlehenskasse Ost Ruble
(DEOR)
National Holiday: 3 Jul (1944)
Independence Day
Population: 9,625,888 (2013)
9,000,000 (1941 est.)
GDP: $150.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $42.06 billion (2013)
Imports: $45.17 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Belarusian 83.7%, Russian 8.3%, Polish 3.1%,
Ukrainian 1.7%, other 3.2% (2009)
Total Active Armed Forces: 182,440 (2010)
Former Nuclear Power: 81 weapons (1991-1996)
Merchant Marine: None (2010)
Religions: Belarusian Orthodox  48.7%, Roman Catholic 13.2%,
unaffiliated Christian 5.9%, other Christian 2.4%,

Jewish 0.6%, Muslim 0.3%, atheist 4.9%,
 non-religious 24% (2000) 
International Organizations/Treaties: ANT, APM, BSEC (observer), BTWC, CBSS (observer), CEI, CES, CFE, CIS, CSTO, CTBT, CWC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO,  GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO (dialogue partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC
Belarus Index
Chronology

5th cent.                  East Slavic tribes begin migration into the area
                             of present-day Belarus.
c.987                      Polotsk
(Polot'sk, Polatsk) principality, under
                             the suzerainty of of Kiev Rus' to 1201.
14 Apr 1101               
Polotsk becomes internally divided into Polotsk,
                            
Minsk (Mensk),
Drutsk, and Vitebsk (Vitsebsk).
c.1242                     Polotsk a vassal of Lithuania.
1307                       Polotsk
part of Lithuania.
1320                       Vitebsk part of Lithuania.
1326                       Minsk part of Lithuania.

 4 Jul 1569                Part of the Lithuanian "half" of Poland-Lithuania.
30 Jun 1655 - Jan 1661     Minsk occupied by Russia.
 3 Jul 1707 - Feb 1708    
Minsk occupied by Russia
Feb 1708 - 1709           
Minsk occupied by Sweden.
1709 - 1710               
Minsk occupied by Russia.
1733 - 1734               
Minsk occupied by Russia.
18 Sep 1773                Eastern Belarus is
annexed from Poland-Lithuania
                             Lithuania by Russia in First Partition of Poland

                             (by treaty, ratified by Poland 30 Sep 1773).
18 Sep
1793                Belarus (Minsk area) is annexed from Poland-
                             Lithuania by
Russia in Second Partition of Poland
                           
(by Russo-Polish treaty).
24 Oct 1795                Remaining western areas of modern Belarus annexed

                            
by Russia in the Third Partition of Poland.
 8 Jul 1812 - 16 Nov 1812  Minsk occupied by France (see under Lithuania).
 
1 Feb 1863 - 10 Feb 1864  Russian rule disrupted in part of Belarus in
                             conjunction with the
"Second Insurrection" in
                             Poland
(see Lithuania).
 7 Apr 1917                First Congress of B
yelorussian National
                            
Organizations demands cultural regional autonomy.
 
7 Nov 1917                "Ispolkom" of the Minsk Soviet takes power.
18 Dec 1917                First All-Byelorussian Congress meets to organize
                             a regional administration.
Dispersed by Communist
                             forces on 31 Dec 1917.

19 Jan 1918                Constituent assembly dissolved.
18 Feb 1918                German invasion begins, on 19 Feb 1918 Communists
                             evacuate Minsk (to Smolensk) leading to an
                            
insurgency by Polish Legionaries Corps 19-21
                             Feb 1918
.

21 Feb 1918 -  9 Dec 1918  German
occupation of Minsk.
21 Feb 1918                People's Secretariat established by the Executive
                             Committee of the Board of the First All-
                             Byelorussian Congress.
 
3 Mar 1918                By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russia renounces
                             sovereignty over Belorussia to Germany (ratified
                             29 Mar 1918; annulled by armistice 11 Nov 1918).
 9 Mar 1918                Byelorussian
(Belorussian) People's Republic
                             declared (within Russia).

25 Mar 1918                Independence proclaimed in Minsk by the Rada,
                             claiming all Belorussian populated provinces
.
27 Mar 1918                Rada claims power and as a consequence the
                             secretariat is shut down by German authorities.
10 Dec 1918                Soviet power re-established in Minsk province.

 
5 Jan 1919                Byelorussian Socialist Soviet Republic
27 Feb 1919 - 25 Aug 1919  Merged into Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
                             of Lithuania and Belorussia ("Litbel") (see
                             under
Lithuania).
 9 Feb 1919                Polish invasion begins.
19 Apr 1919                Polish occupation of Vilnius (government moves to
                             Minsk).
 
