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Romania
 
[Walachia-Moldavia State and
                                    War flag, 1859-1861 (Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861 
 
[Romania civil flag,
                                    1861-1866]
              Dec 1861 - 30 Jun 1866 
 
[Romanian
                                    flag]
           30 Jun 1866 - 8 Jan 1948
 
[Romanian King's flag,
                                    1867-1872]
   30 Mar 1867 - 8 Mar 1872 Royal Flag
 
[Romanian King's flag,
                                    1872-1947]
    8 Mar 1872 - 30 Dec 1947 Royal Flag
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, January - March 1948 ]
              8 Jan 1948 - 13 Apr 1948
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1948-1952]
           13 Apr 1948 - 24 Sep 1952
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1952]
            24 Sep 1952 - 21 Aug 1965
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1965-1989]
            21 Aug 1965 - 27 Dec 1989 
 
[Romanian
                                    flag]
                Adopted 27 Dec 1989
 

 

Map of Romania Hear National Anthem
"Desteaptate, Române" 
 (Wake up, Romanian)
Adopted Apr 1990
Former National Anthem
"Trei Culori" (Three Colours)
(29 Oct 1977-Apr 1990) 
Constitution
(8 Dec 1991)
Former National Anthem
"Traiasca Regele"
(Long Live the King)
(1866-30 Dec 1947)
Former National Anthem
"Zdrobite catuşe”
(Broken Handcuffs)
(4 Jan 1948-23 Aug 1953)
Former National Anthem
 "Te Slavim, Românie"
(We praise you, Romania) 
(23 Aug 1953 -29 Oct 1977)
Royal Constitution
(29 Mar 1923-30 Dec 1947;
in French)
Capital: Bucharest
(Iassy [Jassy] 1859-1862,
1916- 1918)
Currency: New Leu (RON)
National Holiday: 1 Dec (1918) 
Unification Day
(of Romania and Transylvania)
Population: 21,790,479 (2013)
16,126,000 (1941)
5,140,000 (1889)
GDP: $280.7 billion (2013)
Exports: $61.2 billion (2013)
Imports: $69.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma
(Gypsy) 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%,
unspecified 6.1% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 73,350 (2010)
Merchant marine: 5 ships (2010)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations)
 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including
Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%,
other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%,
unspecified 6.3% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN (candidate), CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, NATO, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM (associate), PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Romania Index
Chronology

1541                       Moldavia and Walachia vassals of Ottoman Empire.
23 Dec 1861                United Rumanian Principalities
                            (in diplomatic usage by Ottoman suzerain
                             23 Dec 1861 - 13 Jul 1878: United Principalities
                             of Moldavia and Romanian Lands).
12 Jul 1866                Rumania
22 May 1877                Independence from Ottoman Empire declared.
13 Jul 1878                Independence recognized internationally.
26 Mar 1881                Kingdom of Rumania
 2 Sep 1916 - 29 Nov 1918  Occupation of Rumania by the Central Powers
                            (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman
                             Empire); Dobruja occupied Oct 1916, Bucharest on
                             6 Dec 1916, Central forces reach the lower
                             Danube and the Sereth in Jan 1917 and are in
                             occupation of two-thirds the country.  
 9 Apr 1918                Bessarabia (see Moldova) incorporated into
                             Rumania; (autonomous to 10 Dec 1918; annexation
                             internationally recognized from 20 Oct 1920).
31 Dec 1918                Bukovina and incorporated into Rumania.
11 Jan 1919                Transylvania incorporated into Rumania.
27 Jun 1940                Bukovina and Bessarabia annexed by Soviet Union;
                             7 Sep 1940 Southern Dobruja restored to Bulgaria
30 Aug 1940                Under German pressure a major part of 
                             Transylvania is retroceded to Hungary.
25 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Rumania annexes Bessarabia, Bukovina, and 
                             Transnistria from the Soviet Union.
31 Aug 1944 - 10 Feb 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation.
15 Sep 1947                Retroceded part of Transylvania is de jure 
                             returned to Rumania (de facto since 11 Mar 1945).
30 Dec 1947                Rumanian People's Republic
21 Aug 1965                Socialist Republic of Rumania
Feb 1966                   English spelling officially changed to Romania.
29 Dec 1989                Romania

Romania
(since 1861)
Walachia
(1324-1861)
Moldavia
(1352-1861)
Transylvania
(1172-1919,
 1952-1968)
 Allied
Occupation

(1944-1947)
  Banat
(1716-1779,
 1918-19)
Lugos Neutral
 Zone

(1919)
 Dobruja
(1552-1919)
Historic Maps
of Romania
Orthodox Church
of Romania
(until 1925, of
Hungaro-Walachia)
Romanian Greek-
Catholic Church

Note: The country was usually known as Rumania until the English spelling was officially changed  to Romania in Feb 1966. 

Walachia (Wallachia)
 
[Principality
                            of Walachia state flag c.1593]
                          c.1593
 
[Walachia 1821
                            Rebellion flag]
    Feb-Jun 1821 Rebellion Flag
 
[Walachia
                            state and war flag 1834-c.1840]
                   24 Jun 1834 - c.1840
 
[Walachia mechant flag, 1834-1861
                              (Romania)]
  24 Jun 1834 - 19 May 1861 Merchant flag
 
[Walachia state and war flag
                              c.1840-1859]
                 c.1840 - 1859
 
[Walachia National Flag, 1848]
 14 Jun 1848 - 25 Sep 1848 Rebel National flag
[Walachia-Moldavia State and War flag,
                            1859-1861 (Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861


Map of Walachia
Capital: Bucharest
(Curtea de Arges 1330-1430;
Targoviste 1430-1698)
Currency:  N/A
Population:  N/A

Mar 1241 - 1243            Mongol occupation of much of Walachia.
1324                       Principality of Hungaro-Walachia consolidated (Ungrovlahia;
                             in Romanian commonly called Tara Romaneasca, and even 
                             more colloquially Muntenia), under Hungarian suzerainty
                             to Nov 1330.
Oct 1394 - 23 Sep 1403     Turkish dependency.
Mar 1427 -  2 Sep 1442     Turkish dependency.
Jun 1541                   Part of Ottoman Empire.
20 May 1595 - Dec 1596     Dependency of Transylvania.
16 Nov 1769 - 1770         Occupied by Russia.
1771 - 21 Jul 1774         Occupied by Russia.
15 Nov 1789 -  4 Aug 1791  Occupied by Austria (de facto to 19 Jun 1790).
28 Aug 1806 -  8 Aug 1807  Occupied by Russia (de facto to 1807).
28 Aug 1807 -  1 Mar 1808  Occupied by Russia.
Mar 1809 - 28 May 1812     Occupied by Russia.
22 Feb 1828 -  2 Apr 1834  Occupied by Russia.
Feb 1821 - Jun 182l        Rebellion against the Phanariote rulers.
29 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Occupied by Russia.
19 Aug 1854 -  5 Oct 1854  Occupied by Austria (de facto to 25 Mar 1856).
23 Dec 1861                Merger with Moldavia into the United Rumanian 
                             Principalities.

Princesą
 7 Sep 1688 -  4 Apr 1714  Constantin (II) Pavel Basarab     (b. 1654 - d. 1714)
                             Cantacuzino Brâncoveanu
 5 Apr 1714 -  5 Jan 1716  Stefan (II) Constantin            (b. 1640 - d. 1716)
                             Cantacuzino
 5 Jan 1716 - 25 Nov 1716  Nicolae (II) Alexandru            (b. 1680 - d. 1730)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (1st time)
 2 Dec 1716 -  6 Mar 1719  Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat-       (b. 1684 - d. 1719)
                             Scarlati
Mar 1719 - 14 Sep 1730     Nicolae (II) Alexandru            (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd time)
14 Sep 1730 - 15 Oct 1730? Constantin (III) Nicolae          (b. 1711 - d. 1769)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (1st time)
1730 - 24 Oct 1731         Mihai (III) Ion Racovita          (d. 1744)
                             (1st time)
24 Oct 1731 - 16 Apr 1733  Constantin (III) Nicolae          (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd time)
16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735  Grigore (II) Matei Ghica          (b. 1690 - d. 1752)
                             (1st time) 
27 Nov 1735 - 1741         Constantin (III) Nicolae          (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (3rd time)
16? Sep 1741 - Jul 1744    Mihai (III) Ion Racovita          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jul 1744 - Apr 1748        Constantin (III) Nicolae          (s.a.) 
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (4th time)
Apr 1748 -  3 Sep 1752     Grigore (II) Matei Ghica          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 4 Sep 1752 -  3 Jul 1753  Matei (II) Grigore Ghica          (b. 1715 - d. 1761)
 3 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756  Constantin (IV) Mihai Racovita    (b. 1699 - d. 1764)
                             (1st time)
20 Feb 1756 - 1758         Constantin (III) Nicolae          (s.a.) 
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (5th time)
14?Aug 1758 - 16 Jun 1761  Scarlat (I) Grigore Ghica         (b. 1715 - d. 1766)
                             (1st time) 
16 Jun 1761 - 20 Mar 1763  Constantin (III) Nicolae          (s.a.) 
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (6th time)
20 Mar 1763 -  6 Feb 1764  Constantin (IV) Mihai Racovita    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Feb 1764 - 29 Aug 1765  Stefan (III) Mihai Racovita
29 Aug 1765 - 13 Dec 1766  Scarlat (I) Grigore Ghica         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
13 Dec 1766 - 28 Oct 1768  Alexandru (VI) Scarlat Ghica
28 Oct 1768 - 16 Nov 1769  Grigore (III) Alexandru Ghica     (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
16 Nov 1769 - 1770         Count Pytor Aleksandrovich        (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyancev-Zadunaiski (1st time)
                            (Russian military administrator)
May 1770 - Oct 1771        Emanuel Giani Ruset "Manole"      (b. 1715 - d. 1794)
1771 - 21 Jul 1774         Count Pytor Aleksandrovich        (s.a.)
                             Rumyancev-Zadunaiski (2nd time)
                            (Russian military administrator)
26 Sep 1774 - 15 Jan 1782  Alexandru (VII) Ioan Ipsilanti    (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
                             (1st time)
15 Jan 1782 - 17 Jul 1783  Nicolae Caragea (Caradja)         (b. 1737 - d. 1784)
17 Jul 1783 - 1786         Mihai (IV) Dracon Sutu (1st time) (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
 6 Apr 1786 - 19 Jun 1790  Nicolae (IV) Petru Mavroghieni    (b. 1738 - d. 1790)
1788 - 1790                Franz Maria Freiherr von Thugut   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                             (Austrian
administrator-general
                             of Moldavia and Wallachia
)
15 Nov 1789 - 15 Oct 1790  Friedrich Josias Prinz von
                             Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld         (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                             (Austrian military administrator)
Mar 1791 - Jan 1793        Mihai (IV) Dracon Sutu (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jan 1793 - 28 Aug 1796     Alexandru (VIII) Constantin       (b. 1740? - d. 1816)
                             Moruzi (1st time) 
28 Aug 1796 -  9 Dec 1797  Alexandru (VII) Ioan Ipsilanti    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 9 Dec 1797 - 10 Feb 1799  Constantin (V) Hangerli           (d. 1799)
10 Feb 1799 - 20 Oct 1801  Alexandru (VIII) Constantin       (s.a.)
                             Moruzi (2nd time) 
20 Oct 1801 - 22 May 1802  Mihai Dracon Sutu (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1802 - 30 Aug 1802  Alexandru (IX) Nicolae Sutu       (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
                             (1st time) (Princely Lieutenant)
30 Aug 1802 - 24 Aug 1806  Constantin (VI) Alexandru         (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
                             Ipsilanti (1st time)
24 Aug 1806 - 13 Oct 1806  Alexandru (IX) Nicolae Sutu       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
13 Oct 1806 - 31 May 1807  Constantin (VI) Alexandru         (s.a.)
                             Ipsilanti (2nd time) 
28 Aug 1806 -  8 Aug 1807  Ivan Prozorovsky (1st time)
                            (Russian military administrator;
                             de facto to 1807)
 8 Aug 1807 - 28 Aug 1807  Constantin (VI) Alexandru         (s.a.)
                             Ipsilanti (3rd time) 
28 Aug 1807 -  1 Mar 1808  Ivan Prozorovsky (2nd time)
                            (Russian military administrator)
 1 Mar 1808 - 18 Sep 1808  Princely Lieutenancy
18 Sep 1808 - Mar 1809     Committee of Five
Mar 1809 - 28 May 1812     N.F. Engelhardt 
                            (Russian military administrator)
 8 Sep 1812 - 11 Oct 1818  Ioan Gheorghe Caragea              (b. 1745 - d. 1845)
16 Nov 1818-30/31Jan 1821  Alexandru (IX) Nicolae Sutu        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Feb 1821 - Jun 1821        Scarlat (II) Alexandru Callimachi  (b. 1773 - d. 1821)
Feb 1821 - Jun 1821        Tudor Constantin Vladimirescu      (b. c.1770 - d. 1821)
                             (Conducator [Leader], in rebellion)
1821 - 21 Jun 1822         Stefan Vogoride (Ottoman governor) (b. c.1775 - d. 1859)
12 Jul 1822 - 11 May 1828  Grigore IV Dimitrie Ghica          (b. 1755 - d. 1834)
Russian Military Administrators
22 Feb 1828 -  2 Feb 1829  Peter Christoph Graf von der       (b. 1771 - d. 1864)
                             Pahlen
 2 Feb 1829 - 14 Sep 1829  Pyotr Zheltukhin                   (b. 1777 - d. 1829)
24 Nov 1829 -  2 Apr 1834  Pavel Dmitriyevich Kiselev         (b. 1788 - d. 1872)
                             (Kisolyv)
Princesą

