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International Organizations N - W

Contents: Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) - Nordic Council (Norden) - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) - Organization of American States (OAS)Organization of Central American States (ODECA) - Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) - Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) - Pacific Community - Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) - Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean (PAM) - Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) - Red Cross and Red Crescent - Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) - South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) - Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) - Southern African Development Community (SADC) - Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) - Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) - United Nations (UN) - United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) - United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) - United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) - United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) - United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) - Universal Postal Union (UPU) - Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) - Warsaw Treaty Organization - Western European Union (WEU) - World Bank (IBRD)  - World Customs Organization (WCO) - World Food Program (WFP) - World Health Organization (WHO)  - World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - Word Tourism Organization (UNWTO) - World Trade Organization (WTO) -


Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

 
NAM website
Headquarters: Jakarta
(Indonesia)

 1 Sep 1961                Non-Aligned Movement founded.

Chairmen
 1 Sep 1961 -  5 Oct 1964  Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)    (b. 1892 - d. 1980) 
 5 Oct 1964 -  8 Sep 1970  Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)      (b. 1918 - d. 1970) 
 8 Sep 1970 -  5 Aug 1973  Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia)         (b. 1924)
 5 Aug 1973 - 16 Aug 1976  Houari Boumedienne (Algeria)    (b. 1927 - d. 1978) 
16 Aug 1976 -  4 Feb 1978  William Gopallawa (Sri Lanka)   (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
 4 Feb 1978 -  3 Sep 1979  Junius Richard Jayawardene      (b. 1906 - d. 1996) 
                             (Sri Lanka)
 3 Sep 1979 -  7 Mar 1983  Fidel Castro (Cuba)(1st time)   (b. 1926) 
 7 Mar 1983 - 25 Jul 1982  N. Sanjiva Reddy (India)        (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
25 Jul 1982 -  1 Sep 1986  Zail Singh (India)              (b. 1916 - d. 1994) 
 1 Sep 1986 -  4 Sep 1989  Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe)        (b. 1924) 
 4 Sep 1989 - 15 May 1990  Janez Drnovšek (Yugoslavia)     (b. 1950 - d. 2008) 
15 May 1990 - 15 May 1991  Borisav Jović (Yugoslavia)      (b. 1928) 
 1 Jul 1991 -  3 Oct 1991  Stipe Mesić (Yugoslavia)        (b. 1934) 
 3 Oct 1991 - 15 Jun 1992  Branko Kostić (acting)          (b. 1939) 
                             (Yugoslavia)
15 Jun 1992 -  1 Sep 1992  Dobrica Ćosić (Yugoslavia)      (b. 1921 - d. 2014) 
 1 Sep 1992 - 18 Oct 1995  Suharto (Indonesia)             (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
18 Oct 1995 -  7 Aug 1998  Ernesto Samper Pizano (Colombia)(b. 1950) 
 7 Aug 1998 -  2 Sep 1998  Andrés Pastrana Arango          (b. 1954)
                             (Colombia)
 2 Sep 1998 - 16 Jun 1999  Nelson Mandela (South Africa)   (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
16 Jun 1999 - 20 Feb 2003  Thabo Mbeki (South Africa)      (b. 1942)
20 Feb 2003 - 31 Oct 2003  Datuk Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad (b. 1925)
                             (Malaysia)
31 Oct 2003 - 15 Sep 2006  Datuk Abdullah Ahmad Badawi     (b. 1939)
                             (Malaysia)
15 Sep 2006 - 24 Feb 2008  Fidel Castro (Cuba)(2nd time)   (s.a.)
15 Sep 2006 - 11 Jul 2009  Raúl Castro (Cuba)              (b. 1931)
                             (acting for Fidel Castro to 24 Feb 2008)
11 Jul 2009 - 
11 Feb 2011  Hosni Mubarak (Egypt)           (b. 1928)
11 Feb 2011 - 30 Jun 2012  Mohammed Hussein Tantawi (Egypt)(b. 1931)
30 Jun 2012 - 26 Aug 2012  Mohamed Morsi (Egypt)           (b. 1951) 
26 Aug 2012 -  3 Aug 2013 
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran)      (b. 1956)
 3 Aug 2013 -              Hassan Rouhani (Iran)           (b. 1948)
 

NAM membership (120)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Sep 1961
Afghanistan, Algeria, Burma1, Cambodia, Ceylon2, Congo (Kinshasa)3, Cuba, Cyprus4, Egypt5, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Lebanon, Mali, Morocco, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, The Sudan, Tunisia, Yemen (Sana)6, Yugoslavia7
 5 Oct 1964
Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey8, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Laos, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tanganyika9, Togo, Uganda, Zambia
 8 Sep 1970
Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guyana, Jamaica, Lesotho, Malaysia, Rwanda, Singapore, Swaziland, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Aden)6
 5 Sep 1973
Argentina10, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Chile, The Gambia, Ivory Coast11, Madagascar12, Malta13, Mauritius, Niger, Oman, Peru, Qatar, South Vietnam (NLF)14, Upper Volta15
15 Aug 1976
Belize16, Cape Verde17, Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Maldives, Mozambique, North Korea, Palestine, Panama, São Tomé and Príncipe, Seychelles, Vietnam
 3 Sep 1979
Bolivia, Grenada, Iran, Namibia18, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Zimbabwe
 7 Mar 1983
The Bahamas, Barbados, Colombia, Djibouti, Ecuador, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Vanuatu
 4 Sep 1989
Venezuela
 1 Sep 1993
Brunei Darussalam, Guatemala, Mongolia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Uzbekistan
31 May 1994
South Africa
18 Oct 1995
Eritrea, Honduras, Turkmenistan
 2 Sep 1998
Belarus
 8 Apr 2000
Dominican Republic
20 Feb 2003
East Timor, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
29 May 2006
Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica
16 Sep 2006
Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis
25 May 2011
Azerbaijan, Fiji
1from 1989 Myanmar. 2from 1972 Sri Lanka. 3Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 4ceased to be a member 1 May 2004. 51958 - 1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria; in 1961 Syria left the union. 6Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 7suspended from 30 Sep 1992; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro, dissolved 5 Jun 2006. 8from 1975 Benin.  9United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, 1 Nov 1964 renamed Tanzania. 10withdrew Sep 1991. 11from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 12to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 13ceased to be a member 1 May 2004. 14Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, represented by National Liberation Front (NLF); from 30 Apr 1975 Republic of South Vietnam; from 23 Aug 1976 united with North Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 15from 1984 Burkina Faso. 16special member to 25 Sep 1981. 17from 2013 Cabo Verde. 18represented by South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) to 21 Mar 1990.


Nordic Council (Norden)

[former Nordic
                          Council flag, 1984-2004]
                  Nov 1984 - 2004
 
[Flag of Nordic
                          Council]
                     Adopted 2004
 
Nordic Council website
Headquarters: Copenhagen (Denmark)

12 Feb 1953                Nordic Council (Norden) inaugurated.
 1 Jul 1962                Treaty of Nordic Cooperation of Helsinki
                             (23 Mar 1962 signed) in force.
Jul 1971                   Secretariat inaugurated.

Secretaries-general
Jul 1971 - Jun 1973        Emil K. Vindestmo (Norway)         (b. 1916 - d. 1983)
Dec 1973 - Aug 1977        Helge Seip (Norway)                (b. 1919 - d. 2004)
Aug 1977 - Aug 1982        Gudmund Saxrud (Norway)            (b. 1920 - d. 2003)
Sep 1982 - Jan 1987        Ilkka-Christian Björklund          (b. 1947)
                             (Finland)
Feb 1987 - 31 Aug 1989     Gerhard af Schultén (Finland)      (b. 1938)
 1 Sep 1989 - 31 Aug 1994  Jostein Osnes (Norway)             (b. 1942)
                             (interim to 1 Jan 1990)
 1 Sep 1994 - 31 Jul 1996  Anders Wenström (Sweden)           (b. 1946)
 1 Aug 1996 - 31 Aug 1999  Berglind Ásgeirsdóttir (f)         (b. 1955)
                             (Iceland)
 1 Sep 1999 - 31 Jul 2007  Frida Nokken (f) (Norway)          (b. 1948)
 1 Aug 2007 - 31 Dec 2013  Jan-Erik Enestam (Finland)         (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Britt Bohlin (f) (Sweden)          (b. 1956)

Presidents
12 Feb 1953 - 31 Dec 1953  Hans Hedtoft (Denmark)             (b. 1903 - d. 1955)
 1 Jan 1954 - 31 Dec 1954  Einar Henry Gerhardsen (Norway)    (b. 1897 - d. 1987)
 1 Jan 1955 - 31 Dec 1955  Nils Herlitz (Sweden)              (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  Erik Eriksen (Denmark) (1st time)  (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1957  Lennart Heljas (Finland)           (b. 1896 - d. 1972)
 1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1958  Nils Hønsvald (Norway) (1st time)  (b. 1899 - d. 1971)
 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1959  Bertil Ohlin (Sweden) (1st time)   (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
 1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1960  Gísli Jónsson (Iceland)            (b. 1889 - d. 1970)
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1961  Erik Eriksen (Denmark) (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1962 - 31 Dec 1962  Karl August Fagerholm (Finland)    (b. 1901 - d. 1984)
 1 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1963  Nils Hønsvald (Norway) (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1964  Bertil Ohlin (Sweden) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1965 - 31 Dec 1965  Sigurdur Bjarnason (Iceland)       (b. 1915 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1966  Harald Nielsen (Denmark)           (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Eino Sirén (Finland)               (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Svenn Thorkild Stray (Norway)      (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969  Leif Cassel (Sweden)               (b. 1906 - d. 1988)
 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970  Matthías Á. Mathiesen (Iceland)
    (b. 1931 - d. 2011)
                             (1st time)                  
 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1971  Jens Otto Krag (Denmark)           (b. 1914 - d. 1978)
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1972  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen
         (b. 1906 - d. 1995)
                             (Finland) (1st time)   
 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1973  Kåre Willoch (Norway)              (b. 1928)
 1 Jan 1974 - 31 Dec 1974  Johannes Antonsson (Sweden)        (b. 1921 - d. 1995)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Ragnhildur Helgadóttir (f)
         (b. 1930)
                             (Iceland)               
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1976  Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (1st time) (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1977  Vieno Johannes Sukselainen
         (s.a.)
                             (Finland) (2nd time)   
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Trygve Bratteli (Norway)           (b. 1910 - d. 1984)
 1 Jan 1979 - 31 Dec 1979  Olof Palme (Sweden)                (b. 1927 - d. 1986)
 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1980  Matthías Á. Mathiesen (Iceland)    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1981  Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1982  Elsi Hetemäki-Olander (f)(1st time)(b. 1927)
                             (Finland)
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Jo Benkow (Norway)                 (b. 1924 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 1984  Karin Söder (f) (Sweden)(1st time)
(b. 1928)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Páll Pétursson (Iceland)(1st time)
(b. 1937)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1986  Anker Jørgensen (Denmark)(1st time)(b. 1922)
 1 Jan 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Elsi Hetemäki-Olander (f)          (s.a.)
                             (Finland)
(2nd time)
 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Jan Peder Syse (Norway) (1st time) (b. 1930 - d. 1997)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Karin Söder (f) (Sweden) (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Páll Pétursson (Iceland)(2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  Anker Jørgensen (Denmark)(2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Ilkka Suominen (Finland)           (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Jan Peder Syse (Norway) (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1994 - Sep 1994     Sten Andersson (Sweden)            (b. 1923 - d. 2006)
Sep 1994 - 31 Dec 1994     Per Olof Håkansson (Sweden)        (b. 1941 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Geir H. Haarde (Iceland)           (b. 1951)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Olof Salmén (Finland)              (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Berit Brørby Larsen (f) (Norway)   (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Gun Hellsvik (f) (Sweden)          (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Sigridur Anna Thórdardóttir (f)
    (b. 1946)
                             (Iceland)                   
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Svend Erik Hovmand (Denmark)       (b. 1945)
 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Outi Ojala (Finland)               (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Inge Lønning (Norway)              (b. 1938 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Gabriel Romanus (Sweden)           (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Rannveig Gudmundsdóttir (f)
        (b. 1940)
                             (Iceland)               
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Ole Stavad (Denmark)               (b. 1949)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Dagfinn Høybråten (Norway)         (b. 1957)
 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Erkki Tuomioja (Finland)           (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Sinikka Bohlin (f)(Sweden)         (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  
Helgi Hjörvar (Iceland)            (b. 1967)
 1 Jan 2011 - 21 Oct 2011  Henrik Dam Kristensen (Denmark)    (b. 1957)

21 Oct 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Bertel Haarder
(Denmark)           (b. 1944)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Kimmo Sasi (Finland)               (b. 1952)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Marit Nybakk (f)(Norway)           (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Karin Åström (f)(Sweden)           (b. 1953)


Nordic Council Membership (5)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
12 Feb 1953 Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
27 Jan 1956 Finland

Date of 
Participation
Member Territories
 1 Jan 1970 Aland Islands, Faroe Islands
15 Jul 1983 Greenland



North Atlantic Treaty Organizations (NATO) 
[Flag of NATO]
            Adopted 14 Oct 1953
NATO website
North Atlantic Treaty
(4 Apr 1949)
Hear Anthem
"NATO Hymn"
Headquarters: Brussels
(Belgium)

 4 Apr 1949                The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington.
24 Aug 1949                North Atlantic Treaty Organization established.
11 Jan 1994                Partnership for Peace (PFP) with former Soviet states 
                             and Eastern European nations created.

Secretaries-general
 4 Apr 1952 - 16 May 1957  Hastings Ismay, Baron Ismay (U.K.) (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
16 May 1957 -  4 Mar 1961  Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (Belgium) (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
 4 Mar 1961 - 21 Apr 1961  Alberico Casardi (Italy)(acting)   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
21 Apr 1961 -  1 Aug 1964  Dirk Uipko Stikker (Netherlands)   (b. 1897 - d. 1979)
 1 Aug 1964 -  1 Oct 1971  Manlio Brosio (Italy)              (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
 1 Oct 1971 - 25 Jun 1984  Joseph Marie Antoine Hubert Luns   (b. 1911 - d. 2002)
                             (Netherlands)
25 Jun 1984 -  1 Jul 1988  Peter Alexander Rupert Carington,  (b. 1919)
                             Baron Carrington of Upton (U.K.) 
 1 Jul 1988 - 13 Aug 1994  Manfred Wörner (Germany)           (b. 1934 - d. 1994)
13 Aug 1994 - 17 Oct 1994  Sergio Balanzino (Italy) (1st time)(b. 1934) 
                             (acting)
17 Oct 1994 - 20 Oct 1995  Willy Claes (Belgium)              (b. 1938)
20 Oct 1995 -  5 Dec 1995  Sergio Balanzino (Italy) (2nd time)(s.a.)
                             (acting)
 5 Dec 1995 -  6 Oct 1999  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
14 Oct 1999 - 17 Dec 2003  George Islay Macneill Robertson,   (b. 1946)
                             Baron Robertson of Port Ellen (U.K.) 
17 Dec 2003 -  5 Jan 2004  Alessandro Minuto Rizzo (Italy)    (b. 1940)
                             (acting)
 5 Jan 2004 -  1 Aug 2009  Jakob "Jaap" Gijsbert de Hoop      (b. 1948)
                             Scheffer (Netherlands)
 1 Aug 2009 -  1 Oct 2014  Anders Fogh Rasmussen (Denmark)    (b. 1953)
 1 Oct 2014 -              Jens Stoltenberg (Norway)          (b. 1959)

Supreme Allied Commanders Europe (SACEUR) (all from U.S.)
 2 Apr 1951 - 30 May 1952  Dwight D. Eisenhower               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
30 May 1952 - 11 Jul 1953  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
11 Jul 1953 - 20 Nov 1956  Alfred M. Gruenther                (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
20 Nov 1956 -  1 Jan 1963  Lauris Norstad                     (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Jan 1963 -  1 Jul 1969  Lyman L. Lemnitzer                 (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
 1 Jul 1969 - 15 Dec 1974  Andrew J. Goodpaster               (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
15 Dec 1974 -  1 Jul 1979  Alexander M. Haig                  (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
 1 Jul 1979 - 26 Jun 1987  Bernard Rogers                     (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
26 Jun 1987 - 23 Jun 1992  John Galvin                        (b. 1929)
23 Jun 1992 - 22 Oct 1993  John M. Shalikashvili              (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
22 Oct 1993 - 11 Jul 1997  George A. Joulwan                  (b. 1939)
11 Jul 1997 -  3 May 2000  Wesley K. Clark                    (b. 1944)
 3 May 2000 - 17 Jan 2003  Joseph W. Ralston                  (b. 1943)
17 Jan 2003 -  7 Dec 2006  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
 7 Dec 2006 -  2 Jul 2009  Bantz J. Craddock                  (b. 1949)
 2 Jul 2009 - 13 May 2013  James G. Stavridis                 (b. 1955)
13 May 2013 -              Philip M. Breedlove                (b. 1955)

NATO Membership (28)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
24 Aug 1949  Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France¹, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg,
The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, United States
18 Feb 1952 Greece2, Turkey
 5 May 1955 Federal Republic of Germany
30 May 1982 Spain
12 Mar 1999 Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland
29 Mar 2004 Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
 1 Apr 2009
Albania, Croatia
¹withdrew from integrated military structure 1 Jul 1966; rejoined 3 Apr 2009. 2withdrew from integrated military structure 14 Aug 1974; rejoined 20 Oct 1980. 



Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)


NPT Text
(1 Jul 1968)
Place of Adoption: New York City
 (United States)

 1 Jul 1968                Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons signed.
 5 Mar 1970                Treaty enters into force.
 
NPT state parties (190)
Date of Ratification
Nation Parties
 5 Mar 1970
Afghanistan, Austria, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Republic of China¹, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia2, Denmark, East Germany3, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Laos, Liberia, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Somalia, Soviet Union4, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta5, Yugoslavia6
11 Mar 1970
Greece
 7 Apr 1970
Maldives
 4 May 1970
Ghana
20 May 1970
Lesotho
26 May 1970
Bolivia
 2 Jun 1970
Haiti
11 Jun 1970
Kenya
15 Jul 1970
Lebanon
 4 Aug 1970
Zaire7
10 Aug 1970
San Marino
31 Aug 1970
Uruguay
22 Sep 1970
Guatemala
 8 Oct 1970
Madagascar
25 Oct 1970
Central African Republic
27 Nov 1970
Morocco
17 Dec 1970
Senegal
25 Feb 1971
Holy See
10 Mar 1971
Chad
17 Mar 1971
Burundi
 7 Jul 1971
Tonga
24 Jul 1971
Dominican Republic
10 Sep 1971
South Vietnam8
 2 Jun 1972
Cambodia
11 Jul 1972
El Salvador
21 Jul 1972
Fiji
 5 Oct 1972
Philippines
31 Oct 1972
Dahomey9
 7 Dec 1972
Thailand
23 Jan 1973
Australia
 6 Mar 1973
Ivory Coast10, Nicaragua
16 May 1973
Honduras
31 Oct 1973
The Sudan
19 Feb 1974
Gabon
26 Feb 1975
Sierra Leone
17 Mar 1975
Western Samoa11
23 Apr 1975
South Korea
 2 May 1975
Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, West Germany3
12 May 1975
The Gambia
20 May 1975
Rwanda
26 May 1975
Libya
 2 Sep 1975
Grenada
25 Sep 1975
Venezuela
10 Mar 1976
Singapore
 8 Jun 1976
Japan
30 Jun 1976
Suriname
11 Aug 1976
The Bahamas
20 Aug 1976
Guinea-Bissau
13 Jan 1977
Panama
 9 Mar 1977
Switzerland
15 Dec 1977
Portugal
20 Apr 1978
Liechtenstein
23 Oct 1978
Congo (Brazzaville)
19 Jan 1979
Tuvalu
 5 Mar 1979
Sri Lanka
 1 Jun 1979
Yemen (Aden)12
12 Jul 1979
Indonesia
31 Aug 1979
Bangladesh
24 Oct 1979
Cape Verde13
28 Dec 1979
Saint Lucia
21 Feb 1980
Barbados
17 Apr 1980
Turkey
26 Feb 1981
Egypt
17 Jun 1981
Solomon Islands
13 Jan 1982
Papua New Guinea
 7 Jun 1982
Nauru
14 Jun 1982
Vietnam
20 Oct 1982
Uganda
20 Jul 1983
São Tomé and Príncipe
10 Aug 1984
Dominica
 1 Nov 1984
Equatorial Guinea
 6 Nov 1984
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
12 Mar 1985
Seychelles
18 Apr 1985
Kiribati
29 Apr 1985
Guinea
26 Mar 1985
Brunei Darussalam
23 May 1985
Bhutan
17 Jun 1985
Antigua and Barbuda
 9 Aug 1985
Belize
12 Dec 1985
North Korea14
18 Feb 1986
Malawi
 8 Apr 1986
Colombia
14 May 1986
Yemen (Sana)12
30 Oct 1986
Trinidad and Tobago
 5 Nov 1987
Spain
 3 Oct 1988
Saudi Arabia
 3 Nov 1988
Bahrain
 3 Apr 1989
Qatar
17 Nov 1989
Kuwait
 4 Sep 1990
Mozambique
12 Sep 1990
Albania
15 May 1991
Zambia
31 May 1991
Tanzania
10 Jul 1991
South Africa
23 Sep 1991
Lithuania
26 Sep 1991
Zimbabwe
 7 Jan 1992
Estonia
31 Jan 1992
Latvia
 9 Mar 1992
People's Republic of China¹
 7 Apr 1992
Slovenia
 7 May 1992
Uzbekistan
29 Jun 1992
Croatia
 2 Aug 1992
France
22 Sep 1992
Azerbaijan
 2 Oct 1992
Namibia
 9 Oct 1992
Niger
 2 Dec 1992
Myanmar
 1 Jan 1993
Czech Republic, Slovakia
 9 Feb 1993
Belarus
21 Jul 1993
Armenia
19 Oct 1993
Guyana
26 Oct 1993
Mauritania
17 Jan 1994
Tajikistan
14 Feb 1994
Kazakhstan
 7 Mar 1994
Georgia
 5 Jul 1994
Kyrgyzstan
15 Aug 1994
Bosnia and Hercegovina
29 Sep 1994
Turkmenistan
11 Oct 1994
Moldova
 5 Dec 1994
Ukraine
12 Jan 1995
Algeria
30 Jan 1995
Marshall Islands
10 Feb 1995
Argentina
13 Mar 1995
Monaco
16 Mar 1995
Eritrea
30 Mar 1995
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
14 Apr 1995
Federated States of Micronesia, Palau
25 May 1995
Chile
24 Aug 1995
Vanuatu
26 Sep 1995
United Arab Emirates
 4 Oct 1995
Comoros
 7 Jun 1996
Andorra
14 Oct 1996
Angola
16 Oct 1996
Djibouti
23 Jan 1997
Oman
18 Sep 1998
Brazil
 4 Nov 2002
Cuba
 5 May 2003
East Timor
 3 Jun 2006
Montenegro
¹the Republic of China (Taiwan) was an original NPT signatory 27 Jan 1970 and represented China until 15 Nov 1971, when the UN voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. Though Taiwan states it will continue to abide by the treaty; the People's Republic of China acceded to the NPT 29 Dec 1991, effective 9 Mar 1992. 2dissoloved 31 Dec 1992. 3East Germany and West Germany united 1990. 4dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 5from 1984 Burkina Faso. 6succession to the Treaty by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is 27 April 1992; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 7from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 8unification with North Vietnam on 2 Jul 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam; by letters of 1 Aug 1979 and 6 May 1980 Vietnam stated that it did not consider itself bound by treaties previously ratified by South Vietnam; Socialist Republic of Vietnam acceded to NPT on 14 Jun 1982. 9from 1975 Benin. 10from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 11from 1997 Samoa. 12Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 13from 2013 Cabo Verde. 14withdrew 10 Jan 2003.


Organisation Commune Africaine et Malgache (OCAM): see African and Malagasy Common Organization

Organization of African Unity (OAU): see African Union

Organization of American States  (OAS)
 
[Pan American Union flag, 1907-1948]
                      1907 - 1948
 
[Organization of American States (OAS) ]
                 Adopted Apr 1961
 
OAS website
OAS Charter
 (2 May 1948)
Headquarters:
 Washington, DC

(United States)
OAS Day: 14 Apr (1890)
Pan American Day

14 Apr 1890                Commercial Bureau of the American Republics
Jan 1902                   International Bureau of the American Republics
Aug 1910                   Pan-American Union
30 Apr 1948                Organization of American States (OAS)

Directors-general
1906 -  1 Sep 1920         John Barrett (U.S.)                (b. 1866 - d. 1938)
 1 Sep 1920 -  5 Dec 1946  Leo S. Rowe (U.S.)                 (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
 5 Dec 1946 - 27 May 1947  Pedro de Alba Pérez (Mexico)       (b. 1887 - d. 1960)
                             (acting)
27 May 1947 - 30 Apr 1948  Alberto Lleras Camargo (Colombia)  (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
Secretaries-general
30 Apr 1948 - 31 Jul 1954  Alberto Lleras Camargo (Colombia)  (s.a.)
31 Jul 1954 - 19 Oct 1955  Carlos Gregorio Dávila Espinosa    (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
                             (Chile) 
19 Oct 1955 - 16 Jan 1956  William Manger (U.S.) (acting)     (b. 1899 - d. 1994)
16 Jan 1956 - 18 May 1968  José Antonio Mora Otero (Uruguay)  (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
18 May 1968 - 18 May 1975  Galo Plaza Lasso (Ecuador)         (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
18 May 1975 - 31 Mar 1984  Alejandro José Luis Orfila         (b. 1925)
                             (Argentina)     
31 Mar 1984 - 20 Jun 1984  Valerie "Val" Theodore McComie     (b. 1920 - d. 2007)
                             (Barbados) (acting)
20 Jun 1984 - 20 Jun 1994  João Clemente Baena Soares (Brazil)(b. 1931)
20 Jun 1994 - 15 Sep 1994  Christopher Ray Thomas (acting)    (b. 1937)
                             (Trinidad and Tobago)
15 Sep 1994 - 15 Sep 2004  César Gaviria Trujillo (Colombia)  (b. 1947)
15 Sep 2004 - 15 Oct 2004  Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Echeverría  (b. 1940)
                             (Costa Rica) 
15 Oct 2004 - 26 May 2005  Luigi R. Einaudi (U.S.) (acting)   (b. 1936)
26 May 2005 -              José Miguel Insulza Salinas        (b. 1943)
                             (Chile)

OAS membership (35)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
30 Apr 1948 Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba
1, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras2, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela
17 Mar 1967 Trinidad and Tobago
15 Nov 1967 Barbados
20 Aug 1969 Jamaica
13 May 1975 Grenada
 8 Jun 1977 Suriname
22 May 1979 Dominica, Saint Lucia
 3 Dec 1981 Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 3 Mar 1982 The Bahamas
12 Mar 1984 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 8 Jan 1990 Canada
 8 Jan 1991 Belize, Guyana
 1suspended 14 Feb 1962 - 3 Jun 2009, has not resumed membership2suspended 4 Jul 2009 - 1 Jun 2011.



Organization of Central American States (ODECA)


[Organization of Central
              American States (ODECA)]

Headquarters: San Salvador
 (El Salvador)
Hear ODECA Anthem
"La Granadera"
Adopted 22 Jun 1971

14 Oct 1951                Organization of Central American States (OCAS)
                             (Organización de Estados Centroamericanos)
(ODECA) formed.
14 Oct 1955                Secretariat inaugurated.
30 Mar 1965                Second charter, signed on 12 Dec 1962, effective.
1973                       Functions suspended.

Secretaries-general
14 Oct 1955 - 15 Feb 1960  José Guillermo Trabanino Guerrero  (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
                             (El Salvador)
15 Feb 1960 - 
15 Feb 1964  Marco Tulio Zeledón Matamoros      (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
                             
(Costa Rica)
15 Feb 1964 - 31 Mar 1969  Albino Román Vega (interim)        (b. 1922)
                            
(Nicaragua)
15 Sep 1970 - 1972         Manuel Francisco Villacorta        (d. 1988)
                             Vielmann
(Guatemala)
                             (special representative to 1971)
1972 - 1973                Álvaro Fernández Escalante
        (b. 1930)
                            
(interim)(Costa Rica)

ODECA membership
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
14 Oct 1951
Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala1, Honduras2, Nicaragua
1withdrew 4 Apr 1953, rejoined 1954. 2withdrew 1970.



Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

[Organization of Eastern
                Caribbean States (OECS)]
             Adopted 21 Jun 2006
 
OECS website
Headquarters: Castries
(St. Lucia)
OECS Day: 18 Jun (1981)
Organization of Eastern
 Caribbean States Day

18 Jun 1981                Organization of Eastern Caribbean States founded.
10 Aug 2012                OECS assembly inaugurated.

Directors-general
Jul 1982 -  1 Dec 1995     Vaughan Lewis (Saint Lucia)        (b. 1940)
Jun 1996 - 31 Jul 2001     Swinburne A. Lestrade (Dominica)
31 Jul 2001 - 12 May 2003  George Goodwin (acting)            (b. 194. - d. 2009)
                             (Antigua and Barbuda)
12 May 2003 - 31 Dec 2013  Len Ishmael (f) (Saint Lucia)
 1 Jan 2014 - 30 Apr 2014  Bentley A. Browne (acting)
                             (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
 1 May 2014 -              Didacus Jules (Saint Lucia)        (b. 1956?)
 

Speaker of the OECS Assembly
10 Aug 2012 -              Rene Baptiste (f)                  (b. 1951)
                             (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

OECS membership  (7)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Jul 1981 Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint
Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of OECS
22 Nov 1984
British Virgin Islands
May 1995
Anguilla



Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

[former Organization for Economic
                        Cooperation and Development (OECD) flag]
                   to 15 Dec 2010
 
[Organization for Economic Cooperation and
                        Development (OECD) flag]                 Adopted 15 Dec 2010 

OECD website
Headquarters: Paris
(France)

16 Apr 1948                Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
30 Sep 1961                Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Secretaries-general
16 Apr 1948 -  1 Apr 1955  Robert Marjolin (France)           (b. 1911 - d. 1986)
 1 Apr 1955 -  1 Sep 1960  René Sergent (France)              (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
 1 Sep 1960 - 29 Sep 1969  Thorkil Christensen (Denmark)      (b. 1899 - d. 1989)
30 Sep 1969 - 29 Sep 1984  Emile van Lennep (Netherlands)     (b. 1915 - d. 1996)
30 Sep 1984 - 29 Sep 1994  Jean-Claude Paye (France)
          (b. 1934)
                             (1st time)            
30 Sep 1994 - 29 Nov 1994  Staffan Sohlman (Sweden) (interim) (b. 1937)
30 Nov 1994 - 31 May 1996  Jean-Claude Paye (France)
          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)             
 1 Jun 1996 - 31 May 2006  Donald J. Johnston (Canada)        (b. 1936)
 1 Jun 2006 -              José Ángel Gurría Treviño (Mexico) (b. 1950)
 

OECD membership (34)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
16 Apr 1948 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany1, Greece, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Trieste Territory
2, Turkey, United Kingdom
20 Jul 1959 Spain
14 Dec 1960 European Community3
30 Sep 1961 Canada, United States
28 Apr 1964 Japan
28 Jan 1969 Finland
 7 Jun 1971 Australia
29 May 1973 New Zealand
18 May 1994 Mexico
21 Dec 1995 Czech Republic
 7 May 1996 Hungary
22 Nov 1996 Poland
12 Dec 1996 South Korea
14 Dec 2000 Slovakia
 7 May 2010
Chile
21 Jul 2010
Slovenia
 7 Sep 2010
Israel
 9 Dec 2010
Estonia
 1Anglo-U.S. "bizone" to 1949, then Federal Republic of Germany. 2Anglo-U.S. zone only; on 26 Oct 1954 became part of Italy. 3special member; from 1 Nov 1993, European Union.



Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

[Organization of Islamic Conference flag
                        1981-2011]
                1981 - 28 Jun 2011
 
[Organization of the Islamic Cooperation
                        flag]                Adopted 28 Jun 2011

OIC website
Headquarters: Jeddah
(Saudi Arabia)
OIC Day: 25 Sep (1969)
Organization of
Islamic Cooperation Day

22 Sep 1969                First Islamic Conference opened.
 4 Mar 1972                Charter of the
Organization of the Islamic Conference
                             signed (effective 28 Feb 1973).
28 Jun 2011                Renamed
Organization of Islamic Cooperation.

Secretaries-general
Dec 1970 - 31 Dec 1973     Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj     (b. 1903 - d. 1990)
                             (Malaysia)
 1 Jan 1974 - Dec 1975     Hassan al-Touhami (Egypt)          (b. 1924 - d. 2009)
Dec 1975 - Jan 1980        Amadou Karim Gaye (Senegal)        (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1984     Habib Chatty (Tunisia)             (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1988  Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada           (b. 1923)
                             (Pakistan)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1996  Hamid Algabid (Niger)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 2000  Azzedine Laraki (Morocco)          (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2004  Abdelouahed Belkeziz (Morocco)     (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2013  Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (Turkey)      (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Iyad Ameen Madani (Saudi Arabia)   (b. 1946)

OIC membership (57)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
22 Sep 1969 Afghanistan1, Algeria, Chad, Egypt2, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, The Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen (Aden)3, Yemen (Sana)3
29 Feb 1972 Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Syria4, United Arab Emirates 
1974 Bangladesh, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Palestine, Uganda
1975 Upper Volta5, Cameroon
1976 Comoros, Iraq, Maldives
Apr 1978 Djibouti
1982 Benin
15 Jan 1984 Brunei Darussalam
Jan 1986 Nigeria
 8 Dec 1991 Azerbaijan
Jun 1992
Turkmenistan
Dec 1992 Albania, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Zanzibar6
10 Dec 1994 Mozambique
12 Dec 1995 Kazakhstan
 2 Oct 1996 Uzbekistan
Dec 1996 Suriname
 2 Oct 1997 Togo
 1 Oct 1998 Guyana
27 Jun 2001 Côte d'Ivoire
1suspended 28 Jan 1980 - 13 Mar 1989 (seat then given to rebels). 2suspended 9 May 1979 - 30 Jan 1984. 3Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united as Yemen 22 May 1990. 4suspended from 16 Aug 2012. 5from 1984 Burkina Faso. 6withdrew Aug 1993.



Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

[OPEC flag]
                        Adopted 1970
 
OPEC website
Headquarters: Vienna
(Austria)
(Geneva, Switzerland 1960-65)

14 Sep 1960                Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) founded.

Secretaries-general¹
21 Jan 1961 - 30 Apr 1964  Fuad Rouhani (Iran)                (b. 1907 - d. 2004)
 1 May 1964 - 30 Apr 1965  Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (Iraq)      (b. 1913 - d. 1973)
 1 May 1965 - 31 Dec 1966  Ashraf T. Lutfi (Kuwait)           (b. 1919 - d. 1974)
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Muhammad Saleh Joukhdar            (b. 1932)
                             (Saudi Arabia) 
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Francisco R. Parra (Venezuela)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969  Elrich Sanger (Indonesia)          (b. 1927 - d. ....)
 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970  Omar el-Badri (Libya)              (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1972  Nadim Pachachi                     (b. 1914 - d. 1976)
                             (United Arab Emirates)
 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1974  Abderrahman Khène (Algeria)        (b. 1931)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1976  M.O. Feyide (Nigeria)              (b. 1926 - d. 1997)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1978  Ali M. Jaidah (Qatar)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1979 - 30 Jun 1981  René Genaro Ortiz Durán (Ecuador)  (b. 1941)
 1 Jul 1981 - 30 Jun 1983  Marc Saturnin Nan Nguema (Gabon)   (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1983 - 19 Jul 1983  Fadhil J. al-Chalabi (Iraq)        (b. 1929)
                             (acting)
19 Jul 1983 - 31 Dec 1983  Mana Saeed Al Otaiba (acting)      (b. 1946)
                             (United Arab Emirates)
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Oct 1984  Kamal Hassan Maghur (Libya)        (b. 1935 - d. 2002)
                             (acting)
31 Oct 1984 -  9 Dec 1985  
Subroto (Indonesia)(1st time)      (b. 1928)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1986 - 30 Jun 1986  Arturo Hernández Grisanti          (b. 1927 - d. 2008)
                             (Venezuela)(acting)
 1 Jul 1986 - 30 Jun 1988
 Rilwanu Lukman (Nigeria)(1st time) (b. 1938 - d. 2014)
                             (acting)
 1 Jul 1988 - 30 Jun 1994  Subroto (Indonesia)(2nd time)      (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Abdalla Salem el-Badri (Libya)     (b. 1940)
                             (1st time)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2000  Rilwanu Lukman (Nigeria)(2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2002  Alí Rodríguez Araque (Venezuela)   (b. 1937)
 1 Jul 2002 - 31 Dec 2003  Álvaro Silva Calderón (Venezuela)  (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Purnomo Yusgiantoro (Indonesia)    (b. 1951)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 2004 - Feb 2004     Iin Arifin Takhyan (Indonesia)     (b. 1952)
                             (acting for Yusgiantoro)
Feb 2004 - 31 Dec 2004     Maizar Rahman (Indonesia)          (b. 1948)
                             (acting for Yusgiantoro)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Sheikh Ahmad Fahad Al Ahmad        (b. 1963)
                             Al Sabah (Kuwait) (acting) 
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Adnan Shihab-Eldin (Kuwait)        (b. 1943)
                             (acting for Al Sabah)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Edmund Maduabebe Daukoru (Nigeria) (b. 1943)
                             (acting) 
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Mohammed S. Barkindo (Nigeria)     (b. 1959)
                             (acting for Daukoru)
 1 Jan 2007 -              Abdalla Salem el-Badri (Libya)     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  

OPEC membership (12)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
14 Sep 1960  Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
15 Jan 1961 Qatar
 4 Jun 1962 Indonesia2, Libya
27 Nov 1967 Abu Dhabi3
 8 Jul 1969 Algeria
12 Jul 1971 Nigeria
19 Nov 1973 Ecuador4
 9 Jun 1975 Gabon5
 1 Jan 2007
Angola
¹from 21 Jan 1961-Apr 1965 the Chairmen of the Board of Governors were also, ex-officio, the Secretary-general of the organization. The functions of Chairman of the Board of Governors and Secretary-general were separated Apr 1965. 2membership suspended at its own request from 1 Jan 2009. 3membership transferred to United Arab Emirates 9 Jan 1974. 4membership suspended at its own request 31 Dec 1992 - 23 Oct 2007. 5membership terminated at its own request from 1 Jan 1995.



Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

[Organisation for the
                Prohibition of Chemical Weapons flag]
 

OPCW website
Headquarters: The Hague
(The Netherlands)
OPCW Day: 29 Apr (1997)
Remembrance Day

19 Jan 1993                Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) signed. 
29 Apr 1997                Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical
                             Weapons (OPCW), CWC treaty enters into force.

Directors-General
13 May 1997 - 22 Apr 2002  José Maurício Bustani (Brazil)     (b. 1945)
22 Apr 2002 - 25 Jul 2002  John Gee (Australia)(acting)       (b. 1944)
25 Jul 2002 - 25 Jul 2010  Rogelio Francisco Pfirter          (b. 1948)
                            
Fernández (Argentina)       
25 Jul 2010 -              Ahmet Üzümcü (Turkey)              (b. 1951)
    

OPCW membership (190)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
29 Apr 1997 Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Zimbabwe
11 Jun 1997 Turkey
20 Jun 1997 Singapore
28 Jun 1997 Kuwait
 9 Jul 1997 Guinea
11 Jul 1997 Slovenia
20 Jul 1997 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
24 Jul 1997 Trinidad and Tobago
 7 Aug 1997 Burkina Faso
 8 Aug 1997 Ghana
27 Aug 1997 Brunei Darussalam
 3 Oct 1997 Qatar
12 Oct 1997 Guyana
21 Nov 1997 Pakistan
28 Nov 1997 Jordan
 3 Dec 1997 Iran
 5 Dec 1997 Russia
18 Dec 1997 Nepal
 2 Jan 1998 Venezuela
11 Mar 1998 Mauritania
15 May 1998 Lithuania
13 Jun 1998 Benin
18 Jun 1998 The Gambia
11 Jul 1998 Malawi
25 Jul 1998 Tanzania
19 Aug 1998 Senegal
13 Sep 1998 Bolivia
27 Sep 1998 Cyprus
30 Sep 1998 Botswana
 4 Oct 1998 Burundi
30 Oct 1998 Vietnam
 6 Nov 1998 Panama
15 Nov 1998 Ukraine
12 Dec 1998 Indonesia
11 Jun 1999 Holy See
19 Jun 1999 Nigeria
23 Jun 1999 The Sudan
25 Jun 1999 Estonia
21 Jul 1999 Micronesia
 5 Dec 1999 Nicaragua
24 Dec 1999 Liechtenstein
 9 Jan 2000 San Marino
15 Mar 2000 Eritrea
30 Mar 2000 Azerbaijan
22 Apr 2000 Kazakhstan
 5 May 2000 Colombia
20 May 2000 Malaysia, Yugoslavia1
14 Sep 2000 Mozambique
 7 Oct 2000 Kiribati
 8 Oct 2000 Gabon, Jamaica
 1 Nov 2000 Yemen
28 Dec 2000 United Arab Emirates 
11 Mar 2001 Zambia
14 Mar 2001 Dominica
12 Dec 2001 Nauru
20 Dec 2001 Uganda
18 Oct 2002 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
27 Oct 2002 Samoa
 9 Jan 2003 Thailand
 5 Mar 2003 Palau
14 Mar 2003 Guatemala
29 Mar 2003 Andorra
 6 Jun 2003 East Timor
28 Jun 2003 Tonga
 9 Oct 2003 São Tomé and Príncipe
24 Oct 2003 Afghanistan
29 Oct 2003 Kyrgyzstan
 9 Nov 2003 Cape Verde2
31 Dec 2003 Belize
 5 Feb 2005 Libya
18 Feb 2004 Tuvalu
14 Mar 2004 Chad
30 Apr 2004 Rwanda 
18 Jun 2004 Marshall Islands
20 Jun 2004 Saint Kitts and Nevis
23 Oct 2004 Solomon Islands 
30 Oct 2004 Sierra Leone
19 Nov 2004 Madagascar
21 May 2005 Niue
 3 Jul 2005 Grenada
18 Aug 2005 Cambodia
17 Sep 2005 Bhutan
28 Sep 2005 Antigua and Barbuda, Honduras
16 Oct 2005 Vanuatu
11 Nov 2005 Congo (Kinshasa)
24 Feb 2006 Djibouti
24 Mar 2006 Haiti
25 Mar 2006 Liberia
17 Sep 2006 Comoros
20 Oct 2006 Central African Republic
23 Oct 2006 Montenegro
 6 Apr 2007
Barbados
 3 Jan 2008
Congo (Brazzaville)
19 Jun 2008
Guinea-Bissau
20 Dec 2008
Lebanon
12 Feb 2009
Iraq
26 Apr 2009
Dominican Republic
21 May 2009
The Bahamas
28 Jun 2013
Somalia
14 Sep 2013
Syria
1from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.
2from 2013 Cabo Verde.



Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)  
 
[Flag of CSCE]
               c.1991 -  1 Jan 1995
[Flag of OSCE]
                 Adopted 1 Jan 1995
OSEC website
Headquarters: Vienna
(Austria)

25 Jun 1973                Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
 1 Aug 1975                Helsinki Final Act signed.
21 Nov 1990                Charter of Paris for a New Europe signed.
 1 Jan 1995                Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Secretaries-general
15 Jun 1993 - 15 Jun 1996  Wilhelm Höynck (Germany)           (b. 1933)
15 Jun 1996 - 15 Jun 1999  Giancarlo Aragona (Italy)          (b. 1942)
15 Jun 1999 - 21 Jun 2005  Ján Kubis (Slovakia)               (b. 1952)
21 Jun 2005 -  1 Jul 2011  Marc Perrin de Brichambaut         (b. 1948)
                             (France) 
 1 Jul 2011 -              Lamberto Zannier (Italy)           (b. 1954)

 
Chairmen-in-office

Jun 1991 - 31 Dec 1991     Hans-Dietrich Genscher (Germany)   (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1992 -  2 Jul 1992  Jirí Dienstbier (Czechoslovakia)   (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
 2 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  Jozef Moravčík (Czechoslovakia)    (b. 1945)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Margaretha af Ugglas (f) (Sweden)  (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1994 - 11 May 1994  Beniamino Andreatta (Italy)        (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
11 May 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Antonio Martino (Italy)            (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  László Kovács (Hungary)            (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Flavio Cotti (Switzerland)         (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Niels Helveg Petersen (Denmark)    (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Bronislaw Geremek (Poland)         (b. 1932 - d. 2008)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Knut Vollebaek (Norway)            (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2000 -  4 Feb 2000  Wolfgang Schüssel (Austria)        (b. 1945)
 4 Feb 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  Benita Ferrero-Waldner (f)         (b. 1948)
                             (Austria) 
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Mircea Geoană (Romania)            (b. 1958)
 1 Jan 2002 -  6 Apr 2002  Jaime Gama (Portugal)              (b. 1947)
 6 Apr 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  António Martins da Cruz (Portugal) (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2003 -  3 Dec 2003  Jakob "Jaap" Gijsbert de Hoop      (b. 1948)
                             Scheffer (Netherlands)
 3 Dec 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Ben Bot (Netherlands)              (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Solomon Passy (Bulgaria)           (b. 1956)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Dimitrij Rupel (Slovenia)          (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Karel De Gucht (Belgium)           (b. 1954)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Miguel Ángel Moratinos (Spain)     (b. 1951)
 1 Jan 2008 -  4 Apr 2008  Ilkka Kanerva (Finland)            (b. 1948)
 4 Apr 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  Alexander Stubb (Finland)          (b. 1968)
 1 Jan 2009 -  7 Oct 2009  Dora Bakoyannis (f)(Greece)        (b. 1954)
 7 Oct 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Georgiou Papandreou (Greece)       (b. 1952)
 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Kanat Saudabayev (Kazakhstan)      (b. 1946)
 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011  Audronius Ažubalis (Lithuania)     (b. 1958)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012  Eamon Gilmore (Ireland)            (b. 1955)
 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013  Leonid Kozhara (Ukraine)           (b. 1963)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Didier Burkhalter (Switzerland)    (b. 1960)


High Commissioners on National Minorities 
 1 Jan 1993 - 30 Jun 2001  Max van der Stoel (Netherlands)    (b. 1924 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 2001 -  3 Jul 2007  Rolf Ekéus (Sweden)                (b. 1935)
 4 Jul 2007 - 19 Aug 2013  Knut Vollebaek (Norway)            (s.a.)
20 Aug 2013 -              Astrid Thors (f) (Finland)         (b. 1957)


[OSCE Parliamentary Assembly
              flag]

Presidents of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly
1992 - 1994                Ilkka Suominen (Finland)           (b. 1939)
1994 - 1996                Frank Swaelen (Belgium)            (b. 1930 - d. 2007)
1996 - 1998                Francisco Javier Rupérez Rubio     (b. 1941)
                             (Spain)
1998 - 2000                Helle Degn (f)(Denmark)            (b. 1946)
2000 - 2002                Adrian Severin (Romania)           (b. 1954)
2002 - 2004                Bruce George (U.K.)                (b. 1942)
2004 - 2006                Alcee L. Hastings (U.S.)           (b. 1936)
Jul 2006 - Jul 2008        Göran Lennmarker (Sweden)          (b. 1943)
Jul 2008 - 10 Jul 2010     João Barroso Soares (Portugal)     (b. 1949)
10 Jul 2010 -  9 Jul 2012  Petros Efthymiou (Greece)          (b. 1950)
 9 Jul 2012 -  3 Jul 2013  Riccardo Migliori (Italy)          (b. 1952)
 3 Jul 2013 -  2 Jul 2014  Ranko Krivokapić (Montenegro)      (b. 1961)
 2 Jul 2014 -              Ilkka Kanerva (Finland)            (b. 1948)

OSEC membership (57)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
25 Jun 1973 Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia1, Denmark, Finland, France, East Germany2, West Germay2, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Soviet Union3, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia4
19 Jun 1991 Albania
10 Sep 1991 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
30 Jan 1992 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
24 Mar 1992 Croatia, Georgia, Slovenia
30 Apr 1992 Bosnia and Hercegovina
 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
12 Oct 1995 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
25 Apr 1996 Andorra
10 Nov 2000 Serbia and Montenegro4
22 Jun 2006 Montenegro
21 Nov 2012
Mongolia
1dissolved 31 Dec 1992; from 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 3dissolved 25 Dec 1991; succeeded by Russia. 4suspended 8 Jul 1992 - 10 Nov 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.



Pacific Community
 
[South Pacific
                          Commission flag with 6 stars]
                     1970 - 1971
 
[South Pacific
                          Commission flag with 8 stars]
                     1971 - 1975
 
[South Pacific
                        Commission flag with 9 stars]
                    1975 - 1978
 
[South Pacific
                          Commission flag with 11 stars]
                     1978 - 1980
 
[South Pacific
                          Commission flag with 13 stars]
                      1980 - 1983
 
[South Pacific
                          Commission flag with 27 stars]
                 1983 -  6 Dec 1999 
 
[Pacific
                          Community flag]
               Adopted 6 Dec 1999
 

Pacific Community website
Headquarters: Noumea
(New Caledonia)
(Sydney, Australia 1947-1949)

 6 Feb 1947                South Pacific Commission (SPC)
 6 Feb 1997                Pacific Community

Secretaries-general
 1 Nov 1948 -  3 Jun 1951  William Forsyth (Australia)        (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
                             (1st time) 
12 Nov 1951 - 12 Nov 1954  Sir Leslie Brian Freeston (U.K.)   (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
 1 Mar 1955 - 28 Feb 1958  Ralph Clairon Bedell (U.S.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1958 -  2 Mar 1963  Thomas R. Smith (New Zealand)      (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
24 Mar 1963 - 31 Dec 1966  William Forsyth (Australia)        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
 1 Jan 1967 - 11 Dec 1969  Sir Gawain Westray Bell (U.K.)     (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
 1 Jan 1970 - 18 Feb 1971  Afioga Afoafouvale Misimoa         (b. 1900 - d. 1971)
                             (Western Samoa)
18 Feb 1971 - 31 Oct 1971  John Edward de Young (U.S.)(acting)
 1 Nov 1971 - 30 Nov 1975  Gustav F.D. Betham (Western Samoa) (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
 9 Dec 1975 - 30 Jun 1979  E. Macu Salato (Fiji)              (b. 1915 - d. 1990)
 1 Jul 1979 -  3 Jun 1982  Young Vivian (Niue)                (b. 1935)
 1 Jul 1982 - 30 Nov 1986  Francis Bugotu (Solomon Islands)   (b. 1937 - d. 1992)
 9 Dec 1986 - 31 Dec 1988  Palauni M. Tuiasosopo
                             (American Samoa)
 1 Jan 1989 - 15 Jun 1989  Jon Jonassen (Cook Islands)        (b. 1949)
                             (acting)
16 Jun 1989 -  5 Jan 1993  Atanraoi Baiteke (Kiribati)
 6 Jan 1993 -  7 Jan 1996  Ati George Sokomanu (Vanuatu)      (b. 1937)
 8 Jan 1996 -  6 Feb 1997  Robert B. Dun (Australia)          (b. 1930)
Directors-general
 6 Feb 1997 -  5 Jan 2000  Robert B. Dun (Australia)          (s.a.)
 6 Jan 2000 - 23 Jan 2006  Lourdes Pangelinan (f) (Guam)      (b. 1954)
23 Jan 2006 - 23 Jan 2014  Jimmie Rodgers (Solomon Islands)
23 Jan 2014 -              Colin Tukuitonga (Niue)

Pacific Community membership (26)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 6 Feb 1947 Australia, France, The Netherlands1, New Zealand, United Kingdom2, United States
17 Jul 1965 Western Samoa3
24 Jul 1969 Nauru
 5 May 1971 Fiji
16 Sep 1975 Papua New Guinea
17 Nov 1978 Tuvalu
21 Nov 1978 Solomon Islands
13 Oct 1980 Niue
14 Oct 1980 Cook Islands
 3 Oct 1983 American Samoa, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands,
Federated States of Micronesia, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
1withdrew 31 Dec 1962. 2withdrew 1 Jan 1996, rejoined Jan 1998, withdrew again 1 Jan 2005.  3from 1997 Samoa.



Pacific Islands Forum

[South Pacific
                          forum - Pacific Islands Fourm flag]
                            Current Flag
 
[Pacific Islands
                          Forum flag Variant]
                               Flag Variant
 
PIF website
Headquarters: Suva
(Fiji)

 5 Aug 1971                South Pacific Forum (SPF)
27 Oct 2000                Pacific Islands Forum (PIF).

Directors of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation
Nov 1972 - 1980            Mahe Tupouniua (Tonga) (1st time)  (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
1980 - 12 Mar 1982         Gabriel Gris (Papua New Guinea)    (b. 1941 - d. 1982)
1982 - Jan 1983            John Sheppard (Australia)(acting) 
Jan 1983 -  1 Jan 1986     Mahe Tupouniua (Tonga) (2nd time)  (s.a.) 
 1 Jan 1986 - Sep 1988     Henry Faati Naisali (Tuvalu)       (b. 1928 - d. 2004)
Secretaries-general
Sep 1988 -  1 Jan 1992     Henry Faati Naisali (Tuvalu)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1992 - Jan 1998     Ieremia T. Tabai (Kiribati)        (b. 1950)
Feb 1998 - 16 May 2004     W. Noel Levi (Papua New Guinea)    (b. 1942) 
16 May 2004 -  2 May 2008  Greg Urwin (Australia)             (b. 1946 - d. 2008)
 2 May 2008 - 13 Oct 2008  Feleti Penitala Teo (Tuvalu)       (b. 1962)
                             (acting)
13 Oct 2008 -              Tuiloma Neroni Slade (Samoa)       (b. 1941)

Pacific Islands Forum membership (16)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 5 Aug 1971 Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji¹, Nauru, New Zealand, Tonga, 
Western Samoa2
20 Mar 1974 Papua New Guinea
 1 Jul 1975 Niue
29 Aug 1979 Kiribati
16 Sep 1980 Solomon Islands, Tuvalu
14 Jul 1980 Vanuatu
29 May 1987 Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
 3 Sep 1995 Palau
¹suspended 2 May 2009 - 22 Oct 2014. 2from 1997 Samoa. 

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of PIF
26 Oct 2006
French Polynesia, New Caledonia
 6 Aug 2014
Tokelau



Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean

[Parliamentary Assembly of the
              Mediterranean]

PAM  website
HeadquartersSaint Julians
(Malta)
PAM Day: 21 March
Mediterranean Day

   
11 Sep 2006                Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean formed.
2007                       Secretariat established.

Secretary-general

 1 Jul 2007 -              Sergio Piazzi (Italy)              (b. 1957?)

Presidents of the Assembly
11 Sep 2006 - 15 Nov 2008  Abdelwahed Radi (Morroco)(1st time)(b. 1935)
15 Nov 2008 -  1 Jan 2011  Rudy Salles (France)               (b. 1954)
 1 Jan 2011 -  4 Mar 2011  
Mohamed Abou El Enein (Egypt)      (b. 1951)
 4 Mar 2011 - 29 Oct 2011  Abdelwahed Radi (Morroco)(2nd time)(s.a.)
29 Oct 2011 -
13 Oct 2012  Fayez al-Tarawneh (Jordan)         (b. 1949)
13 Oct 2012 -              Francesco Amoruso (Italy)          (b. 1956)

PAM membership (27)
Date of 
Admission
Member Parliaments
11 Sep 2006
Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey
28 Oct 2010
Andorra
2012
Mauritania

Date of 
Admission
Associate Member Parliament
25 Sep 2008
Romania



Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)


 [Permanent Court of
              Arbitration (PCA) flag]

PCA  website
Headquarters: The Hague
(The Netherlands)

29 Jul 1899                Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)(Cour Permanente d'Arbitrage)
                            
founded by the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of
                             International Disputes (Hague Convention)(effective 4 Sep 1900).
18 Oct 1907                Convention revised by (second) Hague Peace Conference
                             (effective 26 Jan 1910).