8 Aug 1919                Polish occupation of Minsk¹ (government moves to
                             Smolensk).
12 Dec 1919                Byelorussian People's Republic (restored) under 
                             Polish occupation.
May 1920                   Rada signs an agreement with Poland making Belarus 
                             an autonomous part of Poland (not effected).
11 Jul 1920                Soviet rule restored¹, Rada again goes into exile.
31 Jul 1920                Byelorussian Socialist Soviet (restored)
                            
(secession from "LitBel").
12 Oct 1920                Western Belarus ceded to Poland (by Poland-Soviet
                             Russia peace treaty, ratified 2 Nov 1920).
14 Nov 1920 - 28 Dec 1920  Military anti-Bolshevik uprising in Slutsk (
Sluck).
16 Jan 1921                Soviet Russia recognizes Belorussian S.S.R. and
                             signs an alliance with the nominally independent
                             state.
30 Apr 1921                By Treaty of Riga (signed 18 Mar 1921) Poland

                             retains about one-third of western Belarus.
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
10 Mar 1924                Vitebsk and Mogilev transferred to Byelorussian
                             S.S.R. from the Russian S.F.S.R.
Oct 1925                   Self-liquidation of Rada and government in exile
                             (not recognized by all members).
 6 Dec 1926                Gomel
transferred to Byelorussian S.S.R. from
                             the Russian S.F.S.R.

 
2 Feb 1937                Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
28 Sep 1939                Western regions incorporated into Byelorussian

                             S.S.R. (previously part of Poland 1920-1939).
22 Jun 1941                German invasion begins.
28 Jun 1941                German occupation of Minsk.
28 Jun 1941 -  3 Jul 1944  Occupied by Germany.

 1 Sep 1941                Belarus,
is made a General District (Generalbezirk
                             Weissruthenien
), informally a Land, within the 
                             Reichskommissariat of Ostland (see under
Latvia).
 
1 Apr 1944                Generalbezirk Weissruthenien separated from the
                             Reichskommissariat Ostland.
 3 Jul 1944                Minsk liberated by the Soviet Union.
27 Jul 1944                Soviet-Poland border set at Curzon line.
26 Jan 1990                Belarusian and Russian state languages.
27 Jul 1990               
Declaration of state sovereignty.
19 Sep 1991                Republic of Belarus (use of "Byelorussian S.S.R."
                             allowed until 1993)("Belarus" conventional
                             short form is endorsed by law of 19 Sep 1991
                             and the 15 Mar 1994 constitution).
10 Dec 1991                Independence declared.
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
15 Mar 1994 - 24 Nov 1996  Belarusian the only state language.

Belarus Admin.
Divisions
Belorussian
Republic
in Exile

(from 1919)
Byelorussian
Soviet Socialist
Republic

(1919-1991)
Pro-Soviet
Resistance
to German
Occupation

(1942-1944)
 Historical Maps
of Belarus
Orthodox Church
of Belorussia

(1922-1946)
 
 
 
 

Note: In this record the Russian transliteration of names, which persons were commonly known
by and recorded, are given with Belarusian in parentheses (commonly transliterated as Byelorussian [or sometimes Belorussian] until 1991) transliteration until 1991, when names are given in Belarusian with Russian transliteration in parentheses. All dates are all listed in New Style (NS) format.

Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Belarus and the Western Front
 9 Nov 1917 -  9 Dec 1917  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (b. 1886 - d. 1925)  RSDRP-B
                             (Alyaksandr Fyodaravich Myasnikow
                              = Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan)
Chairmen of the Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies of the
West Region Executive Committee and the Western Front
 9 Dec 1917 - Dec 1917     Nikolay Vladimirovich Rogozinskiy  (b. 1886 - d. 1941)  RSDRP-B
                             (Mikalay Uladzimiravich Rohozinski)
Chairman of the Rada of the All-Byelorussian Congress
29 Dec 1917 - 31 Dec 1917  Ivan Nikitovich Sereda             (b. 1879 - d. 1943?) BSG   
                            
(Ivan "Yanka" Mikitavich Syerada)

