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Moldova
 
[Ottoman flag 1783 - 1808,
                                      1826-67]
         to 28 May 1812
 
[Russian
                                      flag]
            28 May 1812 - 6 Feb 1918
 
[Moldavian Democratic
                                      Republic 1917-1918]
                15 Dec 1917 - 1918
 
[[Moldavian Democratic
                                      Republic 1917-1918 state flag]
          1918 - 10 Dec 1918 State Flag


[Kingdom of Romania flag]
             9 Apr 1918 - 28 Jun 1940;
            17 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944

[Flag of
                                      USSR]
                     28 Jun 1940 - 17 Jul 1941; 
                     24 Aug 1944 - 25 Dec 1991

[Moldovan
                                      Flag]
                       Adopted 12 May 1990
 

 

   
Map of Moldova
Hear National Anthem
"Limba Noastră"
(Our Language)
Adopted 7 Jun 1994
Hear  Former Anthem
"Deşteaptă-te, Romāne!"
 (Wake up, Romanian)
(1917-1918, 1991-7 Jun 1994)
(also anthem of Romain)
Constitution
(29 Jul 1994)
Capital: Chişinău (Chisinau)
(
Kishinev 1940-1990;
Cahul 27 Mar - 24 Aug 1944)
Currency: Moldovan Leu
(MDL); 1992-93 Moldovan
 Leu Cupon (MDC); 1991-92
Moldovan Ruble Kupon (MDR)
National Holiday: 27 Aug (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 3,619,925 (2013)
1,936,392  (1897)
GDP: $12.68 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.31 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.42 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Moldovan (Romanian) 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%,
Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Rom (Gypsy) 2.2%,
Bulgarian 1.9%,
other 1.4% (2004) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 5,998 (2010)
Russian Forces in Transdniester: 1,500 (2012)
Merchant marine: 121 ships (2010)
Religions: Moldovan Orthodox 31.8%, Bessarabian
Orthodox 16.1%, Russian Orthodox 15.4%, Sunni
Muslim 5.5%,
Protestant 1.7%, Jewish 0.6%,
non-religious 19.9%, other 9% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BSEC, CCM, CE, CEFTA, CEI, CFE, CIS, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICSID, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NPT, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Moldova Index
Chronology

c.803 - 9..                Bulgarian rule.
9.. - 10..
                 Pechenegs rule.
10.. - 1214                Cuman-Kipchak rule.
1241 - 13..                Mongol rule.
13..                       Part of
Principality of Moldavia (see Romania).
1541                       Moldavia part of the Ottoman Empire.
28 May 1812                Annexed by Russia; the term "Bessarabia"
                             (Bessarabiya) appears for the first time to
                             designate
 the former eastern half of Moldavia.
29 Apr 1818                Establishment of the Bessarabian oblast - for
                             the first time the territory of Bessarabia 
                             is organized as a separate political entity.
30 Mar 1856                Following the Crimean war, Russia is forced to cede
                             the south-western corner of Bugeac (Ismail,
                             Cahul and Bolgrad counties) back to the 
                             Principality of Moldavia.
28 Oct 1873                Reorganized as Bessarabian guberniya (governorate).
13 Jul 1878                Counties of Ismail, Cahul and Bolgrad returned

                             to Russia.
15 Dec 1917                Declaration of republic is passed by the National
                             Diet (nominally in federation with Russia);
                             Moldavian Democratic Republic
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Bolshevik Romanian Front Committee "Rumcherod" 
                             units take power in Kishinev (see under Ukraine).
26 Jan 1918                Romania occupies Kishinev (by Mar 1918 all of
                             Moldova).

 6 Feb 1918                Declaration of independence is passed.
 9 Apr 1918                Incorporation into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (autonomous to 10 Dec 1918).
23 Apr 1918                Royal decree on unification of 22 Apr 1918 is
                             promulgated in Romania.
 1 Jan 1920                Parliamentary act of unification is promulgated in
                             Romania (passed by parliament on 29 Dec 1919,
                             and signed by the king on 31 Dec 1919).
20 Oct 1920                Romanian annexation internationally recognized.
11 Oct 1924                Moldavian A.S.S.R. established within the 
                             Ukrainian S.S.R. by Soviet Union.
28 Jun 1940 -  2 Aug 1940  Bessarabia occupied by Soviet Union.
 2 Aug 1940                Annexed by the
Soviet Union as Moldavian Soviet
                             Socialist
Republic (see below).
16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941  Bessarabia occupied by Rumania.
 1 Aug 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Incorporated into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (Basarabie) governorate.

