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Romania
 
[Walachia-Moldavia State and
                                    War flag, 1859-1861 (Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861 
 
[Romania civil flag,
                                    1861-1866]
              Dec 1861 - 30 Jun 1866 
 
[Romanian
                                    flag]
           30 Jun 1866 - 8 Jan 1948
 
[Romanian King's flag,
                                    1867-1872]
   30 Mar 1867 - 8 Mar 1872 Royal Flag
 
[Romanian King's flag,
                                    1872-1947]
    8 Mar 1872 - 30 Dec 1947 Royal Flag
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, January - March 1948 ]
              8 Jan 1948 - 13 Apr 1948
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1948-1952]
           13 Apr 1948 - 24 Sep 1952
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1952]
            24 Sep 1952 - 21 Aug 1965
 
[Flag
                                    of Romania, 1965-1989]
            21 Aug 1965 - 27 Dec 1989 
 
[Romanian
                                    flag]
                Adopted 27 Dec 1989
 

 

Map of Romania Hear National Anthem
"Deşteaptă-te, Române!" 
 (Wake up, Romanian!)
Adopted 24 Mar 1990
Former National Anthem
"Trei Culori" (Three Colours)
(29 Oct 1977-24 Mar 1990) 
Constitution
(8 Dec 1991)
Former National Anthem
"Trăiască Regele"
(Long Live the King)
(1866-30 Dec 1947)
Former National Anthem
"Zdrobite Cătuşe”
(Broken Handcuffs)
(4 Jan 1948-23 Aug 1953)
Former National Anthem
 "Te slăvim, Românie"
(We praise you, Romania) 
(23 Aug 1953-29 Oct 1977)
Former Constitutions
(1866, 1923, 1938, 1948,
1952, 1965
)
Capital: Bucharest (Bucureşti)
(
Jassy [Iaşi] 1859-1862,
in exile 1916-1918)
Currency: Romanian Leu (RON);
1952-2005 Romanian Leu (ROL); 1947-1952 Romanian New Leu
 (RON);
1944-45 Romanian Red
Army Leu (ROR);
1867-1947
 Romanian Silver Leu (ROS)
National Holiday: 1 Dec (1918) 
Unification Day
(of Romania and Transylvania)
Population: 21,790,479 (2013)
16,126,000 (1941)
5,140,000 (1889)
GDP: $280.7 billion (2013)
Exports: $61.2 billion (2013)
Imports: $69.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma
(Gypsy) 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%,
unspecified 6.1% (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 73,350 (2010)
Merchant marine: 5 ships (2010)
Religions: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations)
 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including
Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%,
other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%,
unspecified 6.3% (2011)
International Organizations/Treaties: AG, ANT, APM, BIS, BSEC, BTWC, CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN (candidate), CFE, CTBT, CWC, DC, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ENMOD, ESA, ESCR, EU, Eutelsat, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), LU, MIGA, NATO, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM (associate), PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Romania Index
Chronology