Secretaries-general
(all from The Netherlands)
 4 Sep 1900 -  1 Aug 1901  Baron Robert Melvil van Lynden     (b. 1843 - d. 1910)
1901 - 1905                Leonard Henri Ruyssenaers          (b. 1850 - d. 1913)
 1 Oct 1905 -  4 Feb 1929  Baron Louis Paul Marie Hubert      (b. 1855 - d. 1929)
                             Michiels van Verduynen    
1929 - 1947                M.A. Crommelin

 1 Jan 1948 - 26 Mar 1951  Jonkheer A.M. Snouck Hurgronje     (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
 1 Jun 1951 -  4 Feb 1953  Alexander Loudon                   (b. 1892 - d. 1953)

1954 - 1968                Mark Johan
François                (b. 1889 - d. 1978)
1968 - 1980                Eric Oswald baron van Boetzelaer
  (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
1981 - 1990                Jacob Varekamp
1990 - 1999                Pieter Jan Hans Jonkman            (b. 1925 - d. 2012)
25 May 1999 -  1 Sep 2008  Tjaco T. van den Hout              (b. 1949)
 1 Sep 2008 - 31 Dec 2011  Christiaan M.J.
Kröner             (b. 1945)
 1 Jan 2012 - 31 May 2012  Brooks W. Daly (acting)(U.S.)
 1 Jun 2012 -              
Hugo Hans Siblesz                  (b. 1948) 


PCA membership (116)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations (being signatory to Hague Conventions of 1899 or 1907)
 4 Sep 1900
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany1, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Persia2, Portugal, Romania, Russia3, Siam4, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States
 6 Oct 1900
Japan
29 Dec 1900
Switzerland
 4 Apr 1901
Greece
17 Apr 1901
Mexico
11 May 1901
Serbia5
12 Jul 1901
Luxembourg
21 Nov 1904
China6
12 Jun 1907
Turkey7
15 Jun 1907
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Haiti, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
17 Jun 1907
Uruguay
20 Jun 1907
El Salvador
 3 Jul 1907
Ecuador
26 May 1922
Poland
 9 Jun 1922
Finland
11 Apr 1929
Czechoslovakia8
29 Jul 1950
India
 5 Aug 1950
Pakistan
 9 Feb 1955
Ceylon9
 7 Mar 1955
Soviet Union3
18 Jul 1955
Laos
 8 Dec 1955
Iceland
 4 Jan 1956
Cambodia
10 Feb 1959
New Zealand
 1 Apr 1960
Australia
19 Aug 1960
Canada
25 Mar 1961
Congo (Kinshasa)10
 1 Aug 1960
Cameroon
30 Aug 1961
Upper Volta11
 1 Dec 1961
Honduras
 4 Apr 1962
Ukrainian S.S.R.12
 4 Jun 1962
Byelorussian S.S.R.13
17 Jun 1962
Israel
30 Apr 1966
Uganda
 2 Dec 1966
The Sudan
14 Feb 1968
Lebanon
 7 Sep 1968
Malta
 4 Nov 1968
Egypt
 3 Aug 1970
Mauritius
31 Aug 1970
Iraq
25 Dec 1970
Swaziland
 2 Apr 1973
Fiji
 1 Aug 1977
Senegal
19 Sep 1984
Zimbabwe
16 Feb 1987
Nigeria
 8 Oct 1991
Croatia
27 Jan 1992
Jordan
 4 Jun 1992
Kyrgyzstan
27 Dec 1992
Suriname
 1 Jan 1993
Czech Republic, Slovakia
11 Sep 1993
Singapore
12 Nov 1993
Cyprus
23 Sep 1994
Liechtenstein
 2 Sep 1996
Libya
 1 Oct 1996
Slovenia
 4 Oct 1997
Eritrea
25 Jan 1998
Guyana
21 Dec 1998
South Africa
20 Jul 1999
Costa Rica
31 Dec 1999
Zambia
21 Feb 2000
South Korea
17 Feb 2001
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
 4 Jun 2001
Morocco
12 Aug 2001
Latvia
 4 Sep 2001
Yugoslavia
20 Jan 2002
Saudi Arabia
 6 May 2002
Malaysia
 6 Jul 2002
Ireland
21 Jan 2003
Belize
 1 Sep 2003
Estonia
14 Sep 2003
Kuwait
28 Sep 2003
Ethiopia
17 Dec 2004
Togo
 9 Jan 2005
Lithuania
16 Sep 2005
Benin
 2 Dec 2005
Qatar
 5 Jun 2006
Serbia5
11 Jun 2006
Kenya
10 Apr 2007
Montenegro14
29 Aug 2008
Bahrain
 5 Jan 2009
United Arab Emirates
 7 Oct 2009
Madagascar
17 Jul 2010
Philippines
19 Apr 2011
Rwanda
27 Dec 2011
Albania
29 Dec 2011
Vietnam
26 Feb 2012
Bangladesh
20 Oct 2014
São Tomé and Príncipe
1from 7 Sep 1949 Federal Republic of Germany. 2from 1935 Iran. 3from 30 Dec 1922 Soviet Union, which acceded to the Conventions 7 Mar 1955; dissolved 25 Dec 1991 succeeded by Russian Federation. 4from 1939 Thailand. 5from 1 Dec 1918 part of Serb, Croat and Slovene State; from 3 Oct 1929 Yugoslavia; from 4 Sep 2001 as Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 6Republic of China represented China from 1912 until 6 Apr 1972, when the PCA recognized the People's Republic of China as the representative of China. 7to 1920 Ottoman Empire. 8dissolved 31 Dec 1993. 9from 1972 Sri Lanka. 10to 1966 Congo (Léopoldville), 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 11from 1984 Burkina Faso. 12from 1991 Ukraine. 13from 1991 Belarus. 14Montenegro acceded to the Geneva Convention 16 Oct 1900; part of Yugoslavia from 1918, renamed Serbia and Montenegro from 4 Feb 2003 which dissolved 3 Jun 2006; Montenegro re-acceded to the Conventions on 10 Apr 2007.


Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ): see International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa (PTA): see COMESA

Red Cross and Red Crescent

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

[Flag of Red
                      Cross]
    Red Cross Adopted 5 May 1919

 
[Red Crescent]
   Red Crescent Adopted 27 Jul 1929

[Red Crystal]          Red Crystal Adopted 14 Jan 2007

IFRCS website Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)(Paris, France
1919-1939)
IFRCS Day: 8 May (1828)
World Red Cross Red
 and Crescent Day
(Red Cross Day to 1984)

 5 May 1919                League of Red Cross Societies (LORCS) founded.
27 Jul 1929                Red Crescent adopted as an additional emblem.
11 Oct 1983                League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS).
27 Nov 1991                International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
                             Societies (IFRCS).
22 Jun 2006                Red Crystal approved as an additional emblem.

Chairmen
1919 - 1922                Henry P. Davison (U.S.)            (b. 1867 - d. 1922)
1922 - 1935                John Barton Payne (U.S.)           (b. 1855 - d. 1935)
1935 - 1938                Cary T. Grayson (U.S.)             (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
1938 - 1944                Norman Davis (U.S.)                (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
1944 - 1945                Jean de Muralt (Switzerland)       (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
                             (Johannes von Muralt)(acting)
1945 - 1950                Basil O'Connor (U.S.)              (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
1950 - 1959                Emil Sandström (Sweden)            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
1959 - 1965                John MacAulay (Canada)             (b. 1895 - d. 1978)
1965 - 1977                José Barroso Chávez (Mexico)       (b. 1925 - d. 2008)
Presidents
1977 - 1981                Adetunji Adefarasin (Nigeria)      (b. 1921 - d. 1989)
1981 - 1987                Enrique de la Mata (Spain)         (b. 1933 - d. 1987)
1987 - 1997                Mario Enrique Villarroel Lander    (b. 1947)
                             (Venezuela) 
Nov 1997 - 10 Nov 2001     Astrid N. Heiberg (f) (Norway)     (b. 1936)
10 Nov 2001 - 21 Nov 2009  Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero (b. 1952)
                             (Spain)
21 Nov 2009 -              Tadateru Konoé (Japan)             (b. 1939)

Secretaries-general
Jul 1919 - 1920            William E. Rappard (Switzerland)   (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
1921 - 1926                René Sand (Belgium)                (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
1927 - 1930                Tracey B. Kittredge (U.S.)         (b. 1891 - d. 1957)
1931                       Ernest P. Bicknell (
U.S.)          (b. 1862 - d. 1935)
1931 - Jan 1932            Gordon Lookwood
Berry (U.S.)       (b. 1884 - d. 1932)
1932 - 1936                Ernest J. Swift (
U.S.)             (b. 1883? - d. 1941)
1936 - 1957                Bonabès de Rougé (France)          (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
1958 - 1960                Henry W. Dunning (
U.S.)  
1960 - 1981                Henrik Beer (Sweden)               (b. 1915 - d. 1987)
1982 - 1987                Hans Hoegh (Norway)                (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
1988 - 1992                Pär Stenbäck (Finland)             (b. 1941)
1993 - 1999                George B. Weber (Canada)
2000 - 2003                Didier J. Cherpitel (France)       (b. 1944)
2003 - 2008                Markku Niskala (Finland)           (b. 1945)
 1 Jul 2008 -              Bekele Geleta (Ethiopia)           (b. 1944)

IFRCS membership (189)
Date of
Admission
Member National Societies
 5 May 1919
France, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States
27 May 1919
Belgium, Norway1
28 May 1919
Portugal
17 Jun 1919
Brazil
19 Jun 1919
Australia, Peru
20 Jun 1919
Canada
23 Jun 1919
Argentina
24 Jun 1919
South Africa
26 Jun 1919
Greece, Sweden2
11 Jul 1919
New Zealand
12 Jul 1919
Denmark3
14 Jul 1919
Romania
15 Jul 1919
Venezuela
17 Jul 1919
Cuba
27 Jul 1919
China4
 7 Aug 1919
India
15 Aug 1919
The Netherlands
22 Aug 1919
Serbia5, Spain
16 Sep 1919
Poland
 2 Nov 1919
Switzerland
11 Jan 1920
Czechoslovakia6
17 Jan 1920
Uruguay
 1 Feb 1920
Chile
 8 Apr 1921
Siam7
20 Apr 1921
Austria
 8 Jun 1921
Finland
14 Jun 1921
Hungary
20 Jul 1921
Bulgaria
29 Oct 1921
Luxembourg
23 Mar 1922
Paraguay
29 Mar 1922
Colombia
 5 Apr 1922
Costa Rica
15 Jul 1922
Germany8
25 May 1923
Bolivia, Danzig Free City9, Ecuador
 2 Aug 1923
Albania
15 Aug 1923
Guatemala
 5 Oct 1923
Mexico
 7 Jan 1924
Netherlands East Indies10
13 Feb 1925
Panama
30 May 1925
Iceland
24 Jun 1925
El Salvador
21 Jan 1929
Persia11
23 Jun 1929
Egypt
 7 Apr 1930
Turkey
19 Jan 1931
Dominican Republic
23 Jun 1934
Iraq
17 Oct 1934
Nicaragua
19 Oct 1934
Soviet Union12
 3 May 1937
Haiti
24 Nov 1945
Ireland
27 Nov 1945
Honduras
 5 Dec 1945
Liechtenstein
23 May 1946
Burma13
18 Aug 1948
Lebanon, Monaco, Pakistan, Philippines, Syria14
16 Oct 1950
Ethiopia, Indonesia, Jordan
25 Jul 1952
Ceylon15, San Marino, West Germany16
26 Oct 1957
Afghanistan, East Germany16, Laos, North Korea, South Korea, South Vietnam17, Tunisia
 4 Nov 1957
North Vietnam17, The Sudan
26 Sep 1959
Ghana, Liberia, Libya, Mongolia, Morocco
 2 Oct 1961
Cambodia, Nigeria, Togo
28 Aug 1963
Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa)18, Dahomey19, Ivory Coast20, Madagascar21, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika22, Trinidad and Tobago, Upper Volta23
28 Sep 1965
Jamaica, Nepal, Niger, Uganda
 5 Sep 1967
Kenya, Zambia
 1 Sep 1969
Guyana, Kuwait, Mali, Somalia
12 Oct 1971
Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi
 2 Nov 1973
Bahrain, Bangladesh, Fiji, Mauritania, Singapore
29 Oct 1975
Central African Republic, The Gambia
 7 Oct 1977
The Bahamas, Congo (Brazzaville), Mauritius, Papua New Guinea
 4 Oct 1979
Swaziland
 2 Nov 1981
Qatar, Tonga
 8 Oct 1983
Rwanda, Yemen (Sana)24, Zimbabwe
20 Oct 1985
Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde25, São Tomé and Príncipe, Western Samoa26 Yemen (Aden)24
18 Oct 1986
Angola, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Saint Lucia, Suriname, United Arab Emirates
23 Nov 1987
Grenada
21 Oct 1989
Chad, Dominica, Mozambique, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
25 Nov 1991
Latvia27, Lithuania28, Solomon Islands
25 Oct 1993
Antigua and Barbuda, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia29, Malta, Namibia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Vanuatu
27 Nov 1995
Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Equatorial Guinea, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
20 Nov 1997
Brunei Darussalam, Georgia, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Palau, Tajikistan
23 Oct 1999
Gabon
 7 Nov 2001
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Moldova
28 Nov 2003
Cook Islands, Kazakhstan, Federated States of Micronesia
11 Nov 2005
Comoros, East Timor
22 Jun 2006
Israel, Palestinian Territory
20 Nov 2007
Montenegro30
23 Nov 2011
Maldives
12 Nov 2013
Cyprus, South Sudan
1Norway withdrew May 1927, rejoined 1 Jan 1930. 2Sweden withdrew 7 May 1927, rejoined 1930. 3Denmark withdrew May 1927, rejoined 1930. 4from Oct 1950 the national Red Cross Society of People's Republic of China was a participant of the Federation's Board of Governors meetings and therefore accepted by the Federation as the Chinese Red Cross (the Chinese Red Cross was partly disbanded 1966-1978); in 1952 at 28th International Conference of the Red Cross, the Standing Commission of the Red Cross invited the People's Republic of China to attend as a delegate and the Formosan (Republic of China [Taiwan]) Red Cross as an observer. Formosa (Taiwan) was invited as an observer at 1957 and 1965, Taiwan has not been invited since 13 Sep 1969. 5part of Yugoslavia from 1 Dec 1918; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro, dissolved 5 Jun 2006, succeeded by Serbia. 6dissoloved 31 Dec 1992. 7from 1941 Thailand. 8IFRCS recognition revoked 1945. 9from 1939 annexed by Germany, from 1945 part of Poland. 10from 1949 independent as Indonesia, which joined 16 Oct 1950. 11from 1935 Iran. 12dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia; succession formally recognized 5 Oct 1992. 13from 1989 Myanmar. 14the Syrian Red Crescent was recognized by IFRCS as part of United Arab Republic Red Crescent on 29 Sep 1959, but was readmitted on 29 Sep 1962.  15from 1972 Sri Lanka. 16East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990 as Germany, the separate national societies united 3 Jan 1991. 17South Vietnam united with North Vietnam on 23 Aug 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 18Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 19from 1975 Benin. 20from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 21to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 22from 26 Apr 1964 United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 23from 1984 Burkina Faso. 24Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 1990 as Yemen, the separate national societies united 18 Jul 1990. 25from 2013 Cabo Verde. 26from 1997 Samoa. 27Latvian Red Cross originally admitted 10 Jan 1923. 28Lithuanian Red Cross originally admitted 12 Jan 1924. 29Estonian Red Cross originally admitted 25 Feb 1922. 30provisional member 26 Oct 2006 - 20 Nov 2007.

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
 
[Flag of Red Cross]       Adopted 22 Aug 1864
 
[ICRC flag]            ICRC Flag Adopted c.1975

ICRC website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)
ICRC Day: 8 May (1828)
World Red Cross Red
 Crescent Day
(Red Cross Day to 1984)

 9 Feb 1863                International Committee for Relief to the Wounded founded,
                             the birth of the International Red Cross Movement, by
                             Jean Henri Dunant (b. 1828 - d. 1910).
22 Aug 1864                First Geneva Convention signed.
20 Dec 1875                Renamed International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
                 

Presidents (all from Switzerland)
 9 Feb 1863 - 31 Mar 1864  Guillaume Henri Dufour             (b. 1787 - d. 1875)
31 Mar 1864 - 21 Aug 1910  Gustave Moynier                    (b. 1826 - d. 1910)
26 Aug 1910 - 31 Mar 1928  Gustave Ador                       (b. 1845 - d. 1928)
1917 - 1920                Édouard Naville                    (b. 1844 - d. 1926)
                             (acting for Ador)
12 May 1928 - 31 Dec 1944  Max Huber                          (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
 1 Jan 1945 - May 1948     Carl Burckhardt                    (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
                             (absent 24 Feb 1945 - Apr 1948)  
24 Feb 1945 - Feb 1947     Max Huber                          (s.a.)
                           (acting for Burckhardt)
Feb 1947 - May 1948        Ernest Gloor                       (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
                           + Martin Bodmer                    (b. 1899 - d. 1971)
                           (acting for Burckhardt)
12 May 1948 - 31 Aug 1955  Paul Ruegger                       (b. 1897 - d. 1988)
 1 Sep 1955 - 30 Sep 1964  Léopold Boissier                   (b. 1893 - d. 1968)
 1 Oct 1964 - Jan 1969     Samuel Gonard                      (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
 9 Jan 1969 - 31 May 1973  Marcel Naville                     (b. 1919 - d. 2003)
 1 Jun 1973 - 30 Jun 1976  Eric Martin                        (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
 1 Jul 1976 -  6 May 1987  Alexandre Hay                      (b. 1919 - d. 1991)
 7 May 1987 - 31 Dec 1999  Cornelio Sommaruga                 (b. 1932)
 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2012  Jakob Kellenberger                 (b. 1944)
 1 Jul 2012 -              Peter Maurer                       (b. 1956)


International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)

[Flag of
                    ICRM]
                      Adopted 1982
ICRM  website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)
ICRC Day: 8 May (1828)
World Red Cross Red
 Crescent Day
(Red Cross Day to 1984)

 9 Feb 1863                International Committee for Relief to the Wounded founded,
                             birth of the International Red Cross Movement (ICRM).

26 Oct 1928               
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
                             formally established with the adoption of "Statutes of the
                             International Red Cross
"   

Chairmen of the Standing Commission
1928 - 1934                Pierre Nolf (Belgium)              (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
1934 - 1938                Prince Iyesato Tokugawa (Japan)    (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
1938 - 1946                Sir Arthur Stanley (U.K.)          (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
1946 - 1948                Count Folke Bernadotte (Sweden)    (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
1948 - 1965                André François-Poncet (France)     (b. 1887 - d. 1978)
1965 - 1973                Angela Olivia Pery, Countess of    (b. 1897 - d. 1981)
                             Limerick (f) (U.K.)
1973 - 1977                Sir Geoffrey Newman-Morris         (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
                             (Australia)
1977 - 1981                Sir Evelyn Shuckburgh (U.K.)       (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
1981 - 1993                Ahmed Abu-Goura (Jordan)
1993 - 1995                Botho Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-  (b. 1927 - d. 2008)
                             Hohenstein (Germany)
1995 - 2003                Princess Margriet van Oranje-      
(b. 1943)
                             Nassau (f) (The Netherlands)
 5 Dec 2003 - 26 Nov 2009  Mohammed Al-Hadid (Jordan)         (b. 1951)  

26 Nov 2009 - 28 Nov 2011  Massimo Barra (Italy)              (b. 1947)
28 Nov 2011 -              Greg Vickery (Australia)           (b. 1946) 

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM) membership (189)
Date of  ICRC
Recognition
National Societies
16 Dec 1863
Württemberg1
 2 Jan 1864
Oldenburg1
 4 Feb 1864
Belgium
 6 Feb 1864
Prussia1
15 Jun 1864
Italy
24 Jun 1864
Mecklenburg-Schwerin1
18 Oct 1864
Hamburg Free City1
19 Dec 1864
Hesse-Darmstadt1
13 Apr 1865
Sweden
22 Sep 1865
Norway
 7 Jun 1866
Saxony1
29 Jun 1866
Baden1
22 Aug 1866
Switzerland
15 May 1867
Russia
 5 Jan 1868
Bavaria1
 8 Aug 1868
Turkey
21 Sep 1868
The Netherlands
 4 Aug 1870
United Kingdom
10 Feb 1876
Montenegro2
27 Apr 1876
Denmark
14 Jun 1876
Serbia
23 Aug 1876
Romania
 6 Oct 1877
Greece
14 Mar 1880
Austria
 8 May 1880
Peru
10 Jan 1882
Argentina
20 Jan 1882
Hungary
20 Sep 1882
United States
20 Oct 1885
Bulgaria
13 Jul 1887
Portugal
 2 Sep 1887
Japan
14 Jun 1889
Congo Free State3
 6 Jun 1893
Spain
 7 Apr 1896
Venezuela
15 Jun 1900
Uruguay
25 Jun 1900
Transvaal4
23 Oct 1905
Korea5
 1 Mar 1907
France
30 Apr 1909
Chile
 7 Sep 1909
Cuba
 3 Jan 1912
Mexico
15 Jan 1912
China6
16 Mar 1912
Brazil
14 Oct 1914
Luxembourg
14 Jul 1919
Poland
 1 Dec 1919 Czechoslovakia7
24 May 1920
Finland
27 May 1920
Siam8
15 Oct 1921
Soviet Union9
16 Mar 1922
Costa Rica
22 Mar 1922
Paraguay
23 Mar 1922
Colombia
10 Oct 1922
Danzig Free City10
10 Jan 1923
Bolivia
10 Apr 1923
Ecuador
 2 Aug 1923
Albania
15 Aug 1923
Guatemala
 1 Feb 1924
Egypt
20 Apr 1924
Panama
30 May 1924
Persia11
 9 Apr 1925
Iceland
25 Apr 1925
El Salvador
15 Nov 1927
Canada
16 Nov 1927
Dominican Republic
17 Nov 1927
Australia
10 May 1928
South Africa12
28 Feb 1929
India
16 Jun 1932
New Zealand
16 Jun 1934
Iraq
15 Sep 1934
Nicaragua
19 Sep 1935
Haiti
26 Sep 1935
Ethiopia
 5 Aug 1938
Honduras
20 Apr 1939
Burma13
 2 Nov 1939
Ireland
22 Jun 1945
Liechtenstein
12 Oct 1946
Syria14
30 Jan 1947
Lebanon
 5 May 1947
Philippines
20 Mar 1948
Monaco
21 Jul 1948
Pakistan
 9 Dec 1948
Transjordan15
15 Jun 1950
Indonesia
19 Oct 1950
San Marino
 6 Mar 1952
Ceylon16
26 Jun 1952
West Germany17
 2 Sep 1954
Afghanistan
 6 Nov 1954
East Germany17
26 May 1955
South Korea
 2 Feb 1956
North Korea
23 May 1957
Laos, South Vietnam18
12 Sep 1957
Tunisia
 1 Nov 1957
North Vietnam18, The Sudan
 7 Aug 1958
Morocco
 9 Sep 1958
Libya
 5 Feb 1959
Ghana, Liberia
15 Sep 1959
Mongolia
 6 Oct 1960
Cambodia
 4 May 1961
Nigeria
 7 Sep 1961
Togo
 1 Nov 1962
Sierra Leone, Upper Volta19
 4 Jul 1963
Algeria, Cameroon, Congo (Kinshasa)20, Malaysia
 8 Aug 1963
Ivory Coast21, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Tanganyika22, Trinidad and Tobago
22 Aug 1963
Burundi, Dahomey23
26 Aug 1963
Madagascar24
 1 Oct 1964
Jamaica, Nepal
 2 Sep 1965
Uganda
 2 Dec 1965
Niger
 3 Nov 1966
Kenya
 8 Dec 1966
Zambia
14 Sep 1967
Mali
 6 Jun 1968
Kuwait
 8 Aug 1968
Guyana
 3 Jul 1969
Somalia
 5 Feb 1970
Botswana
23 Jul 1970
Malawi
 7 Sep 1971
Lesotho
14 Sep 1972
Bahrain
 6 Jun 1973
Mauritania
20 Sep 1973
Bangladesh, Fiji, Singapore
24 Oct 1973
Central African Republic
10 Oct 1974
The Gambia
16 Dec 1976
The Bahamas, Congo (Brazzaville)
15 Sep 1977
Mauritius, Papua New Guinea
 4 Apr 1979
Swaziland
15 Oct 1981
Tonga
26 Oct 1981
Qatar
22 Apr 1982
Yemen (Sana)25
 6 Oct 1982
Rwanda
 7 Sep 1983
Zimbabwe
15 Mar 1984
Belize
30 Aug 1984
Barbados, Western Samoa26, Yemen (Aden)25
14 Mar 1985
Cape Verde27
 3 Oct 1985
São Tomé and Príncipe
27 Aug 1986
Guinea-Bissau, United Arab Emirates
 1 Oct 1986
Angola, Guinea, Saint Lucia, Suriname
15 Oct 1986
Djibouti
12 Mar 1987
Grenada
15 Apr 1988
Chad
29 Sep 1988
Mozambique
15 Mar 1989
Dominica
 4 Oct 1989
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 3 Oct 1991
Solomon Islands
 7 Nov 1991
Lithuania28
20 Nov 1991
Latvia29
 3 Jun 1992
Seychelles
27 Aug 1992
Saint Kitts and Nevis
 4 Nov 1992
Antigua and Barbuda
 3 Jun 1993
Seychelles
31 Mar 1993
Estonia30, Namibia
25 Aug 1993
Croatia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia
29 Sep 1993
Ukraine, Vanuatu
21 Oct 1993
Malta
24 Mar 1994
Andorra
28 Sep 1994
Equatorial Guinea
24 Aug 1995
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
 1 Nov 1995
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
 6 Nov 1996
Brunei Darussalam
19 Mar 1997
Kyrgyzstan
30 Sep 1997
Kiribati, Palau
 6 Nov 1997
Georgia, Tajikistan
19 Aug 1999
Gabon
 8 May 2001
Bosnia and Hercegovina
24 Oct 2001
Moldova
12 Dec 2002
Cook Islands
20 Nov 2003
Kazakhstan, Federated States of Micronesia
22 Sep 2005
Comoros
 9 Nov 2005
East Timor
22 Jun 2006
Israel, Palestinian Territory
21 Sep 2006
Montenegro31
23 Nov 2011
Maldives
23 Feb 2012
Cyprus
18 Jun 2013
South Sudan
1unified on 25 Jan 1921 as Red Cross Society of Germany, which was de facto recognized by the ICRC until 1945. 2Montenegro and Serbia were part of Yugoslavia from 1 Dec 1918; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; dissolved 5 Jun 2006, succeeded by Serbia. 3from 1908 a branch of the Belgian Red Cross; recognized by ICRC 4 Jul 1963 as Congo (Kinshasa) Red Cross. 4from 1902 a branch of the British Red Cross; from 1921 part of South African Red Cross which was recognized by ICRC on 10 May 1928. 5from 1910 a branch of Japanese Red Cross; separate North and South Korean Red Cross Societies recognized in 1955 and 1956. 6at 28th International Conference of the Red Cross in 1952, the Standing Commission of the Red Cross invited the People's Republic of China to attend as a delegate and the Formosan (Republic of China [Taiwan]) Red Cross as an observer, on the principle that there may only be only one National Red Cross Society per country. On 28 Jul 1952 the invitations of the Standing Commission were confirmed by a vote of Conference delegates. Formosa (Taiwan) was an invited observer 1957 and 1965. Taiwan was not invited as an observer after 13 Sep 1969; The People's Republic of China Red Cross Society was disbanded during the Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1978. 7dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 8from 1941 Thailand. 9Russian Red Cross est.1867 by decree of 6 Jan 1918 became the Soviet Red Cross, from 1924, Alliance of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies of the USSR; dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia; succession recognized 1 Jul 1992. 10from 1939 annexed by Germany, from 1945 part of Poland. 11from 1935 Iran. 12suspended from ICRC conference participation 25 Oct 1986 - Nov 1986. 13from 1989 Myanmar. 14Syria along with Egypt was part of the United Arab Republic 1958-1961; the ICRC did not recognize this new structure as such, but informed other National Red Cross Societies on 10 Sep 1959 that the Syrian Red Crescent was a component of the UAR Red Crescent; on 31 Jul 1962 ICRC noted its autonomy was restored. 15from 1950 Jordan. 16from 1972 Sri Lanka. 17East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990 as Germany, the separate national societies united 3 Jan 1991. 18South Vietnam united with North Vietnam on 23 Aug 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19from 1984 Burkina Faso. 20Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 21from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 22from 26 Apr 1964 United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 23from 1975 Benin. 24to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 25Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 1990 as Yemen the separate national societies united 18 Jul 1990. 26from 1997 Samoa. 27from 2013 Cabo Verde. 28Lithuanian Red Cross first recognized by ICRC on 28 Aug 1923. 29Latvian Red Cross first recognized by ICRC on 10 Jan 1923. 30from Estonian Red Cross first recognized by ICRC on 11 Apr 1922. 31provisional member to 20 Nov 2007.
Note: the procedure of recognition of new National Societies by the ICRC came into force from 1887. National Societies created before this date became members of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM) without formal recognition by the ICRC.


Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

[Shanghai Cooperation
                Organisation flag]
 
SCO website
Headquarters: Beijing
(China)

26 Apr 1996                Regional security treaty signed by the "Shanghai Five."
15 Jun 2001                Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
15 Jan 2004                Secretariat inaugurated.

Secretaries-general
15 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2006  Zhang Deguang (China)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 2007 - 21 Jan 2010  Bolat Kabdylkhamitovich
           (b. 1951)
                             Nurgaliyev (Kazakhstan)
21 Jan 2010 -  5 Dec 2012  Muratbek Sansyzbayevich Imanaliyev
(b. 1956)
                             (Kyrgyzstan)
 5 Dec 2012 -              Dmitry Fyodorovich Mezentsev       (b. 1959)
                             (Russia)

SCO membership (6)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
15 Jun 2001 China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, 
Tajikistan
 7 Jun 2002 Uzbekistan



South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

[Flag of SAARC]
                  Adopted 8 Dec 1985
 
SAARC website Headquarters: Kathmandu
(Nepal)
SAARC Day: 8 Dec (1985)
SAARC Charter Day

 8 Dec 1985                South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
                             established.

Secretaries-general
16 Jan 1987 - 15 Oct 1989  Abul Ahsan (Bangladesh)            (b. 1936 - d. 2008)
17 Oct 1989 - 31 Dec 1991  Kant Kishore Bhargava (India)      (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1993  Ibrahim Hussain Zaki (Maldives)    (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1995  Yadav Kant Silwal (Nepal)          (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1998  Naeem U. Hasan (Pakistan)          (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1999 - 10 Jan 2002  Nihal Rodrigo (Sri Lanka)
11 Jan 2002 - 28 Feb 2005  Q.A.M.A. Rahim (Bangladesh)        (b. 1942)
 1 Mar 2005 - 29 Feb 2008  Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji (Bhutan)     (b. 1943)
 1 Mar 2008 - 28 Feb 2011  Sheel Kanta Sharma (India)         (b. 1950)
 1 Mar 2011 - 22 Jan 2012  Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed (f)
        (b. 1974)
                             (Maldives)  
22 Jan 2012 - 12 Mar 2012  Damayanthi Rajapakse (f)(Sri Lanka)
                             
(acting)
12 Mar 2012 - 28 Feb 2014  Ahmed Saleem (Maldives)            (b. 1949)
 1 Mar 2014 -              Arjun Bahadur Thapa (Nepal)        (b. 1956) 

SAARC membership (8)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 8 Dec 1985 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
 3 Apr 2007
Afghanistan



Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

[SEATO flag]
               Adopted 19 Feb 1959
 
Southeast Asia Collective
Defense Treaty
 (8 Sep 1954)
Headquarters: Bangkok
(Thailand)
SEATO Day: 8 Sep (1954)
SEATO Day

 8 Sep 1954                Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty signed.
19 Feb 1955                Southeast Asia Treaty Organization established.
 1 Feb 1974                Dissolution of military structures.
30 Jun 1977                SEATO dissolved.

Secretaries-general
 5 Sep 1957 - 22 Sep 1957  Pote Sarasin (1st time)
(Thailand)  (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
22 Sep 1957 - 10 Jan 1958  William Worth (
Australia)          (b. 1912)
                             (1st time)(acting)
10 Jan 1958 - 13 Dec 1963  Pote Sarasin (2nd time)
(Thailand)  (s.a.)
13 Dec 1963 - 19 Feb 1964  William Worth (Australia)          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
19 Feb 1964 -  1 Jul 1965  Konthi Suphamongkhon (Thailand)    (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 1965 -  5 Sep 1972  Jesus Miranda Vargas (Philippines) (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
 5 Sep 1972 - 30 Jun 1977  Sunthorn Hongladarom (Thailand)    (b. 1912 - d. 2005)

SEATO membership
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
19 Feb 1955 Australia, France¹, New Zealand, Pakistan2, Philippines,
Thailand, United Kingdom, United States 
¹ceased financial contributions 30 Jun 1974. 2withdrew 7 Nov 1973. 


South Pacific Forum: see Pacific Islands Forum


Southern African Development Community (SADC)
 
[Southern
                          African Development Coordination Conference
                          1980-1992]
                              1980 - 1992
 
[Southern African
                          Development Community]
                Adopted 28 Aug 1995
 
SADC website
Anthem
"SADC Anthem"
Adopted Aug 2004
Headquarters: Gaborone
(Botswana)
SADC Day: 17 Aug (1992)
SADC Day

 1 Apr 1980                Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC).
17 Aug 1992                Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Executive Secretaries
1980 - 1982                Lebang Mpotokwane (Botswana)       (b. 1944)
                             (1st time)(acting)
Oct 1982 - Mar 1984        Frederick Arthur Blumeris          (b. 1940 - d. 1984)
                             (Zimbabwe)
1984                       Lebang Mpotokwane (Botswana)       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
1984 - 31 Dec 1993         Simba Makoni (Zimbabwe)            (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1999  Kaire Mbuende (Namibia)            (b. 1953)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Aug 2005  Prega Ramsamy (Mauritius)          (b. 1950)
                             (acting to 9 Mar 2001)
 1 Sep 2005 - 31 Aug 2013  Tomaz Augusto Salomão (Mozambique) (b. 1954)
 1 Sep 2013 -              Stergomena Lawrence Tax (f)        (b. 1960)
                             (Tanzania)

SADC membership (15)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Apr 1980 Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
31 Mar 1990 Namibia
30 Aug 1994 South Africa
28 Aug 1995 Mauritius
 8 Sep 1997 Congo (Kinshasa), Seychelles¹
18 Aug 2005 Madagascar2
¹withdrew 1 Jul 2004, rejoined 16 Aug 2008. 2suspended 30 Mar 2009 - 30 Jan 2014.



Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR)
 
[Mercosur
                          Flag]
           Adopted 16 Dec 1996  (Spanish)
 
[Mercosur
                          Flag]
                    (Portuguese variant)
 
MERCOSUR website
------------------
PARLASUR website
Headquarters: Montevideo
(Uruguay)
MERCOSUR Day:
26 Mar (1991)
Día del MERCOSUR

26 Mar 1991                Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur/Mercosul)
                             founded by Treaty of Asunción.
17 Dec 1994                Customs union inaugurated.
 1 Jan 1997                Secretariat inaugurated.
 6 Dec 2006               
Parlamento del Mercosur (Parlasur/Parlasul) effective.

Directors of the Executive Secretariat
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1998  Jorge Enrique Fernández Reyes 
                             (Uruguay)
 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 2000  Ramón Antero Díaz Pereira
                             (Paraguay)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2002  Santiago J. González Cravino
                             (Argentina)
 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2005  Reginaldo Braga Arcuri (Brazil)    (b. 1955?)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2007  José Ernesto Büttner Limprich
                             (Paraguay)

 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2009  José Manuel Quijano Capurro
                             (Uruguay)
 1 Dec 2010 - 31 Dec 2011  Agustín Miguel Colombo Sierra      (b. 1952)
                             
(Argentina)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Jeferson Miola (Brazil)


[Parlamento del
                  Mercosur / Parlamento do Mercosul flag] 

Presidents of the Mercosur Parliament (Parlasur/Parlasul)  
 6 Dec 2006 – 29 Jun 2007  Alfonso González Núñez
(Paraguay)  (b. 1964)
29 Jun 2007 – 18 Dec 2007  Carlos Roberto Conde Carreras      (b. 1952)
                             (Uruguay)
18 Dec 2007 – 28 Jun 2008  José Juan Bautista Pampuro         (b. 1949)
                             (1st time)(Argentina)
28 Jun 2008 – 10 Feb 2009  Florisvaldo Fier (Brazil)          (b. 1950)
10 Feb 2009 – 17 Aug 2009  Ignacio Mendoza Unzaín
(Paraguay)
                             (1st time)
17 Aug 2009 -  2 Feb 2010  Juan José Dom
ínguez (Uruguay)
 2 Feb 2010 -  9 Aug 2010  José Juan Bautista Pampuro         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(Argentina)
 9 Aug 2010 - 31 Dec 2010  Aloizio Mercadante Oliva (Brazil)  (b. 1954)
 
31 Dec 2010 - 12 Aug 2011  Ignacio Mendoza Unzaín
(Paraguay)
                             (2nd time)
12 Aug 2011 -              Azambuja Reinaldo Silva (Brazil)   (b. 1963)

 
MERCOSUR membership (5)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
26 Mar 1991 Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay¹, Uruguay 
31 Jul 2012
Venezuela

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of Mercosur
 1 Oct 1996
Chile
 1 Jan 1997
Bolivia
25 Aug 2003
Peru
 1 Jul 2004
Colombia, Ecuador
¹suspended 29 Jun 2012 - 15 Aug 2013.



Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)

[Union
                      of South American Nations (UNASUR) unofficial flag
                      2008-2011]          23 May 2008 - 2011 Unofficial

[Union of South American
                      Nations (UNASUR) flag]                     Adopted 2011
UNASUR  website
Headquarters: Quito (Ecuador)
(Brasilia, Brazil interim 2008-11)

 8 Dec 2004                South American Community of Nations.
23 May 2008                Union of South American Nations (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas/
                             União de Nações Sul-Americanas) founded.
11 Mar 2011                Constitutive Treaty enters into force.


Secretaries-general

 4 May 2010 - 27 Oct 2010  Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić        (b. 1950 - d. 2010)  
                             (Argentina)
27 Oct 2010 - 11 Mar 2011  Vacant
11 Mar 2011 - 11 Jun 2012  Maria Emma Mejía Vélez (f)(Colombia) (b. 1953)
                             (acting to 1 Apr 2011)
11 Jun 2012 - 11 Sep 2014  Alí Rodríguez Araque (Venezuela)     (b. 1937)
11 Sep 2014 -              Ernesto Samper Pizano (Colombia)     (b. 1950)


Presidents Pro Tempore
23 May 2008 - 10 Aug 2009  Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (f) (b. 1951)
                             (Chile)
10 Aug 2009 - 26 Nov 2010  Rafael Correa Delgado (Ecuador)      (b. 1963)
26 Nov 2010 - 29 Nov 2011  Bharrat Jagdeo (Guyana)              (b. 1964)
29 Nov 2011 - 22 Jun 2012  Fernando Lugo Méndez (Paraguay)      (b. 1951)
22 Jun 2012 - 29 Jun 2012  Vacant
29 Jun 2012 - 30 Aug 2013  Ollanta Humala (Peru)                (b. 1962)
30 Aug 2013 -  4 Dec 2014  Dési Bouterse (Suriname)             (b. 1945)
 4 Dec 2014 -              José Mujica (Uruguay)                (b. 1935)



UNASUR membership (12)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
23 May 2008
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay¹, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela
¹suspended 29 Jun 2012 - 15 Aug 2013.



United Nations   (UN)
 
[UN 1945 Flag]
               Apr 1945 - 7 Dec 1946
 
[Flag of the United
                          Nations]
                 Adopted 7 Dec 1946
 
UN website
Headquarters
New York City 
(United States);
(London, UK 1946;
Geneva, Switzerland 1946-10 Jan 1951 )
UN Day: 24 Oct (1945)
United Nations Day
United Nations Charter
 (26 Jun 1945) 
Universal Declaration
of Human Rights
(10 Dec 1948)

26 Jun 1945                UN Charter signed.
24 Oct 1945                UN Charter effective.
18 Apr 1946                League of Nations officially transfers its assets
                             and responsibilities to the United Nations.

Secretaries-general
24 Oct 1945 - 29 Jan 1946  Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.) (acting)   (b. 1900 - d. 1996)
 2 Feb 1946 - 10 Apr 1953  Trygve Lie (Norway)                (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
10 Apr 1953 - 18 Sep 1961  Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden)          (b. 1905 - d. 1961)
 3 Nov 1961 - 31 Dec 1971  U Thant (Burma)                    (b. 1909 - d. 1974)
                             (acting to 30 Nov 1962)
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1981  Kurt Waldheim (Austria)            (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1991  Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Peru)     (b. 1920)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1996  Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt)      (b. 1922)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 2006  Kofi Annan (Ghana)                 (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2007 -              Ban Ki Moon (South Korea)          (b. 1944)
 

Presidents of the General Assembly
10 Jan 1946 - 16 Sep 1947  Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)         (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
16 Sep 1947 - 16 Apr 1948  Oswaldo Euclides de Sousa Aranha   (b. 1894 - d. 1960)
                             (Brazil)                      
16 Apr 1948 - 21 Sep 1948  José Arce (Argentina)              (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
21 Sep 1948 - 20 Sep 1949  Herbert Vere Evatt (Australia)     (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
20 Sep 1949 - 19 Sep 1950  Carlos Peña Romulo (Philippines)   (b. 1899 - d. 1985)
19 Sep 1950 -  6 Nov 1951  Nasrollah Entezam (Iran)           (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
 6 Nov 1951 - 14 Oct 1952  Luis Padilla Nervo (Mexico)        (b. 1894 - d. 1985)
14 Oct 1952 - 15 Sep 1953  Lester B. Pearson (Canada)         (b. 1897 - d. 1972)
15 Sep 1953 - 21 Sep 1954  Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (f) (India)  (b. 1900 - d. 1990)
21 Sep 1954 - 20 Sep 1955  Eelco Nicolaas van Kleffens        (b. 1894 - d. 1983)
                             (Netherlands) 
20 Sep 1955 -  1 Nov 1956  José Guillermo Maza Fernández      (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
                             (Chile)
 1 Nov 1956 - 12 Nov 1956  Rudecindo Ortega Masson (Chile)    (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
12 Nov 1956 - 17 Sep 1957  Prince Wan Waithayakon (Thailand)  (b. 1891 - d. 1976)
17 Sep 1957 - 16 Sep 1958  Sir Leslie Munro (New Zealand)     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
16 Sep 1958 - 15 Sep 1959  Charles Habib Malik (Lebanon)      (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
15 Sep 1959 - 20 Sep 1960  Víctor Andrés Belaúnde Diez Canseco(b. 1883 - d. 1966)
                             (Peru)
20 Sep 1960 - 20 Sep 1961  Frederick Henry Boland (Ireland)   (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
20 Sep 1961 - 18 Sep 1962  Mongi Slim (Tunisia)               (b. 1908 - d. 1969)
18 Sep 1962 - 17 Sep 1963  Sir Mohammad Zafrulla Khan         (b. 1893 - d. 1985)
                             (Pakistan) 
17 Sep 1963 -  1 Dec 1964  Carlos Sosa Rodríguez (Venezuela)  (b. 1912 - d. 1997)
 1 Dec 1964 - 21 Sep 1965  Alex Quaison-Sackey (Ghana)        (b. 1924 - d. 1992)
21 Sep 1965 - 20 Sep 1966  Amintore Fanfani (Italy)           (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
20 Sep 1966 - 19 Sep 1967  Abdul Rahman Pazhwak (Afghanistan) (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
19 Sep 1967 - 24 Sep 1968  Corneliu Mănescu (Romania)         (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
24 Sep 1968 - 17 Apr 1969  Emilio Arenales Catalán            (b. 1922 - d. 1969)
                             (Guatemala) 
16 Sep 1969 - 15 Sep 1970  Angie Brooks (f) (Liberia)         (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
                             (from 27 Apr 1970, Angie Brooks-Randolph)
15 Sep 1970 - 21 Sep 1971  Edvard Hambro (Norway)             (b. 1911 - d. 1977)
21 Sep 1971 - 19 Sep 1972  Adam Malik (Indonesia)             (b. 1917 - d. 1984)
19 Sep 1972 - 18 Sep 1973  Stanislaw Trepczyński (Poland)     (b. 1924 - d. 2002)
18 Sep 1973 - 17 Sep 1974  Leopoldo Benites Vinueza (Ecuador) (b. 1905 - d. 1996)
17 Sep 1974 - 16 Sep 1975  Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria)     (b. 1937)
16 Sep 1975 - 21 Sep 1976  Gaston Thorn (Luxembourg)          (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
21 Sep 1976 - 20 Sep 1977  Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe       (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
                             (Sri Lanka) 
20 Sep 1977 - 19 Sep 1978  Lazar Mojsov (Yugoslavia)          (b. 1920 - d. 2011)
19 Sep 1978 - 18 Sep 1979  Indalecio Liévano Aguirre          (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
                             (Colombia) 
18 Sep 1979 - 16 Sep 1980  Salim Ahmed Salim (Tanzania)       (b. 1942)
16 Sep 1980 - 15 Sep 1981  Rüdiger von Wechmar (W. Germany)   (b. 1923 - d. 2007)
15 Sep 1981 - 21 Sep 1982  Ismat T. Kittani (Iraq)            (b. 1929 - d. 2001)
21 Sep 1982 - 20 Sep 1983  Imre Hollai (Hungary)              (b. 1925)
20 Sep 1983 - 18 Sep 1984  Jorge Enrique Illueca Sibauste     (b. 1918 - d. 2012) 
                             (Panama)   
18 Sep 1984 - 17 Sep 1985  Paul J.F. Lusaka (Zambia)          (b. 1935 - d. 1996)
17 Sep 1985 - 16 Sep 1986  Jaime de Piniés (Spain)            (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
16 Sep 1986 - 15 Sep 1987  Humayun Rasheed Chowdhury          (b. 1928 - d. 2001)
                             (Bangladesh) 
15 Sep 1987 - 20 Sep 1988  Peter Florin (East Germany)        (b. 1921 - d. 2014)
20 Sep 1988 - 19 Sep 1989  Dante María Caputo (Argentina)     (b. 1943)
19 Sep 1989 - 18 Sep 1990  Joseph Nanven Garba (Nigeria)      (b. 1943 - d. 2002)
18 Sep 1990 - 17 Sep 1991  Guido de Marco (Malta)             (b. 1931 - d. 2010)
17 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1992  Samir S. Shihabi (Saudi Arabia)    (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
15 Sep 1992 - 21 Sep 1993  Stoyan Ganev (Bulgaria)            (b. 1955 - d. 2013)
21 Sep 1993 - 20 Sep 1994  Samuel R. Insanally (Guyana)       (b. 1936)
20 Sep 1994 - 19 Sep 1995  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (b. 1944)
19 Sep 1995 - 17 Sep 1996  Diogo Freitas do Amaral (Portugal) (b. 1941)
17 Sep 1996 - 16 Sep 1997  Razali Ismail (Malaysia)           (b. 1939)
16 Sep 1997 -  9 Sep 1998  Hennadii Udovenko (Ukraine)        (b. 1931 - d. 2013)
 9 Sep 1998 - 14 Sep 1999  Didier Opertti Badán (Uruguay)     (b. 1937)
14 Sep 1999 -  5 Sep 2000  Theo-Ben Gurirab (Namibia)         (b. 1939)
 5 Sep 2000 - 12 Sep 2001  Harri Holkeri (Finland)            (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
12 Sep 2001 - 10 Sep 2002  Han Seung Soo (South Korea)        (b. 1936)
10 Sep 2002 - 16 Sep 2003  Jan Kavan (Czech Republic)         (b. 1946)
16 Sep 2003 - 14 Sep 2004  Julian Hunte (Saint Lucia)         (b. 1940)
14 Sep 2004 - 13 Sep 2005  Jean Ping (Gabon)                  (b. 1942)
13 Sep 2005 - 12 Sep 2006  Jan Eliasson (Sweden)              (b. 1940)
12 Sep 2006 - 18 Sep 2007  Haya Rashed Al Khalifah (f)        (b. 1952)
                             (Bahrain)
18 Sep 2007 - 16 Sep 2008  Srgjan Kerim (Macedonia)           (b. 1948)
16 Sep 2008 - 15 Sep 2009  Miguel D'Escoto Brockmann          (b. 1933)
                             (Nicaragua)
15 Sep 2009 - 14 Sep 2010  Ali Triki (Libya)                  (b. 1938)
14 Sep 2010 - 13 Sep 2011  Joseph Deiss (Switzerland)         (b. 1946)
13 Sep 2011 - 18 Sep 2012  Nasser Abdulaziz al-Nasser (Qatar) (b. 1953)
18 Sep 2012 - 17 Sep 2013  Vuk Jeremić (Serbia)               (b. 1975)
17 Sep 2013 - 16 Sep 2014  John W. Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda) (b. 1954)
16 Sep 2014 -              Sam Kutesa (Uganda)                (b. 1949)

          

[United Nations High
                  Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)]

United Nations High Commissioners for Refugees
 1 Jan 1951 -  8 Jul 1956  Gerrit J. van Heuven Goedhart      (b. 1901 - d. 1956)
                             (Netherlands)
 8 Jul 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  James M. Read (U.S.) (acting)      (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1960  Auguste R. Lindt (Switzerland)     (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1965  Felix Schnyder (Switzerland)       (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1977  Sadruddin Aga Khan (Iran)          (b. 1933 - d. 2003)
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1985  Poul Hartling (Denmark)            (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Oct 1989  Jean-Pierre Hocké (Switzerland)    (b. 1938)
 1 Nov 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Gerald Hinteregger (Austria)       (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1990 -  2 Nov 1990  Thorvald Stoltenberg (Norway)      (b. 1931)
 2 Nov 1990 - 18 Feb 1991  Douglas Stafford (U.S.) (acting)
18 Feb 1991 - 31 Dec 2000  Sadako Ogata (f) (Japan)           (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 2001 - 24 Feb 2005  Rudolphus "Ruud" Lubbers           (b. 1939)
                             (Netherlands) 
24 Feb 2005 - 15 Jun 2005  Wendy Jean Chamberlain (U.S.)      (b. 1948)
                             (acting)
15 Jun 2005 -              António Manuel de Oliveira         (b. 1949) 
                             Guterres (Portugal)

[United
                      Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights]

United Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights
 5 Apr 1994 - 15 Mar 1997  José Julio Ayala Lasso (Ecuador)   (b. 1932)
15 Mar 1997 - 12 Sep 1997  Ralph Zacklin (U.K.) (interim)     (b. 1937)
12 Sep 1997 - 12 Sep 2002  Mary Terese Winifred Bourke        (b. 1944) 
                             Robinson (f) (Ireland) 
12 Sep 2002 - 19 Aug 2003  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
 2 Jun 2003 -  1 Jul 2004  Bertrand "Bertie" Gangapersaud     (b. 1943)
                             Ramcharan (Guyana)
                             (acting [for Mello to 19 Aug 2003])
 1 Jul 2004 - 30 Jun 2008  Louise Arbour (f) (Canada)         (b. 1947)
 1 Jul 2008 -
31 Aug 2008  Kyung-wha Kang (f)(South Korea)    (b. 1955)
                             (acting)
 1 Sep 2008 - 31 Aug 2014  Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (f)       (b. 1941)
                             (South Africa)            
 1 Sep 2014 -              Prince Zeid al-Hussein (Jordan)    (b. 1964)

UN membership (193)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
24 Oct 1945 Argentina, Byelorussian S.S.R.1, Brazil, Chile, China2, Cuba, Czechoslovakia3, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt4, El Salvador, France, Haiti, Iran, Lebanon, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Soviet Union5, Syria4, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R.6, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia7
25 Oct 1945 Greece
30 Oct 1945 India
31 Oct 1945 Peru
 1 Nov 1945 Australia
 2 Nov 1945 Costa Rica, Liberia
 5 Nov 1945 Colombia
 7 Nov 1945 Mexico, South Africa8
 9 Nov 1945 Canada
13 Nov 1945 Ethiopia, Panama
14 Nov 1945 Bolivia
15 Nov 1945 Venezuela
21 Nov 1945 Guatemala
27 Nov 1945 Norway
10 Dec 1945 The Netherlands
17 Dec 1945 Honduras
18 Dec 1945 Uruguay
21 Dec 1945 Ecuador, Iraq
27 Dec 1945 Belgium
19 Nov 1946 Afghanistan, Iceland, Sweden
16 Dec 1946 Thailand
30 Sep 1947 Pakistan, Yemen (Sana)9
19 Apr 1948 Burma10
11 May 1949 Israel
28 Sep 1950 Indonesia11
14 Dec 1955 Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon12, Finland, Hungary, Ireland,
Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, Spain
12 Nov 1956 Morocco, The Sudan, Tunisia
18 Dec 1956 Japan
 8 Mar 1957 Ghana
17 Sep 1957 Malaya13
12 Dec 1958 Guinea
20 Sep 1960 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo
(Léopoldville)
14, Cyprus, Dahomey15, Gabon, Ivory Coast16, Madagascar17, Niger, Somalia, Togo, Upper Volta18
28 Sep 1960 Mali, Senegal
 7 Oct 1960 Nigeria
27 Sep 1961 Sierra Leone
 7 Oct 1961 Mauritania
27 Oct 1961 Mongolia
14 Dec 1961 Tanganyika19
18 Sep 1962 Burundi, Jamaica, Rwanda, Trinidad and Tobago
 8 Oct 1962 Algeria
25 Oct 1962 Uganda
14 May 1963 Kuwait
16 Dec 1963 Kenya, Zanzibar19
 1 Dec 1964 Malawi, Malta, Zambia
21 Sep 1965 The Gambia, Maldives, Singapore
20 Sep 1966 Guyana
17 Oct 1966 Botswana, Lesotho
 9 Dec 1966 Barbados
14 Dec 1967 Yemen (Aden)9
24 Apr 1968 Mauritius
24 Sep 1968 Swaziland
12 Nov 1968 Equatorial Guinea
13 Oct 1970 Fiji
21 Sep 1971 Bahrain, Bhutan, Qatar
 7 Oct 1971 Oman
 9 Dec 1971 United Arab Emirates
18 Sep 1973 The Bahamas, East Germany20, West Germany20
17 Sep 1974 Bangladesh, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau
16 Sep 1975 Cape Verde21, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe
10 Oct 1975 Papua New Guinea
12 Nov 1975 Comoros
 4 Dec 1975 Suriname
21 Sep 1976 Seychelles
 1 Dec 1976 Angola
15 Dec 1976 Western Samoa22
20 Sep 1977 Djibouti, Vietnam
19 Sep 1978 Solomon Islands
18 Dec 1978 Dominica
18 Sep 1979 Saint Lucia
25 Aug 1980 Zimbabwe
16 Sep 1980 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
15 Sep 1981 Vanuatu
25 Sep 1981 Belize
11 Nov 1981 Antigua and Barbuda
23 Sep 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis
21 Sep 1984 Brunei Darussalam
23 Apr 1990 Namibia
18 Sep 1990 Liechtenstein
17 Sep 1991 Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
 2 Mar 1992 Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
 9 Mar 1992 Azerbaijan
22 May 1992 Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Slovenia
31 Jul 1992 Georgia
19 Jan 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
 8 Apr 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
28 May 1993 Monaco, Eritrea
28 Jul 1993 Andorra
15 Dec 1994 Palau
14 Sep 1999 Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga
 5 Sep 2000 Tuvalu
 1 Nov 2000 Serbia and Montenegro8
10 Sep 2002 Switzerland
27 Sep 2002 East Timor
28 Jun 2006 Montenegro
14 Jul 2011
South Sudan
 1from 19 Sep 1991 Belarus. 2the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 15 Nov 1971, when the UN voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 3dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 4on 21 Feb 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single memberOn 13 Oct 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent state, resumed its separate membership. On 2 Sep 1971 the United Arab Republic was renamed Arab Republic of Egypt. 5dissolved 25 Dec 1991; Russia succeeded to Soviet seat. 6from 1991 Ukraine. 7Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia broke up in 1992; in 8 Apr 1992 Montenegro and Serbia reconstituted as Federal Republic of Yugoslavia assumed the former Yugoslav seat, on 22 Sep 1992 the rump Yugoslavia was suspended from participation in the General Assembly and told to reapply for membership, which it did in 2000 (admitted 1 Nov 2000); from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 8from 12 Nov 1974 to 23 Jun 1994 the General Assembly refused to accept the credentials of the South African delegation because of the country's apartheid policies, but South Africa retained membership. 9Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 10from 1989 Myanmar. 11withdrew 20 Jan 1965; rejoined 28 Sep 1966. 12from 1972 Sri Lanka. 13from 1963 Malaysia. 141966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 15from 1975 Benin. 16from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 17to 30 Dc 1975 Malagasy Republic. 18from 1984 Burkina Faso. 19Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 20East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990.  21from 2013 Cabo Verde. 22from 1997 Samoa.
Note: Vatican City is the only undisputed nation that is a non-member.