 2 Apr 1834 - 19 Oct 1842  Alexandru (X) Dimitrie Ghica       (b. 1795 - d. 1862)
                             (1st time)
 1 Jan 1843 - 25 Jun 1848  Gheorghe Dimitrie Bibescu          (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
25 Jun 1848 - 10 Jul 1848  Neofit II (1st time)               (b. 1787 - d. 1850)
                            (President of the Provisional Government)
10 Jul 1848 - 12 Jul 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Teodor Vacarescu                 (b. 1774 - d. 1853)
                           - Emanoil Baleanu (1st time)       (b. 1794 - d. 1862)
12 Jul 1848 -  9 Aug 1848  Neofit II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
                            (President of the Provisional Government)
 9 Aug 1848 - 25 Sep 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Heliade Radulescu           (b. 1802 - d. 1872)
                           - Nicolae Constantin Golescu       (b. 1810 - d. 1877)
                           - Christian Tell                   (b. 1807 - d. 1884)
25 Sep 1848 -  Jun 1849    Constantin Cantacuzino             (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                            (Princely Lieutenant)
28 Jun 1849 - 29 Oct 1853  Barbu Dimitrie Stirbey (1st time)  (b. 1799 - d. 1869)
29 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Aleksandr Ivanovich Budberg        (b. 1798 - d. 1876)
                            (Russian military administrator)
Ottoman Military Administrators
 8 Aug 1854 - Aug 1854     Halil Pasha (acting)
Aug 1854 - 19 Aug 1854     Dervish Pasha
Princesą
19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Johann Baptist Alexius Graf        (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
                             Coronini-Cronberg          
                             (Austrian Military Governor)
19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Eduard Freiherr von Bach           (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                             (Austrian
Civil Commissioner)
 5 Oct 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Barbu Dimitrie Stirbey (2nd time)  (s.a.)
29 Jul 1856 - 30 Oct 1858  Alexandru (X) Dimitrie Ghica       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(Princely Lieutenant)
30 Oct 1858 -  5 Feb 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Manu                        (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
                           - Emanoil Baleanu (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Filipescu         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
 5 Feb 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru (XI) Ioan Cuza Voievod   (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers
 6 Feb 1859 -  8 Apr 1859  Ioan Alexandru Filipescu           (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1859 - 18 Sep 1859  Constantin Alexandru Cretulescu    (b. 1809 - d. 1884)
18 Sep 1859 - 23 Oct 1859  Nicolae A. Cretulescu              (b. 1812 - d. 1900)
23 Oct 1859 -  9 Jun 1860  Prince Ion Ghica                   (b. 1817 - d. 1897)
 9 Jun 1860 - 25 Jul 1860  Nicolae Constantin Golescu         (s.a.)
25 Jul 1860 - 12 May 1861  Manolake Costache Epureanu         (b. 1824 - d. 1880)
12 May 1861 - 24 May 1861  Barbu Catargiu                     (b. 1808 - d. 1862)
24 May 1861 - 23 Jul 1861  Stefan Golescu                     (b. 1809 - d. 1874)
31 Jul 1861 -  3 Feb 1862  Prince Dimitrie Ghica              (b. 1816 - d. 1897)

 ąUsual translation of the title Domn (Lord), in full Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievoda si Domn a toata Tara Ungrovlahiei ("By the grace of God, Governor and Lord of all the Hungaro-Walachian Land").


Moldavia
 
[Moldavia
                          Princely State flag]
                         c.1485
 
[Moldavia stae
                          and war flag, 1834-c.1849 (Romania)]
        8 Nov 1834 - c.1849
 
[Moldavia state
                          and war flag, c.1849-c.1856 (Romania)]
            c.1849 - c.1856
 
[Moldavia state
                          and war flag, c.1856-1859 (Romania)]
              c.1856 - 1859
[Moldavia
                          merchant flag 1834-1861 (Romania)]
        1834 - 9 Jun 1861 Merchant flag
[Walachia-Moldavia
                          State and War flag, 1859-1861(Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861
Map of Moldavia
Capital: Iassy (Jassy)
(Suceava 1388-1565)
Currency: N/A
Population:  N/A

1352                       Principality of Moldavia founded.
26 Sep 1387                Under Polish suzerainty.
 9 Jun 1456 - 1471         Turkish tributary.
12 Jul 1475                Under Hungarian suzerainty.
1479                       Turkish tributary.
15 Sep 1485 - 1489         Under Polish suzerainty.
1541                       Part of Ottoman Empire
14 Sep 1739 -  Oct 1739    Occupied Russia.
 8 Oct 1769 - Sep 1774     Occupied by Russia (de facto to 15 Dec 1769).
Oct 1788 - Mar 1792        Occupied by Russia in northern region, and Austria 
                             in southern region (to 4 Aug 1791).
13 Feb 1828 - Apr 1834     Occupied by Russia.
30 Oct 1853 - 16 Sep 1854  Occupied by Russia.
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Occupied by Austria.
23 Dec 1861                Merger with Walachia into the United Rumanian 
                             Principalities.

Princesą
18 Dec 1695 - 25 Sep 1700  Antioh Constantin Cantemir         (d. 1726)
                             (1st time)
25 Sep 1700 - 26 Jun 1703  Constantin (IV) Gheorghe Duca 
                             "Duculet" (2nd time)
26 Jun 1703 - Sep 1703     Ioan Buhus (1st time)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
Sep 1703 - 23 Feb 1705     Mihai Ion Racovita (1st time)      (d. 1744)
23 Feb 1705 - 31 Jul 1707  Antioh Constantin Cantemir         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
31 Jul 1707 -  5 Feb 1710  Ioan Buhus (2nd time)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
 5 Feb 1710 -  4 Dec 1710  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-     (b. 1680 - d. 1730)
                             Scarlati (1st time)
 4 Dec 1710 - 22 Jul 1711  Dimitrie Constantin Cantemir       (b. 1671 - d. 1723)
                             (2nd time)(in rebellion from 29 Nov 1710)
12 Aug 1711 - 20 Sep 1711  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Lupu Gavril Costache
                           - Maxut
                           - Antioh Jora
21 Sep 1711 -  7 Oct 1711  Gheorghe Apostol
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
 7 Oct 1711 - 19 Nov 1711  Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat-        (b. 1684 - d. 1719)
                             Scarlati (Princely Lieutenant)
19 Nov 1711 -  5 Jan 1716  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-     (s.a.)
                             Scarlati (2nd time)
 5 Jan 1716 -  6 Oct 1726  Mihai Ion Racovita (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1726 - 16 Apr 1733  Grigore II Matei Ghica (1st time)  (b. 1690 - d. 1752)
16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735  Constantin (V) Nicolae             (b. 1711 - d. 1769)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (1st time)
27 Nov 1735 - 14 Sep 1739  Grigore II Matei Ghica (2nd time)  (s.a.)
14 Sep 1739 - Oct 1739     Münich
                             (Russian military administrator)
Oct 1739 - 24 Sep 1741     Grigore II Matei Ghica (3rd time)  (s.a.)
Sep 1741 - 31 Jul 1743     Constantin (V) Nicolae             (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd time)
31 Jul 1743 - May 1747     Ioan Nicolae Mavrocordat-Scarlati  (b. 1712 - d. 1747)
May 1747 - Apr 1748        Grigore II Matei Ghica (4th time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1748 - 31 Aug 1749     Constantin (V) Nicolae             (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (3rd time)
31 Aug 1749 -  3 Jul 1753  Constantin (VI) Mihai Racovita     (b. c.1699 - d. 1764)
                             (1st time)
 3 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756  Matei Grigore Ghica                (b. 1715 - d. 1761)
19 Feb 1756 - 13 Mar 1757  Constantin (VI) Mihai Racovita     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
13 Mar 1757 - 1758         Scarlat Grigore Ghica              (b. 1715 - d. 1766)
14? Aug 1758 - 1761        Ioan Teodor Callimachi             (b. 1700 - d. 1762)
8? Jun 1761 - 29 Mar 1764  Grigore (II) Ioan Callimachi       (b. 1723 - d. 1769)
                             (1st time)
29 Mar 1764 -  3 Feb 1767  Grigore III Alexandru Ghica        (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
                             (1st time) 
 3 Feb 1767 - 14 Jun 1769  Grigore (II) Ioan Callimachi       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
29 Jun 1769 - 15 Dec 1769  Constantin (V) Nicolae             (s.a.)
                             Mavrocordat-Scarlati (4th time)
15 Dec 1769 - Sep 1774     Russian Military Administration
                             (de facto from 8 Oct 1769)
18 Nov 1771 - Sep 1774     Meder
                             (Russian administrator)
9? Oct 1774 - 12 Oct 1777  Grigore III Alexandru Ghica        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
12 Oct 1777 -  9 Jun 1782  Constantin (VII) Dimitrie Moruzi   (b. 1730 - d. 1787)
 9 Jun 1782 - 12 Jan 1785  Alexandru (IX) Constantin          (b. 1742 - d. 1812)
                             Mavrocordat "Deli-bei"
12 Jan 1785 - 14 Dec 1786  Alexandru (X) Ioan Mavrocordat     (b. 1754 - d. 1819)
                             "Firaris," "Fugarul"
Dec 1786 - 19 Apr 1788     Alexandru (XI) Ioan Ipsilanti      (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
May 1788 - Oct 1788        Emanuel Giani Ruset "Manole"       (b. 1715 - d. 1794)
Oct 1788 - Mar 1792        Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich       (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
                             Suvorov (Russian military
                             administrator in nothern region;
                             de facto to 9 Jan 1793)
                           - together with -
Oct 1788 - 14 Oct 1790     Friedrich Josias Prinz von
                             Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld          (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                             (Austrian military administrator; 
                             de facto from 15 Nov 1789)

