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Moldova
 
[Ottoman flag 1783 - 1808,
                                      1826-67]
         to 28 May 1812
 
[Russian
                                      flag]
            28 May 1812 - 6 Feb 1918
 
[Moldavian Democratic
                                      Republic national flag 1917-1918]
            23 Dec 1917 - 8 Apr 1918
 
[Moldavian Democratic
                                      Republic 1917-1918 state flag]
    23 Dec 1917 - 10 Dec 1918 State Flag


[Kingdom of Romania flag]
             9 Apr 1918 - 28 Jun 1940;
            17 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944

[Flag of
                                      USSR]
                     28 Jun 1940 - 17 Jul 1941; 
                     24 Aug 1944 - 25 Dec 1991

[Moldovan Provisional Flag
                                      1990]
           27 Apr 1990 - 6 Nov 1990  Provisional
 
[Moldovan
                                      Flag]
                        Adopted 6 Nov 1990

   
Map of Moldova
Hear National Anthem
"Limba Noastră"
(Our Language)
Adopted 7 Jun 1994
Hear  Former Anthem
"Deşteaptă-te, RomÔne!"
 (Wake up, Romanian)
(1917-1918, 1991-7 Jun 1994)
(also anthem of Romain)
Constitution
(29 Jul 1994)
Capital: Chişinău (Chisinau)
(
Kishinyov 1940-1990;
Kagul [Cahul]
27 Mar - 24 Aug 1944)
Currency: Moldovan Leu
(MDL); 1992-93 Moldovan
 Leu Cupon (MDC); 1991-92
Moldovan Ruble Cupon (MDR)
National Holiday: 27 Aug (1991)
Independence Day
Population: 3,619,925 (2013)
1,936,392  (1897)
GDP: $12.68 billion (2013)
Exports: $2.31 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.42 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Moldovan (Romanian) 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%,
Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Rom (Gypsy) 2.2%,
Bulgarian 1.9%,
other 1.4% (2004) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 5,998 (2010)
Russian Forces in Transnistria: 1,500 (2012)
Merchant marine: 121 ships (2010)
Religions: Moldovan Orthodox 31.8%, Bessarabian
Orthodox 16.1%, Russian Orthodox 15.4%, Sunni
Muslim 5.5%,
Protestant 1.7%, Jewish 0.6%,
non-religious 19.9%, other 9% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BSEC, CCM, CE, CEFTA, CEI, CFE, CIS, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, Eutelsat, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICSID, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, LU, MIGA, NPT, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Moldova Index
Chronology

c.803 - 9..                Bulgarian rule.
9.. - 10..
                 Pechenegs rule.
10.. - 1214                Cuman-Kipchak rule.
1241 - 13..                Mongol rule.
13..                       Part of
Principality of Moldavia (see Romania).
1541                       Moldavia part of the Ottoman Empire.
28 May 1812                Annexed by Russia; the term "Bessarabia"
                             (Bessarabiya) appears for the first time to
                             designate
 the former eastern half of Moldavia.
11 May 1818                Establishment of the Bessarabian oblast - for
                             the first time the territory of Bessarabia 
                             is organized as a separate political entity (with
                             local autonomy until 12 Mar 1828).

30 Mar 1856                Following the Crimean war, Russia is forced to cede
                             the south-western corner of Bugeac (Ismail,
                             Cahul and Bolgrad counties) back to the 
                             Principality of Moldavia.
28 Oct 1873                Reorganized as Bessarabian guberniya (governorate).
13 Jul 1878                Counties of Ismail, Cahul and Bolgrad returned

                             to Russia.
15 Dec 1917                Declaration of republic is passed by the National
                             Diet (nominally in federation with Russia);
                             Moldavian Democratic Republic
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Bolshevik Romanian Front Committee "Rumcherod" 
                             units take power in Kishinev (see under Ukraine).
26 Jan 1918                Romania occupies Kishinyov (Kishinev)(by Mar 1918
                             all of Moldova).

 6 Feb 1918                Declaration of independence is passed.
 9 Apr 1918                Incorporation into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (autonomous until 10 Dec 1918).
23 Apr 1918                Royal decree on unification of 22 Apr 1918 is
                             promulgated in Romania.
 1 Jan 1920                Parliamentary act of unification is promulgated in
                             Romania (passed by parliament on 29 Dec 1919,
                             and signed by the king on 31 Dec 1919).
20 Oct 1920                Romanian annexation internationally recognized.
11 Oct 1924                Moldavian A.S.S.R. established within the 
                             Ukrainian S.S.R. by the Soviet Union.
28 Jun 1940 -  2 Aug 1940  Bessarabia occupied by Soviet Union.
 2 Aug 1940                Annexed by the
Soviet Union as Moldavian Soviet
                             Socialist
Republic (see below).
 
2 Jul 1941                Romanian invasion begins.
16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941
  Bessarabia occupied by Rumania.
 1 Aug 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Incorporated into Romania as Bessarabia
                             (Basarabie) governorate.

24 Aug 1944                Re-incorporation into the Soviet Union
                             (recognized by Romania 15 Sep 1947).
 