United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
[United
                      Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)]                      UNICEF Flag
[UICEF
                      flag variant]                         Variant

UNICEF website
Headquarters: New York City (United States)
UNICEF Day: 20 Nov (1959)
Universal Children's Day

11 Dec 1946                United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
                             
created as a temporary agency of the United Nations.
 6 Oct 1953                Renamed United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF),
made a permanent
                             specialized agency of the United Nations.
20 Nov 1959                Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by U.N.

Executive Directors
11 Dec 1946 - 19 Jan 1965  Maurice Pate (U.S.)                (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
Mar 1965 - 31 Dec 1979     Henry Richardson Labouisse (U.S.)  (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 1 Jan 1980 - 28 Jan 1995  James Grant (U.S.)                 (b. 1922 - d. 1995)
 1 May 1995 - 30 Apr 2005  Carol Bellamy (f) (U.S.)           (b. 1942)
 1 May 2005 - 30 Apr 2010  Ann M. Veneman (f) (U.S.)          (b. 1949)
 1 May 2010 -              Anthony "Tony" Lake (U.S.)         (b. 1939)


UNICEF membership
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
11 Dec 1946
the Executive Board consists of 36 members, elected for a three-year term with the following regional allocation of seats: 8 African states, 7 Asian states, 4 Eastern European states, 5 Latin American and Caribbean states and 12 Western European and other states (including Japan). The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) elects states to sit on the UNICEF Executive Board from state members of the United Nations or of the specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency.


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

[Flag of UNO]
                  Adopted 30 Dec 1964
UNCTAD  website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)

20 Mar 1964 -  6 Jun 1964  The first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
                             takes place.
30 Dec 1964                United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
                             established as a permanent organ of the UN General Assembly.

Secretaries-general

1964 - Mar 1969            Raúl Prebisch (Argentina)            (b. 1901 - d. 1986)
Mar 1969 - Mar 1974        Manuel Pérez-Guerrero (Venezuela)    (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
 5 Apr 1974 - 31 Dec 1984  Gamani Corea (Sri Lanka)             (b. 1925 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Alister McIntyre (Grenada) (acting)  (b. 1932)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Mar 1994  Kenneth K.S. Dadzie (Ghana)          (b. 1930 - d. 1995)
 1 Apr 1994 - 14 Sep 1995  Carlos Fortín Cabezas (Chile)        (b. 1940)
                             (1st time)(acting)
15 Sep 1995 - 15 Sep 2004  Rubens Ricupero (Brazil)             (b. 1937)
15 Sep 2004 - 31 Aug 2005  Carlos Fortín Cabezas (Chile)        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Sep 2005 - 31 Aug 2013  Supachai Panitchpakdi (Thailand)     (b. 1946)
 1 Sep 2013 -              Mukhisa Kituyi (Kenya)               (b. 1956)

UNCTAD membership (194)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
30 Dec 1964
the members of the United Nations
30 Dec 1964 Holy See


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)


[Flag of
                      UNO]                  Adopted 22 Nov 1965

[United Nations Development
                      Programme (UNDP) alternate flag]                      Variant Flag
UNDP website
Headquarters: New York
(United States)
UNDP Day: 24 Oct (1970)
World Development
 Information Day

22 Nov 1965                UNDP established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Administrators
Jan 1966 - 1972            Paul G. Hoffman (U.S.)             (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
1972 - 1976                Rudolph A. Peterson (U.S.)         (b. 1904 - d. 2004)
1976 - 1986                F. Bradford Morse (U.S.)           (b. 1921 - d. 1994)
1986 - 1993                William H. Draper III (U.S.)       (b. 1928)
1993 - 30 Jun 1999         James Gustave Speth (U.S.)         (b. 1942)
 1 Jul 1999 - Aug 2005     Mark Malloch Brown (U.K.)          (b. 1953)
15 Aug 2005 - 28 Feb 2009  Kemal Derviş (Turkey)              (b. 1949)
 1 Mar 2009 - 20 Apr 2009  Ad Melkert (Netherlands)(acting)   (b. 1956)
20 Apr 2009 -              Helen E. Clark (f) (New Zealand)   (b. 1950)



UNDP membership
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
22 Nov 1965
36 Executive Board members selected on a rotating basis
from all regions



United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

[United Nations Educational,
                Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)]
 
UNESCO website
World Heritage
Properties List
Hear Anthem
"UNESCO Hymne"
Headquarters
Paris (France)
UNESCO Day: 18 Apr
World Heritage Day
(International Day for
 Monuments and Sites)

 4 Nov 1946                UNESCO established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors-general
 6 Dec 1946 -  9 Dec 1948  Julian Huxley (U.K.)               (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
10 Dec 1948 -  1 Dec 1952  Jaime Torres Bodet (Mexico)        (b. 1902 - d. 1974)
 2 Dec 1952 -  3 Jul 1953  John W. Taylor (U.S.) (interim)    (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
 4 Jul 1953 -  4 Dec 1958  Luther H. Evans (U.S.)             (b. 1902 - d. 1981)
 5 Dec 1958 -  2 Nov 1961  Vittorino Veronese (Italy)         (b. 1910 - d. 1986)
 2 Nov 1961 - 14 Nov 1974  René Maheu (France)                (b. 1905 - d. 1975)
                             (interim to 14 Nov 1962)
15 Nov 1974 - 14 Nov 1987  Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow (Senegal)      (b. 1921)
15 Nov 1987 - 14 Nov 1999  Federico Mayor Zaragoza (Spain)    (b. 1934)
15 Nov 1999 - 14 Nov 2009  Koichiro Matsuura (Japan)          (b. 1937)
15 Nov 2009 -              Irina G. Bokova (f)(Bulgaria)      (b. 1952)

UNESCO membership (195)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Nov 1946 Australia, Brazil, Canada, China1, Czechoslovakia2, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa3, Turkey, United Kingdom4, United States5
 6 Nov 1946 Poland6
13 Nov 1946 Bolivia
16 Nov 1946 Syria7
18 Nov 1946 Haiti
21 Nov 1946 Peru, Philippines
25 Nov 1946 Venezuela
29 Nov 1946 Belgium
 1 Jan 1947 The Netherlands
22 Jan 1947 Ecuador
 6 Mar 1947 Liberia
29 Aug 1947 Cuba
27 Oct 1947 Luxembourg
31 Oct 1947 Colombia
 8 Nov 1947 Uruguay
16 Dec 1947 Honduras
27 Jan 1948 Italy
28 Apr 1948 El Salvador
 4 May 1948 Afghanistan
13 Aug 1948 Austria
 6 Sep 1948 Iran
14 Sep 1948 Hungary8
15 Sep 1948 Argentina
21 Oct 1948 Iraq
 1 Jan 1949 Thailand
28 Jan 1949 Switzerland
27 Jun 1949 Burma9
 6 Jul 1949 Monaco
14 Sep 1949 Pakistan
16 Sep 1949 Israel10
14 Nov 1949 Ceylon11
 2 Jan 1950 Guatemala
10 Jan 1950 Panama
23 Jan 1950 Sweden
31 Mar 1950 Yugoslavia12
19 May 1950 Costa Rica
27 May 1950 Indonesia13
14 Jun 1950 Jordan, South Korea
 2 Jul 1951 Japan
 3 Jul 1951 Cambodia
 6 Jul 1951 Vietnam14
 9 Jul 1951 Laos
11 Jul 1951 West Germany15
22 Feb 1952 Nicaragua
30 Jan 1953 Spain
 1 May 1953 Nepal
27 Jun 1953 Libya
 7 Jul 1953 Chile
21 Apr 1954 Soviet Union16
12 May 1954 Byelorussian S.S.R.17, Ukrainian S.S.R.18
20 Jun 1955 Paraguay
 1 Jul 1955 Ethiopia
17 May 1956 Bulgaria
27 Jul 1956 Romania
10 Oct 1956 Finland
 7 Nov 1956 Morocco
 8 Nov 1956 Tunisia
26 Nov 1956 The Sudan
11 Apr 1958 Ghana
16 Jun 1958 Malaya19
16 Oct 1958 Albania
 2 Feb 1960 Guinea
18 Oct 1960 Dahomey20
24 Oct 1960 Congo (Brazzaville)
27 Oct 1960 Ivory Coast21
 7 Nov 1960 Mali
10 Nov 1960 Madagascar22, Niger, Senegal
11 Nov 1960 Cameroon, Central African Republic
14 Nov 1960 Nigeria, Upper Volta23
15 Nov 1960 Somalia
16 Nov 1960 Gabon
17 Nov 1960 Togo
18 Nov 1960 Kuwait
25 Nov 1960 Congo (Léopoldville)24
19 Dec 1960 Chad
 6 Feb 1961 Cyprus
 3 Oct 1961 Ireland
10 Oct 1962 Mauritania
 6 Mar 1962 Tanganyika25
28 Mar 1962 Sierra Leone
 2 Apr 1962 Yemen (Sana)26
15 Oct 1962 Algeria
 1 Nov 1962 Mongolia
 2 Nov 1962 Trinidad and Tobago
 7 Nov 1962 Jamaica, Rwanda
 9 Nov 1962 Ugand
16 Nov 1962 Burundi
 7 Apr 1964 Kenya
 8 Jun 1964 Iceland
27 Oct 1964 Malawi
 9 Nov 1964 Zambia
10 Feb 1965 Malta
11 Mar 1965 Portugal27
28 Oct 1965 Singapore28
21 Mar 1967 Guyana
29 Sep 1967 Lesotho
15 Oct 1968 Yemen (Aden)26
24 Oct 1968 Barbados
25 Oct 1968 Mauritius
18 Jan 1972 Bahrain
27 Jan 1972 Qatar
10 Feb 1972 Oman
20 Apr 1972 United Arab Emirates
27 Oct 1972 Bangladesh
21 Nov 1972 East Germany15
 1 Aug 1973 The Gambia
18 Oct 1974 North Korea
 1 Nov 1974 Guinea-Bissau
12 Nov 1974 San Marino
17 Feb 1975 Grenada
16 Jul 1976 Suriname
 4 Oct 1976 Papua New Guinea
11 Oct 1976 Mozambique
18 Oct 1976 Seychelles
11 Mar 1977 Angola
22 Mar 1977 Comoros
25 Jan 1978 Swaziland
15 Feb 1978 Cape Verde29
 2 Nov 1978 Namibia30
 9 Jan 1979 Dominica
29 Nov 1979 Equatorial Guinea
16 Jan 1980 Botswana
22 Jan 1980 São Tomé and Príncipe
 6 Mar 1980 Saint Lucia
18 Jul 1980 Maldives
22 Sep 1980 Zimbabwe
29 Sep 1980 Tonga
 3 Apr 1981 Western Samoa31
23 Apr 1981 The Bahamas
13 Apr 1982 Bhutan
10 May 1982 Belize
15 Jul 1982 Antigua and Barbuda
15 Feb 1983 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
14 Jul 1983 Fiji
26 Oct 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis
31 Aug 1989 Djibouti
24 Oct 1989 Kiribati
25 Oct 1989 Cook Islands
 7 Oct 1991 Lithuania
14 Oct 1991 Estonia, Latvia
21 Oct 1991 Tuvalu
22 May 1992 Kazakhstan
27 May 1992 Moldova, Slovenia
 1 Jun 1992 Croatia
 2 Jun 1992 Kyrgyzstan
 3 Jun 1992 Azerbaijan
 9 Jun 1992 Armenia
 7 Oct 1992 Georgia
 9 Feb 1993 Slovakia
22 Feb 1993 Czech Republic
 6 Apr 1993 Tajikistan
 2 Jun 1993 Bosnia and Hercegovina
28 Jun 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
17 Aug 1993 Turkmenistan
 2 Sep 1993 Eritrea
 7 Sep 1993 Solomon Islands
20 Oct 1993 Andorra
26 Oct 1993 Niue, Uzbekistan
10 Feb 1994 Vanuatu
30 Jun 1995 Marshall Islands
17 Oct 1996 Nauru
20 Sep 1999 Palau
19 Oct 1999 Federated States of Micronesia
20 Dec 2000
Serbia and Montenegro12
 5 Jun 2003
East Timor xx
17 May 2005
Brunei Darussalam
 1 Mar 2007
Montenegro
27 Oct 2011
South Sudan
23 Nov 2011
Palestine
1the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 29 Oct 1971, when UNESCO voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 2Czechoslovakia announced it no longer considered itself a member 29 Jan 1953, resumed cooperation 9 Sep 1954; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 3South Africa withdrew 31 Dec 1956, rejoined 12 Dec 1994. 4U.K. withdrew 31 Dec 1985, rejoined 1 Jul 1997. 5U.S. withdrew 31 Dec 1984, rejoined 1 Oct 2003. 6Poland announced it no longer considered itself a member 5 Dec 1952, resumed cooperation 18 Jun 1954. 71958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left UNESCO 21 Feb 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 13 Oct 1961. 8Hungary announced it no longer considered itself a member 31 Dec 1952, resumed cooperation 1 Jun 1954. 9from 1989 Myanmar. 10Israel effectively excluded from participation 20 Nov 1974 - 9 Nov 1976. 11from 1972 Sri Lanka. 12expelled 22 Sep 1992, readmitted 20 Dec 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 13Indonesia announced its withdrawal 25 Feb 1965, resumed collaboration 16 Sep 1966. 14Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam; from 2 Jul 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 15East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 16dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 17from 1991 Belarus. 18from 1991 Ukraine. 19from 1963 Malaysia. 20from 1975 Benin. 21from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 22to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 23from 1984 Burkina Faso. 241966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 25from 1964 Tanzania. 26Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 1990. 27Portugal excluded from participation 28 Nov 1966; withdrew 31 Dec 1972, rejoined 11 Sep 1974. 28Singapore withdrew 31 Dec 1985, rejoined 8 Oct 2007. 29from 2013 Cabo Verde. 30as United Nations Council for Namibia to 21 Mar 1990. 31from 1997 Samoa. 

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of UNESCO
13 Nov 1954
British Caribbean Group1, Gold Coast2, Malaya-British Borneo3, Sierra Leone4
 7 Nov 1956
Nigeria5
 6 Nov 1958
Bahrain6, Kuwait7, Somaliland Trust Territory8, West Indies Federation9
 5 Nov 1960
Tanganyika10
15 Nov 1960
Mauritius11, Ruanda-Urundi12
12 Nov 1962 Qatar13
21 Oct 1964
British Eastern Caribbean Group14
17 Oct 1974 Papua New Guinea15
21 Oct 1974 Namibia16
26 Oct 1983
Netherlands Antilles17
24 Nov 1983
British Virgin Islands
20 Oct 1987
Aruba
25 Oct 1995
Macau (China)
30 Oct 1999
Cayman Islands
15 Oct 2001
Tokelau
12 Oct 2009
Faroe Islands
25 Oct 2011
Curaçao, Sint Maarten
 5 Nov 2013
Anguilla
1Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica and Trinidad; from 6 Nov 1958 West Indies Federation. 2full member 11 Apr 1958 as Ghana. 3as Malaya Federation to 16 Jun 1958; Singapore and British Borneo 16 Jun 1958 - 31 Dec 1959. 4full member from 28 Mar 1962. 5full member from 14 Nov 1960. 6full member from 18 Jan 1972. 7full member from 18 Nov 1960. 8associate member as Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration to 1 Jul 1960; from 1960 Somalia. 9dissolved 31 May 1962. 10full member from 6 Mar 1962; from 1964 Tanzania. 11full member from 25 Oct 1968. 12dissolved on 1 Jul 1962. 13full member from 21 Jan 1972. 14composed of: Antigua and Barbuda (to 15 Nov 1982), Anguilla, Barbados (to 24 Oct 1968), Cayman Islands, Dominica (to 9 Jan 1979), Grenada (to 17 Feb 1975), Montserrat, St. Christopher-Nevis (to 26 Oct 1983), St. Lucia (to 6 Mar 1980), St. Vincent (to 15 Feb 1963); dissolved 31 Dec 1984. 15full member from 4 Oct 1976. 16as United Nations Council for Namibia; full member from 2 Nov 1978. 17dissolved on 10 Oct 2010.



United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)


[UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
              flag]

UNEP website
HeadquartersNairobi
(Kenya)
UNEP Day: 5 Jun (1972)
World Environment Day


 5 Jun 1972                UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm.
15 Dec 1972                UNEP
established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Executive Directors

 1 Jan 1973 - Dec 1975     Maurice F. Strong (Canada)         (b. 1929)
Dec 1975 - 31 Dec 1992     Mostafa Kamal Tolba (Egypt)        (b. 1922)
 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Mar 1998  Elizabeth Dowdeswell (f)(Canada)   (b. 1944)
 1 Feb 1998 - 31 Mar 2006  Klaus Töpfer (Germany)             (b. 1938)
 1 Apr 2006 - 14 Jun 2006  Shafqat Kakakhel (Pakistan)(acting)
15 Jun 2006 -              Achim Steiner (Germany)            (b. 1961)


UNEP membership
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
15 Dec 1972
58 member states serve on the Governing Council in 4 year terms, seats are allocated according to geographical regions.



United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

[United Nations Industrial
                Development Organization]
 
UNIDO website
Headquarters: Vienna 
(Austria)

17 Nov 1966                United Nations Industrial Development Program (UNIDP),
                             created as an autonomous body of the United Nations.
21 Jun 1985                Renamed United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
 
1 Jan 1986                UNIDO a separate specialized agency of the United Nations.

Executive Directors
 1 Jan 1967 - 1974         Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman (Egypt)    (b. 1919 - d. ....)
 1 Jan 1975 - Aug 1985     Abd-El Rahman Khane (Algeria)         (b. 1931)
Directors-general
Aug 1985 - Jan 1993        Domingo L. Siazon, Jr. (Philippines)  (b. 1939)
Jan 1993 - Mar 1993        Louis Alexandrenne (Senegal) (acting) (b. 1933)
Mar 1993 - Dec 1997        Mauricio de María y Campos (Mexico)   (b. 1943)
Dec 1997 -  8 Dec 2005     Carlos Alfredo Magariños              (b. 1962)
                             (Argentina)
 8 Dec 2005 - 28 Jun 2013  Kandeh K. Yumkella (Sierra Leone)     (b. 1959)
28 Jun 2013 -              Li Yong (China)                       (b. 1951)

UNIDO membership (171)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
21 Jun 1985 Afghanistan, Algeria, Argentina, Australia1, Austria, Barbados, Belgium2,
Byelorussian S.S.R.3, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada4, Cape Verde
5, Chile, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia6, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Germany7, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France8, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, The Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal9, Romania, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Soviet Union10, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R.11, United Kingdom12, United States13, Uruguay, Venezuela, West Germany7, Yugoslavia14, Zambia, Zimbabwe 
24 Jun 1985 North Korea 
25 Jun 1985 Togo
27 Jun 1985 Iraq
28 Jun 1985 Bangladesh, The Sudan
 1 Jul 1985 Nicaragua
 2 Jul 1985 Hungary
 8 Jul 1985 Zaire15
12 Jul 1985 Congo (Brazzaville)
15 Jul 1985 Trinidad and Tobago 
16 Jul 1985 Burkina Faso 
17 Jul 1985 Mali
18 Jul 1985 Paraguay
19 Jul 1985 Guyana, Malawi, New Zealand16, Vietnam
29 Jul 1985 Yemen (Aden)17
30 Jul 1985 Colombia, Ghana, Kuwait, Morocco
 1 Aug 1985 United Arab Emirates 
 5 Aug 1985 Haiti
 6 Aug 1985 Gabon, Lebanon 
 8 Aug 1985 Benin, Libya, Nepal 
 9 Aug 1985 Angola, Burundi, Iran, Mauritania 
14 Aug 1985 Yemen (Sana)17
15 Aug 1985 Sierra Leone
19 Aug 1985 Seychelles
23 Aug 1985 Bhutan
 3 Sep 1985 Laos
28 Oct 1985 Jordan
13 Nov 1985 Mozambique
15 Nov 1985 Somalia
19 Nov 1985 Saint Lucia
27 Nov 1985 Dominica
 5 Dec 1985 Uganda
 9 Dec 1985 Qatar
11 Dec 1985 Saint Kitts and Nevis 
24 Dec 1985 Suriname 
 9 Jan 1986 Comoros 
16 Jan 1986 Grenada 
20 Jan 1986 Equatorial Guinea
21 Feb 1986 Namibia18
27 Feb 1986 Belize
 3 Apr 1986 Swaziland 
 4 Apr 1986 Bahrain
14 Apr 1986 São Tomé and Príncipe
12 Jun 1986 The Gambia
13 Aug 1986 Tonga
10 Sep 1986 Papua New Guinea
13 Nov 1986 The Bahamas
30 Mar 1987 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
17 Aug 1987 Vanuatu
26 Oct 1987 Costa Rica 
29 Jan 1988 El Salvador
19 Apr 1988 Albania
10 May 1988 Maldives
12 Apr 1990 Myanmar 
10 May 1990 Liberia
20 Aug 1991 Djibouti 
22 Aug 1991 Chad
17 Oct 1991 Lithuania19
12 May 1992 Armenia
 2 Jun 1992 Croatia
11 Jun 1992 Slovenia
 1 Oct 1992 Bosnia and Hercegovina
30 Oct 1992 Georgia
20 Jan 1993 Slovakia
22 Jan 1993 Czech Republic
 8 Apr 1993 Kyrgyzstan
27 May 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
 1 Jun 1993 Moldova
 9 Jun 1993 Tajikistan
23 Nov 1993 Azerbaijan
26 Apr 1994 Uzbekistan
16 Feb 1995 Turkmenistan
20 Jun 1995 Eritrea
18 Sep 1995 Cambodia
 3 Jun 1997 Kazakhstan
24 Oct 2000 South Africa
 6 Dec 2000 Serbia and Montenegro14
23 Jan 2003 Monaco
31 Jul 2003 East Timor
22 Nov 2006 Montenegro
11 Dec 2008
Samoa
27 Oct 2011
Tuvalu
1withdrew 31 Dec 1988, rejoined 1 Jan 1992; withdrew again 31 Dec 1997. 2Belgium announced its withdrawal on 2 Dec 2014 which would be effective on 31 Dec 2015. 3from 1991 Belarus. 4withdrew 31 Dec 1993. 5from 2013 Cabo Verde. 6dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 7East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 8France announced its withdrawal on 18 Apr 2013 which would be effective on 31 Dec 2014. 9Portugal announced its withdrawal on 31 Dec 2013 which would be effective on 31 Dec 2014. 10dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 11from 1991 Ukraine. 12withdrew 31 Dec 2012. 13withdrew 31 Dec 1996. 14expelled 2 Jul 1993, readmitted 6 Dec 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 15from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 16withdrew 31 Dec 2013. 17Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 18until 21 Mar 1990 the United Nations Council for Namibia. 19withdrew 31 Dec 2012.



United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East  (UNRWA)


[UNRWA flag]

UNRWA website
Headquarters: Amman (Jordan)
 and Gaza City
(Gaza Strip)
 (Beirut, Lebanon 1950-1978; Vienna, Austria 1978-1996)

 8 Dec 1949                United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees
                             in the Near East (UNRWA) established as a UN agency.
 1 May 1950                Operations begin.
     
Commissioners-General
 1 May 1950 - 30 Jun 1951  Howard Kennedy (Canada)               (b. 1892 - d. 19..)
 1 Jul 1951 -  7 Mar 1953  John B. Blandford, Jr. (U.S.)         (b. 1898 - d. 1972)
 7 Mar 1953 - 15 Jun 1954  Leslie J. Carver (U.K.)
                             (1st time) (acting)
15 Jun 1954 - 15 Jun 1958  Henry Richardson Labouisse (U.S.)     (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
15 Jun 1958 - 15 Apr 1959  Leslie J. Carver (U.K.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
15 Feb 1959 - 31 Dec 1963  John H. Davis (U.S.)                  (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
 1 Jan 1964 - 14 May 1971  Laurence V. Michelmore (U.S.)         (b. 1909 - d. 1997)
15 May 1971 - 31 Mar 1977  Sir John Shaw Rennie (U.K.)           (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
 1 Apr 1977 - 15 Apr 1979  Thomas W. McElhiney (U.S.)            (b. 1919 - d. 1998)
15 Apr 1979 -  9 Jul 1979  Alan J. Brown (U.K.) (acting)
 9 Jul 1979 - 31 Oct 1985  Olof Rydbeck (Sweden)                 (b. 1913 - d. 1995)
 1 Nov 1985 - 28 Feb 1991  Giorgio Giacomelli (Italy)            (b. 1930)
 1 Mar 1991 - 29 Feb 1996  Ilter Türkmen (Turkey)                (b. 1927)
 1 Mar 1996 - 31 Mar 2005  Peter Hansen (Denmark)                (b. 1941)
 1 Apr 2005 - 31 Dec 2009  Karen Koning AbuZayd (f) (U.S.)       (b. 1941)
                             (acting to 28 Jun 2005)
 1 Jan 2010 - 29 Mar 2014  Filippo Grandi (Italy)                (b. 1957)
                             (acting to 20 Jan 2010)
30 Mar 2014 -              Pierre Krähenbühl (Switzerland)       (b. 1966)

UNRWA Advisory Committee membership (25)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
 8 Dec 1949
France, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States
13 Oct 1952
Syria
19 Dec 1952
Jordan
24 Feb 1953
Egypt
12 Feb 1954
Belgium
29 Dec 1954
Lebanon
13 Dec 1972
Japan
 8 Dec 2005
Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
18 Dec 2008
Finland, Ireland
10 Dec 2010
Kuwait
12 Jan 2012
Luxembourg



Universal Postal Union (UPU)
 
[Universal Postal Union flag 1948-2007]                      1948 - 2007  
[Universal Postal Union flag]                      Adopted 2007
 
UPU website
Headquarters: Berne (Switzerland)
UPU Day: 9 Oct (1874)
World Post Day

 1 Jul 1875                General Postal Union established.
 1 Jun 1878                Universal Postal Union (UPU). 
 
1 Jul 1948                UPU a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors (all from Switzerland) 
1875 - 14 Jun 1892         Eugène Borel                       (b. 1835 - d. 1892)
1893 - 30 Jan 1899         Edmond Höhn                        (b. 1838 - d. 1899)
1899 - 25 Oct 1919         Eugène Ruffy                       (b. 1854 - d. 1919)
1920 - 14 Jan 1925         Camille Decoppet                   (b. 1862 - d. 1925)
1925 - 1937                Evaristo Garbani-Nerini            (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
1938 - 18 Nov 1944         Reinhold Furrer                    (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
1945 - 1949                Alois Muri                         (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
1950 - 1960                Fritz Hess                         (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
1961 -  7 Jul 1964         Edouard Weber                      (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
Directors-general
 7 Jul 1964 - 1966         Edouard Weber (Switzerland)        (s.a.)
1967 - 20 Jan 1973         Michel Rahi (Egypt)                (b. 1912 - d. 1973)
18 May 1973 - 31 Dec 1974  Anthony H. Ridge (U.K.)            (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1984  Muhammad Ibrahim Sobhi (Egypt)     (b. 1925)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1994  Adwaldo Cardoso Botto de Barros    (b. 1925)
                             (Brazil) 
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2004  Thomas E. Leavey (U.S.)            (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2012  Édouard Dayan (France)             (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2013 -              Bishar Abdirahman Hussein (Kenya)