                             (in southern region)
1788 - 1790                Franz Maria Freiherr von Thugut    (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                             (Austrian
administrator-general
                             of Moldavia and Walachia
)
May 1789 -  6 Oct 1789     Franz Leopold Freiherr von Metzburg(b. 1746 - d.  1789)

                             (Austrian civil
administrator)
1789 - 1790                Josef Graf Brigido                 (b. 1733 - d. 1817)

                             (Austrian civil administrator)
Mar 1792 - 10 Jan 1793     Alexandru (XII) Constantin Moruzi  (b. 1740? - d. 1816)
                             (1st time) 
10 Jan 1793 -  6 May 1795  Mihai Dracon Sutu                  (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
 6 May 1795 - 18 Mar 1799  Alexandru (XIII) Callimachi        (b. 1737 - d. 1821)
18 Mar 1799 - 10 Jul 1801  Constantin (VIII) Alexandru        (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
                             Ipsilanti
10 Jul 1801 -  1 Oct 1802  Alexandru (XIV) Nicolae Sutu       (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
 1 Oct 1802 -  9 Nov 1802  Iordache Canta
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
 9 Nov 1802 - 24 Aug 1806  Alexandru (XII) Constantin Moruzi  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
24 Aug 1806 - 15 Oct 1806  Scarlat Alexandru Callimachi       (b. 1737 - d. 1821)
                             (1st time) 
17 Oct 1806 - 19 Mar 1807  Alexandru (XII) Constantin Moruzi  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
19 Mar 1807 -  5 Aug 1807  Alexandru (XV) Hangerli            (b. 17.. - d. 1854)
 5 Aug 1807 -  7 Aug 1812  Veniamin Costache (1st time)       (b. 1768 - d. 1846)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
 8 Sep 1812 -  2 Jul 1819  Scarlat Alexandru Callimachi       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
24 Jun 1819 - 10 Apr 1821  Mihai Grigore Sutu                 (b. 1784 - d. 1864)
10 Apr 1821 - May 1821     Veniamin Costache (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
May 1821 - Sep 1821        Alexandru Ipsilanti                (b. 1792 - d. 1828)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
Sep 1821 - 22 Jul 1822     Stefan Vogoride                    (b. 1774 - d. 1869)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
21 Jun 1822 -  5 May 1828  Ioan Alexandru Sturza              (b. 1761 - d. 1842)
Russian Military Administrator
Apr 1829 - Apr 1834        Fyodor Yakovlevich Mirkovich       (b. 1790 - d. 1866)
Princesą
Apr 1834 - Jun 1849        Mihai Grigore Sturza               (b. 1795 - d. 1884)
14 Oct 1849 - 30 Oct 1853  Grigore IV Alexandru Ghica         (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
                             (1st time)
30 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Mikhail Dmitrievich                (b. 1795 - d. 1860)
                             (Russian Military Administrator)
19 Apr 1854 - Aug 1854     Omer Pasha
                             (O
ttoman Military Administrator)
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Johann Baptist Alexius Graf        (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
                             Coronini-Cronberg          
                             (Austrian Military Governor)
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Eduard Freiherr von Bach           (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                             (Austrian
Civil Commissioner)
14 Oct 1854 -  8 Jul 1856  Grigore IV Alexandru Ghica         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1856 - 22 Jul 1856  Extraordinary Administrative Council
23 Jul 1856 -  1 Mar 1857  Teodor Bals (Princely Lieutenant)  (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
 1 Mar 1857 - Oct 1858     Nicolae Stefan Conachi-Vogoride    (b. 1820 - d. 1863)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
18 Oct 1858 - 18 Jan 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Stefan Catargiu (to 1 Nov 1858)  (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Cantacuzino       (b. 1829 - d. 1897) 
                             (from 1 Nov 1858)
                           - Vasile Sturza                    (b. 1810 - d. 1870)
                           - Anastasie Panu                   (b. 1810 - d. 1867)
18 Jan 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru (XVI) Ioan Cuza Voievod  (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers
29 Jan 1859 - 20 Mar 1859  Vasile Sturdza                     (s.a.)
20 Mar 1859 -  9 May 1859  Prince Ion Ghica                   (b. 1817 - d. 1897)
 9 May 1859 - 15 Apr 1860  Manolache Costache Epureanu        (b. 1824 - d. 1880)
15 Apr 1860 - 29 Jan 1861  Mihail Kogalniceanu                (b. 1817 - d. 1891)
29 Jan 1861 - 17 Oct 1861  Anastasie Panu                     (s.a.)
17 Oct 1861 -  3 Feb 1862  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi        (b. 1805 - d. 1873)

 ąUsual translation of the title Domn (Lord), in full Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievod si Domn al Tarii Moldovei ("By the grace of God, Governor and Lord of the Moldavian Land").


Transylvania
 
[Austria-Hungary
                          Flag of Siebenburgen]
  c.1765 - 1 Dec 1918 Principality of Transyl.
 
[Transylvania
                          flag 1918-1919]
            1 Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919 
 
Map of Transylvania
Capital: Alba Iulia
([Gyulafehérvár]
1541-1690, 1918;
Sibiu [Hermannstadt]
1918-1919;
Clausenburg [Cluj]
1690-1703, 1790-1848;
Kronstadt
[Brasov] 1848-1867)
Ethnic groups: Romanian 51.9%, Hungarian 30.6%, German (Saxon) 10.4%,
Jewish 3.4%, Szeklers,
Gypsy, Serb, other 7%
(1910)
Population:  5,446,326 (1910)

376 – 454                  Ruled by the Huns.
454 – 567                  Part of the Kingdom of the Gepids
567 – 827                  Avar rule.
827 - 895                  Bulgarian rule.
896 – 1091                 Pecheneg rule.
896                        The Magyars (Hungarians) invade the area; first dux 
                             ultrasilvanus (Transylvanian prince) recorded. 
1070 - 1170                Transylvania progressively attached to the Hungarian kingdom 
1176                       First governor with the style vajvoda recorded; this style 
                             becomes standard. 
1176 - 1540                A political structure emerges in which the vajvoda, still 
                             appointed by the Hungarian king, becomes progressively 
                             autonomous and an increasingly powerful diet is formed in 
                             which the "three nations" - Magyars, Széklers, and Saxons - 
                             are represented; the Magyars (i.e., the descendants of the 
                             Hungarian invaders) include most of the nobility; the
                             Széklers, although ethnically related to the Magyars, are a 
                             mystery regarding their origins; the Saxons are the descendants
                             of (peaceful) German settlers; the Romanian (mostly peasant) 
                             majority population had no political participation.
1211 - Aug 1225            German Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden) asked to colonize and
                             Christianize the area by the Hungarian kings, colony based in
                             Kronstadt (modern Brazov).
Apr 1241 - 1243            Mongol army invades, then withdraws. 
24 Feb 1538 - 26 Jan 1699  Under suzerainty of Ottoman Empire
Aug 1540                   János Zsigmond Szapolyai (or Zápolya), king of Hungary (in
                             contention with Ferdinánd Habsburg), inherits his father's
                             claim to the crown of Hungary, and establishes his base in
                             Transylvania.
29 Dec 1541                Treaty of Gilau, János Zsigmond Szapolyai having relinquished his
                             claim to the Hungarian crown to the Habsburgs gets the title 
                             of a prince of Transylvania instead.
31 Dec 1551                Ferdinánd Habsburg (later Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand I)
                             also lays claim to Transylvania.
16 Aug 1570                János Zsigmond Szapolyai, having relinquished his claim to
                             the crown of Hungary, adopts the style Erdélyi Fejedelem
                             (prince of Transylvania); Transylvania becomes an elective
                             principality.
 2 Nov 1765                Mária Terézia, queen of Hungary, princess of Transylvania,
                             transforms Transylvania into a hereditary grand-principality
                             (Erdély Nagyhercegség, in German: Grossfürstentum Siebenbürgen).
29 May 1848                Diet decrees incorporation of Transylvania into the Hungarian 
                             state (which had deposed the Habsburg dynasty in Apr 1848).
10 Jun 1849                Union with Hungary formally sanctioned by the Emperor.
 7 Feb 1867                As part of the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleich, Transylvania is
                             formally incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary, the emperor-
                             king preserving the style of grand prince of Transylvania.
27 Aug 1916 - 13 Oct 1916  Rumanian occupation of eastern Transylvania. 
 7 May 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Passes of the Carpathian Mountains annexed by Austria-Hungary.
13 Nov 1918                Kingdom of Hungary enters into dissolution.
 1 Dec 1918                Transylvania declares independence.
11 Jan 1919                Transylvania incorporated into Rumania.
 4 Jun 1920                Formally ceded to Romania by Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon.
30 Aug 1940                Under German pressure a major part of Transylvania is
                             retroceded to Hungary.
21 Sep 1944 -  9 Apr 1945  Soviet occupation of northern Transylvania (German and Hungarian
                             forces fully expelled 25 Oct 1944).
15 Sep 1947                Retroceded part of Transylvania is de jure returned to Rumania
                             (de facto since 11 Mar 1945).
24 Sep 1952 - 16 Sep 1968  Autonomous Hungarian region in parts of Transylvania (see below).  