24 Aug 1944                Re-incorporation into the Soviet Union
                             (de jure by peace with Romania 15 Sep 1947).
 
5 Jun 1990                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
23 Jun 1990                Declaration
of state sovereignty.
 2 Sep 1990                Transdniester declares independence from Moldova
                             (not recognized).
23 May 1991                Republic of Moldova
27 Aug 1991                Independence declared.
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
 
6 Mar 1994                Referendum rejects union with Romania by 97.9%.

Moldavian
Soviet
Socialist
Republic

(1940-1991)
Transdniester
(1924-1940,
 from 1990)
Gagauz-Yeri
Orthodox
Church of
Moldova

Bessarabian
Orthodox
Church

Moldovan Ethnic
Groups Map
Historical Map
of Moldova
Map of Bessarabia
1918-1940
 
Calendar Note: Dates are given according to the New Style (Gregorian) calendar. Russia used the Old Style (Julian) calendar until 1918 as did Romania until 1920.

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

[Flag of
                            Moldavian SSR 1940]                   2 Aug 1940 - 31 Jan 1952
[Flag
                        of Moldavian SSR in 1952]                    11 Apr 1952 - 12 May 1990
Capital: Kishinev
(
Chisinau)
(Cahul 27 Mar - 24 Aug 1944)
Hear Anthem
"Imnul de Stat al RSS
 Moldovenesti"
(State Anthem of the Moldavian SSR)
(1945-1991)
Constitution
(15 Apr 1978)
Population: 3,947,000 (1980)

 2 Aug 1940                Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic formed from
                             
Moldavian A.S.S.R. and (formerly Romanian) Bessarabia.
 5 Jun 1990                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
16 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Romanian occupation and annexation.


First Secretaries of the Moldavian Communist Party (PCM)
15 Aug 1940 - 11 Feb 1942  Pyotr Grigoryevich Borodin
        (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile from 1941)
13 Feb 1942 -  5 Jan 1946  Nikita Leontyevich Salogor (acting)(b. 1901 - d. 1981)
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile to Aug 1944)
 5 Jan 1946 - Jul 1950     Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval         (b. 1904 - d. 1970)
26 Jul 1950 - 25 Oct 1952  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
25 Oct 1952 -  8 Feb 1954  Dmitry Spiridonovich Gladky        (b. 1911 - d. 1959)
 8 Feb 1954 - 29 May 1961  Zinovy Timofeyevich Serdyuk        (b. 1903 - d. 1982)
29 May 1961 - 22 Dec 1980  Ivan Ivanovich Bodyul              (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
22 Dec 1980 - 16 Nov 1989  Semyon Kuzmich Grossu              (b. 1934)

16 Nov 1989 -  5 Feb 1991  Pyotr Kirillovich Luchinsky        (b. 1940)
 5 Feb 1991 - Aug 1991     Grigory Isidorovich Yeremy         (b. 1938)


Chairman of Provisional Revolutionary Committee
 2 Aug 1940 - 10 Feb 1941  Sergey Danilovich Burlachenko      (b. 1899 - d. 1962)  PCM 
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

10 Feb 1941 - 29 Mar 1951  Fyodor Grigoryevich Brovko         (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  PCM
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile 16 Jul 1941 - Aug 1944)
29 Mar 1951 -  5 Apr 1963  Ivan Sergeyevich Koditsa           (b. 1899 - d. 19..)  PCM
 5 Apr 1963 - 10 Apr 1980  Kirill Fyodorovich Ilyashenko      (b. 1915 - d. 1980)  PCM
10 Apr 1980 - 24 Dec 1985  Ivan Petrovich Kalin               (b. 1935 - d. 2012)  PCM
24 Dec 1985 - 29 Jul 1989  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Mokanu    (b. 1934)            PCM
29 Jul 1989 - 27 Apr 1990  Mircha Ivanovich Snegur            (b. 1940)            PCM
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
27 Apr 1990 -  3 Sep 1990  Mircha Ivanovich Snegur            (s.a.)               PCM