Chairmen of the Council of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies of the
West Region Executive Committee and the Western Front
30 Jan 1918 - 16 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (s.a.)               RCP
16 Sep 1918 -  1 Jan 1919  Semyon Varfolomeyevich Ivanov      (b. 1880 - d. 1955)  RCP
                             (Syamyon Varfalamyeyevich Ivanow)
Commander of the 1st Polish Corps in Russia (in Minsk)
19 Feb 1918 - 21 Feb 1918  Iosif Romanovich Dovbor-Musnitskiy (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (Yazep Romanovich Dovbor-Musnitski
                              = Józef Dowbor-Musńicki)
German Commanders of the 10th Army (in Minsk)
21 Feb 1918 - 29 Mar 1918  Emil Gottfried Hermann von         (b. 1848 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             Eichhorn
29 Mar 1918 -  9 Dec 1918  Erich Georg Sebastian von          (b. 1861 - d. 1922)  Mil
                             Falkenhayn
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Rada of
the All-Byelorussian Congress (operating underground)
31 Dec 1917 -  3 Jan 1918  Tomash Tomashevich Grib            (b. 1895 - d. 1938)  BPSR
                             (Tamash Tamashavich Hryb)
 
3 Jan 1918 - 19 Mar 1918
  Iosif Yakovlevich Voronko          (b. 1891 - d. 1952)  BSG
                             (Yazep Yakawlyevich Varonka)
President of the Rada of the Byelorussian People's Republic
19 Mar 1918 - 14 May 1918  Ivan Nikitovich Sereda             (s.a.)               BSG   
                            
(Ivan "Yanka" Mikitavich Syerada)
14 May 1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Iosif Yuryevich Lyosik             (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  SDP
                             (Yazep Yuryevich Lyosik)
                             (in opposition to 13 Dec 1919)
Chairman of the Provisional Councils of Government Workers' and Peasants of Byelorussia
 5 Jan 1919 -  3 Feb 1919  Dmitriy Fyodorovich Zhilunovich    (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  KPB-B  
                             (Z'mitser Khvedaravich Zhylunovich)
 3 Feb 1919 - 27 Feb 1919  Aleksandr Fyodorovich Myasnikov    (s.a.)               KPB-B
27 Feb 1919 - 25 Aug 1919  part of Lithuanian-Belorussian Socialist
                           Soviet Republic
(see Lithuania)
 8 Aug 1919 - 11 Jul 1920 
Polish occupation
11 Jul 1920 - 31 Jul 1920  Soviet Russian occupation
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee
31 Jul 1920 - 18 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPB-B
                            
(Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakow)
President of the Byelorussian Provisional Government
14 Nov 1920 - 28 Nov 1920  Stanislav Nikodimovich Bulak-      (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  Mil
                            
Balakhovich
                            
(Stanislaw Nikadzimavich Bulak-Balakhovich)
                             (in rebellion, in Slutsk)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

18 Dec 1920 - 16 Jun 1937  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (s.a.)               KPB-B
German Commander-in-chief of Army Group Center (Heeresgruppe Mitte)  
28 Jun 1941 -  1 Sep 1941  Fedor von Bock                     (b. 1880 - d. 1945)  Mil
Generalkommissare für Weissruthenien
 
1 Sep 1941 - 22 Sep 1943  Wilhelm Paul Richard Kube          (b. 1887 - d. 1943)  NSDAP
22 Sep 1943 - 27 Sep 1943  Vacant
27 Sep 1943 -  3 Jul 1944  Curt von Gottberg (acting)         (b. 1896 - d. 1945)  Mil
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
25 Aug 1991 - 26 Jan 1994  Stanislaw Stanislavavich           (b. 1934)            Non-party
                             Shushkyevich (acting to 18 Sep 1991) 
                             (Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich)
26 Jan 1994 - 28 Jan 1994  Vyachaslaw Mikalayavich Kuznyatsow (b. 1947)            Non-party
                             (Vyacheslav Nikolayevich Kuznetsov)
                             (acting)
28 Jan 1994 - 20 Jul 1994  Myechyslaw Ivanavich Hryb          (b. 1938)            Non-party
                             (Mechislav Ivanovich Grib)
President
20 Jul 1994 -              Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Lukashenka   (b. 1954)            Non-party
                             (Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko)                 


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars of Western Region and Front
 
9 Dec 1917 - Jan 1918     Karl Ivanovich Lander              (b. 1883 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                            
(Karl Ivanavich Landar)
                             (= Kārlis Landers)
Jan 1918 - 21 Feb 1918     Moisey Iosifovich Kalmanovich      (b. 1887 - d. 1937)  RCP

                             (Maysyey Iosifavich Kalmanovich)
Chairmen of the People's Secretariat
(in rebellion)