Princes
c.950 – 9..                Gyula I
9.. – 1004                 Gyula II
1004 – 10..                Zoltán
10.. – 1111                ....
1111 – 1113                Mercurius (Merkúr)
1113 – 11..                ....
c.1176 – 11..              Leustachius
                             (Leusták Rátót)
11.. – 1199                ....
Governors (style Vajvoda/Voedvod)
1199 – 1200                Legforus                            (d. af.1200)
1200 – 1201                Eth (Écs)                           (d. af.1215)
1201 – 1202                Iula (Gyula) (1st time)
1202 – 1206                Benedict (1st time)
1206 – 1208                Smaragdus (Smaragd)
1208 – 1209                Benedict (2nd time)
1209 – 1212                Michael
1212 – 1213                Berthold von Meran                  (b. c.1180 – d. 1251)
1213 – 1214                Nikolaus
1214 – 1215                Iula (Gyula) (2nd time)
1215 – 1216                Simon
1217 – 1218                Ipoch (Hippolyt)
1219 – 1221                Neuka (Nevke)
1221 – 122.                Paul
1226 – 1229                Béla von Ungarn
1229 – 1231                Gyula
1231 – 1234                Dionysius
1234 – 1235                Andras
1235 – Mar 1240            Pósa (Pousa)
Mar 1240 – Apr 1241        ....
Apr 1241 – 1243            Sayban –Mongol governor
1243 – 1252                Lorincz (Laurentius)
125. – 126.                Ernye
May 1263 – 1264            Ladislaus (1st time)
1264 – Jun 1270            Miklós (Nikolaus)(1st time)
Jun 1270 – Aug 1272        Matthäus Csák (1st time)
Sep 1272 – May 1273        Heinrich von Güns
May 1273 – Jun 1273        Johannes
Jun 1273 – Sep 1274        Miklós (Nikolaus)(2nd time)
Sep 1274 – Jul 1275        Matthäus Csák (2nd time)
Jul 1275 – Dec 1275        Ladislaus (2nd time)
Dec 1275 – Aug 1276        Ugrinus (Ugrin Csák)               (d. 1311)
Aug 1276 – Oct 1277        Matthäus Csák (3rd time)
Nov 1277 – 1278            Nikolaus (1st time)
1278 – Mar 1279            Finta Alba
Mar 1279 – 1280            István von Güns
1280 – 1281                Nikolaus (2nd time)
1281 – 1283                Roland Borsa (1st time)            (d. 1301)
1283 – Jan 1284            Apor
Jan 1284 – Jun 1285        Roland Borsa (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1285 – Jun 1288        ....
Jun 1288 – Jul 1293        Roland Borsa (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Jul 1293 – Jun 1296        ....
Jun 1296 – Aug 1315        László Kán                         (d. 1315)
Aug 1315 – Jun 1318        Nikolaus (3rd time)
Jun 1318 – Nov 1321        Dosa von Debrecen                  (d. 1322)
                             (Dózsa Debreceni)
Apr 1322 – Aug 1342        Tomas Szécsény                     (b. c.1285 – d. 1354)
Nov 1342 – Jun 1344        Nikolaus von Siroka                (d. 1355/58)
Jul 1344 – 1350            István I Lakfi
1350 – Feb 1351            István von Ungarn
Feb 1351 – 1351            Tomas Cór
1351 – Mar 1356            Miklós Kont                        (d. 1367)
Apr 1356 – Oct 1359        Endre Lakfi
Nov 1359 – Jan 1367        Dionys Lakfi
Mar 1367 – Jan 1368        Miklós Lakfi
Feb 1368 – Sep 1372        Imre Lakfi
Feb 1373 – Apr 1376        István II Lakfi                    (b. 1340 - d. 1397)
Jun 1376 – Dec 1391        László Losonczy
Mar 1392 – Sep 1393        Imre Bebek (Emeric Bebek)          (d. 1395)
Oct 1393 – Sep 1395        Ferenc Szécsény
Oct 1395 – Apr 1401        Stibor Stiboriczi (1st time)       (b. c.1348 – d. 1414)
Apr 1401 – May 1403        Miklós Csáki (1st time)            (d. 1426)
May 1403 – Oct 1403        Miklós Marczali
Oct 1403 – Dec 1409        Janós Tamasi
Dec 1409 – Feb 1410        Jakob Lakfi
Feb 1410 – Feb 1414        Stibor Stiboriczi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1414 - Oct 1414            Vacant
Oct 1414 – 1426            Miklós Csáki (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1426 – 1435                László Csáki
1435 – Jan 1438            Petre Cseh
Jan 1438 – 1440            Desiderius Losonczi
                             (Dezso Losonczi)
1440 – Mar 1441            László Jakcs
Mar 1441 – Jun 1446        Janos Hunyadi (Iancu Hunedoara)    (b. 1386 – d. 1456)
                             (in Szörény)
Jun 1446 – May 1449        Imre Bebek                         (d. 1449)
Jun 1447 - Apr 1448        Miklós Ujlacki (1st time)          (b. 1410 – d. 1477)
                             (Nikola Ilocki)
Apr 1447 – May 1449        Iancu Hunedoarayi                  (b. c.1407 - d. 1456)
                             (Janós Hunyadi)
May 1449 – 1458            Miklós Ujlacki (2nd time)          (s.a.)
May 1449 – 1460            János Rozgonyi                     (d. 1471)
1458 – Apr 1460            Sebastian Rozgonyi (1st time)      (d. 1461)
                             (Sebestyén Rozgonyi)
1460 – Apr 1460            László Kaniszyi                    (d. 1477/78)
Apr 1460 – Apr 1461        Mihai Szilágyi (acting)
Apr 1461 – Sep 1461        Sebastian Rozgonyi (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1462 – 1465                Miklós Ujlacki (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1462 – 1465                Janós Pongrácz (1st time)          (d. 1476)
1465 – Oct 1467            Janós Szentgyörgyi                 (d. 1492)
1465 – 1467                Zsigmond Szentgyörgyi              (d. 1493)
1465 – 1468                Berthold Elderbach (Ellerbach)
1468 – 1472                Janós Pongrácz (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1468 – 1472                Miklós Caupor
Nov 1472 – Jan 1475        Blasius Magyar                     (d. 1490)
                             (Balázs Magyar)
Feb 1745 – 1476            Janós Pongrácz (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1476 – Mar 1479            Petre Geréb
Jul 1479 – Jan 1493        István Báthory                     (b. 1430 – d. 1493)
Jan 1493 – 1495            László Losonczy
Jan 1493 – 1499            Bartholomaeus Drágfi               (b. 1447 - d. 1501)
                             (Bertalan Drágffy)
1499 – 10 Nov 1510         Petre Szentgyörgyi
10 Nov 1510 – 10 Nov 1526  János Szápolyai                    (b. 1487 – d. 1540)
10 Nov 1526 – 1529         Petre Perényi                      (b. 1502 – d. 1548)
1529 – 1534                István Báthory, Simleui            (b. 1477 – d. 1534)
1530 – 1531                Bálint Török (acting)              (b. 1502 – d. 1551)
1531 – 1534                Hieronymus Laski (acting)          (b. 1496 – d. 1542)
                             (Jeromos Laszky)
1534 – Aug 1534            Imre Cibak
Aug 1534 – 24 Feb 1538     István Majláth                     (d. 1595)
Princes (title Erdélyi Fejedelem)
24 Feb 1538 – 21 Jul 1540  János Szápolyai                    (s.a.)
24 Feb 1538 – 22 Jul 1540  István Majláth (acting)            (s.a.)
22 Jul 1540 – Aug 1551     János Zsigmond Szápolyai           (b. 1540 – d. 1571)
22 Jul 1540 – Aug 1551     Regents
                           - Izabela Jagiellonka (f)          (b. 1519 – d. 1559) 
                           - György Martinuzzi, bishop        (b. 1482 – d. 1551)
                               in Nagyvárad
Aug 1551 – 1563            Ferdinánd I Habsburg               (b. 1503 - d. 1564)
Aug 1551 – 15..            Giovanni Battista Castaldo (acting)(b. c.1493 – d. 1563)
Apr 1552 – May 1553        Endre Bathóry de Ecsed        
May 1553 – Sep 1556        Ferenc Kendi (in dissidence)       (d. 1558)
May 1553 – Sep 1556        István Dobó (in dissidence)        (b. 1502 – d. 1572)
1563 - 14 Mar 1571         János Zsigmond Szapolyai           (b. 1540 - d. 1571)
                             (in dissidence from Aug 1540)
25 May 1571 - 12 Dec 1586  István Báthory de Somlyói          (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (king of Poland/grand prince of Lithuania)
                             (acting to 28 Jan 1576)
1574 -  8 Jul 1575         Gáspár Békés de Kornyátai          (b. 1520 - d. 1580)
                             (in dissidence)
12 Dec 1586 - 23 Mar 1598  Zsigmond Báthory Somlyói (1st time)(b. 1572 - d. 1613)
                             (acting to 8 Dec 1588)
 8 Apr 1598 - 14 Apr 1598  Rudolf Habsburg (1st time)         (b. 1552 - d. 1612)
18 Apr 1598 - 22 Aug 1598  Mária Kriztierna Habsburg -Princess(b. 1574 - d. 1621)
22 Aug 1598 - 21 Mar 1599  Zsigmond Báthory Somlyói (2nd time)(s.a.)
21 Mar 1599 -  3 Nov 1599  András Báthory Somlyói             (b. 1562/66 - d. 1599)
30 Nov 1599 - 18 Sep 1600  János Mihály Basarab -Governor     (b. 1558 - d. 1601)
Oct 1600 - Mar 1601        Rudolf Habsburg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1601 -  3 Aug 1601  Zsigmond Báthory Somlyói (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Aug 1601 - 1601            Rudolf Habsburg (3rd time)         (s.a.)
1601 - 26 Jul 1602         Zsigmond Báthory Somlyói (4th time)(s.a.)
29 Jun 1602 - Mar 1603     Rudolf Habsburg (4th time)         (s.a.)
                             (in dissidence to 26 Jul 1602)
Mar 1603 - 17 Jul 1603     Mózes Székely Seménfalvai          (b. 1550 - d. 1603)
                             (governor to 8 May 1603)
Jul 1603 - 1605            Rudolf Habsburg (5th time)         (s.a.)
21 Feb 1605 - 29 Dec 1606  István Bocskal de Bocskó et        (b. 1557 - d. 1606) 
                             Kismarjai
                            (elected prince of Hungary 20 Apr 1605,
                             resigns 9 Feb 1606)
17 Dec 1606 - 1607         Bálint Drugeth Homonnai            (b. 1577 - d. 1609)
                             (in dissidence)
22 Jan 1607 -  5 Mar 1608  Zsigmond Rákóczy Felsövadászi      (b. 1544 - d. 1608)
                             (governor to 11 Feb 1607)
 7 Mar 1608 - 22 Oct 1613  Gábor Báthory Báthori              (b. 1589 - d. 1613)
23 Oct 1613 - 15 Nov 1629  Gábor Bethlen Iktári               (b. 1580 - d. 1629)
                             (contender king of Hungary)
16 Nov 1629 - 21 Sep 1630  Katalin de Brandeburg -Princess    (b. 1604 - d. 1649)
21 Sep 1630 - 26 Nov 1630  István Bethlen Iktári              (b. 1582 - d. 1648)
                             (governor to 28 Sep 1630)
 1 Dec 1630 - 11 Oct 1648  György Rákóczy Felsövadászi I      (b. 1591 - d. 1648)
11 Oct 1648 -  2 Nov 1657  György Rákóczy Felsövadászi II     (b. 1621 - d. 1660)
                             (1st time)
 2 Nov 1657 - 14 Jan 1658  Ferenc Rhédey Krisréde             (b. 1610 - d. 1667)
14 Jan 1658 -  7 Oct 1658  György Rákóczy Felsövadászi II     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
                             (continues in dissidence to 30 Mar 1659,
                             and 24 Sep 1659 - 7 Jun 1660)
 7 Oct 1658 - 31 Dec 1660  Ákos Barcsay Nagybarcsai           (b. 1619 - d. 1661)
 1 Jan 1661 - 22 Jan 1662  János Kemény Gyerö-monostori       (b. 1607 - d. 1662)
22 Jan 1662 - 15 Apr 1690  Mihály Apafi Apa-nagyfalvai I      (b. 1632 - d. 1690)
                             (in dissidence from 14 Sep 1661)
15 Apr 1690 -  1 Jun 1696  Mihály Apafi Apa-nagyfalvai II     (b. 1676 - d. 1713)
 8 Jun 1690 - 25 Oct 1690  Imre Thököly Késmárki              (b. 1657 - d. 1705)
                             (in opposition)
 1 Jun 1696 -  8 Jul 1704  Lipót de Habsburg                  (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
 8 Jul 1704 - 14 Nov 1711  Ferenc Lipót Rákóczy de            (b. 1676 - d. 1735)
                             Felsövadászi II
14 Nov 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Károly József Ferenc de Habsburg   (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
Princess (title Erdélyi Fejedelemnö)
20 Oct 1740 -  2 Nov 1765  Mária Terézia de Habsburg          (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
Grand princes/princesses (title Erdélyi Nagyfejedelem/Nagyfejedelemnö)
 2 Nov 1765 -  7 Feb 1867  the rulers of Hungary
Governors
 4 Dec 1690 - 15 Nov 1708  György gróf Bánffy Losonczi I      (b. 1660? - d. 1708)
                             (acting to 7 Feb 1691)
15 Nov 1708 - 10 Aug 1709  .... (acting) 
10 Aug 1709 -  2 May 1710  István gróf Haller Hallerköi       (b. 16.. - d. 1710)
                             (president of the diet)
 2 May 1710 - 31 Mar 1713  István báró Wesselényi Hadadi      (b. 1674 - d. 1734)
                             (1st time) (president of the diet)
31 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1731  Zsigmond gróf Kornis Gönczruszkai  (b. 1677 - d. 1731)
15 Dec 1731 - Jul 1732     István báró Wesselényi Hadadi      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (president of the diet)
Jul 1732 - Jul 1734        Franz Anton Paul Graf Wallis       (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                             (president of the government)
Jul 1734 -  2 Dec 1734     .... (acting) 
 2 Dec 1734 - 18 Oct 1755  János gróf Haller Hallerköi        (d. 1756)
18 Oct 1755 - Dec 1755     .... (acting) 
Dec 1755 -  6 Jul 1758     Franz Wenzel Graf Wallis           (b. 1696 - d. 1770)
                             (president of the government)
 6 Jul 1758 -  7 May 1762  László gróf Kemény Gyerö-monostori (d. 1774)
                             (president of the government)
 7 May 1762 - 18 May 1764  Adolf Nicolaus Baron von Buccow    (b. 1712 - d. 1764)
                             (president of the government)
18 May 1764 - 21 Jul 1764  .... (acting) 
21 Jul 1764 - 20 Oct 1767  András gróf Hadik Futaki           (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
                             (president of the government)
20 Oct 1767 - 14 Dec 1767  .... (acting) 
14 Dec 1767 - 28 Sep 1770  Carl O'Donnell Graf von Tyrconnel  (b. 1715 - d. 1771)
                             (president of the government)
28 Sep 1770 - 13 Jan 1771  .... (acting) 
13 Jan 1771 -  6 Jul 1774  Maria Joseph Graf Auersperg        (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
 6 Jul 1774 -  9 Jan 1787  Samuel Brekner, Baron von          (b. 1721 - d. 1803)
                             Brukenthal 
                             (president of the government to 16 Jul 1777)
 9 Jan 1787 -  5 Jul 1822  György gróf Bánffy Losonczi II     (b. 1747 - d. 1822)
                             (president of the government)
11 Sep 1822 - 15 Oct 1834  János báró Jósika Branyicskai      (b. 1778 - d. 1843)
                             (president of the government)
15 Oct 1834 -  6 Feb 1835  .... (acting) 
 6 Feb 1835 - 30 Apr 1837  Ferdinand Karl Joseph Erzherzog    (b. 1781 - d. 1850)
                             von Österreich-Este 
                             (president of the government)
30 Apr 1837 -  5 Oct 1838  .... (acting) 
 5 Oct 1838 - 15 Aug 1840  János gróf Kornis Gönczruszkai     (b. 1781 - d. 1840)
15 Aug 1840 -  8 Jan 1842  .... (acting) 
 8 Jan 1842 - 14 Nov 1848  József gróf Teleki Széki           (b. 1790 - d. 1855)
14 Nov 1848 - 22 Dec 1848  Imre gróf Mikó Hidvégi (1st time)  (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
                             (president of the government)
Military and Civil Governors
22 Dec 1848 - 11 Jul 1849  Anton Freiherr von Puchner         (b. 1779 - d. 1852)
11 Jul 1849 - 24 Feb 1851  Ludwig Baron Wohlgemuth            (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
29 Apr 1851 - 25 Jun 1858  Karl Borromäus Fürst zu            (b. 1802 - d. 1858)
                             Schwarzenberg
25 Jun 1858 - 26 Jul 1858  von Lebzeltein (acting) 
26 Jul 1858 - 23 Apr 1861  Friedrich Prinz von Liechtenstein  (b. 1807 - d. 1885)
Governors
10 Dec 1860 - 26 Nov 1861  Imre gróf Mikó Hidvégi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (president of the government)
26 Nov 1861 -  2 Apr 1867  Ludwig Graf Folliot de Crenneville (b. 1813 - d. 1876)
                             (president of the government)
 2 Apr 1867 -  1 Dec 1918  direct rule by Hungary
President of the Central Romanian National Council (at Arad)
31 Oct 1918 -  1 Dec 1918  Stefan Cicio-Pop                   (b. 1865 - d. 1934)  PRT 
President of the National Government of the Romanian Nation
 1 Dec 1918 -  2 Dec 1918  Gheorghe Pop de Basesti            (b. 1835 - d. 1919)  PRT
President of the Directing Council 
 2 Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Iuliu Maniu                        (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  PRT
                             (continued to 4 Apr 1920)
Hungarian Government Commissioners for Northern Transylvania
12 Apr 1944 - Sep 1944     Béla Ricsóy-Uhlarik                (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
Sep 1944 - Oct 1944        Béla gróf Bethlen                  (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
Romanian Commissioner
Oct 1944 - 12 Nov 1944     Ionel Pop                          (b. 1889 - d. 1985)  PNT
Chairmen of Executive Committee for Northern Transylvania
Feb 1945 - 1945            Teofil T. Vescan                   (b. 1913 - d. 1933)
                           + Lajos Jordáky                    (b. 1913 - d. 1974) 