1 Sep 1989                Moldovan/Romanian is made the state language.
 
5 Jun 1990                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
23 Jun 1990                Declaration
of state sovereignty.
 2 Sep 1990                Transnistria declares independence from Moldova
                             (not recognized).
23 May 1991                Republic of Moldova
27 Aug 1991                Independence declared.
25 Dec 1991                Independence effective (dissolution of U.S.S.R.).
 
6 Mar 1994                Referendum rejects union with Romania by 97.9%.

Moldavian
Soviet
Socialist
Republic

(1940-1991)
Transnistria
(1924-1940,
 from 1990)
Gagauzia
Orthodox
Church of
Moldova

Bessarabian
Orthodox
Church

Moldovan Ethnic
Groups Map
Historical Map
of Moldova
Map of Bessarabia
1918-1940
 
Calendar Note: Dates are given according to the New Style (Gregorian) calendar. Russia used the Old Style (Julian) calendar until 1 Feb/14 Feb 1918, as did Romania until 4 Mar/18 Mar 1920.

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

[Flag
                        of Moldavian SSR 1940-1952]                   2 Aug 1940 - 31 Jan 1952

[Flag
                        of Moldavian SSR 1952-1990]                  11 Apr 1952 - 12 May 1990

Capital: Kishinyov
(
Chişinău)
(Kagul [Cahul]
27 Mar - 24 Aug 1944)
Hear Anthem
"Gosudarstvennyy Gimn Moldavskoy SSR"/

"Imnul de Stat al RSS
Moldoveneşti"
(State Anthem of the
 Moldavian SSR)
 
(1945-1991)
Constitution
(15 Apr 1978)
Population: 3,947,000 (1980)

Note: Russian names with Moldavian/Romanian in parentheses until 1 Sep 1989, then Moldavian/Romanian names with Russian in parentheses.

 2 Aug 1940                Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic formed from
                             
Moldavian A.S.S.R. and (formerly Romanian) Bessarabia.
 5 Jun 1990                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
16 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Romanian occupation and annexation.
 
1 Sep 1989                Moldovan/Romanian is made the state language.
23 May 1991                Republic of Moldova

27 Aug 1991                Independence declared.


First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Moldavian Communist Party (PCM)
14 Aug 1940 - 27 Jan 1945  Pyotr Grigoryevich Borodin
        (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
                             (Piotr Borodin) (acting to 4 Sep 1940)
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile
16 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944)
27 Jan 1945 - 20 Jul 1946  Nikita Leontyevich Salogor         (b. 1901 - d. 1981)
                             (Nikita Salogor) (acting)
20 Jul 1946 -  6 Jul 1950  Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval'        (b. 1904 - d. 1970)
                             (Nicolae Covali)
 6 Jul 1950 - 25 Oct 1952  Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev             (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
                             (Leonid Brejnev)
25 Oct 1952 -  6 Feb 1954  Dmitriy Spiridonovich Gladkiy      (b. 1911 - d. 1959)
                            
(Dimitrie Gladki)
 6 Feb 1954 - 29 May 1961  Zinoviy Timofeyevich Serdyuk       (b. 1903 - d. 1982)

                             (Zinovie Serdiuc)
29 May 1961 - 22 Dec 1980  Ivan Ivanovich Bodyul              (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
                             (Ion Bodiul)
22 Dec 1980 - 16 Nov 1989  Semyon Kuzmich Grossu              (b. 1934)

                             (Semion Grossu)
16 Nov 1989 -  4 Feb 1991  Pyotr Kirillovich Luchinskiy       (b. 1940)

                             (Petru Lucinschi)
 4 Feb 1991 - 23 Aug 1991 
Grigore Isidor Eremei              (b. 1935)
                             (
Grigoriy Isidorovich Yeremey)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 10 May 1990) 


Chairman of the Bessarabian Provisional Revolutionary Committee
28 Jun 1940 - 10 Feb 1941  Sergey Danilovich Burlachenko      (b. 1899 - d. 1962)  KPU;
                            
(Serghei
Burlacenco)                                Aug 1940 PCM
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

10 Feb 1941 - 28 Mar 1951  Fyodor Grigoryevich Brovko         (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  PCM
                             (Fedor Brovko)
                             (
in Russian S.F.S.R. exile 16 Jul 1941 - 27 Mar 1944)
28 Mar 1951 -  3 Apr 1963  Ivan Sergeyevich Koditsa           (b. 1899 - d. 1980)  PCM
                             (Ion Codiţă)
 
3 Apr 1963 - 10 Apr 1980  Kirill Fyodorovich Ilyashenko      (b. 1915 - d. 1980)  PCM

                             (Chiril Iliaşenko)
10 Apr 1980 - 24 Dec 1985  Ivan Petrovich Kalin               (b. 1935 - d. 2012)  PCM

                             (Ivan Călin)
24 Dec 1985 - 12 Jul 1989  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Mokanu    (b. 1934)            PCM

                             (Alexandru Mocanu)
12 Jul 1989 - 29 Jul 1989  Ivan Konstantinovich Chyoban       (b. 1927 - d. 2001)  PCM
                             (Ion Ciobanu) (acting)
29 Jul 1989 - 27 Apr 1990  Mircha Ivanovich Snegur            (b. 1940)            PCM