21 Feb 1918 - 14 May 1918  Iosif Yakovlevich Voronko          (b. 1891 - d. 1952)  BSG
                             (Yazep Yakawlyevich Varonka)
14 May 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Roman Aleksandrovich Skirmunt      (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Non-party?
                             (Raman Alyaksandravich Skirmunt)
21 Jul 1918 - 11 Oct 1918  Ivan Nikitovich Sereda             (s.a.)               PSF
                             (Ivan "Yanka" Mikitavich Syerada)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
(in rebellion)
11 Oct 1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Anton Ivanovich Lutskevich         (b. 1884 - d. 1942)  SDP
                             (Anton Ivanavich Lutskyevich)
                             (1st time)(in exile 3 Dec 1918-1 Dec 1919)
13 Dec 1919 - 28 Feb 1920  Anton Ivanovich Lutskyevich        (s.a.)               SDP
                             (2nd time)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars

18 Dec 1920 - 17 Mar 1924  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (s.a.)               KPB-B
                             (Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakow)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers 
 7 Apr 1990 - 22 Jul 1994  Vyachaslaw Frantsavich Kyebich     (b. 1936)            KPB;1991
                             (Vyacheslav Frantsevich Kebich)                       Non-party
Prime ministers
22 Jul 1994 - 18 Nov 1996  Mikhail Mikalayevich Chyhir        (b. 1948)            Non-party
                             (Mikhail Nikolayevich Chigir)
18 Nov 1996 - 18 Feb 2000  Syarhyey Stsyapanavich Linh        (b. 1937)            Non-party
                             (Sergey Stepanovich Ling)
                             (acting to 19 Feb 1997)
18 Feb 2000 -  1 Oct 2001  Uladzimir Vasilyevich Yarmoshyn    (b. 1942)            Non-party
                             (Vladimir Vasilyevich Yermoshin)
                             (acting to 14 Mar 2000)
 1 Oct 2001 - 10 Jul 2003  Hyenadz' Vasilyevich Navitski      (b. 1949)            Non-party
                             (Gennadiy Vasilyevich Novitskiy)
                             (acting to 10 Oct 2001)
10 Jul 2003 - 28 Dec 2010  Syarhyey Syarhyeyevich Sidorski    (b. 1954)            Non-party
                             (Sergey Sergeyevich Sidorskiy)
                             (acting to 19 Dec 2003 and 8 - 18 Apr 2006)
28 Dec 2010 - 27 Dec 2014  Mikhail Uladzimiravich Myasnikovich(b. 1950)            Non-party
                             (Mikhail Vladimirovich Myasnikovich)
27 Dec 2014 -              Andrey Uladzimiravich Kabyakow     (b. 1960)            Non-party
                             (Andrey Vladimirovich Kobyakov)


Byelorussian Republic in Exile
 
[Byelorussian
                                People's Republic (In Exile 1920-1925)                       1920 - 1925 [Belarus white-red
                                flag 1918, 1991-1995]                    Re-adopted 1925

Chairmen of the Rada (acting as Presidents)
13 Dec 1919 -  8 Mar 1928  Pyotra Antonavich Krechewski       (b. 1879 - d. 1928)  PSF
                             (Pyotr Antonovich Krechevskiy)
                             (in Kaunas to Apr 1923, then Berlin exile)
 8 Mar 1928 -  6 Mar 1943  Vasil' Ivanavich Zakharka          (b. 1877 - d. 1943)  PSF
                             (Vasiliy Ivanovich Zakharko)
                             (in Prague exile)
 6 Mar 1943 - 29 May 1970  Mikalay Syamyonavich Abramchyk     (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
                             (Nikolay Semyonovich Abramchik)
                             (in Prague to 1945, then in Paris exile)
29 May 1970 - 27 Nov 1982  Vintsent Antonavіch Zhuk-          (b. 1903 - d. 1989)
                             Hryshkevich (in Canada exile)
                             (Vikentiy Antonovich Zhuk-Grishkevich)
27 Nov 1982 - 31 Aug 1997  Yazep Symonavіch Sazhych           (b. 1917 - d. 2007)  BNP
                             (Iosif Simonovich Sazhich)
                             (in U.S. exile)
31 Aug 1997 -              Ivonka Uladzimirawna Survilla (f)  (b. 1936)
                             (Ivonka Vladimirovna Survilla)
                             (in Canada exile)


Chairmen of the Council of People's Ministers
13 Dec 1919 - 23 May 1923  Vaclaw Yustynavich Lastowski       (b. 1883 - d. 1938)  PSR
                             (Vatslav Yustinovich Lastovskiy)
                             (in Kaunas to Apr 1923, then Berlin)
23 May 1923 - Oct 1925     Alyaksandar Ivanavich Ts'vikyevich (b. 1888 - d. 1937)  PSF
                             (Aleksandr Ivanovich Ts'vikevich)
                             (in Berlin exile)
12 Dec 1925 -  6 Mar 1943  Vasil' Ivanavich Zacharka          (s.a.)               PSF
                             (in Prague in exile)
 6 Mar 1943 - Mar 1946     Mikalay Syamyonavich Abramchyk     (s.a.)
Mar 1946 - Jun 1948        Awhyen Todaravich Kalubovich       (b. 1910 - d. 1987)
                             (Yevgeniy Fyodorovich Kolubovich)
                             (in [W.]Germany exile)