Romanian Commanders in Eastern Transylvania
28 Aug 1916 - Sep 1916     Ion Culcer                         (b. 1853 - d. 1928)
Sep 1916 -  3 Oct 1916     Ion Dragalina                      (b. 1860 - d. 1916)
28 Aug 1916 -  8 Oct 1916  Alexandru Averescu                 (b. 1859 - d. 1938)
28 Aug 1916 - 14 Oct 1916  Constantin Prezan                  (b. 1861 - d. 1943)
Commander of Romanian Troops in Transylvania

16 Apr 1919 -  4 Aug 1919  Gheorghe D. Mardarescu             (b. 1866 - d. 1938)

Party abbreviations: PNT = Partidul National Taranese (National Peasants' Party, conservative, 1927-1948); PRT = Partidul National Român din Transilvania (Romanian National Party of Transylvania, Rumanian autonomist, pro-Romania, 1869-1926, merged into PNT)


Hungarian Autonomous Region

24 Sep 1952                Hungarian Autonomous Region (Regiunea Autonoma Maghiara)
                             created from Covasna, Harghita and part of Mures counties;
                             (remained an administrative notion).
24 Dec 1960                Renamed Mures-Hungarian Autonomous Region (Regiunea Mures-Autonoma
                             Maghiara); some counties are ceded to Brasov Region, some  
                             counties are acquired from Cluj Region.
16 Feb 1968                Region dissolved.

First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Communist Party
24 Sep 1952 - 1953         ....
1953 - Jan 1962            Ludovic (Lajos) Csupor             (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
1962 - 1965                Iosif Banc                         (b. 1921 - d. 2007)    
1965 - 1968                Iosif (Jozsef) Uglar               (b. 1920 - d. 2006)  

Presidents of the Regional People's Council
24 Sep 1952 - 16 Feb 1968  ....
c.1960                     László Lukács                                           PCR
19.. - 19..                Ludovic (Lajos) Csupor             (s.a.)               PCR

Party abbreviation: PCR = Partidul Communist Român (Romanian Communist Party, communist, only legal party 1947-1990, named PMR Feb 1948-Jul 1965)

Romania

23 Dec 1861                United Rumanian Principalities
                            (in usage by Ottoman suzerain 23 Dec 1861 - 13 Jul 1878:
                             United Principalities of Moldavia and Romanian Lands).
12 Jul 1866                Rumania
22 May 1877                Independence from Ottoman Empire proclaimed.
13 Jul 1878                Independence recognized.
26 Mar 1881                Kingdom of Rumania
 6 Dec 1916 - 29 Nov 1918  Southern Romania (Walachia and Dobruja) occupied by
                             Germany and Austria-Hungary.
31 Aug 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation.
30 Dec 1947                Rumanian People's Republic
21 Aug 1965                Socialist Republic of Rumania
Feb 1966                   English spelling officially changed to Romania.
29 Dec 1989                Romania

General Secretaries of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR)(Feb 1948 - 19 Jul 1965, 
Romanian Workers' Party [PMR])
Oct 1945 - 19 Apr 1954     Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1st time)  (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
First Secretaries
19 Apr 1954 - 30 Sep 1955  Gheorghe Apostol                   (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
30 Sep 1955 - 19 Mar 1965  Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Mar 1965 - 24 Jul 1965  Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu          (b. 1918 - d. 1989)
General Secretary
24 Jul 1965 - 22 Dec 1989  Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu          (s.a.)