                             (Mircea Ion Snegur)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

27 Apr 1990 -  3 Sep 1990  Mircea Ion Snegur                  (s.a.)             PCM;Jun 1990 
President                                                                          Non-party
 3 Sep 1990 - 27 Aug 1991  Mircea Ion Snegur                  (s.a.)               Non-party


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

 2 Aug 1940 - 19 Apr 1945  Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (b. 1898 - d. 1957)  PCM
                             (Tihon Constantinov)
                             (in Russian S.F.S.R. exile
16 Jul 1941 - 27 Mar 1944)
19 Apr 1945 -  4 Apr 1946  Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval'        (s.a.)               PCM
                             (Nicolae Covali)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

 4 Apr 1946 - 19 Jul 1946  Nikolay Grigoryevich Koval'        (s.a.)               PCM
19 Jul 1946 - 23 Jan 1958  Gerasim Y
akovlevich Rud'           (b. 1907 - d. 1982)  PCM
                             (Gherasim Rudi)
23 Jan 1958 - 24 Apr 1970  Aleksandr Filippovich Diorditsa    (b. 1911 - d. 1996)  PCM

                             (Alexandru Diordiţă)
24 Apr 1970 -  1 Sep 1976  Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar (1st time)(b. 1929)            PCM

                             (Petru Pascari)
 1 Sep 1976 - 31 Dec 1980  Semyon Kuzmich Grossu              (s.a.)               PCM

                             (Semion Grossu)
31 Dec 1980 - 24 Dec 1985  Ivan Grigoryevich Ustiyan          (b. 1939)            PCM

                             (Ion Ustian)
24 Dec 1985 -
10 Jan 1990  Ivan Petrovich Kalin               (s.a.)               PCM
                             (Ivan Petru Călin)
10 Jan 1990 - 24 May 1990  Pyotr Andreyevich Paskar (2nd time)(s.a.)               PCM
                             (Petru Andrei Pascari)
25 May 1990 -  5 Jun 1990 
Mircha Georgiyevich Druk           (b. 1941)            FPM
                            
(Mircea Gheorghe Druc)
Prime mini
sters
 5 Jun 1990 - 28 May 1991  Mircea
Gheorghe Druc               (s.a.)               FPM
28 May 1991 - 27 Aug 1991  Valeriu Tudor Muravschi            (b. 1949)            FPM
                             (Valeriy Fyodorovich Muravskiy)

Party abbreviations: FPM = Frontul Popular din Moldova (Popular Front of Moldova, Moldovan/Romanian nationalist, succeeded by Christian Democratic Popular Front, 1989-1992); KPU = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukra´ny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov) Ukrainy/Partidul Komunist al Ukrainej (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, 1 Mar 1919 separated from Russian Communist Party, Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed Komunistychna Partiya Ukra´ny [Communist Party of Ukraine]); PCM = Partiya Kommunisticheskaya Moldovey/Partidulul Comunist al Moldovei (Communist Party of Moldavia, communist, 15 Aug 1940-23 Aug 1991)

Moldova


Russian Governors of Bessarabia (dates in OS style calendar)
23 Jul 1812 - 17 Jun 1813  Skarlat Dmitriyevich Sturdza       (b. c.1750 - d. 1816)
                            
(Scarlat Dimitrie Sturdza)
17 Jun 1813 - Oct 1817     Ivan Markovich Garting (Harting)   (b. 1768 - d. 1831)

Oct 1817 - 30 Dec 1817     Matvey Yegorovich Krupenskiy       (b. 1775 - d. 1855)
                             (acting)
30 Dec 1817 - 26 Aug 1825  Konstantin Antonovich Katakazi     (b. 1775 - d. 1826)
 4 Sep 1825 - 12 Jan 1828  Vasiliy Fyodorovich Timkovskiy     (b. 1781 - d. 1832)
17 Jan 1828 - 30 Jul 1828  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Turgenev    (b. 1772 - d. 1863)
30 Jul 1828 -  2 Nov 1828  Yevgraf Nikiforovich Golubtsov     (b. 1777 - d. 1835)
                             (acting)
 2 Nov 1828 - 24 Mar 1829  Nikolay Prokofyevich Prazhevskiy   (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
24 Mar 1829 - 17 Apr 1833  Akinfiy Ivanovich Sorokunskiy      (b. 1781 - d. 18..)
16 Jul 1833 - 28 Aug 1834  Pavel Ivanovich Averin             (b. 1775 - d. 1849)
28 Aug 1834 - 29 May 1854  Pavel Ivanovich Fyodorov           (b. 1791 - d. 1855)
15 Jul 1854 - 10 Nov 1857  Mikhail Sergeyevich Ilinskiy
10 Nov 1857 - 19 Dec 1862  Mikhail L'vovich Fanton de Verrayon(b. 1804 - d. 1887)
28 Dec 1862 -  1 Aug 1863  Ivan Osipovich Baron Velio         (b. 1830 - d. 1899)
 1 Aug 1863 - 30 Nov 1867  Platon Aleksandrovich Antonovich   (b. 1811 - d. 1883)
 5 Dec 1867 -  3 Jun 1871  Yegor Yegorovich Gangard (Gangardt)(b. 1812 - d. 1882)
 3 Jun 1871 - 27 Feb 1879  Nikolay Ignatyevich Shebeko        (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
27 Feb 1879 - 15 May 1879  Sergey Fyodorovich Tanskiy (acting)(b. 1813 - d. ....)
15 May 1879 - 12 Aug 1881  Evgeniy Osipovich Yankovskiy       (b. 1837 - d. 1892)
16 Aug 1881 - 30 Jun 1883  Modest Mavrikiyevich Koniar
30 Jun 1883 -  4 Jul 1899  Aleksandr Petrovich Konstantinovich(b. 1832 - d. 1903)
10 Jul 1899 - 30 May 1903  Vikentiy Samoylovich fon Raaben    (b. 1843 - d. af.1917)
                             (Vinzenz von Raaben)
30 May 1903 - 31 Oct 1907  Knyaz Sergey Dmitriyevich Urusov   (b. 1862 - d. 1937)
31 Oct 1904 - 11 Oct 1908  Aleksey Nikolayevich Kharuzin      (b. 1864 - d. 1932)
11 Oct 1908 -  7 May 1912  Ivan Viktorovich Graf Kankrin      (b. c.1859 - af.1917)
                             (Cancrin)
 7 May 1912 - 22 Sep 1915  Mikhail Eduardovich Gil'khen       (b. 1868 - d. af.1917)
                             (Hilchen)
22 Sep 1915 -  6 Mar 1917  Mikhail Mikhaylovich Voronovich    (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
Commissar of the Provisional Government in Bessarabia