Byelorussian Central Rada (in opposition to exile BNR Rada)

[Belarus white-red
                      flag 1918, 1991-1995]

Chairmen of the Central Rada

21 Dec 1943 - 24 Sep 1945  Radaslaw Kazіmіravіch Astrowski    (b. 1887 - d. 1976)  Non-party
                             (Radoslav Kazimirovich Ostrovskiy)
                             (in Germany exile from 30 Jun 1944)
                             (1st time)
 9 May 1948 - 17 Oct 1976  Radaslaw Kazіmіravіch Astrowski    (s.a.)
                             (in [W.]Germany exile to 1956, then in U.S.)
                             (2nd time)
 4 Jul 1977 -  6 Dec 1987  Nikandar Myadzeyka                 (b. 1914 - d. 1987)
                             (Nikandar Medeyko)
17 Sep 1988 - 24 Apr 1995  Mikhas Mikhaylavich Zuy            (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
                             (Mikhail Mikhaylovich Zuy)
                             (in Sydney, Australia exile)

 ¹During the Polish and Russian occupation, there were two rebel revivals in part of the country of the Belarussian People's Republic.

Territorial Disputes: Boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its border with Belarus.  

Party abbreviations: BPR = Byelaruskaya Patryyatychnaya Partyya/Belorusskaya Patrioticheskaya Partiya (authoritarian, to 1996 named Belarusian Patriotic Movement, est.1995); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: BNP = Byelaruskaya Nyezalyezhnitskaya Partyya (Belorussian Independence Party, est.1939/40); BSG = Byelaruskaya Satsyyalistychnaya Hramada/Belorusskiy Sotsialisticheskaya Gromada (Belorussian Socialist Union, 1903-1918, split into PSF, PSR & SDP); KPB = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Belorussii/Kamunistychnaya Partyya Byelarusi (Communist Party of Byelorussia, communist, state party, former KPB-B, 13 Oct 1952-25 Aug 1991); KPB-B = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolsheviki) Belorussii/Kamunistychnaya Partyya (Balshaviki) Byelarusi (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Byelorussia, communist, merged 4 Mar 1919 - 5 Sep 1920 into Communist Party of Lithuania and Byelorussia, state party, 31 Dec 1918 - 4 Mar 1919 & 5 Sep 1920 - 13 Oct 1952, renamed KPB); NSDAP = Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' Party, Nazi fascist, authoritarian, German nationalist, 1920-1945); PSF = Belorusskaya Partiya Sotsyalistov-Federalistov/Byelaruskaya Partyya Satsyyalistaw-Fyederalistaw (Belorussian Party of Socialists-Federalists, split from BSG, 1918-1921); PSR = Belorusskaya Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov/Byelaruskaya Partyya Satsyyalistaw-Revalyutsyyanyeraw (Belorussian Socialist-Revolutionary Party, split from BSG, 1918-1924); RCP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Russia communist, 8 Mar 1918-31 Dec 1925, renamed AUCP); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Bolshevik (Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party of Bolsheviks [Majority], marxist communist, internationalist, renamed Russian Communist Party, 1898-1918); SDP = Belorusskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Partiya/Byelaruskaya Satsyyal-Demakratychnaya Partyya (Belorussian Social Democratic Party, split from BSG, 1918-1924)



Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
 
[Flag of Byelorussian SSR in
                                  1920-1927]
                  31 Jul 1920 - 11 Apr 1927
 
[Flag of Byelorussian SSR in
                                  1927-1937]  
                    11 Apr 1927 - 5 Apr 1937
 
[Flag of Byelorussian SSR in
                                  1937-1952]
                    5 Apr 1937 - 27 Mar 1952
 
[Flag of Byelorussian SSR,
                                  1952-1991]
                    27 Mar 1952 - 25 Aug 1991

Capital: Minsk
Hear SSR Anthem
"Dzyarzhawny Himn
Byelaruskay S.S.R." ("Gimn
 Belorusskoy Sovetskoy
Sotsialisticheskoy
Respubliki")
(National Anthem of Byelorussian S.S.R.)
(24 Sep 1955-1991)

Constitution
(13 Feb 1937-14 Apr 1978)
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Constitution
(14 Apr 1978)

Population: 9,560,000 (1980)
Byelorussian oblasts

Note: Russian names with Byelorussian (Belarusian) in parentheses until 27 Jul 1990, then  Byelorussian (Belarusian) names with Russian in parentheses.