UPU  membership (192)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 1 Jul 1875 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy,
Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Russia
1, Serbia2, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey3, United Kingdom, United States 
 1 Jan 1876 France
 1 Jul 1876 India
 1 Jun 1877 Japan
 1 Jul 1877 Brazil
 1 Sep 1877 Persia4
 1 Apr 1878 Argentina
 1 Jul 1878 Canada
 1 Jan 1879 Bulgaria
 1 Apr 1879 El Salvador, Honduras, Liberia, Mexico, Peru
 1 Jan 1880 Venezuela
 1 Jul 1880 Ecuador, Uruguay
 1 Oct 1880 Dominican Republic
 1 Jan 1881 Hawaii5
 1 Apr 1881 Chile
 1 Jul 1881 Colombia, Haiti, Paraguay
 1 Aug 1881 Guatemala
 1 May 1882 Nicaragua
 1 Jan 1883 Costa Rica
 1 Jul 1885 Siam6
 1 Jan 1886 Congo (Léopoldville)7
 1 Apr 1886 Bolivia
 1 Jul 1888 Tunisia 
 1 Jan 1893 South-African Republic8
 1 Dec 1895 Zanzibar9
 1 Jan 1898 Orange Free State10
 1 Jan 1900 Korea11
 1 Jul 1902 Crete12
 4 Oct 1902 Cuba 
11 Jun 1904 Panama 
 1 Oct 1907 Australia, New Zealand, South Africa13
 1 Nov 1908 Ethiopia
 1 Mar 1914 China14
 1 Jul 1915 San Marino 
12 Feb 1918 Finland
 1 May 1919 Poland
15 Nov 1919 Iceland
18 May 1920 Czechoslovakia15
 1 Sep 1920 Saarland16
 1 Oct 1920 Morocco, Tangier Zone17
 1 Oct 1921 Danzig Free City18
24 Dec 1921 Yugoslavia2
 1 Jan 1922 Philippines
 1 Mar 1922 Albania
 6 Sep 1923 Ireland 
 1 Jan 1927 Hejaz and Nejd19
 1 Apr 1928 Afghanistan
22 Apr 1929 Iraq
 1 Jun 1929 Vatican City
 1 Jan 1930 Yemen (Sana)20
12 May 1931 Lebanon, Syria21
13 May 1947 Byelorussian S.S.R.22, Ukrainian S.S.R.23
16 May 1947 Transjordan24
Sep 1947 Trieste Territory25
10 Nov 1947 Pakistan 
20 Sep 1948 Indonesia
13 Jul 1949 Ceylon26
 4 Oct 1949 Burma27
17 Dec 1949 South Korea11
24 Dec 1949 Israel
20 Oct 1951 Vietnam28
21 Dec 1951 Cambodia
20 May 1952 Laos
 4 Jun 1952 Libya
12 Oct 1955 Monaco
27 Jul 1956 The Sudan
11 Oct 1956 Nepal
10 Oct 1957 Ghana
17 Jan 1958 Malaya29
 1 Apr 1959 Somalia
 6 May 1959 Guinea
16 Feb 1960 Kuwait 
26 Jul 1960 Cameroon
21 Apr 1961 Mali 
27 Apr 1961 Dahomey30
23 May 1961 Ivory Coast31
12 Jun 1961 Niger
14 Jun 1961 Senegal
23 Jun 1961 Chad
28 Jun 1961 Central African Republic 
 5 Jul 1961 Congo (Brazzaville)
10 Jul 1961 Nigeria
17 Jul 1961 Gabon
 2 Nov 1961 Madagascar32
23 Nov 1961 Cyprus
29 Jan 1962 Sierra Leone
21 Mar 1962 Togo
13 Apr 1962 Liechtenstein
29 Mar 1963 Tanganyika9, Upper Volta33
 6 Apr 1963 Burundi, Rwanda
14 Jun 1963 Dubai34
15 Jun 1963 Trinidad and Tobago
24 Aug 1963 Mongolia
29 Aug 1963 Jamaica
13 Feb 1964 Uganda
28 May 1964 Algeria
27 Oct 1964 Kenya
21 May 1965 Malta
 8 Jan 1966 Singapore
25 Oct 1966 Malawi
31 Dec 1966 Abu Dhabi34
22 Mar 1967 Guyana, Mauritania, Zambia
15 Aug 1967 Maldives
 6 Sep 1967 Lesotho
11 Nov 1967 Barbados 
12 Jan 1968 Botswana
28 Jun 1968 Yemen (Aden)20
31 Jan 1969 Qatar
 7 Mar 1969 Bhutan
17 Apr 1969 Nauru
29 Aug 1969 Mauritius
 7 Nov 1969 Swaziland
24 Jul 1970 Equatorial Guinea 
18 Jun 1971 Fiji 
17 Aug 1971 Oman
26 Jan 1972 Tonga
 7 Feb 1973 Bangladesh
30 Mar 1973 United Arab Emirates
 1 Jun 1973 East Germany35
21 Dec 1973 Bahrain
24 Apr 1974 The Bahamas
30 May 1974 Guinea-Bissau
 6 Jun 1974 North Korea
 9 Oct 1974 The Gambia
20 Apr 1976 Suriname
 4 Jun 1976 Papua New Guinea 
29 Jul 1976 Comoros
30 Sep 1976 Cape Verde36
 3 Mar 1977 Angola
22 Aug 1977 São Tomé and Príncipe
 7 Oct 1977 Seychelles
30 Jan 1978 Grenada
 6 Jun 1978 Djibouti
11 Oct 1978 Mozambique
31 Jan 1980 Dominica
10 Jul 1980 Saint Lucia
 3 Feb 1981 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tuvalu
31 Jul 1981 Zimbabwe
16 Jul 1982 Vanuatu
 1 Oct 1982 Belize
 4 May 1984 Solomon Islands
14 Aug 1984 Kiribati
15 Jan 1985 Brunei Darussalam
11 Jan 1988 Saint Kitts and Nevis
 9 Aug 1989 Western Samoa37
10 Jan 1992 Lithuania38
30 Apr 1992 Estonia39, Namibia
17 Jun 1992 Latvia40
20 Jul 1992 Croatia41
27 Aug 1992 Kazakhstan, Slovenia
14 Sep 1992 Armenia
16 Nov 1992 Moldova
26 Jan 1993 Bosnia and Hercegovina42, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan
18 Mar 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia43
 1 Apr 1993 Azerbaijan, Georgia
12 Jul 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
19 Aug 1993 Eritrea
20 Jan 1994 Antigua and Barbuda
24 Feb 1994 Uzbekistan
 9 Jun 1994 Tajikistan
18 Jun 2001 Serbia and Montenegro2
28 Nov 2003 East Timor
26 Jul 2006 Montenegro44
 4 Oct 2011
South Sudan
UN member countries whose situation  with regard to the UPU has not yet been settled:  Andorra, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau
UPU extended to overseas dependencies of: Australia on 1 Oct 1907; Denmark on 1 Jul 1875; France on 1 Jul 1876; Germany on 1 Jun 1887; Italy on 1 Jul 1904; Japan on 1 Jan 1922; The Netherlands on 1 May 1877; New Zealand on 1 Oct 1907; Portugal on 1 Jul 1877; Spain on 1 May 1877; United Kingdom on 1 Apr 1877; and the United States on 25 Feb 1900.
1from 30 Dec 1922 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 2Serbia as Yugoslavia from 24 Dec 1921; not invited to UPU functions from 20 Oct 1998, officially readmitted 18 Jun 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 3Turkey as Ottoman Empire to 1920. 4from 1935 Iran. 5from 12 Aug 1898 part of United States. 6from 1941 Thailand. 7Congo Free State to 1908; 1908-1960 Belgian Congo; 1960-1966 Congo (Léopoldville); 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire; independent UPU member from 1 Jul 1960. 8South African Rep. was from 1900 British colony of Transvaal; from 1910 part of South Africa. 9Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 10Orange Free State from 1900 British Orange River Colony; from 1910 part of South Africa. 11Korea annexed to Japan 29 Aug 1910 - 12 Sep 1945; from 1949 South Korea. 12Crete from 30 May 1913 part of Greece. 13South Africa was excluded from 1964 then suspended 22 Jun 1984 - 22 Aug 1994, unconstitutionally expelled 18 Sep 1979 - 19 Jun 1981. 14the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 13 Apr 1972, when the UPU voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China; from 13 Apr 1972 Taiwan UPU status as Taiwan province of China. 15Czechoslovakia as Bohemia and Moravia 7 Oct 1939 - May 1945; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 16Saa from 13 Jan 1935 part of Germany; 15 Dec 1947-31 Dec 1956 reconstituted under French rule. 17Tangier from 1956 part of Morocco. 18Danzig from 2 Sep 1939 part of Germany; from 1945 part of Poland. 19Hejaz and Nejd from 1932 Saudi Arabia. 20Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 1990. 211958 - 1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria; in 1961 Syria left the union and resumed its separate membership. 22from 1991 Belarus. 23from 1991 Ukraine. 24from 1949 Jordan. 25Trieste a member to Mar 1955; Anglo-US zone part of Italy from 26 Oct 1954. 26from 1972 Sri Lanka. 27from 1989 Myanmar. 28from 2 Jul 1976 North Vietnam and South Vietnam united as Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 29from 1963 Malaysia. 30from 1975 Benin. 31from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 32to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 33from 1984 Burkina Faso. 34Abu Dhabi membership transferred to United Arab Emirates 30 Mar 1973. 35East Germany from 3 Oct 1990 united with Federal Republic of Germany. 36from 2013 Cabo Verde. 37from 1997 Samoa. 38Lithuania a former UPU member 1 Jan 1922 - 3 Aug 1940. 39Estonia a former UPU member 7 Jul 1922 - 6 Aug 1940. 40Latvia a UPU former member 1 Oct 1921 - 5 Aug 1940. 41Croatia a former UPU member 7 Apr 1942 - May 1945. 42Bosnia and Hercegovina a former UPU member 1 Jul 1892 - 24 Dec 1921. 43Slovakia a UPU former member 17 Jun 1939 - Apr 1945. 44Montenegro a former UPU member 1 Jul 1875 - 1 Dec 1918; part of Yugoslavia 1 Dec 1918 - 4 Feb 2003; called Serbia and Montenegro from 4 Feb 2003 - 5 Jun 2006. 


Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization  (UNPO) 
[Unrepresented Nations and Peoples
                          Organization (UNPO) 1991-2005 flag]
                5 Aug 1991 - Jun 2005

[Unrepresented Nations and Peoples
                        Organization (UNPO) flag]                   Adopted 24 Jun 2005
UNPO website UNPO Covenant
 (11 Feb 1991)
Headquarters: The Hague
(Netherlands)
UNPO Day: 11 Feb (1991)
International Day
 of Action

11 Feb 1991                Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

Secretaries-general
11 Feb 1991 - 16 Mar 1998  Michael van Walt van Praag        (b. 1951)
                             (The Netherlands)
Jul 1997 - 16 Mar 1998     Tsering Jampa (Tibet)             (b. 1955)
                             (acting for van Praag)
16 Mar 1998 - 23 Oct 1999  Helen S. Corbett (f)              (b. 1953) 
                             (Australian Aboriginals)
23 Oct 1999 - 14 Nov 2003  Erkin Alptekin (Uyghurs)          (b. 1939)
                             (acting to 14 Feb 2001)
14 Nov 2003 -              Marino Busdachin (Italy)          (b. 1956) 

Executive Director 
19 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Karl von Habsburg (Austria)       (b. 1961)

Chairmen of the General Assembly
Feb 1991 - Jan 1993        Linnart Mäll (Estonia)            (b. 1938 - d. 2010)
Jan 1993 - Jul 1997        Erkin Alptekin (Uyghurs)          (s.a.)
Jul 1997 - Feb 2001        Seif Sharif Hamad (Zanzibar)      (b. 1943)
Feb 2001 - Jun 2005        John J. Nimrod (Assyrians)        (b. 1922 - d. 2009)
Jun 2005 - 28 Oct 2006     Göran Hansson (Scania)            (b. 1941)
Presidents of the General Assembly
28 Oct 2006 - 28 May 2010  Ledum Mitee (Ogoni)               (b. 1957)
28 May 2010 -              Ngawang Choephel (Tibet)          (b. 1958)

Treasurers
17 May 2008 - 30 Nov 2012  Marco Perduca (Italy)             (b. 1967)
30 Nov 2012 -              Jeroen Zandberg (The Netherlands)

UNPO membership (47)
Date of 
Admission
 Member Nations and Peoples (followed by nation states currently within)
11 Feb 1991 Aboriginals of Australia (Australia)17, Armenia1, Belau (Palau)2, Cordillera (Philippines), Crimean Tatars (Ukraine), East Turkestan (China), Estonia3, Georgia4, Greek Minority in Albania (Albania)17, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq), Latvia5, Taiwan (China), Tatarstan (Russia)6, Tibet (China), West Papua (Indonesia)7
 6 Aug 1991 Abkhazia (Georgia), Aceh (Indonesia)6, Assyria (Iraq, Syria, Turkey), Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)6, Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh), Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Russia)8, Kosova (Serbia), Mari (Russia)9, South Moluccas (Indonesia), Iraqi Turkmen (Iraq), Zanzibar (Tanzania)
17 Jan 1993 Batawa (Rwanda), Chuvash (Russia)6, East Timor10, Inkeri (Russia)9, Komi (Russia)9, Sanjak (Serbia, Montenegro)16, Udmurt (Russia)18
19 Jan 1993 Karenni State (Myanmar)17, Mapuche (Argentina, Chile), Nagalim (India, Myanmar), Ogoni (Nigeria), Scania (Sweden)16
24 Jan 1993
Khalistan (India)11
 3 Aug 1993 Kalahui Hawaii (United States)17, Sakha (Russia)12
16 Apr 1994 Albanians in Macedonia (Macedonia Former Yugoslav Republic)6, Circassia (Russia), Gagauzia (Moldova)13
30 Jul 1994 Hungarian Minority in Romania (Romania), Ingushetia (Russia)6, Lakota (United States)13, Maohi (French Polynesia)13
 3 Feb 1996 Bashkortostan (Russia)12, Buryatia (Russia)15, Mon (Myanmar)17, Tuva (Russia)15
17 Apr 1997 Cabinda (Angola)16, Kumyk (Russia)6, Shan (Myanmar)14
23 Sep 1998 Nuxalk Nation (Canada)6, Rusyn (Ukraine)13
15 Jul 2001 Chin (Myanmar), Khmer Krom (Vietnam)
19 Jan 2002 Sindh (Pakistan)
14 Nov 2003 Ahwazi (Iran), Degar-Montagnards (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), Vhavenda (South Africa)
19 Dec 2004 Oromo (Ethiopia), Southern Cameroons (Cameroon)19, Buffalo River Dene Nation  (Canada)9, Maasai (Kenya)17, Nahua Del Alto Balsas (Mexico)18, Somaliland (Somalia)
26 Jun 2005 West Balochistan (Iran), Talysh (Azerbaijan)6
 2 Feb 2007
Tsimshian (Canada)16, Inner Mongolia (China), Rehoboth Basters (Namibia), Iranian Kurdistan (Iran), Hmong (Laos), Southern Azerbaijan (Iran)
 1 Mar 2008
Balochistan (Pakistan)
15 May 2008
Afrikaner (South Africa), Burma (Myanmar)15
20 Sep 2008
Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan)
 6 Feb 2010
Ogaden (Ethiopia)
26 Sep 2010
Moro (Philippines)19
18 Sep 2011
Haratin (Mauritania)
 7 Jul 2012
Lezgin (Dagestan [Russia])
22 Nov 2013
Barotseland (Zambia)
28 Jun 2014
Aceh (Indonesia), Savoy (France), Talysh (Azerbaijan)
28 Nov 2014
Sulu (Philippines), Amazigh (North Africa), Trieste (Italy, Slovenia & Croatia)
1withdrew 2 Mar 1992. 2withdrew 15 Dec 1994. 3withdrew 17 Sep 1991. 4withdrew 31 Jul 1992. 
5withdrew 17 Sep 1991. 6membership discontinued 1 Mar 2008. 7membership suspended 20 Sep 2008; re-admitted 22 Nov 2013. 8membership suspended 25 Sep 2010. 9membership suspended 9 Oct 2009. 10withdrew 27 Sep 2002. 11membership of Council of Khalistan discontinued 4 Aug 1993, suspension made permanent 22 Jan 1995. 12withdrew 30 Jun 1998. 13membership discontinued 1 Dec 2007. 14membership suspended 6 Feb 2010. 15membership suspended 13 Feb 2010. 16membership suspended 18 Sep 2011. 17membership suspended 7 Jul 2012. 18membership suspended 6 Jul 2013. 18membership suspended 20 Sep 2008. 19membership suspended 28 Nov 2014.



Warsaw Treaty Organization (Warsaw Pact)

[Warsaw Treaty Organization
                badge]
    Badge (no flag adopted)
 
Warsaw Security Pact
(14 May 1955)
Headquarters: Moscow
(Soviet Union)
WTO Day: 1 May (1955)
May Day

  1 May 1955                Warsaw Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual
                             Assistance signed (Warsaw Treaty Organization)
                             (effective 6 Jun 1955).
26 Nov 1976                Joint secretariat established.
 1 Apr 1991                Dissolution of military structures.
 1 Jul 1991                Officially dissolved in accordance with a protocol
                             calling for a "transition to all-European structures"

Commanders-in-chief of the Unified Armed Forces
(all from Soviet Union)
14 May 1955 - 23 Jul 1960  Ivan Stepanovich Konev             (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
23 Jul 1960 -  7 Jul 1967  Andrey Antonovich Grechko          (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
 7 Jul 1967 - 30 Nov 1976  Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky        (b. 1912 - d. 1976)
 8 Jan 1977 -  2 Feb 1989  Viktor Georgyevich Kulikov         (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
 2 Feb 1989 - 26 Apr 1991  Pyotr Georgyevich Lushev           (b. 1923 - d. 1997)

Chiefs of General Staff of the Unified Armed Forces (all from Soviet Union)
14 May 1955 - 18 Jun 1962  Aleksey Innokentyevich Antonov     (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
29 Oct 1962 - 25 Nov 1965  Pavel Ivanovich Batov              (b. 1897 - d. 1985) 
25 Nov 1965 -  5 Aug 1968  Mikhail Ilyich Kazakov             (b. 1901 - d. 1979)
 5 Aug 1968 - 23 Apr 1976  Sergey Matveyevich Shtemenko       (b. 1907 - d. 1976) 
26 Oct 1976 - 25 Feb 1989  Anatoly Ivanovich Gribkov          (b. 1919 - d. 2008) 
25 Feb 1989 - 31 Mar 1991  Vladimir Nikolayevich Lobov        (b. 1935) 

Secretaries-general of the Political Consultative Committee
14 May 1955 - 24 May 1958  Aleksey Innokentyevich Antonov     (s.a.)
                             (Soviet Union)
24 May 1958 - 196.         Nikolay Semyonovich Patolichev     (b. 1908 - d. 1989)
                             (Soviet Union)  
1969 -  5 Jan 1983         Nikolay Pavlovich Firyubin         (b. 1908 - d. 1983)
                             (Soviet Union)
 5 Jan 1983 - 198.         Dušan Spáčil (Czechoslovakia)      (b. 1929)
Oct 1985 - 1986            Mariy Antonov Ivanov (Bulgaria)    (b. 1919)
1986 - 29 May 1987         Herbert Krolikowski (East Germany) (b. 1924 - d. 2012)
29 May 1987 - 16 Jul 1988  Henryk Jaroszek (Poland)           (b. 1926)
16 Jul 1988 -  8 Jul 1989  Constantin Oancea (Romania)        (b. 1928)
 8 Jul 1989 -  7 Jun 1990  Ivan Pavlovich Aboimov             (b. 1936)
                             (Soviet Union)
 7 Jun 1990 - 1991         Zdeněk Matějka (Czechoslovakia)    (b. 1935)

Warsaw Pact membership
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
14 May 1955 Albania1, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany2,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union
1non-participatory from 12 Dec 1961, withdrew 12 Sep 1968. 2withdrew 24 Sep 1990.



Western European Union (WEU)
 
[first
                      West European Union (WEU) flag]                             c.1955 [Former flag of WEU, 1990-1995]                      1990 - 26 Oct 1993 [Western European Union (WEU) flag
                      1993-2011]                26 Oct 1993 - 30 Jun 2011
 
WEU website
Headquarters: Brussels
(Belgium); (WEU Assembly - Paris, France)

23 Oct 1954                Western European Union founded.
 6 May 1955                Charter effective.
30 Jun 2011                WEU dissolved.

Secretaries-general
 7 May 1955 - 14 Dec 1962  Louis Goffin (Belgium)             (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
15 Dec 1962 - 31 Dec 1970  Maurice Iweins d'Eeckhoutte        (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
                             (Belgium)
 1 Jan 1971 - 30 Sep 1974  Georges Heisbourg (Luxembourg)     (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
20 Oct 1974 - 24 Feb 1977  Friedrich-Karl von Plehwe (acting) (b. 1912 - d. 1989)
                             (West Germany)
 1 Mar 1977 - 31 May 1985  Edouard Longerstaey (Belgium)      (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
17 Jun 1985 - 11 May 1989  Alfred Cahen (Belgium)             (b. 1929 - d. 2000)
15 May 1989 - 15 Nov 1994  Willem "Wim" Frederik van Eekelen  (b. 1931)
                             (Netherlands)
16 Nov 1994 - 24 Nov 1999  José Cutileiro (Portugal)          (b. 1934)
25 Nov 1999 - 24 Nov 2009  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
25 Nov 2009 - 30 Jun 2011  Arnaud Jacomet (France)            (b. 1946 - d. 2011)


(Flag of the
                Assembly of the Western European Union)

Presidents of the WEU Assembly
 5 Jul 1955 -  6 May 1957  John Maclay (U.K.)                 (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
 6 May 1957 - 15 Jun 1959  Sir James Hutchison (U.K.)         (b. 1893 - d. 1979)
15 Jun 1959 - 29 May 1961  Vittorio Badini Confalonieri       (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
                             (Italy)(1st time)
29 May 1961 - 15 Jan 1963  Arthur Conte (France)              (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
 4 Jun 1963 - 13 Dec 1966  Carlo Schmid (West Germany)        (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
13 Dec 1966 - 17 Jun 1969  Vittorio Badini Confalonieri       (s.a.)
                             (Italy)(2nd time)
17 Jun 1969 -  5 Jun 1972  Georges Housiaux (Belgium)         (b. 1914 - d. 1989)
 5 Jun 1972 - 18 Jun 1974  John Peel (U.K.)                   (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
                             (from 1972, Sir John Peel)
18 Jun 1974 - 20 Jun 1977  Edmond Nessler (France)            (b. 1907 - d. 2004)
20 Jun 1977 -  2 Jun 1980  Kai-Uwe von Hassel (West Germany)  (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
20 Jun 1980 -  6 Jun 1983  Fred Mulley (U.K.)                 (b. 1918 - d. 1995)
 6 Jun 1983 - 15 Mar 1984  Alfredo De Poi (Italy)             (b. 1945)
15 Mar 1984 - 18 Jun 1984  Lucien Pignion (France)(acting)    (b. 1914 - d. 1989)
18 Jun 1984 -  1 Jun 1987  Jean-Marie Caro (France)           (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
 1 Jun 1987 -  5 Jun 1990  Charles Goerens (Luxembourg)       (b. 1952)
 5 Jun 1990 - 20 Mar 1992  Robert Pontillon (France)          (b. 1921 - d. 1992)
20 Mar 1992 -  1 Jun 1992  Giuseppe Sinesio (Italy)(acting)   (b. 1921 - d. 2002)
 1 Jun 1992 - 14 Jun 1993  Hartmut Soell (Gemany)             (b. 1939)
14 Jun 1993 - 31 Dec 1996  Sir Dudley Gordon Smith (U.K.)     (b. 1926)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1999  Luís María de Puig (Spain)         (b. 1945)
President of the Interim European Security and Defense Assembly
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2002  Klaus Bühler (Germany)             (b. 1941)
Presidents of the Inter-parliamentary European Security and Defense Assembly
 1 Jan 2003 -  2 Jul 2003  Jan Dirk Blaauw (Netherlands)      (b. 1941)
 3 Jul 2003 -  2 Dec 2003  Marcel Glesener (Luxembourg)       (b. 1937)
                             (1st time)(acting)
 2 Dec 2003 - 19 Jul 2004  Armand De Decker (Belgium)         (b. 1948)
20 Jul 2004 -  1 Dec 2004  Marcel Glesener (Luxembourg)       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 1 Dec 2004 -  7 Dec 2005  Stef Goris (Belgium)               (b. 1960)
 7 Dec 2005 -  3 Dec 2008  Jean-Pierre Masseret (France)      (b. 1944)
President of the European Security and Defense Assembly
 3 Dec 2008 - 10 May 2011  Robert Walter (U.K.)               (b. 1948)

WEU membership (10)
Date of 
Admission
Member Nations
23 Oct 1954 Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, 
The Netherlands, United Kingdom
27 Mar 1990  Portugal, Spain
 6 Mar 1995 Greece

Date of 
Admission
Associate Members
20 Nov 1992
Iceland, Norway, Turkey
23 Mar 1999
Czech Reublic, Hungary, Poland

Date of 
Admission
Associate Partners
 9 May 1994
Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia
25 Jun 1996
Slovenia



World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)

[World Bank- IBRD flag]
 
World Bank website
Headquarters: Washington, DC
(United States)

27 Dec 1945                Articles of Agreement (adopted by the Bretton Woods
                             Conference 22 Jul 1944) become effective.
25 Jun 1946                International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
                             (World Bank) begins operations.