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

 2 Aug 1940 - 17 Apr 1945  Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (b. 1898 - d. 1957)  PCM
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile 16 Jul 1941 - Aug 1944)
17 Apr 1945 -  4 Apr 1946  Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval         (s.a.)               PCM
 5 Jan 1946 -  4 Apr 1946  Gerasim Yakovlevich Rud            (b. 1907 - d. 1982)  PCM
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 4 Apr 1946 - 23 Jan 1958  Gerasim Yakovlevich Rud            (s.a.)               PCM
23 Jan 1958 - 15 Apr 1970  Aleksandr Filipovich Diorditsa     (b. 1911 - d. 1996)  PCM
24 Apr 1970 -  1 Aug 1976  Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar (1st time)(b. 1929)            PCM
 1 Aug 1976 - 30 Dec 1980  Semyon Kuzmich Grossu              (s.a.)               PCM
30 Dec 1980 - 24 Dec 1985  Ivan Grigoryevich Ustiyan          (b. 1939)            PCM
24 Dec 1985 - 10 Jan 1990  Ivan Petrovich Kalin               (s.a.)               PCM
10 Jan 1990 - 26 May 1990  Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar (2nd time)(s.a.)               PCM
26 May 1990 -  5 Jun 1990  Mircea Druc                        (b. 1941)            FPM

Party abbreviation: PCM = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Moldovy/Partidul Comunist al Moldovei (Communist Party of Moldova, communist, 15 Aug 1940-23 Aug 1991) 

Moldova

Russian Government Commissars
 6 Mar 1917 - Oct 1917     Constantin Alexandru Mimi          (b. 1868 - d. 1935)
Oct 1917 - 15 Dec 1917     Ion Constantin Inculeţ             (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  PSR       
                             (= Ivan Konstantinovich Inkulec)
President of the National Diet
15 Dec 1917 - 14 Jan 1918  Ion Constantin Inculeţ (1st time)  (s.a.)               PSR
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of the Bessarabian Government
(subordinated to "Rumcherod", in Odessa)

14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Yakov Denisovich Meleshin          (b. 1884 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
Presidents of the National Diet
(also known as the Assembly of the Land)
26 Jan 1918 - 15 Apr 1918  Ion Constantin Inculeţ (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PSR
15 Apr 1918 -  8 Dec 1918  Constantin Gheorghe Stere (Sterea) (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  PTB
 
8 Dec 1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Pantelimon "Pan" Nicolae Halippa   (b. 1883 - d. 1979)  PTB
Soviet Commander of the Southern Front
28 Jun 1940 -  2 Aug 1940  Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov      (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
Romanian Commandant (of the 4th Army)

16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941  Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil
Governors of Bessarabia
 1 Aug 1941 - 15 Apr 1943  Constantin Gheorghe Voiculescu     (b. 1890 - d. 1955)  Mil
15 Apr 1943 -  4 Apr 1944  Olimpiu C. Stavrat                 (b. 1888 - d. 1968)  Mil
 4 Apr 1944 - 24 Aug 1944  ....
Presidents

27 Apr 1990 - 15 Jan 1997  Mircea Ion Snegur                  (b. 1940)            PCM;1991 
                             (president of the Supreme Soviet to 3 Sep 1990)       Non-party
15 Jan 1997 -  7 Apr 2001  Petru Chiril Lucinschi             (b. 1940)            PCRM
 7 Apr 2001 - 11 Sep 2009  Vladimir Nicolae Voronin           (b. 1941)            PCRM
11 Sep 2009 - 28 Dec 2010  Mihai Toader Ghimpu (acting)       (b. 1951)            PL
28 Dec 2010 - 30 Dec 2010  Vladimir Vasile Filat (acting)     (b. 1969)            PLDM
30 Dec 2010 - 23 Mar 2012  Marian Ilie Lupu (acting)          (b. 1966)            PDM
23 Mar 2012 -              Nicolae Vasile Timofti             (b. 1948)            Non-party