 5 Jan 1919                Byelorussian Socialist Soviet Republic (s.a.)
27 Feb 1919 - 25 Aug 1919  Merged into Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic of
                            
Lithuania and Belorussia ("Litbel")(see under Lithuania).
31 Jul 1920                Byelorussian Socialist
Soviet Republic (restored)
30 Dec 1922                Founding component of the Soviet Union.
19 Feb 1937                Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
28 Jun 1941 -  3 Jul 1944  Occupied by Germany, part of Reichskommissariat Ostland
                             (see under Latvia).
27 Jul 1990                State sovereignty declared.
19 Sep 1991                Republic of Belarus
10 Dec 1991                Independence declared.
 
Executive Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(Bolsheviks) of Byelorussia (KPB-B)
10 May 1921 - 11 May 1922  Vilgelm Georgiyevich Knorin        (s.a.)
                             (Knorinsh) (1st time)
                             (Vilhelm Heorhiyevich Knoryn [Knorynsh]
                             = Vilhelms Knoriņš)
11 May 1922 - 12 Feb 1924  Vatslav Antonovich Bogutskiy       (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
                             (Vatslaw Antonavich Bahutski
                             = Wacław Bogucki)
12 Feb 1924 - 29 Sep 1924  Aleksandr Nikolayevich Asatkin-    (b. 1885 - d. 1937)
                             Vladimirskiy 
                             (Alyaksandr Mikalayevich Asatkin-
                              Uladzimerski)
                             (interim to 15 May 1924)
29 Sep 1924 - 12 Dec 1925  Aleksandr Ivanovich Krinitskiy     (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
                             (Alyaksandr Ivanavich Krynitski)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
of Byelorussia (from 13 Oct 1952, Communist Party of Byelorussia)(KBP)
12 Dec 1925 -  5 May 1927  Aleksandr Ivanovich Krinitskiy     (s.a.)
 5 May 1927 -  1 Dec 1928  Vilgelm Georgiyevich Knorin        (s.a.)
                             (Knorinsh) (2nd time)
 1 Dec 1928 -  5 Nov 1929  Yan Borisovich Gamarnik            (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
                             (Yan Barysavich Hamarnik)
 5 Nov 1929 -  8 Jan 1930  Ivan Antonovich Vasilyevich        (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
                             (Ivan Antonavich Vasilyevich)
                             (acting)
 8 Jan 1930 - 23 Jan 1932  Konstantin Venyaminovich Gey       (b. 1896 - d. 1939)
                             (Kanstantsin Vyenyyaminavich Hyey)
23 Jan 1932 - 18 Mar 1937  Nikolay Fyodorovich Gikalo         (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                             (Mikalay Todaravich Hikala)
18 Mar 1937 - 29 Jul 1937  Vasiliy Fomich Sharangovich        (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                             (Vasil' Famich Sharanhovich)
29 Jul 1937 - 11 Aug 1937  Yakov Arkadyevich Yakovlev (acting)(b. 1896 - d. 1938)
                             (Yakaw Arkadzyevich Yakawlyew)
11 Aug 1937 - 19 Jun 1938  Aleksey Alekseyevich Volkov        (b. 1889 - d. 1942)
                             (Alyeksey Alyeksyeyevich Vawkow)
                             (acting)
19 Jun 1938 -  7 Mar 1947  Panteleymon Kondratyevich          (b. 1902 - d. 1984)                              Ponomarenko
                             (Pantsyelyaymon Kandratsyevich Panamarenka)           
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 28 Jun 1941 - 3 Jul 1944)
 7 Mar 1947 -  3 Jun 1950  Nikolay Ivanovich Gusarov          (b. 1905 - d. 1985)
                             (Mikalay Ivanavich Husaraw)
 3 Jun 1950 - 28 Jul 1956  Nikolay Semyonovich Patolichev     (b. 1908 - d. 1989) 
                             (Mikalay Syamyonavich Patolichaw)
28 Jul 1956 - 30 Mar 1965  Kirill Trofimovich Mazurov         (b. 1914 - d. 1989)
                             (Kiryl Trafimavich Mazuraw)
30 Mar 1965 -  4 Oct 1980  Pyotr Mironovich Masherov          (b. 1918 - d. 1980)
                             (Pyotra Mironavich Masheraw)
 4 Oct 1980 - 16 Oct 1980  Vladimir Ignatyevich Brovikov      (b. 1931 - d. 1992)
                             (Uladzimir Ihnatavich Brovikaw)
                             (1st time) (acting)
16 Oct 1980 - 11 Jan 1983  Tikhon Yakovlevich Kiselyov        (b. 1917 - d. 1983)
                             (Tsikhan Yakawlyevich Kisyalyow)
11 Jan 1983 - 13 Jan 1983  Vladimir Ignatyevich Brovikov      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
13 Jan 1983 -  6 Feb 1987  Nikolay Nikitovich Slyunkov        (b. 1929)
                             (Mikalay Mikitavich Slyunkow)
 6 Feb 1987 - 30 Nov 1990  Yefrem Yevseyevich Sokolov         (b. 1926)
                             (Yafrem Jawsyeyevich Sakalow)
30 Nov 1990 - 23 Aug 1991  Anatol Alyaksandravich Malafyeyew  (b. 1933)
                             (Anatoliy Aleksandrovich Malofeyev)
 
Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee
31 Jul 1920 - 18 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPB-B
                             (Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakow)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
18 Dec 1920 - 16 Jun 1937  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (s.a.)               KPB-B
16 Jun 1937 -  7 Jul 1937  .... (acting) 
 7 Jul 1937 - 14 Nov 1937  Mikhail Osipovich Stakun           (b. 1893 - d. 1943)  KPB-B
                             (Mikhail Vosipavich Stakun)
14 Nov 1937 - 27 Jul 1938  Nikifor Yakovlyevich Natalyevich   (b. 1900 - d. 1964)  KPB-B
                             (Nichypar Yakawlyevich Natalyevich)
                             (acting)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
27 Jul 1938 - 17 Mar 1948  Nikifor Yakovlyevich Natalyevich   (s.a.)               KPB-B
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 28 Jun 1941 - 3 Jul 1944)
17 Mar 1948 -  2 Dec 1967  Vasiliy Ivanovich Kozlov           (b. 1903 - d. 1967)  KPB-B;1952
                             (Vasil' Ivanavich Kazlow)                             KPB
 2 Dec 1967 - 22 Jan 1968  Fyodor Anisimovich Surganov        (b. 1911 - d. 1976)  KPB
                             (Fyodar Anisimavich Surhanaw)
                             (1st time) 
                           + Valentina Alekseyevna Klochkova  (b. 1924)            KPB
                             (Valyantsina Alyaksyeyewna Klachkova)
                             (f)(1st time)
                           (acting) 
22 Jan 1968 - 13 Jun 1971  Sergey Osipovich Pritytskiy        (b. 1913 - d. 1971)  KPB
                             (Syarhyey Vosipavich Prytytski)
13 Jun 1971 - 16 Jul 1971  Fyodor Anisimovich Surganov        (s.a.)               KPB
                             (2nd time)
                           + Valentina Alekseyevna Klochkova  (s.a.)               KPB
                             (f) (2nd time)
                           + Ivan Frolovich Klimov            (b. 1903 - d. 1991)  KPB
                             (Ivan Frolavich Klimaw)
                           (acting) 
16 Jul 1971 - 26 Dec 1976  Fyodor Anisimovich Surganov        (s.a.)               KPB
                            (3rd time)
27 Dec 1976 - 28 Feb 1977  Vladimir Yeliseyevich Lobanok      (b. 1907 - d. 1984)  KPB
                            (Uladzimir Yelisyeyevich Labanok)
                           + Zinaida Mikhaylovna              (b. 1941)            KPB
                               Bychkovskaya (f)
                             (Zinaida Mikhaylawna Bychkowskaya)
                           (acting) 
28 Feb 1977 - 29 Nov 1985  Ivan Yevteyevich Polyakov          (b. 1914 - d. 2004)  KPB
                            (Ivan Yawtsyeyevich Palyakow)
29 Nov 1985 - 28 Jul 1989  Georgiy Stanislavovich Tarazevich  (b. 1938 - d. 2003)  KPB
                             (Heorhiy Stanislavavich Tarazyevich)
28 Jul 1989 - 15 May 1990  Nikolay Ivanovich Dementey         (b. 1930)            KPB
                             (Mikalay Ivanavich Dzyemyantsyey)
Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet
15 May 1990 - 25 Aug 1991  Nikolay Ivanovich Dementey         (s.a.)               KPB
25 Aug 1991 - 25 Dec 1991  Stanislav Stanislavovich           (b. 1934)            Non-party
                             Shushkevich                      (b. 1934)            Non-party
                             (Stanislaw Stanislavavich Shushkyevich)
                             (acting to 18 Sep 1991, continues to 26 Jan 1994)
 