 6 Mar 1917 - Oct 1917     Konstantin Aleksandrovich Mimi     (b. 1868 - d. 1935)
                             (Constantin Alexandru Mimi)
Oct 1917 - 15 Dec 1917     Ivan Konstantinovich Inkulec       (b. 1884 - d. 1940)  PSR       
                             (Ion Constantin Inculeţ)
President of the National Diet
15 Dec 1917 - 14 Jan 1918  Ion Constantin Inculeţ (1st time)  (s.a.)               PSR
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of the Bessarabian Governorate
(subordinated to the "Rumcherod" in Odessa)
14 Jan 1918 - 26 Jan 1918  Yakov Denisovich Meleshin          (b. 1884 - d. 1918)  RSDRP-B
Presidents of the National Diet
(also known as the Assembly of the Land)
26 Jan 1918 - 15 Apr 1918  Ion Constantin Inculeţ (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PSR
15 Apr 1918 -  8 Dec 1918  Constantin Gheorghe Stere (Sterea) (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  PTB
 8 Dec 1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Pantelimon "Pan" Nicolae Halippa   (b. 1883 - d. 1979)  PTB
Soviet Commander of the Southern Front
28 Jun 1940 -  2 Aug 1940  Georgiy Konstantinovich Zhukov     (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
Romanian Commandant
(of the 4th Army)
16 Jul 1941 - 31 Jul 1941  Nicolae Ciupercă                   (b. 1882 - d. 1950)  Mil
Governors of Bessarabia
 1 Aug 1941 - 15 Apr 1943  Constantin Gheorghe Voiculescu     (b. 1890 - d. 1955)  Mil
15 Apr 1943 -  4 Apr 1944  Olimpiu C. Stavrat                 (b. 1888 - d. 1968)  Mil
 4 Apr 1944 - 24 Aug 1944  ....
Presidents

27 Apr 1990 - 15 Jan 1997  Mircea Ion Snegur                  (b. 1940)           PCM;Jun 1990
                             (president of the Supreme Soviet to 3 Sep 1990)       Non-party
15 Jan 1997 -  7 Apr 2001  Petru Chiril Lucinschi             (b. 1940)            PCRM
 7 Apr 2001 - 11 Sep 2009  Vladimir Nicolae Voronin           (b. 1941)            PCRM
11 Sep 2009 - 28 Dec 2010  Mihai Toader Ghimpu (acting)       (b. 1951)            PL
28 Dec 2010 - 30 Dec 2010  Vladimir Vasile Filat (acting)     (b. 1969)            PLDM
30 Dec 2010 - 23 Mar 2012  Marian Ilie Lupu (acting)          (b. 1966)            PDM
23 Mar 2012 -              Nicolae Vasile Timofti             (b. 1948)            Non-party