Presidents (all from U.S.)
18 Jun 1946 - 17 Mar 1947  Eugene Meyer                       (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
17 Mar 1947 -  1 Jul 1949  John J. McCloy                     (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
 1 Jul 1949 -  1 Jan 1963  Eugene R. Black                    (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1963 -  1 Apr 1968  George Woods                       (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
 1 Apr 1968 -  1 Jul 1981  Robert S. McNamara                 (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
 1 Jul 1981 -  1 Jul 1986  Alden W. "Tom" Clausen             (b. 1923 - d. 2013)
 1 Jul 1986 -  1 Sep 1991  Barber B. Conable, Jr.             (b. 1922 - d. 2003)
 1 Sep 1991 -  4 May 1995  Lewis T. Preston                   (b. 1926 - d. 1995)
 4 May 1995 -  1 Jun 1995  Richard H. Frank (acting)            
 1 Jun 1995 -  1 Jun 2005  James D. Wolfensohn                (b. 1933)
 1 Jun 2005 -  1 Jul 2007  Paul Wolfowitz                     (b. 1943)
 1 Jul 2007 -  1 Jul 2012  Robert B. Zoellick                 (b. 1953)
 1 Jul 2012 -              Jim Young Kim                      (b. 1959)

World Bank membership (188)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
27 Dec 1945 Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, China1, Czechoslovakia2, Egypt, Ethiopia, France,
Greece, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia
3
28 Dec 1945 Dominican Republic4, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay
29 Dec 1945 Iran
31 Dec 1945 Chile, Mexico, Peru
 8 Jan 1946 Costa Rica
10 Jan 1946 Poland5
14 Jan 1946 Brazil
11 Mar 1946 Uruguay
14 Mar 1946 Cuba6, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama
30 Mar 1946 Denmark
24 Dec 1946 Colombia
30 Dec 1946 Venezuela
11 Mar 1947 Turkey
27 Mar 1947 Italy
10 Apr 1947 Syria7
14 Apr 1947 Lebanon
 5 Aug 1947 Australia
14 Jan 1948 Finland
27 Aug 1948 Austria
 3 May 1949 Thailand
11 Jul 1950 Pakistan
29 Aug 1950 Ceylon8
31 Aug 1951 Sweden
 3 Jan 1952 Burma9
13 Aug 1952 Japan
14 Aug 1952 Federal Republic of Germany
29 Aug 1952 Jordan
 8 Sep 1953 Haiti
15 Apr 1954 Indonesia
12 Jul 1954 Israel
14 Jul 1955 Afghanistan
26 Aug 1955 South Korea
20 Sep 1956 Argentina
21 Sep 1956 Vietnam10
 8 Aug 1957 Ireland
26 Aug 1957 Saudi Arabia
 5 Sep 1957 The Sudan
20 Sep 1957 Ghana
 7 Mar 1958 Malaya11
14 Apr 1958 Tunisia
25 Apr 1958 Morocco
15 Sep 1958 Spain
17 Sep 1958 Libya
29 Mar 1961 Portugal
30 Mar 1961 Nigeria
 5 Jul 1961 Laos
31 Aug 1961 New Zealand
 6 Sep 1961 Nepal
21 Dec 1961 Cyprus
28 Mar 1962 Liberia
 1 Aug 1962 Togo
31 Aug 1962 Senegal, Somalia
10 Sep 1962 Sierra Leone, Tanganyika12
13 Sep 1962 Kuwait
21 Feb 1963 Jamaica
11 Mar 1963 Ivory Coast13
24 Apr 1963 Niger
 2 May 1963 Upper Volta14
10 Jul 1963 Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey15
10 Sep 1963 Gabon, Mauritania
16 Sep 1963 Trinidad and Tobago
25 Sep 1963 Madagascar16
26 Sep 1963 Algeria
27 Sep 1963 Mali, Uganda
28 Sep 1963 Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa)17, Guinea
30 Sep 1963 Rwanda
 3 Feb 1964 Kenya
19 Jul 1965 Malawi
23 Sep 1965 Zambia
 3 Aug 1966 Singapore
26 Sep 1966 Guyana
18 Oct 1967 The Gambia
24 Jul 1968 Botswana
25 Jul 1968 Lesotho
23 Sep 1968 Mauritius
22 Sep 1969 Swaziland
 3 Oct 1969 Yemen (Aden)18
22 May 1970
Yemen (Sana)18
 1 Jul 1970 Equatorial Guinea 
22 Jul 1970 Cambodia
28 May 1971 Fiji
23 Dec 1971 Oman
17 Aug 1972 Bangladesh
15 Sep 1972 Bahrain
22 Sep 1972 United Arab Emirates
25 Sep 1972 Qatar
15 Dec 1972 Romania
21 Aug 1973 The Bahamas
28 Jun 1974 Western Samoa19
12 Sep 1974 Barbados
27 Aug 1975 Grenada
 9 Oct 1975 Papua New Guinea
28 Oct 1976 Comoros
24 Mar 1977 Guinea-Bissau
30 Sep 1977 São Tomé and Príncipe
13 Jan 1978 Maldives
27 Jun 1978 Suriname
22 Sep 1978 Solomon Islands
20 Nov 1978 Cape Verde20
27 Jun 1980 Saint Lucia
29 Sep 1980 Dominica, Seychelles, Zimbabwe
 1 Oct 1980 Djibouti
28 Sep 1981 Bhutan, Vanuatu
19 Mar 1982 Belize
 7 Jul 1982 Hungary
31 Aug 1982 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
22 Sep 1983 Antigua and Barbuda
26 Sep 1983 Malta
15 Aug 1984 Saint Kitts and Nevis
24 Aug 1984 Mozambique
13 Sep 1985 Tonga
29 Sep 1986 Kiribati
19 Sep 1989 Angola
25 Sep 1990 Bulgaria, Namibia
14 Feb 1991 Mongolia
15 Oct 1991 Albania
21 May 1992 Marshall Islands
29 May 1992 Switzerland
16 Jun 1992 Russia
23 Jun 1992 Estonia
 6 Jul 1992 Lithuania
10 Jul 1992 Belarus
23 Jul 1992 Kazakhstan
 7 Aug 1992 Georgia
11 Aug 1992 Latvia
12 Aug 1992 Moldova
 3 Sep 1992 Ukraine
16 Sep 1992 Armenia
18 Sep 1992 Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan
21 Sep 1992 Uzbekistan
22 Sep 1992 Turkmenistan
 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
25 Feb 1993 Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of),
Slovenia
 4 Jun 1993 Tajikistan
24 Jun 1993 Federated States of Micronesia
 6 Jul 1994 Eritrea
10 Oct 1995 Brunei Darussalam
16 Dec 1997 Palau
21 Sep 2000 San Marino 
 8 May 2001 Serbia and Montenegro3
23 Jul 2002 East Timor
18 Jan 2007
Montenegro
29 Jun 2009
Kosovo
24 Jun 2010
Tuvalu
18 Apr 2012
South Sudan
1the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 15 May 1980, when the World Bank voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 2expelled 5 Jan 1955; rejoined 20 Sep 1990; dissolved 31 Dec 1992, on 1 Jan 1993 succeeded by Czech Republic and Slovakia. 3expelled 25 Feb 1993; readmitted 8 May 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 4withdrew 1 Dec 1960; rejoined 18 Sep 1961. 5withdrew 14 Mar 1950; rejoined 27 Jun 1986. 6withdrew 14 Nov 1960. 71958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left World Bank 18 Jul 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 2 Nov 1961. 8from 1972 Sri Lanka. 9from 1989 Myanmar. 10Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam, from 23 Aug 1976 Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 11from 1963 Malaysia. 12from 1964 Tanzania. 13from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 14from 1984 Burkina Faso. 15from 1975 Benin. 16to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 17Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 18Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) merged 22 May 1990 as Yemen. 19from 1997 Samoa. 20from 2013 Cabo Verde.


World Council of Churches (WCC): see under Religious Organizations
World Court: see International Court of Justice (ICJ)


World Customs Organization (WCO)


[World Customs Organization
              (WCO) Flag]
                       Adopted 1993

WCO website
Headquarters: Brussels
(Belgium)
WCO Day: 26 Jan (1953)
International Customs Day

 4 Nov 1952                Customs Cooperation Council (CCC).
22 Jun 1994                World Customs Organization (WCO) adopted as working name.

Secretaries-general
 2 Feb 1953 -  1 Aug 1953  Baron Fran
çois de Sélys Longchamps (b. 1910 - d. 1958)
                             (Belgium)
 2 Aug 1953 - 31 Aug 1978  Chevalier Georges Annez de Taboada (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
                             (Belgium)
 1 Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1983  Sir Ronald Walter Radford (U.K.)   (b. 1916 - d. 1995)
 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1988  Glenn R. Dickerson (U.S.)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1993  Thomas P. Hayes (Australia)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1998  James W. Shaver (U.S.)
 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 2008  Michel Danet (France)              (b. 1941 - d. 2009)
 1 Jan 2009 -              Kunio Mikuriya (Japan)             (b. 1955?)

Chairmen of the Council
26 Jan 1953 - 14 Jun 1954  Georges DeGois (France)            (b. 1894 - d. 1963)
14 Jun 1954 - 25 Nov 1957  
Arthur David Kemp Owen (U.K.)      (b. 1904 - d. 1970)
25 Nov 1957 - 30 Nov 1959  Willem Hendrik
van den Berge       (b. 1905 - d. 1987) 
                             (The Netherlands)
30 Nov 1959 -  5 Dec 1961  Knud Korst (Denmark)
 5 Dec 1961 -  4 Dec 1962  Josef Stangelberger (Austria)      (b. 1898 - d. 1993)
 4 Dec 1962 -  1 Dec 1964  Philippe Waldruche
de Montremy     (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
                             (France)
 1 Dec 1964 -  1 Jun 1965  Sir John Anderson (U.K.)           (d. 1965)
 1 Jun 1965 - 30 Nov 1965  Ayodele Diyan
(Nigeria) (acting)   (d. 1968)
30 Nov 1965 - 30 Jun 1967  Charles Lenz (Switzerland)
 1 Jul 1967 - 30 Jun 1969  Bartholomew Culligan
(Ireland)
 1 Jul 1969 - 30 Jun 1970  V
íctor Castro Sanmartín (Spain)    (b. 1917 - d. 2004)
 1 Jul 1970 - 30 Jun 1972  Lennart Eriksson
(Sweden)          (b. 1922)
 1 Jul 1972 - 30 Jun 1974  Hans Hutter (West Germany)
 1 Jul 1974 - 30 Jun 1976  Jasjit Singh (India)
 1 Jul 1976 - 30 Jun 1978  Jirí Brož (Czechoslovakia)         (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
 1 Jul 1978 - 30 Jun 1980  J.A. Kean (New Zealand)
 1 Jul 1980 - 30 Jun 1982  James Peter Connell (Canada)       (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1982 - 30 Jun 1984  Jacques Campet (France)            (b. 1927 - d. 2008)
 1 Jul 1984 - 30 Jun 1986  J
orma Uitto (Finland)              (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
 1 Jul 1986 - 30 Jun 1987  H. Ndzomo Ndzana (Cameroon)
 1 Jul 1987 - 30 Jun 1988  Abubakar Musa (Nigeria)
 1 Jul 1988 - 30 Jun 1989  Björn G. Eriksson (Sweden)         (b. 1945)
 1 Jul 1989 - 30 Jun 1991  Humberto Ríos Rodríguez
(Spain)    (b. 1948)
 1 Jul 1991 - 30 Jun 1992  Sir Brian Unwin (U.K.)             (b. 1936)
 1 Jul 1992 - 30 Jun 1994  Jean-Dominique Comolli
(France)    (b. 1948)
 1 Jul 1994 - 30 Jun 1996  Dame Valerie Strachan (f) (U.K.)   (b. 1940)
 1 Jul 1996 - 30 Jun 1998  Graeme W. Ludlow (New Zealand)
 1 Jul 1998 - 30 Jun 2000  Enrique Guillermo Fanta Ivanovic
                            
(Chile)
 1 Jul 2000 - Feb 2001     Obaid Saqer Busit                  (b. 1960?)
                             (United Arab Emirates)
Feb 2001 - 30 Jun 2001     John C. Tsang (Hong Kong) (interim)(b. 1951)
 1 Jul 2001 -
30 Jun 2006  Pravin Gordhan (South Africa)      (b. 1949)
 1 Jul 2006 - 30 Jun 2008  Tapani Erling (Finland)            (b. 1945)
 1 Jul 2008 - 30 Jun 2011  Martyn J. Dunne (New Zealand)      (b. 1950)

 1 Jul 2011 - 30 Jun 2014  Josephine Feehily (f) (Ireland)
 1 Jul 2014 -              Zouhair Chorfi (Morocco)
 

WCO membership (179)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 4 Nov 1952
Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, West Germany1
20 Nov 1952
Italy
11 Dec 1952
Belgium
19 Dec 1952
Switzerland
21 Jan 1953
Austria
23 Jan 1953
Luxembourg, The Netherlands
26 Jan 1953
Portugal
16 Nov 1955
Pakistan
26 Oct 1956
Egypt
30 Apr 1957
Indonesia
31 Jan 1958
Haiti
23 May 1958
Israel  
16 Oct 1959
Iran
 3 Nov 1959
Syria
26 Apr 1960
Yugoslavia2
20 May 1960
Lebanon
 8 Jun 1960
The Sudan
 5 Jan 1961
Australia
27 Jan 1961
Finland
29 Mar 1963
Jamaica
16 May 1963
New Zealand
21 Aug 1963
Nigeria
 2 Sep 1963
Ivory Coast3
 1 Jan 1964
Jordan
18 Feb 1964
Madagascar4
 3 Mar 1964
Rwanda
24 Mar 1964
South Africa
15 Jun 1964
Japan
30 Jun 1964
Malaysia
20 Oct 1964
Burundi
 3 Nov 1964
Uganda
17 Nov 1964
Tanzania
18 Feb 1965
Gabon
 9 Apr 1965
Cameroon
24 May 1965
Kenya
23 Sep 1965
Czechoslovakia5
 6 Jun 1966
Malawi
 1 Jul 1966
Chile
20 Jul 1966
Tunisia
16 Sep 1966
Upper Volta6
19 Dec 1966
Algeria
29 May 1967
Ceylon7
31 Aug 1967
Cyprus
 1 Jul 1968
Argentina, Morocco
 2 Jul 1968
South Korea
 6 Jul 1968
Malta
 1 Aug 1968
Ghana
16 Sep 1968
Hungary
15 Jan 1969
Romania
 3 Oct 1969
Paraguay
27 Jan 1970
Peru
 5 Nov 1970
United States
15 Feb 1971
Iceland, India
12 Oct 1971
Canada
 4 Feb 1972
Thailand
26 Jul 1972
Zaire8
29 Mar 1973
Mauritus
 8 May 1973
Saudi Arabia
 1 Aug 1973
Bulgaria
 6 Aug 1973
Ethiopia
15 Oct 1973
Trinidad and Tobago
17 Jul 1974
Poland
16 Aug 1974
The Bahamas
 7 Jan 1975
Liberia
 9 Jul 1975
Singapore
 2 Sep 1975
Congo (Brazzaville)
 6 Nov 1975
Sierra Leone
10 Mar 1976
Senegal
29 Jul 1976
Guyana
16 Sep 1977
Uruguay
 1 Jul 1978
Bangladesh
 2 Aug 1978
Lesotho
25 Aug 1978
Botswana
27 Sep 1978
Zambia
 7 Feb 1979
United Arab Emirates
 2 Oct 1979
Mauritania
 1 Oct 1980
Philippines
19 Jan 1981
Brazil
19 Mar 1981
Zimbabwe
15 May 1981
Swaziland
 1 Jul 1981
Niger
11 Jan 1983
Libya
18 Jul 1983
China
22 Feb 1985
Guatemala
22 Jul 1985
Nepal
28 Jul 1986
Central Africa Republic
 1 Jul 1987
Hong Kong, Mozambique
 7 Aug 1987
Mali
14 Oct 1987
The Gambia
 8 Feb 1988
Mexico
11 Jul 1988
Cuba
12 Feb 1990
Togo
27 Mar 1990
East Germany1
 6 Jun 1990
Iraq
 1 Jul 1990
Bermuda
26 Sep 1990
Angola
25 Mar 1991
Myanmar
 8 Jul 1991
Soviet Union9
17 Sep 1991
Mongolia
30 Oct 1991
Guinea
 4 May 1992
Qatar
17 Jun 1992
Azerbaijan
18 Jun 1992
Estonia, Lithuania
22 Jun 1992
Latvia
26 Jun 1992
Ukraine
30 Jun 1992
Armenia, Kazakhstan
 1 Jul 1992
Cape Verde10, Namibia
28 Jul 1992
Uzbekistan
31 Aug 1992
Albania
 7 Sep 1992
Slovenia
 1 Jan 1993
Czech Republic, Slovakia
17 May 1993
Turkmenistan
 1 Jul 1993
Colombia, Comoros, Croatia, Vietnam, Yemen 
 7 Jul 1993
Macau
 4 Oct 1993
Kuwait
26 Oct 1993
Georgia
16 Dec 1993
Belarus
 1 Jul 1994
Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of)
28 Oct 1994
Moldova
 8 Aug 1995
Eritrea
 8 Sep 1995
Maldives
 8 Mar 1996
Panama
 1 Jul 1996
Brunei Darussalam, Venezuela
 1 Jul 1997
Fiji, Tajikistan
14 Aug 1997
Bolivia
16 Dec 1997
Ecuador
 3 Sep 1998
Andorra
24 Sep 1998
Nicaragua
 9 Nov 1998
Benin
 7 Jan 1999
Barbados
10 Feb 2000
Kyrgyzstan
25 Jul 2000
Seychelles
11 Sep 2000
Oman
27 Mar 2001
Serbia and Montenegro2
 3 Apr 2001
Cambodia
18 Apr 2001
Bahrain
 1 Jul 2001
Netherlands Antilles11
29 Aug 2001
Costa Rica
 1 Oct 2001
Samoa
12 Feb 2002
Bhutan
18 Mar 2002
Papua New Guinea
19 Sep 2003
East Timor
28 Jul 2004
Dominican Republic
10 Aug 2004
Afghanistan
16 Feb 2005
Chad
12 May 2005
Saint Lucia
 1 Jul 2005
Tonga
 7 Jul 2005
El Salvador
 8 Dec 2005
Honduras
24 Oct 2006
Montenegro
16 Jan 2007
Laos
 1 Jul 2007
European Union12
19 Mar 2008
Djibouti
22 Apr 2008
Belize
 4 Jul 2008
Bosnia and Hercegovina
23 Sep 2009
São Tomé and Príncipe
17 Nov 2009
Vanuatu
19 Aug 2010
Guinea-Bissau
10 Oct 2010
Curaçao, Sint Maarten
18 Jul 2012
South Sudan
 4 Oct 2012
Somalia
1East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 2from 7 Jul 1993 the CCC did not recognize the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as its successor and ruled that it had to apply anew for membership, which it did and was readmitted 27 Mar 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 3from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 4to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 5dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 6from 1984 Burkina Faso. 7from 1972 Sri Lanka. 81966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 9dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 10from 2013 Cabo Verde. 11dissolved on 10 Oct 2010, succeeded by Curaçao and Sint Maarten. 12status akin to WCO membership; to 1 Nov 1993 named European Community.


World Food Program (WFP)

[World
                      Food Program (WFP) flag] [alternate spanish version: Programa
                      Alimentario Mundial (PAM)

WFP website
Headquarters: Rome
(Italy)

24 Nov 1961                World Food Program (WFP) formed as a temporary UN program.
20 Dec 1965                Made a permanent UN agency.

Executive Directors
 1 Jun 1962 - 31 Dec 1967  Addeke Hendrik Boerma (Netherlands)(b. 1912 - d. 1992) 
 1 Jan 1968 -  1 Aug 1968  Sushil K. Dev (India)(acting)      (b. 1907 - d. ....)
 1 Aug 1968 - 15 May 1976  Francisco Aquino Herrera           (b. 1919)
                             (El Salvador)    
17 May 1976 - 30 Sep 1977  Thomas C.M. Robinson (U.S.)        (b. 1912 - d. 1992) 
                             (acting to 1 Jul 1977) 
 1 Oct 1977 - 29 Apr 1981  Garson N. Vogel (Canada)           (b. 1918 - d. 1981)
12 May 1981 - 24 Feb 1982  Bernardo de Azevêdo Brito (Brazil) (b. 1935)
                             (acting)
26 Feb 1982 -  4 Apr 1982  Juan Felipe Yriart (Uruguay)       (b. 1920 - d. 2008)
                             (acting)
 5 Apr 1982 -  1 Apr 1992  James C. Ingram (Australia)        (b. 1928)
 1 Apr 1992 -  4 Apr 2002  Catherine Bertini (f) (U.S.)       (b. 1950)
 5 Apr 2002 -  4 Apr 2007  James T. Morris (U.S.)             (b. 1943)
10 Apr 2007 -  4 Apr 2012  Josette Sheeran (f) (U.S.)         (b. 1954)
 5 Apr 2012 -              Ertharin Cousin (f) (U.S.)         (b. 1957)  


WFP membership

Date of
Admission
Member Nations
24 Nov 1961
36 member Executive Board consists of which 18 are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and 18 by the council of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), each serve a 3 year term and are eligible for re-election.


World Health Organization (WHO)

[World Health Organization
                (WHO) flag]
                     Adopted 1948
 
WHO website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)
WHO Day: 7 Apr (1948)
World Health Day

 7 Apr 1948                World Health Organization (WHO) established.
10 Jul 1948                WHO a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Directors-general
21 Jul 1948 - Jul 1953     Brock Chisholm (Canada)            (b. 1896 - d. 1971)
Jul 1953 - 1973            Marcolino Gomes Candau (Brazil)    (b. 1911 - d. 1983)
1973 - 21 Jul 1988         Halfdan T. Mahler (Denmark)        (b. 1923)
21 Jul 1988 - 21 Jul 1998  Hiroshi Nakajima (Japan)           (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
21 Jul 1998 - 21 Jul 2003  Gro Harlem Brundtland (f)(Norway)  (b. 1939)
21 Jul 2003 - 22 May 2006  Lee Jong Wook (South Korea)        (b. 1945 - d. 2006)
22 May 2006 -  4 Jan 2007  Anders Nordström (Sweden) (acting) (b. 1960)
 4 Jan 2007 -              Margaret Chan (f)(China)           (b. 1947)
 
WHO membership (194)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 7 Apr 1948 Albania1, Australia, Austria, Byelorussian S.S.R2, Canada, China3, Czechoslovakia4, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, Greece, Haiti, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Liberia, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Soviet Union5, South Africa6, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria7, Thailand, Transjordan8, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R.9, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia10
19 Apr 1948 Afghanistan, Denmark
 6 May 1948 Poland11
 2 Jun 1948 Brazil
 8 Jun 1948 Romania12
 9 Jun 1948 Bulgaria13
16 Jun 1948 France
17 Jun 1948 Hungary14, Iceland
21 Jun 1948 Dominican Republic, United States
22 Jun 1948 El Salvador
23 Jun 1948 Pakistan 
25 Jun 1948 Belgium
 1 Jul 1948 Burma15
 7 Jul 1948 Ceylon16, Venezuela
 8 Jul 1948 Monaco
 9 Jul 1948 Philippines
15 Oct 1948 Chile
22 Oct 1948 Argentina
 4 Jan 1949 Paraguay
19 Jan 1949 Lebanon
 1 Mar 1949 Ecuador
17 Mar 1949 Costa Rica
 8 Apr 1949 Honduras
22 Apr 1949 Uruguay
 3 Jun 1949 Luxembourg
21 Jun 1949 Israel
17 Aug 1949 South Korea
26 Aug 1949 Guatemala
11 Nov 1949 Peru
23 Dec 1949 Bolivia
24 Apr 1950 Nicaragua
 9 May 1950 Cuba
17 May 1950 Cambodia, Laos, South Vietnam17
23 May 1950 Indonesia
20 Feb 1951 Panama
16 May 1951 Japan
28 May 1951 Spain
29 May 1951 West Germany18
16 May 1952 Libya
 2 Sep 1953 Nepal
14 May 1956 Morocco, The Sudan, Tunisia
 8 Apr 1957 Ghana
24 Apr 1958 Malaya19
14 May 1959 Colombia
19 May 1959 Guinea
 6 May 1960 Cameroon
 9 May 1960 Kuwait
13 May 1960 Togo
20 Sep 1960 Central African Republic, Dahomey20
 4 Oct 1960 Upper Volta21
 5 Oct 1960 Niger
17 Oct 1960 Mali
26 Oct 1960 Congo (Brazzaville)
28 Oct 1960 Ivory Coast22
31 Oct 1960 Senegal
21 Nov 1960 Gabon
25 Nov 1960 Nigeria
 1 Jan 1961 Chad
16 Jan 1961 Cyprus, Madagascar23
26 Jan 1961 Somalia
24 Feb 1961 Congo (Léopoldville)24
 7 Mar 1961 Mauritania
20 Oct 1961 Sierra Leone 
15 Mar 1962 Tanganyika25
18 Apr 1962 Mongolia
16 May 1962 Western Samoa26
22 Oct 1962 Burundi
 7 Nov 1962 Rwanda
 8 Nov 1962 Algeria
 3 Jan 1963 Trinidad and Tobago
 7 Mar 1963 Uganda
21 Mar 1963 Jamaica
27 Jan 1964 Kenya
29 Feb 1964 Zanzibar25
 1 Feb 1965 Malta
 2 Feb 1965 Zambia
 8 Apr 1965 Malawi
 5 Nov 1965 Maldives
25 Feb 1966 Singapore
27 Sep 1966 Guyana
25 Apr 1967 Barbados
 7 Jul 1967 Lesotho
 6 May 1968 Yemen (Aden)27, Yemen (Sana)27
 9 Dec 1968 Mauritius
26 Apr 1971 The Gambia
28 May 1971 Oman 
 2 Nov 1971 Bahrain
 1 Jan 1972 Fiji
30 Mar 1972 United Arab Emirates
11 May 1972 Qatar
19 May 1972 Bangladesh
16 Apr 1973 Swaziland
 8 May 1973 East Germany18
19 May 1973 North Korea
 1 Apr 1974 The Bahamas
29 Jul 1974 Guinea-Bissau 
 4 Dec 1974 Grenada
26 Feb 1975 Botswana
14 Aug 1975 Tonga
11 Sep 1975 Mozambique
22 Oct 1975 North Vietnam17
 9 Dec 1975 Comoros
 5 Jan 1976 Cape Verde28
23 Mar 1976 São Tomé and Príncipe
25 Mar 1976 Suriname
29 Apr 1976 Papua New Guinea
15 May 1976 Angola
10 Mar 1978 Djibouti
11 Sep 1979 Seychelles
 5 May 1980 Equatorial Guinea
12 May 1980 San Marino
16 May 1980 Zimbabwe
11 Nov 1980 Saint Lucia
13 Aug 1981 Dominica
 8 Mar 1982 Bhutan
 7 Mar 1983 Vanuatu
 4 Apr 1983 Solomon Islands
 1 Sep 1983 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
12 Mar 1984 Antigua and Barbuda 
 9 May 1984 Cook Islands
26 Jul 1984 Kiribati
 3 Dec 1984 Saint Kitts and Nevis
25 Mar 1985 Brunei Darussalam
23 Apr 1990 Namibia
23 Aug 1990 Belize
 5 Jun 1991 Marshall Islands
14 Aug 1991 Federated States of Micronesia
25 Nov 1991 Lithuania
 4 Dec 1991 Latvia
29 Apr 1992 Kyrgyzstan
 4 May 1992 Armenia, Moldova, Tajikistan
 7 May 1992 Slovenia
22 May 1992 Uzbekistan
26 May 1992 Georgia
11 Jun 1992 Croatia
 2 Jul 1992 Turkmenistan
19 Aug 1992 Kazakhstan
10 Sep 1992 Bosnia and Hercegovina
 2 Oct 1992 Azerbaijan
22 Jan 1993 Czech Republic
 4 Feb 1993 Slovakia
31 Mar 1993 Estonia
22 Apr 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
 7 May 1993 Tuvalu
24 Jul 1993 Eritrea
 5 May 1994 Niue
 9 May 1994 Nauru
 9 Mar 1995 Palau
15 Jan 1997 Andorra
28 Nov 2000 Serbia and Montenegro10
27 Sep 2002 East Timor
29 Aug 2006 Montenegro
27 Sep 2011
South Sudan
1Albania inactive withdrawal not recognized 25 Feb 1950 - Jan 1957. 2Byelorussian S.S.R. inactive withdrawal not recognized 16 Feb 1949 - 27 Jan 1956; from 1991 Belarus. 3China inactive withdrawal not recognized 5 May 1950 - 22 May 1953; the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 10 May 1972, when the WHO voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 4Czechoslovakia inactive withdrawal not recognized 14 Apr 1950 - Jan 1958; dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 5Soviet Union inactive withdrawal not recognized 12 Feb 1949 - 27 Jan 1956; dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 6South Africa suspended 19 Mar 1964 - 2 May 1994. 71958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left WHO 22 Feb 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on that date. 8from 1949 Jordan. 9Ukrainian S.S.R. inactive withdrawal not recognized 16 Feb 1949 - 27 Jan 1956; from 1991 Ukraine. 10suspended 3 May 1993, readmitted 28 Nov 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 11Poland inactive withdrawal not recognized 15 Aug 1950 - Jan 1957. 12Romania inactive withdrawal not recognized 20 Feb 1950 - 23 May 1957. 13Bulgaria inactive withdrawal not recognized Nov 1949 - Jan 1957. 14Hungary inactive withdrawal not recognized 19 May 1950 - 1963. 15from 1989 Myanmar. 16from 1972 Sri Lanka. 17North Vietnam united with South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam on 2 Jul 1976; succession recognized by WHO Assembly 10 May 1977. 18East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 19from 1963 Malaysia. 20from 1975 Benin. 21from 1984 Burkina Faso. 22from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 23to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 241966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 25Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 26from 1997 Samoa. 27Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 28from 2013 Cabo Verde. 