Princesą
23 Dec 1861 - 23 Feb 1866  Alexandru Ioan I                   (b. 1820 - d. 1873)
23 Feb 1866 - 22 May 1866  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Nicolae Constantin Golescu       (b. 1810 - d. 1878)
                           - Lascar Stefan Catargiu           (b. 1823 - d. 1899)
                           - Nicolae Constantin Haralambie    (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
22 May 1866 - 26 Mar 1881  Carol I                            (b. 1839 - d. 1914)
Kingsą
26 Mar 1881 - 10 Oct 1914  Carol I                            (s.a.)
10 Oct 1914 - 20 Jul 1927  Ferdinand I                        (b. 1865 - d. 1927)
                            (in refuge at Iassy 3 Dec 1916 - 29 Nov 1918) 
20 Jul 1927 -  8 Jun 1930  Mihai I (Michael I)(1st time)      (b. 1921)
20 Jul 1927 -  8 Jun 1930  Regency
                           - Prince Nicolae                   (b. 1903 - d. 1978)
                           - Patriarch Miron Cristea          (b. 1868 - d. 1939)
                           - Gheorghe Buzdugan                (b. 1867 - d. 1929)
                              (to 7 Oct 1929)
                           - Constantin Sarateanu             (b. 1882 - d. 1935)
                              (from Oct 1929)
 8 Jun 1930 -  6 Sep 1940  Carol II                           (b. 1893 - d. 1953)
 6 Sep 1940 - 30 Dec 1947  Mihai I (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Provisional Presidium of the Romanian People's Republic
30 Dec 1947                Petru Adam Groza (acting)          (b. 1884 - d. 1958)  PCR
                             (president of the council of ministers)
30 Dec 1947 -  9 Jan 1948  Constantin Ion Parhon              (b. 1874 - d. 1969)  PCR
                           + Mihail Alexandru Sadoveanu       (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  PCR
                           + Stefan Voitec                    (b. 1900 - d. 1984)  PCR
                           + Gheorghe Constantin Stere        (b. 1893 - d. 1970)  PCR
                           + Ion Niculi                       (b. 1887 - d. 1979)  PCR
                           (acting)
 9 Jan 1948 - 13 Apr 1948  Constantin Ion Parhon              (s.a.)              PCR;1948 PMR
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly
13 Apr 1948 -  2 Jun 1952  Constantin Ion Parhon              (s.a.)               PMR
 2 Jun 1952 -  7 Jan 1958  Petru Adam Groza                   (s.a.)               PMR
 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Jan 1958  Mihail Alexandru Sadoveanu         (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Anton Moisescu                   (b. 1913 - d. 1997)  PMR
                           (acting)
11 Jan 1958 - 21 Mar 1961  Ion Gheorghe Maurer                (b. 1902 - d. 2000)  PMR
Presidents of the State Council
21 Mar 1961 - 19 Mar 1965  Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej             (s.a.)               PMR
19 Mar 1965 - 24 Mar 1965  Ion Gheorghe Maurer                (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Stefan Voitec                    (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Avram Bunaciu                    (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  PMR
                           (acting)
24 Mar 1965 -  9 Dec 1967  Chivu Stoica                       (b. 1908 - d. 1975) PMR;1965 PCR
 9 Dec 1967 - 28 Mar 1974  Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu          (s.a.)               PCR
Presidents
28 Mar 1974 - 22 Dec 1989  Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu          (s.a.)               PCR
22 Dec 1989 - 26 Dec 1989  Council of the National Salvation Front˛
26 Dec 1989 - 29 Nov 1996  Ion Iliescu (1st time)             (b. 1930)         FSN;1992 FSDN;
                            (president of the Council of the National Salvation     1996 PDSR
                             Front to 13 Feb 1990; president of the Provisional
                             National Unity Council 13 Feb - 20 Jun 1990)
29 Nov 1996 - 20 Dec 2000  Emil Ion Constantinescu            (b. 1939)            PNT-CD 
20 Dec 2000 - 20 Dec 2004  Ion Iliescu (2nd time)             (s.a.)             PDSR;2001 PSD
20 Dec 2004 -              Traian Dumitru Basescu             (b. 1951)            PD;2004 
                             (suspended 20 Apr - 23 May 2007                       Non-party
                             and 9 Jul - 28 Aug 2012)
20 Apr 2007 - 23 May 2007  Nicolae Vacaroiu                   (b. 1943)            PSD
                             (acting for suspended Basescu)
10 Jul 2012 - 28 Aug 2012  Crin Antonescu                     (b. 1959)            PNL
                             (acting for suspended Basescu)


Prime ministers
 3 Feb 1862 - 20 Jun 1862  Barbu Catargiu                     (b. 1808 - d. 1862)  Con
20 Jun 1862 -  6 Jul 1862  Apostol Arsache (interim)          (b. 1789 - d. 1869)  Con
 6 Jul 1862 - 24 Oct 1863  Nicolae Cretulescu (1st time)      (b. 1812 - d. 1900)  ML
24 Oct 1863 - 26 Jan 1865  Mihail Kogalniceanu                (b. 1817 - d. 1891)  ML
26 Jan 1865 - 14 Jun 1865  Constantin Bosianu                 (b. 1815 - d. 1882)  ML
14 Jun 1865 - 11 Feb 1866  Nicolae Cretulescu (2nd time)      (s.a.)               ML
11 Feb 1866 - 11 May 1866  Prince Ion Ghica (1st time)        (b. 1817 - d. 1898)  ML
11 May 1866 - 13 Jul 1866  Lascar Catargiu (1st time)         (s.a.)               Con
13 Jul 1866 - 15 Jul 1866  Constantin A. Rosetti (acting)     (b. 1816 - d. 1885)  ML 
15 Jul 1866 - 13 Mar 1867  Prince Ion Ghica (2nd time)        (s.a.)               ML
13 Mar 1867 - 17 Aug 1867  Constantin A. Cretulescu           (b. 1809 - d. 1884)  RL
17 Aug 1867 - 29 Apr 1868  Stefan Golescu                     (b. 1809 - d. 1874)  RL
 1 May 1868 - 16 Nov 1868  Nicolae Constantin Golescu         (s.a.)               RL
16 Nov 1868 - 14 Feb 1870  Prince Dimitrie Ghica              (b. 1816 - d. 1897)  Con
14 Feb 1870 -  1 May 1870  Alexandru G. Golescu               (b. 1819 - d. 1881)  ML 
 1 May 1870 - 26 Dec 1870  Manolache Costache Epureanu        (b. 1824 - d. 1880)  Con
                             (1st time) 
26 Dec 1870 - 24 Mar 1871  Prince Ion Ghica (3rd time)        (s.a.)               ML
24 Mar 1871 - 17 Apr 1876  Lascar Catargiu (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Con
17 Apr 1876 -  6 May 1876  Emanoil Ion Florescu (1st time)    (b. 1819 - d. 1893)  Con
 6 May 1876 -  5 Aug 1876  Manolache Costache Epureanu        (s.a.)               PNL
                             (2nd time) 
 5 Aug 1876 - 19 Apr 1881  Ion Constantin Bratianu (1st time) (b. 1821 - d. 1891)  PNL
19 Apr 1881 - 21 Jun 1881  Dimitrie C. Bratianu               (b. 1818 - d. 1892)  PNL
21 Jun 1881 - 13 Apr 1888  Ion Constantin Bratianu (2nd time) (s.a.)               PNL
13 Apr 1888 - 11 Apr 1889  Teodor Rosetti                     (b. 1837 - d. 1923)  CP
11 Apr 1889 - 15 Nov 1889  Lascar Catargiu (3rd time)         (s.a.)               CP
15 Nov 1889 -  2 Mar 1891  Gheorghe Manu                      (b. 1833 - d. 1911)  CP
 2 Mar 1891 - 29 Dec 1891  Emanoil Ion Florescu (2nd time)    (s.a.)               CP
29 Dec 1891 - 15 Oct 1895  Lascar Catargiu (4th time)         (s.a.)               CP
15 Oct 1895 -  2 Dec 1896  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza         (b. 1833 - d. 1914)  PNL
                             (1st time)
 2 Dec 1896 - 12 Apr 1897  Petre S. Aurelian                  (b. 1833 - d. 1909)  PNL
12 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1899  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza         (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)
23 Apr 1899 - 19 Jul 1900  Prince Gheorghe Cantacuzino        (b. 1837 - d. 1913)  CP
                             (1st time)
19 Jul 1900 - 27 Feb 1901  Petre P. Carp (1st time)           (b. 1837 - d. 1919)  CP
27 Feb 1901 -  4 Jan 1905  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (3rd time)
 4 Jan 1905 - 24 Mar 1907  Prince Gheorghe Cantacuzino        (s.a.)               CP
                             (2nd time)
24 Mar 1907 -  9 Jan 1909  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (4th time) 
 9 Jan 1909 - 14 Jan 1911  Ion I. Constantin Bratianu         (b. 1864 - d. 1927)  PNL
                             (1st time)
14 Jan 1911 - 10 Apr 1912  Petre P. Carp (2nd time)           (s.a.)               CP
10 Apr 1912 - 15 Jan 1914  Titu Liviu Maiorescu               (b. 1840 - d. 1917)  CP
15 Jan 1914 -  9 Feb 1918  Ion I. Constantin Bratianu         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (2nd time)
                             (from 27 Nov 1916, in refuge at Iassy)
27 Nov 1916 - May 1918     Nicolae Lupu Kostake
                             (Home Affairs secretary general; de
                             facto chief official in occupied area)
 9 Feb 1918 - 15 Mar 1918  Alexandru Avarescu (1st time)      (b. 1859 - d. 1938)  Mil
                             (in refuge at Iassy)
15 Mar 1918 - 24 Oct 1918  Alexandru Marghiloman              (b. 1854 - d. 1925)  PCP
                             (in refuge at Iassy)
24 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Constantin Coanda                  (b. 1857 - d. 1932)  Mil
14 Dec 1918 -  1 Oct 1919  Ion I. Constantin Bratianu         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1919 -  9 Dec 1919  Artur Vaitoianu                    (b. 1864 - d. 1957)  Mil 
 9 Dec 1919 - 19 Mar 1920  Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (1st time)  (b. 1872 - d. 1950)  PNR
19 Mar 1920 - 18 Dec 1921  Alexandru Avarescu (2nd time)      (s.a.)               PP
18 Dec 1921 - 19 Jan 1922  Dumitru Take Ionescu               (b. 1858 - d. 1922)  PCD
19 Jan 1922 - 30 Mar 1926  Ion I. Constantin Bratianu         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (4th time)
30 Mar 1926 -  4 Jun 1927  Alexandru Avarescu (3rd time)      (s.a.)               PP
 4 Jun 1927 - 21 Jun 1927  Prince Barbu Stirbey               (b. 1873 - d. 1946)  Non-party
21 Jun 1927 - 24 Nov 1927  Ion I. Constantin Bratianu         (s.a.)               PNL
                             (5th time)
24 Nov 1927 - 11 Nov 1928  Vintila Bratianu                   (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  PNL
11 Nov 1928 -  8 Jun 1930  Iuliu Maniu (1st time)             (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  PNT
 8 Jun 1930 - 13 Jun 1930  Gheorghe G. Mironescu (1st time)   (b. 1874 - d. 1949)  PNT
13 Jun 1930 - 10 Oct 1930  Iuliu Maniu (2nd time)             (s.a.)               PNT
10 Oct 1930 - 19 Apr 1931  Gheorghe G. Mironescu (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PNT
19 Apr 1931 -  6 Jun 1932  Nicolae Iorga                      (b. 1871 - d. 1940)  PNT
 6 Jun 1932 - 19 Oct 1932  Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PNT
19 Oct 1932 - 14 Jan 1933  Iuliu Maniu (3rd time)             (s.a.)               PNT
14 Jan 1933 - 14 Nov 1933  Alexandru Vaida-Voevod (3rd time)  (s.a.)               PNT
14 Nov 1933 - 29 Dec 1933  Ion Gheorghe Duca                  (b. 1879 - d. 1933)  PNL
29 Dec 1933 -  3 Jan 1934  Constantin Angelescu               (b. 1869 - d. 1948)  PNL
 3 Jan 1934 - 28 Dec 1937  Gheorghe Tatarescu (1st time)      (b. 1892 - d. 1957)  PNL
28 Dec 1937 - 11 Feb 1938  Octavian Goga                      (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  PNC
11 Feb 1938 -  6 Mar 1939  Patriarch Miron Cristea            (s.a.)               Non-party
 7 Mar 1939 - 21 Sep 1939  Armand Calinescu                   (b. 1893 - d. 1939)  FRN
21 Sep 1939 - 28 Sep 1939  Gheorghe Argesanu                  (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  FRN
28 Sep 1939 - 24 Nov 1939  Constantin Argetoianu              (b. 1871 - d. 1952)  FRN
24 Nov 1939 -  4 Jul 1940  Gheorghe Tatarescu (2nd time)      (s.a.)               FRN;1940 PN  4 Jul 1940 -  4 Sep 1940  Ion Gigurtu                        (b. 1886 - d. 1959)  PN
 4 Sep 1940 - 23 Aug 1944  Ion Antonescu                      (b. 1882 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (from 14 Sep 1940 styled Conducator al Statului
                             [Leader of the State])
23 Aug 1944 - 27 Aug 1944  Iuliu Maniu (4th time)             (s.a.)               PNT
24 Aug 1944 - 12 Apr 1945  Horia Sima                         (b. 1903 - d. 1993)  GF
                             (in opposition; in Germany exile)
27 Aug 1944 -  2 Dec 1944  Constantin Sanatescu               (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  Mil
 2 Dec 1944 -  6 Mar 1945  Nicolae Radescu                    (b. 1874 - d. 1953)  Mil
 6 Mar 1945 - 30 Dec 1947  Petru Groza                        (s.a.)               FP;1947 PCR
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 1 Jan 1948 -  2 Jun 1952  Petru Groza                        (s.a.)              PCR;1948 PMR
 2 Jun 1952 -  2 Oct 1955  Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej             (s.a.)               PMR
 2 Oct 1955 - 21 Mar 1961  Chivu Stoica                       (s.a.)               PMR
21 Mar 1961 - 29 Mar 1974  Ion Gheorghe Maurer                (s.a.)              PMR;1965 PCR
29 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1979  Manea Manescu                      (b. 1916 - d. 2009)  PCR 
29 Mar 1979 - 21 May 1982  Ilie Verdet                        (b. 1925 - d. 2001)  PCR
21 May 1982 - 22 Dec 1989  Constantin Dascalescu              (b. 1923 - d. 2003)  PCR
Prime ministers
26 Dec 1989 -  1 Oct 1991  Petre Roman                        (b. 1946)            FSN
                             (interim to 20 Jun 1990)
 1 Oct 1991 -  4 Nov 1992  Theodor Stolojan                   (b. 1943)            Non-party
 4 Nov 1992 - 12 Dec 1996  Nicolae Vacaroiu                   (s.a.)       Non-party;1996 PDSR
12 Dec 1996 - 30 Mar 1998  Victor Ciorbea                     (b. 1954)            PNT-CD 
30 Mar 1998 - 15 Apr 1998  Gavril Dejeu (interim)             (b. 1932)            PNT-CD 
15 Apr 1998 - 14 Dec 1999  Radu Vasile                        (b. 1942 - d. 2013)  PNT-CD 
14 Dec 1999 - 22 Dec 1999  Alexandru Athanasiu (interim)      (b. 1955)            PSDR
22 Dec 1999 - 28 Dec 2000  Constantin Mugur Isarescu          (b. 1949)            Non-party
28 Dec 2000 - 21 Dec 2004  Adrian Nastase                     (b. 1950)          PDSR;2001 PSD
21 Dec 2004 - 29 Dec 2004  Eugen Bejinariu (interim)          (b. 1959)            PSD
29 Dec 2004 - 22 Dec 2008  Calin Popescu-Tariceanu            (b. 1952)            PNL
22 Dec 2008 -  6 Feb 2012  Emil Boc                           (b. 1966)            PD-L
 6 Feb 2012 -  9 Feb 2012  Catalin Predoiu (interim)          (b. 1968)            Non-party
 9 Feb 2012 -  7 May 2012  Mihai-Razvan Ungureanu             (b. 1968)            Non-party
 7 May 2012 -              Victor Ponta                       (b. 1972)            PSD