Chairmen of the General Directory

21 Dec 1917 -  1 Feb 1918  Pantelimon Vasile Erhan            (b. 1884 - d. 1971)  PSR
 1 Feb 1918 -  9 Apr 1918  Daniel Alexandru Ciuhureanu        (b. 1885 - d. 1950)  PNM
 9 Apr 1918 - 10 Dec 1918  Petru Cazacu                       (b. 1873 - d. 1956)  PNM
Prime mini
sters
26 May 1990 - 28 May 1991  Mircea Druc                        (b. 1941)            FPM
                             (chairman of the council of ministers to 5 Jun 1990)
28 May 1991 -  1 Jul 1992  Valeriu Tudor Muravschi            (b. 1949)            FPM
 1 Jul 1992 - 25 Jan 1997  Andrei Nicolae Sangheli            (b. 1944)            PDAM
25 Jan 1997 - 12 Mar 1999  Ion Condratie Ciubuc               (b. 1943)            Non-party
12 Mar 1999 - 21 Dec 1999  Ion Mihai Sturza                   (b. 1960)            Non-party
21 Dec 1999 - 20 Apr 2001  Dumitru Petru Braghiş              (b. 1957)            Non-party
20 Apr 2001 - 31 Mar 2008  Vasile Petru Tarlev                (b. 1963)            PCRM
31 Mar 2008 - 14 Sep 2009  Zinaida Petru Greceanţi (f)        (b. 1956)            PCRM
14 Sep 2009 - 25 Sep 2009  Vitalie Vasile Pţrlog (acting)     (b. 1974)            PCRM
25 Sep 2009 - 25 Apr 2013  Vladimir Vasile Filat              (s.a.)               PLDM
25 Apr 2013 - April 2013 18 Feb 2015  Iurie Leancă                       (b. 1963)            PLDM
                             (acting to 31 May 2013)
18 Feb 2015 -              Chiril Gaburici                    (b. 1976)            Non-party
 

Territorial Disputes: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops.

Party abbreviations: PCRM = Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova (Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, communist, former PCM, est.1993); PDM = Partidul Democrat din Moldova (Democratic Party of Moldova, center-left, est.1997); PFD = Partidul Forţelor Democratice (Party of Democratic Forces, centrist, est.1994); PL = Partidul Liberal (Liberal Party, liberal-conservative, 1993-24 Apr 2005 named Party of Reform, est.1993); PLDM = Partidul Liberal Democrat din Moldova (Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, center-right, est.2007); PMDP = Pentru o Moldovă Democratică şi Prosperă (For a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova, social-democratic, center-left, est.1997); PRCM = Partidul Renaşterii şi Concilierii din Moldova (Party for Revival and Reconciliation of Moldova, center-right, est.1995); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FPM = Frontul Popular din Moldova (Popular Front of Moldova, Moldovan/Romanian nationalist, succeeded by Christian Democratic Popular Front, 1989-1992); PNM = Partidul Naţional Moldovenesc (Moldovan National Party, Mar 1917-23 Aug 1918, merged into PTB); PCM = Partidul Comunist al Moldovei (Communist Party of Moldova, communist, 1940-23 Aug 1991, banned 1991-93, then PCRM); PDAM = Partidul Democrat Agrar din Moldova (Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova, agrarian, 1991-2004, renamed Partidul Agrar din Moldova); PTB = Partidul Ţărănesc din Basarabia (Bessarabian Peasants' Party, split from PNM, 23 Aug 1918-20 Jan 1923, merged into PNL of Romania); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Bolshevik (Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party of Bolsheviks [Majority], marxist communist, internationalist, renamed Russian Communist Party, 1903-1918); PSR = Partiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov/Partidul Socialist Revoluţionar (Party of Socialists Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic and agrarian socialist, Left SRs and Bolsheviks referred to mainstream SR party as Right SRs, 1902-1940)



Transnistria (Trans-Dniester)
 
[Moldavian
                            A.S.S.R. 1925-1938]
       19 Oct 1925 - 6 Jan 1938  Moldavian ASSR

[Flag of
                            Moldavian ASSR 1938]
        6 Jan 1938 - 27 Feb 1938  Moldavian ASSR 

[Flag of
                            Moldavian ASSR 1938-1940]
        27 Feb 1938 - 2 Aug 1940  Moldavian ASSR
 
[Flag of USSR, used
                            by Transnistria 1990-1991 (Moldova)]
                     2 Sep 1990 - 2 Sep 1991 
 
[Transnistrian Republic flag
                            (Moldova)]
        Adopted 2 Sep 1991 (confirmed 25 Jul 2000)
 
[Flag of
                            Transnistria official variant from 2000
                            (Moldova)]
                Official Variant from 25 Jul 2000
 
Map of Transnistrian
Republic
Hear National Anthem
ôMy slavim tebya,
Pridnestrovyeö
(We Praise You, Transnistria)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Oct 1990
(lyrics from 1995)
(confirmed 25 Jul 2000)
Constitution
(17 Jan 1996)
Capital: Tiraspol
(Moldavian ASSR -
Tiraspol 29 Jun 1929-1940;
Balta 1924-29 Jun 1929)
(Bessarabian SSR: Tiraspol
1919, Odessa 1919)
Currency: Transnistrian
 Ruble
(PDN/PRB);
1992-1994 Russian Ruble
 (RUR); 1990-1992 Soviet
 Ruble (SUR)
National Holiday:
2 Sep (1990)

Day of the Republic
Population: 505,153 (2013)
599,150 (1939)
GDP: $799 million (2007)
Exports: $727 million (2007)
Imports: $1.13 billion (2007)
Ethnic groups: Moldavian 31.9%, Russian 30.4%,
Ukrainian 28.8%, Bulgarian 2.5%, Gagauz 0.74%,
Polish 0.32%, Roma 0.09%, others 5.17% (2004);
[Ukrainian
50.7%, Moldavian 28.5%, Russian 10.2%,
Jewish
6.2% (1939)]
Total Active Armed Forces: 7,500 (2006)
Russian Forces: 1,500 (2012)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Orthodox Christian 91%, Roman Catholic 4%,
Protestant 1%, other Christian 2%, Jewish 0.23% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: CDRN

Note: Russian names with Moldavian/Romanian in parentheses for the period 1924-1940.
From 1990, names are in Russian which is exclusively used in administration - Ukrainian and (Cyrillic) Moldovan are also official languages, but are not used administratively.