1541                       Moldavia and Walachia vassals of Ottoman Empire.
23 Dec 1861                United Rumanian Principalities
                            (in diplomatic usage by Ottoman suzerain
                             23 Dec 1861 - 13 Jul 1878: United Principalities
                             of Moldavia and Romanian Lands).
12 Jul 1866                Rumania
21 May 1877                Independence from Ottoman Empire declared.
13 Jul 1878                Independence recognized internationally.
26 Mar 1881                Kingdom of Rumania
 2 Sep 1916 - 11 Nov 1918  Occupation of Rumania by the Central Powers
                            (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman
                             Empire); Dobruja occupied Oct 1916, Bucharest on
                             22 Dec 1916, Central Powers reach the lower
                             Danube and the Siret Rivers in Jan 1917 and are
                             then in occupation of two-thirds the country.  
 9 Apr 1918                Bessarabia (see Moldova) incorporated into
                             Rumania; (autonomous to 10 Dec 1918; annexation
                             internationally recognized from 20 Oct 1920).
 7 May 1918 - 11 Nov 1918  Treaty of Bucharest with Central Powers forces
                             Rumania to return Southern Dobruja and to cede
                             southern part of Northern Dobruja to Bulgaria,
                             while the rest of Dobruja remained under the
                             joint control of the Central Powers; control of
                             the passes of the Carpathian Mountains was ceded
                             to Austria-Hungary.
31 Dec 1918                Bukovina and incorporated into Rumania.
11 Jan 1919                Transylvania incorporated into Rumania.
27 Jun 1940                Bukovina and Bessarabia annexed by Soviet Union;
                             7 Sep 1940 Southern Dobruja restored to Bulgaria
30 Aug 1940                Under German pressure the major part of 
                             Transylvania is retroceded to Hungary.
25 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944  Rumania annexes Bessarabia, Bukovina, and 
                             Transnistria from the Soviet Union.
31 Aug 1944 - 10 Feb 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation.
15 Sep 1947                Retroceded part of Transylvania is de jure 
                             returned to Rumania (de facto since 11 Mar 1945).
30 Dec 1947                Rumanian People's Republic
21 Aug 1965                Socialist Republic of Rumania
Feb 1966                   English spelling officially changed to Romania.
29 Dec 1989                Romania

Romania
(since 1862)
Walachia
(1324-1861)
Moldavia
(c.1347-1861)
Transylvania
(c.950-1919,
 1940-1945)
 Allied
Occupation

(1944-1947)
  Hungarian
Autonomous
Region

(1952-1968)
Banat
(1698-1779,
 1918-1919)

---------------------
Lugoj zone

(1919)
 Dobruja
(1552-1919)
Historic Maps
of Romania
Orthodox Church
of Romania
(until 1925,
of
Hungaro-Walachia)
Romanian Greek-
Catholic Church

Note: The country was usually known in English as "Rumania" until the spelling was officially changed to "Romania" in Feb 1966.

Calendar Note: dates before 1861 are given according to Old Style (Julian) calendar, and after according to New Style (Gregorian) calendar. New Style was formally adopted in Romania effective 4 Mar 1920/18 Mar 1920.

Walachia (Wallachia)
 
[Principality
                            of Walachia state flag c.1593]
                          c.1593
[Walachia 1821
                            Rebellion flag]
    Feb-Jun 1821 Rebellion Flag
[Walachia
                            state and war flag 1834-c.1840]
                   24 Jun 1834 - c.1840
[Walachia
                            mechant flag, 1834-1861 (Romania)]
  24 Jun 1834 - 19 May 1861 Merchant flag

[Walachia
                          state and war flag c.1840-1859]
               c.1840 - c.1859

[Walachia
                            National Flag, 1848]
 14 Jun 1848 - 25 Sep 1848 Rebel National flag
[Walachia-Moldavia State and War flag,
                            1859-1861 (Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861


Map of Walachia
Capital: Bucureşti
(Bucharest)
(Cîmpulung c.1310-c.1330;
Argeş c.1330-1418;
Tîrgovişte 1418-1659)
Currency:  N/A
Population: 2,400,921 (1859)
2,032,362 (1832)

c.681 - c.900              Part of Bulgaria.
c.900 - 1091               Part of Pecheneg khanate.
1091 - ....                Part of Cumania (
Cuman-Kipchak rule).
.... - 12..                Part of Bulgaria.
Mar 1241 - 1243            Mongol occupation of much of Walachia.

12.. - 1324                Part of Hungary.
1324                       Principality of Hungaro-Walachia consolidated (
Ungrovlahia;
                             in Romanian commonly called Ţara Românească, and even 
                             more colloquially Muntenia), under Hungarian suzerainty
                             to Nov 1330.
1369 - 13..                Hungarian suzerainty.
Oct 1394 - 23 Sep 1403     Ottoman dependency.