Chairmen of the General Directory

21
Dec 1917 -  1 Feb 1918  Pantelimon Vasile Erhan            (b. 1884 - d. 1971)  PSR
 
1 Feb 1918 -  9 Apr 1918  Daniel Alexandru Ciuhureanu        (b. 1885 - d. 1950)  PNM
 9 Apr
1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Petru Cazacu                       (b. 1873 - d. 1956)  PNM
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
26 May 1990 -  5 Jun 1990  Mircea Druc                        (b. 1941)            FPM
Prime mini
sters
 5 Jun 1990 - 28 May 1991  Mircea Druc                        (s.a.)               FPM

28 May 1991 -  1 Jul 1992  Valeriu Tudor Muravschi            (b. 1949)            FPM
 1 Jul 1992 - 25 Jan 1997  Andrei Nicolae Sangheli            (b. 1944)            PDAM
25 Jan 1997 - 12 Mar 1999  Ion Condratie Ciubuc               (b. 1943)            ADR
12 Mar 1999 - 21 Dec 1999  Ion Mihai Sturza                   (b. 1960)            ADR
21 Dec 1999 - 20 Apr 2001  Dumitru Petru Braghiș              (b. 1957)            Non-party
20 Apr 2001 - 31 Mar 2008  Vasile Petru Tarlev                (b. 1963)            PCRM
31 Mar 2008 - 14 Sep 2009  Zinaida Petru Greceanīi (f)        (b. 1956)            PCRM
14 Sep 2009 - 25 Sep 2009  Vitalie Vasile Pīrlog (acting)     (b. 1974)            PCRM
25 Sep 2009 - 25 Apr 2013  Vladimir Vasile Filat              (s.a.)               PLDM
25 Apr 2013 - April 2013              Iurie Leancă                       (b. 1963)            PLDM
                             (acting to 31 May 2013)

Territorial Disputes: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops.

Party abbreviations: PCRM = Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova (Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, communist, former PCM, est.1993); PDM = Partidul Democrat din Moldova (Democratic Party of Moldova, center-left, est.1997); PFD = Partidul Forţelor Democratice (Party of Democratic Forces, centrist, est.1994); PL = Partidul Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal-conservative, 1993-24 Apr 2005 named Party of Reform, est.1993); PLDM = Partidul Liberal Democrat din Moldova (Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, center-right, est.2007); PMDP = Pentru o Moldovă Democratică şi Prosperă (For a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova, social-democratic, center-left, est.1997); PRCM = Partidul Renaşterii şi Concilierii din Moldova (Party for Revival and Reconciliation of Moldova, center-right, est.1995); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ADR = Alianţa pentru Democraţie şi Reforme (Alliance for Democracy and Reforms, non-communist coalition of Democratic Convention of Moldova, PMDP and PFD, 1998-2001); FPM = Frontul Popular din Moldova (Popular Front of Moldova, Romanian nationalist, succeeded by Christian Democratic Popular Front, 1989-1992); PNM = Partidul Naţional Moldovenesc (Moldovan National Party, Mar 1917-23 Aug 1918, merged into PTB); PCM = Partidul Comunist al Moldovei (Communist Party of Moldova, communist, 1940-23 Aug 1991, banned 1991-93, then PCRM); PDAM = Partidul Democrat Agrar din Moldova (Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova, agrarian, 1991-2004, renamed Partidul Agrar din Moldova); PTB = Partidul Ţărănesc din Basarabia (Bessarabian Peasants' Party, split from PNM, 23 Aug 1918-20 Jan 1923, merged into PNL of Romania); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Bolshevik (Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party of Bolsheviks [Majority], marxist communist, internationalist, renamed Russian Communist Party, 1903-1918); PSR = Partita Sotsialistov-Revoliutsionerov/Partidul Socialist Revoluţionar (Socialist Revolutionary Party, "SRs", socialist, split 1917 from Left Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1902-1940)



Transdniester
 
[Moldavian
                            A.S.S.R. 1925-1938]
       19 Oct 1925 - 6 Jan 1938  Moldavian ASSR

[Flag of
                            Moldavian ASSR 1938]
        6 Jan 1938 - 27 Feb 1938  Moldavian ASSR 

[Flag of
                            Moldavian ASSR 1938-1940]
        27 Feb 1938 - 2 Aug 1940  Moldavian ASSR
 