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
18 Dec 1920 - 17 Mar 1924  Aleksandr Grigoryevich Chervyakov  (s.a.)               KPB-B
                             (Alyaksandr Ryhoravich Charvyakow)
17 Mar 1924 -  7 May 1927  Iosif Aleksandrovich Adamovich     (b. 1896 - d. 1937)  KPB-B
                             (Yazep Alyaksandravich Adamovich)
 7 May 1927 - 30 May 1937  Nikolay Matveyevich Goloded        (b. 1894 - d. 1937)  KPB-B
                             (Mikalay Matsvyeyevich Haladzyed)
30 May 1937 -  8 Sep 1937  Danila Ivanovich Volkovich         (b. 1900 - d. 1937)  KPB-B
                             (Danila Ivanavich Valkovich)   
 8 Sep 1937 - 10 Sep 1937  .... (acting) 
10 Sep 1937 - 28 Jul 1938  Afanasiy Fyodorovich Kovalyov      (b. 1903 - d. 1993)  KPB-B
                             (Afanasiy Fyodaravich Kavalyow)
28 Jul 1938 - 28 Jun 1940  Kuzma Venediktovich Kiselyov       (b. 1903 - d. 1977)  KPB-B
                             (Kuz'ma Vyenyedyktavich Kisyalyow)
28 Jun 1940 -  7 Feb 1944  Ivan Semyonovich Bylinskiy         (b. 1903 - d. 1976)  KPB-B
                             (Ivan Syamyonavich Bylinski)
                             (in Russian SFSR exile 28 Jun 1941 - 7 Feb 1944)
 7 Feb 1944 - 27 Mar 1946  Panteleymon Kondratyevich          (s.a.)               KPB-B
                             Ponomarenko
                             (Pantsyelyaymon Kandratsyevich Panamarenka)       
                             (in Russian SFSR exile to 3 Jul 1944)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
27 Mar 1946 - 17 Mar 1948  Panteleymon Kondratyevich          (s.a.)               KPB-B
                             Ponomarenko
17 Mar 1948 - 25 Jun 1953  Aleksey Yefimovich Kleshchyov      (b. 1905 - d. 1968)  KPB-B;1952
                             (Alyaksyey Yawkhimavich Klyashchow)                   KPB
25 Jun 1953 - 28 Jul 1956  Kirill Trofimovich Mazurov         (s.a.)               KPB
                             (Kiryl Trafimavich Mazuraw)
28 Jul 1956 -  9 Apr 1959  Nikolay Yefremovich Avkhimovich    (b. 1907 - d. 1996)  KPB
                             (Mikalay Yafremavich Awkhimovich)
 9 Apr 1959 - 11 Dec 1978  Tikhon Yakovlevich Kiselyov        (s.a.)               KPB
                             (Tsikhan Yakawlyevich Kisyalyow)
11 Dec 1978 -  8 Jul 1983  Aleksandr Nikiforovich Aksyonov    (b. 1924 - d. 2009)  KPB
                             (Alyaksandr Nichyparavich Aksyonaw)
 8 Jul 1983 - 10 Jan 1986  Vladimir Ignatyevich Brovikov      (s.a.)               KPB
                             (Uladzimir Ihnatavich Brovikaw)
10 Jan 1986 -  7 Apr 1990  Mikhail Vasilyevich Kovalyov       (b. 1925 - d. 2007)  KPB
                             (Mikhail Vasilyevich Kavalyow)
 7 Apr 1990 - 25 Dec 1991  Vyacheslav Frantsevich Kebich      (b. 1936)            KPB;1991
                             (Vyachaslaw Frantsavich Kyebich)                      Non-party
                             (continues to 22 Jul 1994)
 

Pro-Soviet Resistance to German Occupation

Note: The Byelorussian Partisan Units, subordinated to the Central Staff of the Partisan
Units in Moscow, controlled almost 60% of the territory by the end of 1943.

Chief of Staff of the Partisan Units 
 9 Sep 1942 - 14 Nov 1944  Pyotr Zakharovich Kalinin           (b. 1902 - d. 1966) KPB-B + Mil
                             (Pyotra Zakharavich Kalinin)

Party abbreviations: KPB = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Belorussii/Kamunistychnaya Partyya Byelarusi (Communist Party of Byelorussia, communist, state party, former KPB-B, 13 Oct 1952-25 Aug 1991); KPB-B = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolsheviki) Belorussii/Kamunistychnaya Partyya (Balshaviki) Byelarusi (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Byelorussia, communist, merged 4 Mar 1919 - 5 Sep 1920 into Communist Party of Lithuania and Byelorussia, state party, 31 Dec 1918 - 4 Mar 1919 & 5 Sep 1920 - 13 Oct 1952, renamed KPB); Mil = Military



© Ben Cahoon