Central Powers Occupation

Commander of German Forces in Rumania
29 Aug 1916 - 10 Nov 1918  Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen  (b. 1849 - d. 1945)
Governor of Military Government in Rumania
(joint condominium of Germany and Austria-Hungary)
28 Sep 1916 - 22 May 1918  Erich Franz Tülff von Tschepe und  (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
                             Weidenbach (Germany)

Allied Occupation

Soviet Military Commander
31 Aug 1944 - 15 Sep 1944  Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky      (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
12 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky      (s.a.)
                             (Soviet Union)
12 Sep 1944 - Feb 1945     Vladislav Petrovich Vinogradov     (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
                             (Soviet Union)(acting for Malinovsky)
Feb 1945 - 15 Sep 1947     Ivan Zakharovich Susaikov          (b. 1903 - d. 1967)
                             (Soviet Union)(acting for Malinovsky)

 ąThe full style of the rulers:
(a) 23 Dec 1861 - 12 Jul 1866 (New Style): Cu mila lui Domnezeu si Voina Nationala, 
Domn [or Domnitor] Principatelor-Unite-Romane ("with the Lord's Help and by the Will of
the Nation, Lord [or Ruler] of the United Romanian Principalities");
(b) 12 Jul 1866 - 26 Mar 1881 (New Style): Prin gratia lui Domnezeu si Vointa  Nationala,
Domn al Romaniei
("by the Grace of the Lord and by the Will of the Nation, 
Lord of Romania") note: in this style, the word "Domn" is often replaced by "Domnitor"
or by "Principe" (Prince); and the words "al Romaniei" {of Romania} are sometimes
replaced by "al Romanilor" (of the Romanians). There was no obvious rule to these 
substitutions; they occur, i.e., on coins, state seals;
(c) 26 Mar 1881 (New Style) - 30 Dec 1947: Prin gratia lui Domnezeu si Vointa Nationala, Rege al Romaniei ("by the Grace of the Lord and by the Will of the Nation, King of 
Romania") note: in this style, the words "al Romaniei" are sometimes replaced by
"al Romanilor" (of the Romanians).

 ˛ Members: Ion Iliescu (s.a.) (spokesman), Doina Cornea (f) (b. 1929), Ana Blandiana (f) (b. 1942), Mircea Dinescu (b. 1950), László Tökes (b. 1952), Dumitru Mazilu (b. 1934), Dan Desliu (b. 1927 - d. 1992), Aurel Dragos Munteanu (b. 1942 - d. 2005), Corneliu Manescu (b. 1916 - d. 2000), Alexandru Birladeanu (b. 1911 - d. 1997), Silviu Brucan (b. 1916 - d. 2006), Petre Roman (s.a.), Ion Caramitru (b. 1942), Sergiu Nicolaescu (b. 1930 - d. 2013), Mihai Montanu (b. 1949), Mihai Ispas, Gelu Voican Voiculescu (b. 1941), Dan Martian (b. 1935 - d. 2002), Vasile Neacsa, Cristina Ciontu (f), Marian Baciu, Bujor-Bogdan Teodoriu (b. 1953), Eugenia Iorga (f), Paul Negritiu, Gheorghe Manole (b. 1949), Vladimir Ionescu, Adrian Sirbu (b. 1955), Constantin Cirjan, Géza Domokos (b. 1928 - d. 2007), Magdalena Ionescu (f), Marian Mierla, Constantin Ivanovici (b. 1947), Vlad Ovidiu, Valeriu Bucurescu, Stefan Gusa (b. 1940 - d. 1994), Victor Stanculescu (b. 1928), Dan Voinea (b. 1959), Mihai Lupoi (b. 1953 - d. 2012), Emil Dumitrescu (b. 1935).

Territorial Disputes: The ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Party abbreviations: PD-L = Partidul Democrat-Liberal (Democratic Liberal Party, center-right, created from PD and Partidul Liberal Democrat [Liberal Democratic Party], est.2007); PNL = Partidul Nationale Liberal (National Liberal Party, liberal, center-right, suspended 1938-44, banned 1947-1989, est.1875); PNT-CD = Partidul National Taranesc-Crestin Democrat (Christian Democratic - National Peasants' Party, christian-democratic, PNT successor, est.1989); PSD = Partidul Social Democrat (Social Democrat Party, social-democatic, merger of FDSN, PSDR, and PDSR, est.2001); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: CDR = Conventia Democrata Româna (Romanian Democratic Convention, alliance of parties incl. PNT-CD, PNL and PSDR, etc., 1992-2000); Con = Conservative; CP = Partidul Conservator (Conservative Party, conservative, 1880-1918); FP = Frontul Plugarilor (Plowmen's Front, peasant leftist, 1933-1953); FRN = Frontul Renasterii Nationale (National Renasisance Front, only legal party, replaced by PN, 15 Dec 1938-22 Jun 1940); FDSN = Frontul Democratiei Salvarii Nationale (Democratic National Salvation Front, split from FSN, 1992-1993, then PSDR); FSN = Frontul Salvarii Nationale (National Salvation Front, split from PCR, 1989-1992, renamed FDSN); GF = Garda de Fier (Iron Guard, fascist, anti-Semitic, banned Dec 1933-1935  banned, 1935 refounded as Totul pentru tara [Everything for the country], 14 Sep 1940-23 Jan 1941 only legal party, 1927-1941); ML = Moderate-Liberal; PCD = Partidul Conservator Democrat (Conservative Democratic Party, 1908-1922, merged with PNR); PCP = Partidul Conservator Progresist (Conservative Progressive Party, split from CP); PCR = Partidul Communist Român (Romanian Communist Party, communist, 1948-1989 only legal party, 1948-65 named PMR, 1921-1965); PD = Partidul Democrat (Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1993-2007, merged into PD-L); PDSR = Partidul Democratiei Sociale din Romania (Party of Social Democracy in Romania, ex-communist, former FSDN, 1993-2001, merged into PSD); PDU = Partidul Democrat al Unirii (Democratic Union Party, 1918-1923 merged into PNL); PMR = Partidul Muncitoresc Român (Rumanian Workers' Party, communist, only legal party, Feb 1948-Jul 1965, former PCR); PN = Partidul Natiunii (Party of the Nation, only legal party, replaced by GF, 22 Jun 1940-14 Sep 1940); PNR = Partidul National Român (Rumanian National Party, formed of United Taranesc Party of Rumania [PTUR] and Partidul National Român din Transilvania [Rumanian National Party in Transylvania], 1881-1926); PNT = Partidul National Taranesc (National Peasants' Party, conservative, 1927-1948); PP = Partidul Poporului (People's Party, Averescu personalist, populist, 1918-1938); RL = Radical Liberal; PSDR = Partidul Social Democrat Romania (Social Democratic Party of Romania, social-democratic, 1910-1916, 1927-1938, 1989-16 Jun 2001, merged with PDSR as PSD)