[Flag of USSR]
                    2 Sep 1990 -  2 Sep 1991 
 
[Dniester
                            Republic flag]
    Adopted 2 Sep 1991; State Flag from 6 May 2009
 
[Flag of
                            Dniester obverse and alternate]
    17 Jan 1996 Variant and from 18 Jul 2000 Obverse
 
[Transdnieser
                            National flag, 2009]
      National Flag Adopted 6 May 2009



Map of Transdniester
Republic
Hear National Anthem
“My slavim tjebja,
Pridnestrovje”
(We Praise You, Transnistria)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Oct 1990
(lyrics 1995)
(officially 18 Jul 2000)
Constitution
(17 Jan 1996)
Capital: Tiraspol
(Moldavian ASSR:
Balta 1924-1929;

Tiraspol 1929-1941;
Transnistria: Odessa 1941-44)
Currency: Transdniestrian
 Ruble
(PDN); 1990-1994
Russian Ruble (RUR)
National Holiday: 2 Sep (1990)
Day of the Republic
Population: 505,153 (2013)
GDP: $799 million (2007)
Exports: $727 million (2007)
Imports: $1.13 billion (2007)
Ethnic groups: Moldavian 31.9%, Russian 30.4%,
Ukrainian 28.8%, Bulgarian 2.5%, Gagauz 0.7%,
Belarussian 0.7%, German 0.4%, others 4.6% (2004)
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,500 (2006)
Russian Forces: 1,500 (2012)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox 91%, Roman Catholic 4%,
Baptist 1%, other Christian 2%, Jewish 2% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN

17 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  Occupied by Soviet Russia.
 5 May 1919                Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of
                             Bessarabia founded in exile at Odessa.
11 May 1919                Bessarabian Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed at Tiraspol
                             as an autonomous part of the Russian S.F.S.R.
 8 Aug 1919 - 12 Feb 1920  Occupied by "White" Russian forces under Denikin.
12 Feb 1920                Incorporated into Ukraine.
11 Oct 1924                Moldavian A.S.S.R. established within the Ukrainian S.S.R.
 2 Aug 1940                Moldavian A.S.S.R. joined with Bessarabia (previously part
                             Romania) to form Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (see below)
18 Oct 1941 - 10 Apr 1944  Annexed by Romania, and along with Odessa and Ukrainian
                             territory to the Bug River, organized as Transnistria
                             (
Transnistrie) governorate. 
 5 May 1990                Tiraspol and Bender refuse to raise the new Moldovan flag.
 2 Sep 1990                Transnistrian Moldovian Soviet Socialist Republic declared
                             within the Soviet Union, but
independent of Moldova S.S.R.
                             (not recognized). 
 8 Dec 1990                Declaration of sovereignty passed.
22 Dec 1990                Soviet government invalidates 
sovereignty declaration.
25 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence
(not recognized). 
 5 Nov 1991                Transnistrian Moldovian Republic (not internationally recognized).
17 Sep 2006                Referendum supports independence from Moldova and association 
                             with Russia by 97.2%

Executive Secretaries of the Moldavian Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine
15 Dec 1924 - 27 Dec 1928  Iosif Isaakovich Badeyev (Suslik)  (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
27 Dec 1928 - Mar 1930     Khaim Bentsionovich Bogopolsky
    (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
Apr 1930 - Oct 1931        Ilya Moiseyevich Ilin (Broidman)   (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
Oct 1931 - Jul 1932        Ivan Semyonovich Plachinda
        (b. 1894 - d. 1937)
                             (Sporosh)
First Secretaries of the Moldavian Regional Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine
Jul 1932 - Jun 1933        Ivan Nikolayevich Sirko            (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
Jun 1933 - 28 Aug 1935     Gurgen O
sipovich Bulat
28 Aug 1935 - Apr 1937     Zinovy Osipovich Sidersky          (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
Apr 1937 - Aug 1937        Vladimir Zakharovich Todres        (b. 1898 - d. 1938)
Aug 1937 - 23 May 1938     Nikolay Ivanovich (Isayevich)
      (b. 1905 - d. 1937)
                             Golab
(acting)            
23 May 1938 - Feb 1939     Vladimir Nikolayevich Borisov      (b. 1901 - d. 1941)
Feb 1939 - Jun 1939        Aleksey Nikolayevich Melnikov      (b. 1900 - d. 1967)
Jun 1939 -  1 Aug 1940     Pyotr Grigoryevich Borodin
        (b. 1905 - d. 1986)