Mar 1427 -  2 Sep 1442     Ottoman dependency.
1462 - 1476                Ottoman dependency.
Jun 1541                   Part of
Ottoman Empire.
20 May 1595 - Dec 1596     Dependency of Transylvania.
Dec 1610 - 12 Mar 1611     Occupied by
Transylvania.
 
5 Dec 1769 -  3 Feb 1775  Occupied by Russia.
 4 Nov 1789 -  4 Sep 1791  Occupied by Austria.
May 1807 -  2 Oct 1812     Occupied by Russia.
Feb 1821 - Jun 182l        Rebellion against the Phanariote rulers.
16 May 1821 - 24 Sep 1822  Direct Ottoman rule. 
22 Feb 1828 -  2 Apr 1834  Occupied by Russia.

14 Sep 1829                Walachia receives three small Ottoman territories, north of
                             the Danube (Brăila, Giurgiu and Turnu).
29 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Occupied by Russia.

19 Aug 1854 -  5 Oct 1854  Occupied by Austria (de facto to 25 Mar 1856).
19 Aug 1858                Autonomy renewed by international convention.
23 Dec 1861                Merger with Moldavia into the United Rumanian 

                             Principalities.


Governors
c.1247 - 1275              S
ănisalu (Senislaw)
c.1290 - c.1310            Nanco Tihomir                     (d. c.1310)

Voivodes and Lordsą
131. - 1352                Basarab I "cel Mare"              (b. 127. - d. 1352)
1352 - 16 Nov 1364         Nicolae Alexandru                 (b. 129. - d. 1364)
17 Nov 1364 - 1376?        Vladislav I                       (b. 132. - d. 1376?)            
1376? - 1385               Radu (I) "Negru"                  (b. 132. - d. 1385)
1385 - 23 Sep 1386         Dan I                             (b. 135. - d. 1386)   
24 Sep 1386 - 31 Jan 1418  Mircea I
"cel Bătrân"             (b. 135. - d. 1418)
1395 - Jan 1397            Vlad I (
pretender in dissidence)  (b. 137. - d. 1397)
 1 Feb 1418 - Apr? 1420    Mihai
I                           (b. 138. - d. 1420)
Apr? 1420 - Sep? 1422      Radu II "Praznaglava" (1st time)  (b. 138. - d. 1428?)
Sep? 1422 - Mar? 1431      Dan II                            (b. 138. - d. 1431)
1426 - Mar 1427            Radu II "Praznaglava" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (
pretender in dissidence)
Mar? 1431 - Dec 1436       Alexandru I Aldea                 (b. 139. - d. 1436?)
Dec 1436 - Dec 1447        Vlad II "Dracul"                  (b. 139. - d. 1447)
Sep 1442 - 1444            Basarab II
                       (b. 140. - d. c.1456)
                            
(pretender in dissidence)
Dec 1447 - Jun? 1456       Vladislav II                      (b. 142. - d. 1456)

Oct 1448 - Nov 1448        Vlad III "Ţepeş", "Draculea"      (b. 1431 - d. 1477)
                            
(1st time)(pretender in dissidence)
Jun? 1456 - Jul? 1462      Vlad III
"Ţepeş" (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Jul? 1462 - 23 Nov 1473    Radu III "cel Frumos"             (b. 1438? - d. 1475)
24 Nov 1473 - 23 Dec 1473  Basarab III "Laiotă cel Bătrân"   (b. 142. - d. 1480)
                             (1st time)

23 Dec 1473 - 1474         Radu III "cel Frumos" (1st time)  (b. c.1437 - d. 1475)
1474 - 20 Oct 1474         Basarab III "Laiotă cel Bătrân"   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

Sep 1474 - Oct 1474        Radu III "cel Frumos" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (pretender)

20 Oct 1474 - Dec? 1474    Basarab IV "cel Tânăr"            (b. 143. - d. af.1482)         
Dec? 1474 - Apr? 1475      Radu III "cel Frumos" (3rd time)  (s.a.)
Apr? 1475 - Oct 1476
       Basarab III "Laiotă cel Bătrân"   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
Oct 1476 - Jan 1477        Vlad III "Ţepeş" (3rd time)       (s.a.)
Jan 1477 - Nov? 1477       Basarab III "Laiotă cel Bătrân"   (s.a.)
                             (4th time)

Nov? 1477 - Apr? 1482      Basarab IV "cel Tânăr"            (b. 143. - d. 1482)
Jun 1480 - Oct 1480        Mircea II                         (b. 143. - d. 1480?)
                            