Date of
Admission
Associate Members of WHO
17 May 1950
Southern Rhodesia1
12 May 1952
French Morocco2, Tunisia3
May 1954
Rhodesia and Nyasaland4
1955
The Sudan3
 9 May 1956 Gold Coast5, Nigeria6, Sierra Leone7
May 1960
Central African Republic8, Congo (Brazzaville)9, Cyprus10, Gabon11, Ivory Coast12, Mali Federation13, Niger14, Upper Volta15
20 Feb 1961
Ruanda-Urundi16, Tanganyika17
21 May 1962
Jamaica18, Uganda19
 9 May 1963
Kenya20, Mauritius21
 5 Mar 1964
Malta22, Northern Rhodesia23, Nyasaland24, Qatar25
 8 May 1968
Bahrain26
26 Jul 1972
Papua New Guinea27
16 May 1974
Namibia28
 8 May 1991
Tokelau
 7 May 1992
Puerto Rico
1part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1 Aug 1953 - 31 Dec 1963; recognized after 12 Nov 1965, from May 1971 membership regarded as in suspense; from 1980 Zimbabwe. 2from 14 May 1956 full member as Morocco. 3full member from 14 May 1956. 4dissolved 31 Dec 1963. 5from 8 Apr 1957 member as Ghana. 6Nigeria full member from 25 Nov 1960. 7Sierra Leone full member from 20 Oct 1961. 8C.A.R. full member from 20 Sep 1960. 9Congo full member from 26 Oct 1960. 10Cyprus full member from 16 Jan 1961. 11Gabon full member from 21 Nov 1960. 12Ivory Coast full member from 28 Oct 1960. 13Mali a full member 17 Oct 1960 and Senegal on 31 Oct 1960. 14Niger full member from 5 Oct 1960. 15Upper Volta full member from 4 Oct 1960. 16dissolved 1 Jul 1962. 17Tanganyika full member from 15 Mar 1962. 18Jamaica full member from 21 Mar 1963. 19Uganda full member from 7 Mar 1963. 20Kenya full member from 27 Jan 1964. 21Mauritius full member from 9 Dec 1968. 22Malta full member from 1 Feb 1965. 23full member from 2 Feb 1965 as Zambia. 24full member from 8 Apr 1965 as Malawi. 25Qatar full member from 11 May 1972. 26Bahrain full member from 2 Nov 1971. 27Papua New Guinea full member from 29 Apr 1976. 28Namibia full member from 23 Apr 1990.



World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

[World
                      Intellectual Property Organization WIPO flag
                      1970-2010]                Jul 1970 - 26 Apr 2010
[World Intellectual Property Organization
                      WIPO flag (produced by WIPO, owner of copyright)]                 Adopted 26 Apr 2010
 

WIPO website Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland)
WIPO Day: 26 Apr (1970)
World Intellectual
Property Day

20 Mar 1883                Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Paris Union).
 9 Sep 1886                Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works
                             (Berne Convention).
 5 Dec 1887                International Bureau of Intellectual Property.
13 Jul 1892                United International Bureau for the Protection of 
                             Intellectual Property (UIBPIP or BIRPI).
16 Dec 1953                International Bureau for the Protection of International 
                             Property (IBPIP or BIRPI).
26 Apr 1970                World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
17 Dec 1974                WIPO a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Secretary-general 
1888 - 1892                Henri Morel (Switzerland)          (b. 1838 - d. 1912)
Directors
1892 - 1912                Henri Morel (Switzerland)          (s.a.)
1912 - 1921                Robert Comtesse (Switzerland)      (b. 1847 - d. 1922) 
1922 - 1926                Ernest Rothlisberger (Switzerland) (b. 1858 - d. 1926)
1926 - 1938                Fritz Ostertag (Switzerland)       (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
1938 - 1953                Bénigne Mentha (Switzerland)       (b. 1888 - d. 1974)
1953 - 1963                Jacques Secrétan (Switzerland)     (b. 1897 - d. 1963)
1963 - 1970                Georg H.C. Bodenhausen             (b. 1905 - d. 1997)
                             (The Netherlands)
Directors-general
1970 - 1973                Georg H.C. Bodenhausen             (s.a.)
                             (The Netherlands)
1973 - Nov 1997            Árpád Bogsch (U.S.)                (b. 1919 - d. 2004)
Nov 1997 - 30 Sep 2008     Kamil Eltayed Idris (The Sudan)    (b. 1954)
 1 Oct 2008 -              Francis Gurry (Australia)          (b. 1951)

WIPO membership (188)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
26 Apr 1970 Byelorussian S.S.R.1, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Romania, Senegal, Soviet Union2, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukrainian S.S.R.3, United Kingdom 
19 May 1970 Bulgaria
11 Jun 1970 Malawi
26 Jun 1970 Canada
25 Aug 1970 United States
 8 Sep 1970 Finland
19 Sep 1970 West Germany4
26 Sep 1970 Chad
22 Dec 1970 Czechoslovakia5
27 Jul 1971 Morocco
11 Mar 1972 Fiji
21 May 1972 Liechtenstein
12 Jul 1972 Jordan
10 Aug 1972 Australia
11 Aug 1973 Austria
11 Oct 1973 Yugoslavia6
18 Oct 1973 Uganda
 3 Nov 1973 Cameroon
15 Feb 1974 The Sudan
 1 May 1974 Ivory Coast7
 8 Jun 1974 Norway
17 Aug 1974 North Korea
24 Sep 1974 United Arab Emirates 
18 Oct 1974 France
 9 Jan 1975 The Netherlands
28 Jan 1975 Zaire8
31 Jan 1975 Belgium
 3 Mar 1975 Monaco
 9 Mar 1975 Benin
19 Mar 1975 Luxembourg
20 Mar 1975 Brazil
23 Mar 1975 Poland, South Africa9
27 Mar 1975 Cuba
16 Apr 1975 Algeria
20 Apr 1975 Holy See, Japan
21 Apr 1975 Egypt
27 Apr 1975 Portugal 
28 Apr 1975 Togo
30 Apr 1975 Vietnam10
 1 May 1975 India
18 May 1975 Niger
 6 Jun 1975 Gabon
14 Jun 1975 Mexico
25 Jun 1975 Chile
23 Aug 1975 Upper Volta11
 5 Oct 1975 Kenya
25 Nov 1975 Suriname
28 Nov 1975 Tunisia
 2 Dec 1975 Congo (Brazzaville)
21 Jan 1976 Iraq
 4 Mar 1976 Greece
26 Apr 1975 East Germany4
12 May 1976 Turkey 
12 Jun 1976 Ghana
 2 Jul 1976 Vietnam10
 3 Sep 1976 Qatar
17 Sep 1976 Mauritania
21 Sep 1976 Mauritius
28 Sep 1976 Libya
 4 Jan 1977 The Bahamas
 6 Jan 1977 Pakistan
30 Mar 1977 Burundi
20 Apr 1977 Italy
14 May 1977 Zambia
 7 Dec 1977 Malta
23 Aug 1978 Central African Republic 
20 Sep 1978 Sri Lanka
25 Dec 1978 Jamaica
28 Feb 1979 Mongolia
 1 Mar 1979 South Korea
29 Mar 1979 Yemen (Sana)12
18 Sep 1979 El Salvador
 5 Oct 1979 Barbados
18 Dec 1979 Indonesia
21 Dec 1979 Uruguay
 4 May 1980 Colombia
 3 Jun 1980 China
14 Jul 1980 Philippines
 4 Sep 1980 Peru
 8 Oct 1980 Argentina
13 Nov 1980 Guinea
10 Dec 1980 The Gambia
10 Jun 1981 Costa Rica 
29 Dec 1981 Zimbabwe13
22 May 1982 Saudi Arabia
14 Aug 1982 Mali
18 Nov 1982 Somalia
30 Apr 1983 Guatemala
17 Sep 1983 Panama
 2 Nov 1983 Haiti
15 Nov 1983 Honduras
30 Dec 1983 Tanzania
 3 Feb 1984 Rwanda
20 Jun 1984 New Zealand
26 Oct 1984 Cyprus 
23 Nov 1984 Venezuela
15 Apr 1985 Angola
 5 May 1985 Nicaragua 
11 May 1985 Bangladesh
18 May 1986 Sierra Leone
13 Sep 1986 Iceland 
18 Nov 1986 Lesotho
30 Dec 1986 Lebanon
20 Jun 1987 Paraguay 
22 May 1988 Ecuador
28 Jun 1988 Guinea-Bissau
16 Aug 1988 Trinidad and Tobago
18 Aug 1988 Swaziland
 1 Jan 1989 Malaysia
 8 Mar 1989 Liberia 
22 Dec 1989 Madagascar 
25 Dec 1989 Thailand
27 Dec 1989 Yemen (Aden)12
10 Dec 1990 Singapore
26 Jun 1991 San Marino
23 Dec 1991 Namibia
30 Apr 1992 Lithuania
12 Jun 1992 Slovenia
30 Jun 1992 Albania
28 Jul 1992 Croatia
 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic, Slovakia
21 Jan 1993 Latvia
16 Feb 1993 Kazakhstan
22 Apr 1993 Armenia
 5 May 1993 Uzbekistan
 2 Jun 1993 Bosnia and Hercegovina
 3 Jun 1993 Moldova
 6 Jul 1993 Bolivia
23 Jul 1993 Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
21 Aug 1993 Saint Lucia
18 Jan 1994 Georgia
 5 Feb 1994 Estonia
14 Feb 1994 Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan 
16 Mar 1994 Bhutan 
21 Apr 1994 Brunei Darussalam
25 Oct 1994 Guyana
28 Oct 1994 Andorra
17 Jan 1995 Laos
 1 Mar 1995 Turkmenistan
 9 Apr 1995 Nigeria
22 Jun 1995 Bahrain
25 Jul 1995 Cambodia
29 Aug 1995 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 
25 Sep 1995 Azerbaijan
16 Nov 1995 Saint Kitts and Nevis 
19 Feb 1996 Oman
23 Dec 1996 Mozambique 
 4 Feb 1997 Nepal
20 Feb 1997 Eritrea
26 Jun 1997 Equatorial Guinea
 7 Jul 1997 Cape Verde13
10 Jul 1997 Papua New Guinea
11 Oct 1997 Samoa
19 Feb 1998 Ethiopia
15 Apr 1998 Botswana
12 May 1998 São Tomé and Príncipe
14 Jul 1998 Kuwait
22 Sep 1998 Grenada
26 Sep 1998 Dominica
16 Mar 2000 Seychelles 
17 Mar 2000 Antigua and Barbuda
17 Jun 2000 Belize
27 Jun 2000
Dominican Republic
15 May 2001
Myanmar 
20 Dec 2000
Serbia and Montenegro6
14 Jun 2001
Tonga 
14 Mar 2002
Iran 
13 May 2002
Djibouti
12 May 2004
Maldives
18 Nov 2004
Syria
 3 Apr 2005
Comoros
13 Dec 2005
Afghanistan 
19 Sep 2006
Serbia
 4 Dec 2006
Montenegro
 2 Mar 2012
Vanuatu
19 Jul 2013
Kiribati
 4 Jun 2014
Tuvalu
 8 Jan 2015
Niue
1from 1991 Belarus. 2dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 3from 1991 Ukraine. 
4East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 5dissolved 31 Dec 1992, succeeded by Czech Republic and Slovakia. 6expelled 24 Sep 1992, readmitted 20 Dec 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro. 7from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 8from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 9South Africa suspended 30 Sep 1977 - 29 Jul 1994. 10Republic of Vietnam to 30 Apr 1975, then Republic of South Vietnam; merged with North Vietnam 2 Jul 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam, which filed a declaration of continued application on 7 Apr 1981. 11from 1984 Burkina Faso. 12Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united as Yemen 22 May 1990. 12Southern Rhodesia was a member of the Paris Union (UIBPIP) 6 Apr 1965 - 17 Apr 1980 but not a member of WIPO. 13from 2013 Cabo Verde.



World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

[World
                      Meteorological Organization (WMO) flag to 2013]                    to 26 Jun 2013
 
[World
                      Meteorological Organization (WMO) flag]                Adopted 26 Jun 2013 
 
WMO website
Headquarters: Geneva
(Switzerland) (Lausanne,
 Switzerland 1939-1955;
De Bilt, Netherlands
 1928-1939)

WMO Day: 23 Mar (1950)
World Meterological Day

16 Sep 1873                First International Meteorological Congress takes place. 
Apr 1879                   International Meteorological Committee
1928                       International Meteorological Organization (IMO).
11 Oct 1947                World Meteorological Convention signed.
23 Mar 1950                World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
 
4 Apr 1951                IMO transferred its activities, resources and obligations to
                             the WMO.
20 Dec 1951                WMO a specialized agency of the United Nations.
 

Secretaries of the Committee
1879 - 1900                Robert Henry Scott (U.K.)          (b. 1833 - d. 1916)
1900 - 1907               
Hugo Hildebrand Hildebrandsson     (b. 1838 - d. 1925)
                             (Sweden)
Sep 1907 - c.1913          Gustav Georg Hellmann (Germany)    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
c.1913 - 1919              ....
1919                       Ernest Gold (U.K.)                 (b. 1881 - d. 1976)
1919 - 1923                Ewoud van Everdingen (Netherlands) (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
1923 - 1928               
Theodor Hesselberg (Norway)        (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
Chiefs of the Secretariat
1928 - 1938                Hendrik G. Cannegieter             (b. 1879 - d. 1964)
                             (Netherlands)
Jul 1938 - 31 Dec 1951     Gustav Swoboda (Switzerland)       (b. 1893 - d. 1956)
Secretaries-general
 1 Jan 1951 - 31 Dec 1955  Gustav Swoboda (Switzerland)       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1979  David Arthur Davies (U.K.)         (b. 1913 - d. 1990)
                             (acting to 1959)
 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1983  Aksel Christopher Wiin-Nielsen     (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
                             (Denmark)
 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 2003  Godwin Olu Patrick Obasi (Nigeria) (b. 1933 - d. 2007)
 1 Jan 2004 -              Michel Jarraud (France)            (b. 1952)
  

Presidents
1873 - 1879                Christophorus Henricus Didericus   (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
                             Buys Ballot (Netherlands)
1879 - 1896                Heinrich Wild (Russia)             (b. 1833 - d. 1902)
1896 - 1907                Éleuthère Élie Nicolas Mascart     (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
                             (France)
Sep 1907 - 1923            William Napier Shaw (U.K.)         (b. 1854 - d. 1945)
1923 - 1935                Ewoud van Everdingen (Netherlands) (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
1935 - 1946                Theodor Hesselberg (Norway)        (s.a.)
1946 - 1951                Sir Nelson King Johnson (U.K.)     (b. 1892 - d. 1954)
1951 - 1955                Francis Wylton Reichelderfer       (b. 1895 - d. 1983)
                             (United States)
1955 - 1963                André-Jules-Armand Viaut (France)  (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
1963 - 1971                Alf Erik Gunnar Emanuel Nyberg     (b. 1911 - d. 1993)
                            
(Sweden)
1971 - 1979                Mohammed Fathi Taha (Egypt)        (b. 1914 - d. 1987)
1979 - 1987                Roman Lucero Kintanar              (b. 1929 - d. 2007)
                             (Philippines)
1987 - 1995                Zou Jingmeng (China)               (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
1995 - 24 May 2003         John William Zillman (Australia)   (b. 1939)
24 May 2003 -  6 Jun 2011  Alexander Ivanovich Bedritsky      (b. 1947)
                             (Russia)
 6 Jun 2011 -              Ronald David Grimes (Canada)
 

WMO membership (185)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
23 Mar 1950
Australia, Brazil, Burma1, Byelorussian S.S.R.2, Czechoslovakia3, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, India, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Romania, South Africa4, Soviet Union5, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R.6, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia7
11 Apr 1950
Pakistan
16 May 1950
Poland
16 Jun 1950
Venezuela
28 Jul 1950
Canada
15 Sep 1950
Paraguay
16 Nov 1950
Indonesia
 2 Jan 1951
Argentina
 9 Jan 1951
Italy
11 Jan 1951
Uruguay
15 Jan 1951
Portugal
 2 Feb 1951
Belgium
15 Feb 1951
Hungary
27 Feb 1951
Spain
 2 Mar 1951
China8
23 May 1951
Ceylon9
 7 Jun 1951
Ecuador
10 Jul 1951
Denmark
14 Aug 1951
Haiti
12 Sep 1951
The Netherlands
 4 Mar 1952
Cuba
12 Mar 1952
Bulgaria
21 Mar 1952
Guatemala
16 Jul 1952
Syria10
29 Oct 1952
Luxembourg
11 Aug 1953
Japan
 3 Dec 1953
Ethiopia
1954 Rhodesia and Nyasaland11
15 May 1954
Bolivia
10 Jun 1954
West Germany12
 2 Mar 1955 South Vietnam13
23 Feb 1955
Austria
27 May 1955
El Salvador
 1 Jun 1955
Laos
11 Jul 1955
Jordan
29 Dec 1955
Cambodia
28 Jan 1956
Libya
15 Feb 1956
South Korea
11 Sep 1956
Afghanistan
 3 Dec 1956
The Sudan
 3 Jan 1957
Morocco
22 Jan 1957
Tunisia
 6 May 1957
Ghana
 9 May 1957
Chile
29 Jul 1957
Albania
19 May 1958
Malaya14
26 Feb 1959
Saudi Arabia
27 Feb 1959
Nicaragua
17 Mar 1959
Guinea
30 Sep 1959
Iran
10 Oct 1960
Honduras
28 Oct 1960
Niger, Togo
31 Oct 1960
Ivory Coast15, Upper Volta16
 5 Nov 1960
Congo (Kinshasa)17
11 Nov 1960
Senegal, Mali
21 Nov 1960
Congo (Brazzaville)
30 Nov 1960
Nigeria
15 Dec 1960
Madagascar18
16 Dec 1960
Costa Rica
17 Dec 1960
Cameroon
 5 Feb 1961
Chad
14 Apr 1961
Dahomey19
 5 Jun 1961
Gabon
28 Jun 1961
Central African Republic
 5 Jan 1962
Colombia
23 Jan 1962
Mauritania
30 Mar 1962
Sierra Leone
14 Sep 1962
Tanganyika20
30 Oct 1962
Burundi
 1 Dec 1962
Kuwait
 1 Feb 1963
Trinidad and Tobago
 4 Feb 1963
Rwanda
15 Mar 1963
Uganda
 4 Apr 1963
Algeria, Mongolia
11 Apr 1963
Cyprus
29 May 1963
Jamaica
 2 Mar 1964
Somalia
11 Aug 1964
Southern Rhodesia21
 2 Jun 1964
Kenya
28 Dec 1964
Zambia
15 Feb 1965
Malawi
24 Jan 1966
Singapore
12 Aug 1966
Nepal
22 Nov 1966
Guyana
22 Mar 1967
Barbados
12 Sep 1967
Panama
16 Oct 1967
Botswana
28 Jan 1969
Yemen (Aden)22
17 Jul 1969
Mauritius
 8 Jun 1971
Yemen (Sana)22
23 May 1973
East Germany12
24 Aug 1973
Bangladesh
29 Nov 1973
The Bahamas
 7 Feb 1974
Liberia
 3 Jan 1975
Oman
 4 Apr 1975
Qatar
27 May 1975
North Korea
 8 Jul 1975
North Vietnam13
21 Oct 1975
Cape Verde23
15 Dec 1975
Papua New Guinea
19 Mar 1976
Comoros
21 Jun 1976
Mozambique
 2 Jul 1976
Vietnam13
26 Jul 1976
Suriname
23 Nov 1976
São Tomé and Príncipe
28 Dec 1976
Malta
15 Feb 1977
Seychelles
16 Mar 1977
Angola
15 Dec 1977
Guinea-Bissau
 1 Jun 1978
Maldives
30 Jun 1978
Djibouti
 2 Oct 1978
The Gambia
 3 Aug 1979
Lesotho
21 Feb 1980
Dominica
18 Mar 1980
Fiji
21 Apr 1980
Bahrain
12 Jan 1981
Zimbabwe
 2 Mar 1981
Saint Lucia
25 May 1982
Belize
24 Jun 1982
Vanuatu
 2 Nov 1982
Swaziland
 6 May 1985
Solomon Islands
26 Nov 1986
Brunei Darussalam
17 Dec 1986
United Arab Emirates
16 Nov 1988
Antigua and Barbuda
 6 Feb 1991
Namibia
15 May 1992
Latvia
 3 Jun 1992
Lithuania
20 Aug 1992
Slovenia
21 Aug 1992
Estonia
16 Sep 1992
Armenia
 9 Oct 1992
Croatia
 4 Dec 1992
Turkmenistan
23 Dec 1992
Uzbekistan
25 Jan 1993
Czech Republic
11 Feb 1993
Slovakia
 5 May 1993
Kazakhstan
 1 Jun 1993
Macedonia (Former Yugoslav Republic of)
 8 Jul 1993
Eritrea
10 Aug 1993
Tajikistan
 1 Sep 1993
Georgia
27 Dec 1993
Azerbaijan
 1 Jun 1994
Bosnia and Hercegovina
20 Jul 1994
Kyrgyzstan
21 Nov 1994
Moldova
11 Jul 1995
Western Samoa24
20 Sep 1995
Federated States of Micronesia
18 Oct 1995
Cook Islands
25 Feb 1996
Tonga
 9 Apr 1996
Monaco
31 May 1996
Niue
21 Feb 2001
Serbia and Montenegro7
11 Feb 2003
Bhutan
26 Mar 2003
Kiribati
 6 Dec 2006
Montenegro
 4 Dec 2009
East Timor
22 Sep 2012
Tuvalu
14 Dec 2012
South Sudan
1from 1989 Burma. 2from 1991 Belarus. 3dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 4suspended 28 Apr 1975 - 9 Jun 1994. 5dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 6from 1991 Ukraine. 7dissolved 1991; Federal Republic of Yugoslavia deposited its instrument of accession on 21 February 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; dissolved on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 8the Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 25 Feb 1972; People's Republic of China deposited its instrument of accession on 9 Feb 1973. 9from 1972 Sri Lanka. 101958-1961 part of the United Arab Republic, union of Egypt and Syria. Syria left WMO 22 Feb 1958; On 28 Sep 1961 Syria seceded from the U.A.R. and resumed its separate membership on 8 Oct 1961, 11dissolved 31 Dec 1963. 12East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 13South Vietnam merged with North Vietnam on 2 Jul 1976 as Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 14from 1963 Malaysia. 15from 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 16from 1984 Burkina Faso. 17Congo (Léopoldville) to 1966; 1966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 18to 30 Dec 1975 Malagasy Republic. 19from 1975 Benin. 20Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 21status reverts to member territory 11 Nov 1965; from 1980 Zimbabwe. 22from Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 23from Cabo Verde. 24from 1997 Samoa.

Date of
Admission
Separate Member Territories of WMO
23 Mar 1950
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan1, Bermuda2, Belgian Congo3, British East African Territories4, British Malaya-Borneo Territories5, British West African Territories6, Ceylon7, French Cameroun8, French Equatorial Africa9, French Morocco10, French Polynesia, French Somaliland11, French West Africa12, Hong Kong, Indochina13, Madagascar14, New Caledonia, Saarland15, Southern Rhodesia16, Tunisia17
15 Jan 1951
Portuguese East Africa18, Portuguese West Africa18
12 Sep 1951
Netherlands Antilles19, Netherlands New Guinea20, Surinam21
24 Sep 1953 British Caribbean Territories22
1954
Spanish Morocco10, Spanish Territories of Guinea23
1958
Mauritius24
28 Apr 1959
Ruanda-Urundi25
 2 Jun 1964
Seychelles26
19 May 1971
Comoro Islands27, Saint Pierre and Miquelon28
 1 Jan 1986
Netherlands Antilles and Aruba19
24 Jan 1996
Macau
10 Oct 2010
Curaçao and Sint Maarten
1from 3 Dec 1956 member as The Sudan. 2withdrew 31 Dec 1959. 3from 5 Nov 1960, member as Congo (Kinshasa). 4from 14 Apr 1963 only Kenya, Zanzibar and Seychelles; dissolved 2 Jun 1964. 5from 19 May 1958 as Singapore and British Territories in Borneo; withdrew 31 Dec 1963. 6dissolved 1960. 7member from 23 May 1951. 8from 5 May 1960 member as Cameroon. 9dissolved 1960. 10from 3 Jan 1957 member as Morocco. 11from 5 Jul 1967 Territory of Afars and Issas; from 30 Jun 1978 member as Djibouti. 12dissolved 1960. 13dissolved 21 Jun 1954. 14member from 12 Dec 1960. 15united with Federal Republic of Germany on 1 Jan 1957. 16part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1 Aug 1953 - 31 Dec 1963; full member 11 Aug 1964 - 11 Nov 1965, then a member territory; from 1980 Zimbabwe. 17member from 22 Jan 1957. 18independent in 1975 as Angola and Mozambique. 19named Curaçao to 1954, then Netherlands Antilles; from 1 Jan 1986 Netherlands Antilles and Aruba; dissolved 10 Oct 2010, succeeded by Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. 20withdrew 1 May 1964. 21member from 26 Jul 1976 as Suriname. 22named West Indies and Other British Territories to 1965, then British Caribbean Territories and British Guiana to 22 Sep 1966. 23from 12 Oct 1968 independent as Equatorial Guinea. 24member from 17 Jul 1969. 25dissovled on 1 Jul 1962. 26member from 15 Feb 1977. 27from 29 Mar 1976 member as Comoros. 28withdrew 28 Sep 1977.



World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
 
[World Tourism Organization flag]             World Tourism Org. Flag

[World Tourism Organization Variants with
                      acronyms to 2005]     Version with Acronyms to 1 Dec 2005
 
[World Tourism Organization Variants with
                      acronyms]   Version with Acronyms from 1 Dec 2005
 
UNWTO website
Headquarters: Madrid
(Spain)(Geneva, Switzerland 1951-1975; London, UK 1947-1951; The Hague, Netherlands 1925-1947)
UNTWO Day: 27 Sep (1970)
World Tourism Day

1925                       International Congress of Official Tourist Traffic
                             Associations.
1934                       International Union of Official Tourist Propaganda
                             Organizations (IUOTPO).
Oct 1947                   International Union of Official Travel Organizations (IUOTO).
 2 Jan 1975                World Tourism Organization (WTO or WToO).
23 Dec 2003                WTO a specialized agency of the United Nations.
 1 Dec 2005                English abbreviation changed to UNWTO.

Secretaries-general
1957 - 31 Dec 1985         Robert C. Lonati (France)          (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1989  Willibald P. Pahr (Austria)        (b. 1930)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Aug 1996  José
Antonio Enríquez Savignac     (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
                             (Mexico)
 1 Sep 1996 - 28 Feb 2009  Francesco Frangialli (France)      (b. 1947)
                             (acting to 31 Dec 1997)
 1 Mar 2009 -              Taleb Rifai (Jordan)               (b. 1949)
                             (acting to 31 Dec 2009)

UNWTO membership (156)
Date of
Admission
Member Nations
 2 Jan 1975 Afghanistan, Argentina, The Bahamas1, Benin, Brazil, Burundi2, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica3, Egypt, El Salvador4, Gabon, Ghana, Greece, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast5, Jordan, Kenya, Laos, Lebanon, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Nicaragua6, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama7, Peru, Philippines8, Romania, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore9, South Korea, South Vietnam10, Spain, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand11, Trinidad and Tobago12, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates13, Venezuela, Yemen (Aden)14, Yugoslavia15, Zambia
12 Jan 1975
Cyprus
20 Jan 1975
Israel, Zaire16
11 Feb 1975
Ecuador
19 Feb 1975
Bangladesh
16 Apr 1975
Togo
18 Apr 1975
The Sudan
24 Apr 1975
Jamaica
29 Apr 1975
Dominican Republic
 6 May 1975
The Gambia
 8 May 1975
Malaysia17
16 May 1975
Upper Volta18
21 May 1975
Bolivia
22 May 1975
Ethiopia, Madagascar
 6 Jun 1975
Rwanda
28 Aug 1975
Kuwait19
 8 Sep 1975
Hungary
20 Sep 1975
Honduras20
11 Dec 1975
Cuba
16 Dec 1975
United States21
22 Dec 1975
Austria
29 Dec 1975
Soviet Union22
31 Dec 1975
France
12 Jan 1976 Switzerland
21 Jan 1976
Bulgaria
29 Jan 1976
East Germany23, West Germany23
10 Feb 1976
Poland
 9 Apr 1976
Czechoslovakia24
 5 May 1976
Algeria
10 May 1976
The Netherlands
 9 Jul 1976
Mauritania
 3 Aug 1976
Belgium25
11 Nov 1976
Portugal
21 Apr 1977
Libya
18 May 1977
Uruguay
31 May 1977
Bahrain26, Grenada27, Qatar28, Yemen (Sana)14
 2 Mar 1978
Italy
 6 Jul 1978
Japan
 2 Aug 1978
Malta
18 Sep 1979
Australia29
20 Sep 1979 Niger
20 Sep 1979
Congo (Brazzaville)
17 Sep 1981
Lesotho, Maldives, Vietnam, Zimbabwe
 9 Feb 1982
Finland30
 5 Oct 1983 China
26 Sep 1985 Chad, São Tomé and Príncipe
17 Jul 1985
Guinea
26 Jun 1986 Canada31
&