Banat

10th cent.                 Duchy of Banat
29 Apr 1091                Under rule by the Cumans.
31 Jul 1227                Part of Hungary.
1279                       Part of Walachia.
 9 Jan 1438                Part of Ottoman Empire (from 1485, Pashalik of Temesvár).
17 Oct 1716                Austrian occupation.
 2 Nov 1716                Under Austrian administration (Banat of Temeswar).
23 Apr 1779                Incorporated into Hungary.
18 Nov 1849                Vojvodina autonomous within the Austrian Empire as 
                             Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeswar
                             (see Vojvodina under Serbia).
27 Dec 1860                Autonomy abolished incorporation into Hungary.
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Hungarian" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e. of the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown"). 
31 Oct 1918                Independence declared as the Banat Republic (recognized only
                             by Hungary), with a capital at Temesvár (Timisoara).
15 Nov 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Serbian occupation.
20 Feb 1919                Eastern Banat, around Temesvár (later Timisoara), annexed
                             by Romania; western Banat annexed by Yugoslavia 
                             (within Serbia [later as part of Vojvodina]).
23 Jul 1919 - 12 Aug 1919  Allied occupation.
 

Pashas of Temesvar
1698 - 28 Feb 1699         Celebi/Cetrefilzade Yusuf Pasha
1699                       Sari Ahmed Pasha
1699 - 1701                Elci Ibrahim Pasha
1701 - 1702                Hagi Mustafa Pasha?  
                            (or Kandilci Huseyin or Ali Pasha?)
1702 - 1703                Yusuf Pasha
1703 - 1704                Hagi/Hazinedar Ibrahim Pasha
1704 - Feb 1706            Dellak Ali Pasha
 5 Jul 1706 - Oct 1708     Gümrükçü/Kiipti Ali Pasha
Oct 1708 - 1709            Firari Hasan Pasha
1709/10 - 1713             Sari Mustafa Pasha
15 Dec 1713 - 17 Oct 1718  Mustafa Pasha
Austrian Commander
17 Oct 1716 -  2 Nov 1716  François-Eugéne Fürst von Savoie-  (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
                             Soissons 
Governors
 2 Nov 1716 - 29 Jun 1734  Claudius Florimund, Count Mercy    (b. 1666 - d. 1734)
                             d'Argenteau 
1719 - 1722                Franz Paul Graf von Wallis         (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                             (acting for Mercy)(1st time)
1733 - 1734                Franz Paul Graf von Wallis         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Mercy)(2nd time)
1734 -  9 Jan 1738         Johann Andreas Graf Hamilton       (b. 1679 - d. 1738)
 9 Jan 1738 - 18 Feb 1738  Johann Jakob Benedikt von Neffzern
                             (acting) 
18 Feb 1738 - 1740         Wilhelm Reinhard Graf von Neipperg (b. 1684 - d. 1774)
1740 - 1742                Scotti (acting)
1742 - 18 Oct 1753         Franz Leopold Anton Ponz Freiherr  (b. 1692 - d. 1772)
                             von Engelshofen
219 Dec 1753 - Dec 1768    Francesco de Paula Ramón Graf      (b. 1704 - d. 1773)
                             Vilana-Perlas, marchese de Rialpo
Jan 1769 - 1774            Karl Ignaz Reichsgraf von Clary    (b. 1729 - d. 1791)
                             und Aldringen
1774 - 1779                Giovani Pompeo Graf von Brigido    (b. 1729 - d. 1811)
                             und Bresowitz
Chairman of the Executive Committee
31 Oct 1918 -  8 Nov 1918  Otto Roth                          (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
Government Commissioners
 8 Nov 1918 - 20 Nov 1918  Albert Bartha                      (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
20 Nov 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Otto Roth                          (s.a.)
Commander
16 Nov 1918 - 24 Nov 1918  Zhivojin Mishic (Serbia)           (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
Commandant
24 Nov 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Grujic (Serbia)
Prefect
20 Feb 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Martin Filipon (Serbia)
Allied Commander
23 Jul 1919 - 12 Aug 1919  Charles-Louis-Joseph de Tournadre  (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
                             (France)


Lugos Neutral Zone

22 Mar 1919                Allied occupation of a neutral zone (called county of Lugos)
                             in eastern Banat.
23 Jul 1919                Incorporation into Romania.

Allied Commanders 
22 Mar 1919 -  3 Jun 1919  Léon Farret (France)               (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
22 Mar 1919 -  3 Jun 1919  Papillon (1st time)
                             (acting for Farret)
 3 Jun 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Charles-Louis-Joseph de Tournadre  (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
                             (France)
 3 Jun 1919 - 18 Jul 1919  Papillon (2nd time)
                             (acting for de Tournadre)
18 Jul 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Betrix (France)
                             (acting for de Tournadre)

Bukovina: see under Ukraine

Dobruja

109.                       Part of Bulgaria.
1388                       Ottoman rule (vilayet of Silistra).
17 Mar 1390 - Oct 1396     Part of Walachia (Romanian: Dobrogea).
1404 - Oct 1419            Part of Walachia.
1810 - 1810                Russian occupation.
Apr 1828 - 1836            Russian occupation.
1864                       Merged into the vilayet Tuna (see Bulgaria).
10 Jun 1877 -  8 Oct 1878  Russian occupation.
 8 Oct 1878                Given by Russia to Romania in return for
                             the districts Cahul, Ismail and Bolgrad. 
1908                       Fully incorporated into Romania.
May 1913                   Bulgaria cedes city of Silistra to Romania.
10 Jul 1913                Romania occupies southern extension of Dobruja, Silistra,
                             Cadrilater, with the counties Darstor and Caliacra.
10 Aug 1913                Formally ceded to Romania by Bulgaria.
 9 Oct 1916                Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, German, and Ottoman occupation.
 7 May 1918                Bulgaria annexes Southern Dobruja.
 7 May 1918 - 25 Sep 1918  Joint Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and 
                             Ottoman Empire) condominium over Northern Dobruja.
25 Sep 1918 -  2 Dec 1918  Bulgaria is ceded the former condominium area.
 2 Dec 1918 - 27 Nov 1919  Allied administration of all of Dobruja (de facto Romanian
                             occupation under lose allied supervision).
 8 Dec 1919                Dobruja ceded to Romania.
 7 Sep 1940                Cadrilater restored to Bulgaria.


Walis (governors) of Silistra
1552                       Mehmed Raves
1598                       Ahmed Pasha
.... - 1621                Skender Pasha
1621 - 1625                Cantemir Mirza (1st time)
1625                       Diak Mehmed
1628 - 1629                Cantemir Mirza (2nd time)
1629 - 1631                Murteza Pasha
1631 - 1633                Abaza Pasha
1638 - 1639                Nasuf Hüseyin
1639 - 1643                ....
1643 - 16..                Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
16.. - 1649                ....
1649 - 1651                Dervish Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1651 - 1656                ....
1656                       Sary Kenan Pasha                   (d. 1659)
1656 - 1658                Sidi Hüseyin
1658 - 1660                Fazil Pasha
1660 - 1661                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1683 - af.Nov 1683         Fazil Mustafa Pasha Koprülü
af.Nov 1683 - 168.         Huseyin Pasha
1686 - 1687                Arap Receb Pasha (1st time)
1687 - 1687                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1688 - 1689                Arap Receb Pasha (2nd time)
1689                       Bosnak Huseyin Pasha
1689 - 1690                Misirli Mehmed Pasha
1690                       Cerkes Ahmed
1690                       Topal Huseyin Pasha
1690 - 169.                ....
169. - 1695                ....
1695                       Cetrefilzade Yusuf Pasha
1695/96                    Cerkes Ibrahim Pasha
1696                       Ibsir Hasan Pasha
1696/97                    Kandilci Huseyin Pasha
1697 - ....                Hazinedar Ibrahim
.... - ....                ....
.... - 1703                ....
1704 - 17..                Yusuf Pasha
17.. - 1792                ...
Jun 1792 - 179.            Kahya (Kethuda) Hasan Pasha
179. - 180.                ....
180. - 1806                Bekir Pasha
1806 - 1806                Tirinikli Ismail Aga               (d. 1806)
1806 - 1806                Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha                (b. c.1756 - d. 1855)
1806 - 1807                Alemdar Mustafa Pasha "Bayrakdar"  (b. 1755/56 - d. 1808)
180. - 1810                Ilik-ogly
1810 - 1812                Russian occupation
1812 - 1822                ....
1822 - 182.                Mehmed Selim Pasha
182. - 1832                Mehmed Pasha
1828 - 1836                Russian occupation 
Dec 1833 - Oct 1839        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time)
Oct 1839 - Apr 1841        Gürcü Mehmed Vasif Pasha
Apr 1841 - Aug 1843        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time)
Oct 1843 - Sep 1844        Mühendis Hafiz Ahmed Pasha
Sep 1844 - Dec 1845        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time)
Dec 1845 - Jul 1847        Ibrahim Saib Pasha
Jul 1847 - Jul 1848        Cebel-i-Aktarzade Mehmed Sadik     (d. 1848)
                             Pasha
Jul 1848 - Apr 1851        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time)
Apr 1851 - Jun 1853        Gürümcü Mehmed Salih Pasha         (d. 1858)
Jun 1853 - Mar 1857        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time)
Mar 1857 - Oct 1857        Ramazanoglu Mehmed Ismet Pasha
Nov 1857 - May 1858        Tepedenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
May 1858 - Jun 1859        Özdemiroglu Mehmed Rifat Pasha
Jun 1859 - Mar 1861        Halil Kamili Pasha
Mar 1861 - Dec 1864        Mehmed Arif Pasha                  (d. 1866)
Russian commander
10 Jun 1877 - 1877         Zimmermann
German commanders
 9 Oct 1916 - 19 Jan 1918  Robert Kosch                       (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
19 Jan 1918 - Sep 1918     ....







 © Ben Cahoon