 9 Feb 1919 - 18 Apr 1919  Tiraspol (Tiraspol') occupied by Allies (Poland).
18 Apr 1919 - 2. Aug 1919 
Tiraspol occupied by Soviet Russia.
28/30 Apr 1919             Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of B
essarabia
                             founded in Odessa (Odesa) exile.
11 May 1919                Bessarabian Socialist Soviet Republic is proclaimed at Odessa
                             claiming all of former Bessarabian guberniya,
as part of the
                             Russian S.F.S.R.,
with provisional headquarters at Tiraspol. It
                             is dissolved on 23 Aug 1919 by the occupation of Odessa by
                             "White" Russian forces.
2. Aug 1919 - 12 Feb 1920  Tiraspol occupied by "White" Russian forces under Denikin.
12 Feb 1920                Transnistria incorporated into Ukrainian S.S.R.
12 Oct 1924                Moldavian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic established
                             within the Ukrainian S.S.R.
 5 Dec 1936                Renamed Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
 2 Aug 1940                Moldavian A.S.S.R. united with Bessarabia (previously part
                             Romania) to form Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (see above)
 
8 Aug 1941                Tiraspol occupied by Romania.
 8 Aug 1941 - 12 Apr 1944  Occupied by
Romania, organized as part of Transnistria governorate
                             (see under Ukraine). 

12 Apr 1944                Tiraspol is liberated by Soviet forces.
 2 Sep 1990               
Pridnestrovian (Transnistrian) Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
                             declares secession from Moldova S.S.R. but within the Soviet
                             Union; not recognized by Moldova
 8 Dec 1990                Declaration of sovereignty passed.
22 Dec 1990                Soviet government invalidates sovereignty declaration.
25 Aug 1991                Declaration of independence (not recognized). 
 5 Nov 1991                Pridnestrovian (Transnistrian) Moldavian Republic
                             (Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika).
22 Jul 2005                Moldova recognizes autonomy as Transnistria/Pridnestrovye an
                             "autonomous territorial unit with special legal status" within
                             Moldova (not implemented).
17 Sep 2006                Referendum supports independence from Moldova and association 
                             with Russia by 97.2%

Responsible Secretary of the Organizing Bureau of the Communist Party
of Ukraine for the Moldavian ASSR

15 Oct 1924 - 21 Dec 1924  Iosif Isaakovich Badeyev (Suslik)  (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
                             (Iosif Badeev)
Responsible Secretaries of the Moldavian Regional Committee of Ukrainian Communist Party
21 Dec 1924 - 27 Dec 1928  Iosif Isaakovich Badeyev (Suslik)  (s.a.)
                             (Iosif Badeev)
27 Dec 1928 - 25 Feb 1930  Khaim Bentsionovich Bogopol'skiy   (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
                             (Haim Bogopolski)
25 Feb 1930 -  9 Apr 1930  Vacant 
 9 Apr 1930 - 2. Oct 1931  Ilya Moiseyevich Ilyin (Broytman)  (b. 1893 - d. 1973)
                             (Ilia Ilin)
2. Oct 1931 -  3 Jul 1932  Ivan Semyonovich Plachinda         (b. 1898 - d. 1937)
                             (Sporosh) (Ivan Semionovici Placinda)
First Secretaries of the Moldavian Regional Committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party
 3 Jul 1932 -  5 Jun 1933  Ivan Nikolayevich Sirko            (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
                             (Ivan Sirko)
 5 Jun 1933 - 28 Aug 1935  Gurgen Osipovich Bulat
                             (Gurgen Bulat)
28 Aug 1935 - 17 May 1937  Zinoviy Iosifovich Siderskiy       (b. 1897 - d. 1938)
                             (Zinovie Siderski)
17 May 1937 - 30 Aug 1937  Vladimir Zakharovich Todres        (b. 1897 - d. 1959)
                             (Selektor) (Vladimir Todres)
30 Aug 1937 - 23 May 1938  Nikolay Isayevich Golub' (acting)  (b. 1905 - d. 19..)
                             (Nicolea Golub)       
23 May 1938 - 26 Feb 1939  Vladimir Nikolayevich Borisov      (b. 1901 - d. af.1954)
                             (Vladimir Borisov)
26 Feb 1939 -  6 Aug 1939  Aleksey Nikolayevich Mel'nikov     (b. 1900 - d. 1967)
                             (Aleksei Melnikov)
 6 Aug 1939 - 14 Aug 1940  Pyotr Grigoryevich Borodin         (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
                             (Piotr Borodin)

Chairman of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of Bessarabia
(from 5 May 1919, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Bessarabian SSR)
28/30 Apr 1919-23 Aug 1919 Ivan Nikolayevich Krivorukov       (b. 1883 - d. 1943)  RKP
                             (in Odessa exile to 11 May 1919, from 2. - 23 Aug 1919;
                              in Tiraspol 11 May - 2. Aug 1919)
Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
 9 Nov 1924 - 23 Apr 1925  Grigoriy Ivanovich Borisov (Staryy)(b. 1880 - d. 1937)  KPU
                             (Grigore Borisov)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee

23 Apr 1925 - 14 May 1926  Grigoriy Ivanovich Borisov (Staryy)(s.a.)               KPU
14 May 1926 - May 1937     Yevstafiy Pavlovich Voronovich     (b. 1890 - d. 1937)  KPU
                             (Evstafii Voronovici)
May 1937 - 18 Jul 1938     Georgiy Yermolayevich Streshnyy    (b. 1900 - d. 1940)  KPU
                             (Gheorghe Streshni) (acting)    
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
18 Jul 1938 -  7 Jun 1940  Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (b. 1898 - d. 1957)  KPU
                             (Tihon Konstantinov)
 
7 Jun 1940 - Aug 1940     Fyodor Grigoryevich Brovko         (b. 1904 - d. 1960)  KPU
                             (Fedor Brovko)
Chairman of the (to 29 Nov 1990, Provisional) Supreme Soviet
 2 Sep 1990 -  3 Dec 1991  Igor' Nikolayevich Smirnov         (b. 1941)            OSTK  
                             (Moldovan prisoner 29 Aug - 1 Oct 1991)
29 Aug 1991 -  1 Oct 1991  Andrey Panteleyevich Manoylov      (b. 1945 - d. 1995)  OSTK
                             (First Deputy, acting for imprisoned Smirnov)
Presidents
 3 Dec 1991 - 30 Dec 2011  Igor' Nikolayevich Smirnov         (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Dec 2011 -              Yevgeniy Vasilyevich Shevchuk      (b. 1968)            Non-party


Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

23 Apr 1925 - 14 May 1926  Aleksandr Ivanovich Stroyev        (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  KPU
                             (Aleksei Stroev)
14 May 1926 -  5 Jun 1928  Grigoriy Ivanovich Borisov (Staryy)(s.a.)               KPU
                             (1st time)
 5 Jun 1928 -  7 Apr 1932  Sergey Vasilyevich Dimitriu        (b. 1892 - d. 1937)  KPU
                             (Serghei Dimitriu)
 7 Apr 1932 - 22 Jun 1937  Grigoriy Ivanovich Borisov (Staryy)(s.a.)               KPU
                             (2nd time)
22 Jun 1937 - Feb 1938     ....
Feb 1938 - May 1940        Georgiy Yermolayevich Streshnyy    (s.a.)               KPU
May 1940 -  7 Jun 1940     Fyodor Grigoryevich Brovko         (s.a.)               KPU
                             (Fedor Brovko) 
 7 Jun 1940 - Aug 1940     Tikhon Antonovich Konstantinov     (s.a.)               KPU
Prime ministers
(Chairmen of the government)
18 Jan 2012 - 10 Jul 2013  Pyotr Petrovich Stepanov           (b. 1959)            Non-party
10 Jul 2013 -              Tatyana Mikhaylovna Turanskaya (f) (b. 1972)            Non-party

Party abbreviations: KPP = Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Pridnestrovya/Partidul Komunist din Pridnestrov'e (Communist Party of Pridnestrovia, marxist-leninist communist, est.1991); OSTK = Obyedinyonnyy Sovet Trudovyh Kollektivov/Colectivelor Unificate de Muncă (Joint Council of Labor Collectives, pro-govt. trade union group, est.11 Jul 1989); PKP = Pridnestrovskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya/Prydnistrovs'ka Komunistychna Partiya/Partidul Komunist din Transnistrya (Pridnestrovian Communist Party, anti-Smirnov communist, est.2003); PPP = Patrioticheskaya Partiya Pridnestrovya/Patriotichna Partiya Pridnistrovya/Partidul Patriotik din Nistreniya (Patriotic Party of Pridnestrovie, Transnistrian nationalist, est.2006); RP = Respublika/Respublika/Republika (Republic, Transnistrian nationalist, Igor Smirnov personalist, est.1990); Mil = Military; 
- Former Parties: KPU = Komunistychna Partiya (Bil'shovykiv) Ukra´ny/Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov) Ukrainy/Partidul Komunist al Ukrainej (Communist Party [Bolsheviks] of Ukraine, communist, 1 Mar 1919 separated from Russian Communist Party, Jul 1918-13 Oct 1952, renamed Komunistychna Partiya Ukra´ny [Communist Party of Ukraine]); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], communist, 1918-1925, renamed All-Union Communist Party)



Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri)
[Gagauz
                              ethnic flag 1990-c.1993 (Moldova)]
          19 Aug 1990 - c.1993  Unofficial
 
[Gagauz
                              flag c.1993-1995 (Moldova)]
                       c.1993 - 31 Oct 1995

[Flag of
                              Gagauzia,Gagauz Yeri (Moldova)]
                        Adopted 31 Oct 1995

Map of Gagauzia
Hear Local Anthem
"Gimn Gagauziya"/
"Gagauz Milli Marşı"
(Hymn of Gagauzia)
Text of Anthem
Adopted 4 Dec 1995

Code of Gagauzia
(5 Jun 1998)
Capital: Komrat
(Comrat)
Currency: Moldovan Leu
(MDL)
Local Holiday: 23 Dec (1994)
Day of Formation of
Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri)
Population: 162,200 (2012)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Gagauz 82.14%, Bulgarian 5.15%,
Moldovan 4.85%, Russian 3.82%, Ukrainian 3.16%,
others 0.91%  (2004)
Total Police Forces: N/A
Religions: Orthodox Christian 93%, Protestant 3%,
other 2.2%, no religion 1.6%, atheist 0.2% (2004)
Note: Russian names with Gagauz in parentheses - Gagauz and Moldovan/Romanian are also official languages, but are not used administratively.