Chairman of the Provisional Government
 5 May 1919 - Aug 1919     Ivan Nikolayevich Krivorukov       (b. 1883 - d. 1943)  RKP
                             (to 11 May 1919 in Odessa exile)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
12 Oct 1924 - 23 Apr 1925  Grigory Ivanovich Borisov (Stary)  (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  KPU

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
23 Apr 1925 - May 1926     Grigory Ivanovich Borisov (Stary)  (s.a.)               KPU
May 1926 - May 1937        Yefstafy Pavlovich Voronovich      (b. 1890 - d. 1937)  KPU
May 1937 - Jul 1938        Georgy Yermolayevich Streshny      (b. 1900 - d. 1940)  KPU
                             (acting)     
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Jul 1938 - 28 Jun 1940     Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (b. 1898 - d. 1957)  KPU

28 Jun 1940 -  1 Aug 1940  Sergey Danilovich Burlachenko      (b. 1899 - d. 1962)  KPU
Romanian Commanders

Jul 1941 - 13 Sep 1941     Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil 
14 Sep 1941 - 16 Oct 1941  Iosif Iacobici                     (b. 1884 - d. 1952)  Mil 
Governor-generals of Transnistria (in Odessa)
18 Oct 1941 - 1944         Gheorghe Alexianu                  (b. 1897 - d. 1946)  Mil 
1944 - 10 Apr 1944         Gheorghe Potopeanu                 (b. 1889 - d. 1966)  Mil 
Chairman of the Extraordinary Congress of Deputies of All Levels of Transnistria
 2 Sep 1990 -  3 Sep 1990  Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov          (b. 1941)            OSTK   
Chairman of the (to 29 Nov 1990, Provisional) Supreme Soviet
 3 Sep 1990 - 29 Nov 1990  
Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov          (s.a.)               OSTK
Chairman of the Republic
29 Nov 1990 -  
3 Dec 1991  Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov          (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (Moldovan prisoner 29 Aug 1991 - 23 Sep 1991)
29 Aug 1991 - 25 Sep 1991  Andrey Panteleyevich Manoylov
                             (First Deputy, acting for imprisoned Smirnov)
Presidents
 3 Dec 1991 - 30 Dec 2011  Igor Nikolayevich Smirnov          (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Dec 2011 -              Yevgeny Vasilyevich Shevchuk       (b. 1968)            Non-party


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

23 Apr 1925 - May 1926     Aleksandr Ivanovich Stroyev        (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  KPU
May 1926 - 1928            Grigory Ivanovich Borisov (Stary)  (s.a.)               KPU
                             (1st time)
1928 -  7 Apr 1932         Sergey Vasilevich Dimitriu         (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPU
 7 Apr 1932 - 22 May 1937  Grigory Ivanovich Borisov (Stary)  (s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time)
22 May 1937 - Feb 1938     ....
Feb 1938 - May 1940        Georgy Yermolayevich Streshny      (s.a.)             
  KPU
1940 -  1 Aug 1940         Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (s.a.)               KPU
Prime ministers
18 Jan 2012 - 10 Jul 2013  Pyotr Petrovich Stepanov           (b. 1959)            Non-party
10 Jul 2013 -              Tatiana Mikhailovna Turanskaya (f) (b. 1972)            Non-party

Party abbreviations: OB = Obnovleniye (Renewal, centrist, reformist, est.2006); PKP = Pridnestrovskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Pridnestrovie Communist Party, communist, est.1991); RP = Republica (Republic, Russian nationalist, Igor Smirnov personalist, est.1990); Mil = Military; 
- Former Parties: KPU = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Ukrainy (Communist Party of Ukraine, communist, Jul 1918-1991); OSTK = Obyedinennyy Sovet Trudovykh Kollektivov (United Work Collective Council, 1989-2006); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, 1918-1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party)