(pretender in dissidence)
Apr? 1482 - Sep 1495       Vlad IV "Călugărul"               (
b. 142. - d. 1495)
                             (pretender in dissidence Apr 1481) 
1492 - Apr 1508            Radu IV "cel Mare"                (b. 1467? - d. 1508)                                         (co-ruler to Sep 1495)

Apr 1508 - Oct 1509        Mihnea "cel Rău"                  (b. 1462? - d. 1510)
Oct 1509 - Jan 1510        Mircea III                        (b. 148. - d. 1521)
Jan 1510 - 23 Jan 1512     Vlad V "cel Tânăr"                (b. 1494 - d. 1512)
23 Jan 1512 - 15 Sep 1521  Neagoe Basarab V                  (b. 146. - d. 1521)
16 Sep 1521 - Jan 1522     Teodosie                          (b. 1505 - d. 1522)
Oct 1521                   Vlad VI "Călugărul"               (b. 150. - d. 1521)
                             (pretender in dissidence) 
Jan 1522 - Apr 1523        Radu V "de la Afumaţi" (1st time) (b. 148. - d. 1529)

Apr 1523 - Oct 1523        Vladislav III                     (b. 146. - d. 1525)
Oct 1523 - Jan 1524        Radu VI Bădica                    (b. 149. - d. 1524)
Jan 1524 - Mar 1524        Radu V "de la Afumaţi" (2nd time) (s.a.)
Mar 1524 - Aug 1524        Vladislav III (1st time)          (b. 146. - d. 1525)
Aug 1524 -  2 Jan 1529     Radu V "de la Afumaţi" (3rd time) (s.a.)
Apr 1525 - Aug 1525        Vladislav III (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (pretender) 
 
3 Jan 1529 - Feb 1529     Basarab VI                        (b. 149. - d. 1529?)
Feb 1529 - Mar 1529        Neagoe (acting)  
Mar 1529 - c.4 Jun 1530    Moise                             (b. 1508 - d. 1530)
c.4 Jun 1530 - Oct 1532    Vlad VII "Înecatul"               (b. 150. - d. 1532)
Oct 1532 - Jun 1535        Vlad VIII Vintilă                 (b. 148. - d. 1535)
Jun 1535 - Feb 1545        Radu VII Paisie                   (b. 148. - d. 1545)
                             (=
Petru de la Argeş)
Mar 1536 - Apr 1536        Barbu Neagoe (usurper)            (b. 14.. - d. 1565)
May 1539 - Jul 1539        Şerban din Izvorani (usurper) 
May 1544                   Laiotă Basarab        
                             (pretender in dissidence) 
Feb 1545 - 15 Nov 1552     Mircea III "Ciobanul" (1st time)  (b. 149. - d. 1559)

15 Nov 1552 - May 1553     Radu VIII Ilie                    (b. 151. - d. 1558)
May
1553 - Mar 1554        Mircea III "Ciobanul" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Mar 1554 - 24 Dec 1557     Pătraşcu "cel Bun"                (b. 152. - d. 1557)
24 Dec 1557 - 25 Jan 1558  Socol (acting)  
25 Jan 1558 - 25 Sep 1559  Mircea IV "Ciobanul" (3rd time)   (s.a.)  
26 Sep 1559 - 31 May 1568  Petru I "cel Tânăr"               (b. 1547 - d. 1568)
                            
(acting to 24 Oct 1559)
31 May 1568 - Jun 1568     Chiajna (acting)                  (b. c.1525 - d. 1588)
Jun 1568 - 27 Sep 1577     Alexandru II                      (b. 1529 - d. 1577)
21 Apr 1574 - c.3 May 1574 Vintilă (pretender in dissidence) (b. 154. - d. 1574)
 