18-25 Jan 1906             Uprising launched in Komrat (as part of the Russian 1905/07
                             revolution) headed by Andrey Pavlovich Galatsan (b. 1875 -
                             d. 1943), popularly referred to as the "Komrat republic."
12 Nov 1989                Gagauz Autonomous Soviet Socialist
Republic declared within
                             Moldavian S.S.R. (repeated again on 3 Dec 1989 and 22 Jul 1990);
                             the demand is repeatedly voided by the Moldavian S.S.R.
19 Aug 1990                Gagauz nation declares independence from Moldova S.S.R., within
                             Soviet Union, as the Gagauz Republic (Gagauzskaya
                             Respublika
/Gagauz Respublikası/Republica Găgăuză);
                             not recognized
by Moldova.
26 Oct 1990 -  6 Dec 1990  Moldova declares a state of emergency over southern districts.
22 Dec 1990                Soviet government invalidates independence declaration.
19 Jun 1995                Gagauziya/Gagauz Yeri/Găgăuzia an autonomous territorial unit of
                             Moldova.
 2 Feb 2014                Referendum 98.4% of voters chose closer relations with the CIS
                             over the EU; and 98.9% of voters support Gagauzia's right to
                             declare independence should Moldova ends its independence. 

Chairman of the Provisional Committee
19 Aug 1990 - 31 Oct 1990  Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal          (b. 1938)            GH
                             (Stepan Topal)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

31 Oct 1990 -  2? Dec 1991 Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal          (s.a.)               GH     
                             (Moldovan prisoner 23 Aug - 1 Oct 1991)
23 Aug 1991 -  1 Oct 1991  Ivan Georgiyevich Burgudzhi        (b. 1953)            GH
                             (İvan Burgucu)
                             (First Deputy, acting for imprisoned Topal)
President

 2? Dec 1991 - 19 Jun 1995 Stepan Mikhaylovich Topal          (s.a.)               PSM
Governors
19 Jun 1995 - 24 Sep 1999  Georgiy Dmitriyevich Tabunshchik   (b. 1939)            PCRM
                             (Georgiy Tabunşšik)
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 1999 - 10 Jul 2002  Dmitriy Vasilyevich Kroytor        (b. 1959)            PDM
                             (Dmitriy Kroytor)
 6 Jul 2002 -  1 Aug 2002  Valeriy Fyodorovich Yanioglo       (b. 1957)            PDM
                             (Valeri Yanioglo)
                             (acting [for Kroytor to 10 Jul 2002])
10 Jul 2002 -  1 Aug 2002  Ivan Petrovich Kristioglo          (b. 1952)            UM
                             (İvan Kristioglo)
                             (acting; in opposition)
 1 Aug 2002 -  9 Nov 2002  Georgiy Ilyich Molla (interim)     (b. 1950)            Non-party
                             (Georgiy Molla)
 9 Nov 2002 - 29 Dec 2006  Georgiy Dmitriyevich Tabunshchik   (s.a.)               PCRM
                             (2nd time)
29 Dec 2006 - 15 Apr 2015  Mikhail Makarovich Formuzal        (b. 1959)          PPR;2011 PRM
                             (Mihail Formuzal)
15 Apr 2015 -              Irina
Fyodorovna Vlakh (f)         (b. 1974)            Non-party
                             (
İrina Vlah)

Party abbreviations: PM = Partidul Muncii/Partiya Truda (Labor Party, socialist, formerly UM, est.18 Jun 2010); PCRM = Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova/Partiya Kommunistov Respubliki Moldova (Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, communist, est.1993); PDM = Partidul Democrat din Moldova/Demokraticheskaya Partiya Moldovy (Democratic Party of Moldova, social-democratic, est.1997); PRM = Partidul Regiunilor din Moldova/Partiya Regionov Moldovy (Party of Regions Moldova, center-left, est.2011); PPR = Partidul Popular Republican/Narodnaya Respublikanskaya Partiya (Republican Popular Party, to 2005 named Peasants' Christian Democratic Party of Moldova, conservative, est.1994); PSM = Partidul Socialist din Moldova/Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya Moldovy (Socialist Party of Moldova, socialist, former communists [PCM], est.1992);
- Former Parties: GH = Gagauz Halkı/Gagauz Khalky (Gagauz People, Gagauz nationalist, 1989-1994); UM = Uniunea Muncii/Soyuz Truda (Labor Union, socialist, from 2004 renamed Uniunea Muncii "Patria-Rodina"/Soyuz Truda "Patria-Rodina" [Labor Union "Motherland"], 1999-2010, renamed PM)





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