Gagauz-Yeri
[Gagauz
                              flag 1990-1992]
                19 Aug 1990 - 1992 
 
[Gagauz flag
                              1992-1993]
                              1992 - 1993
 
[Gagauz flag 1993-1995]
                         1993 - 31 Oct 1995
 
[Flag of
                              Gagauzia (Moldova)]
                       Adopted 31 Oct 1995
 


Map of Gagauz-Yeri
Hear Local Anthem
"Gagauz Yerin Milli Marşi"
Text of Anthem
Adopted 4 Dec 1995

Constitution
(5 Jun 1998)
Capital: Komrat
(Comrat)
Currency: Moldovan Leu
(MDL)
Local Holiday: 23 Dec (1994)
Day of Formation of the
 Gagauz-Yeri
Population: 162,200 (2012)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Gagauz 82%, Moldovan 7.8%,
Bulgarian 4.8%, Russian 2.4%, Ukrainian 2.3% (2004)
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Muslim, Orthodox Christian
1812                       Gagauz settle in southern Bessarabia after Russian annexation.
30 Mar 1856 - 13 Jul 1878  Ceded to Romania (from 1878 follows Bessarabia/Moldova).
 
6 - 21 Jan 1906           Comrat Republic declared in rebellion under Andrey Galatan.
19 Aug 1990                Independence declared from Moldova S.S.R., but within
                             Soviet Union (Gagauz Republic of Komrat); not recognized
                              by Moldova S.S.R. or the Soviet Union.

22 Dec 1990                Soviet government invalidates independence declaration.
 7 Oct 1992                Independence declared (Republic of Gagauzia)(not recognized).
23 Dec 1994                Moldovan government recognizes Gagauz autonomy (Gagauzia).
19 Jun 1995                Gagauzia (Gagauz-Yeri) Autonomous Region.
 2 Feb 2014                Referendum 98.4% of voters chose closer relations with the CIS
                             over the EU; and 98.9% of voters support Gagauzia's right to
                             declare independence should Moldova ends its independence. 

Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
31 Oct 1990 -  1 Dec 1991  Stepan Mikhailovich Topal          (b. 1938)           
President
 1 Dec 1991 - 19 Jun 1995  Stepan Mikhailovich Topal          (s.a.)               PSM
Governors (in Gagauz: Bashkan; in Romanian: Guvernator)
19 Jun 1995 - 24 Sep 1999  Gheorghe Dimitrievici Tabunşcic    (b. 1939)            PCRM
                             (Georgy Dmitriyevich Tabunschik)
                             (1st time)

24 Sep 1999 - 10 Jul 2002  Dumitru Vasilievici Croitor        (b. 1959)            PDM
                            
(Dmitriy Vasilyevich Kroytor)
10 Jul 2002 - 29 Jul 2002  Ivan Kristioglo                    (b. 1952)            PM

                             (acting chairman of the Executive Committee)
10 Jul 2002 - 29 Jul 2002  Valeri Ianioglo                    (b. 1957)            PDM
                             (Valery Fyodorovich Yanioglo)
                             (acting; in opposition)

29 Jul 2002 -  9 Nov 2002  Gheorghe Mollo (interim)
 9 Nov 2002 - 29 Dec 2006  Gheorghe Dimitrievici Tabunşcic    (s.a.)               PCRM
                             (2nd time)
29 Dec 2006 -              Mihail Formuzal                    (b. 1959)          PPR;2011 PRM
 

Party abbreviations: PM = Partidul Muncii (Labor Party, leftist, 1999-2004 named Uniunea Muncii [Labor Union], 19 Dec 2004-18 Jun 2010 named Uniunea Muncii "Patria-Rodina" [Labor Union "Motherland", est.1999); PCRM = Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova (Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, communist, est.1993); PDM = Partidul Democrat din Moldova (Democratic Party of Moldova, social-democratic, est.1997); PRM = Partidul Regiunilor din Moldova (Party of Regions of Moldova, center-left, est.2011); PPR = Partidul Popular Republican (Republican Popular Party, to 2005 named Peasants' Christian Democratic Party of Moldova, conservative, est.1994); PSM = Partidul Socialist din Moldova (Socialist Party of Moldova, socialist, former communists, est.1992)






© Ben Cahoon