4? May 1574 - Jul 1583    Mihnea II "Turcitul" (1st time)   (b. 1565 - d. 1601)
                             (co-ruler to 27 Sep 1577)
Jul 1583 - 29 Aug 1583     Borcea (acting)  
29 Aug 1583 -  6 Apr 1585  Petru II "Cercel"                 (b. 1545 - d. 1590)
 6 Apr 1585 - 20 May 1585  Paraschiv (acting)
20 May 1585 - May 1591     Mihnea II "Turcitul" (2nd time)   (s.a.)
May 1591 - Oct 1592        Ştefan I "Surdul"                 (b. 155. - d. 1595)
Oct 1592 -  8 Sep 1593     Alexandru III "cel Rău"           (b. 156. - d. 1597)
 8 Sep 1593 - c.7 Oct 1593 Stroe Buzescu (acting)     
c.7 Oct 1593 - Oct 1600    Mihai II "Viteazul"               (b. 1558 - d. 1601)
Nov 1599 - 12 Sep 1600     Nicolae Pătraşcu -Co-ruler        (b. 1584 - d. 1627)
Oct 1600 - 24 Jun 1601     Simion Moghilă (1st time)         (b. 156. - d. 1607)
24 Jun 1601 - Sep 1601     .... (acting) 
Sep 1601 - Mar 1602        Radu X Mihnea (1st time)          (b. c.1585 - d. 1626)
Nov 1601 - Jul 1602        Simion Moghilă (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (in opposition to Mar 1602)
Jul 1602 - Dec 1610        Radu
Şerban (1st time)            (b. 155. - d. 1620)
Dec 1610 - 12 Mar 1611     Transylvanian occupation
12 Mar 1611 - May 1611     Radu X Mihnea (2nd time)          (s.a.)
May 1611 - 19 Sep 1611    
Radu Şerban (2nd time)            (s.a.)
19 Sep 1611 - 24 Jul 1616  Radu X Mihnea (3rd time)          (s.a.)
24 Jul 1616 - Sep 1616     .... (acting)
Sep 1616 - 27 May 1618     Alexandru IV Ilia
ş (1st time)     (b. 15.. - d. af.1633)
27 May 1618 - 14 Aug 1618  Lupu Mehedinţeanu (acting)  
                             (Princely Lieutenant)  
14 Aug 1618 - Aug 1620     Gavril Moghilă                    (b. 15.. - d. 1635)
Aug 1620 - Aug 1623        Radu X Mihnea (4th time)          (s.a.)
Aug 1623 - Nov 1627        Alexandru V "Coconul"             (b. 1610 - d. 1632)
Nov 1627 - 28 Jan 1628     Lepădat (acting)
28 Jan 1628 - Oct 1629    
Alexandru IV Iliaş (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Oct 1629 - Aug 1632        Leon Tom
şa                        
Aug 1632 - 20 Sep 1632     Radu Ilia
ş        
20 Sep 1632 -  9 Apr 1654  Matei Basarab                     (b. 1580 - d. 1654)
1654 - 23 Feb 1658         Constantin
Şerban Basarab
"Cârnul"(b. 158. - d. 1685)
                             (1st time)
23 Feb 1658 - Dec 1659     Mihnea III Radu                   (b. 161. - d. 1660)
Dec 1659 -  1 Sep 1660     Gheorghe Ghica (
Gíka)             (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
 1 May 1660 - 21 May 1660  Constantin
Şerban Basarab "Cârnul"(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
(pretender in dissidence)
 6 Dec 1660 - 20 Nov 1664 
Grigore Ghica (Gíka)(1st time)    (b. 1628 - d. 1675)
20 Nov 1664 - 12 Feb 1665 
.... (acting)
12 Feb 1665 - Mar 1669     Radu Leon                         (b. 16.. - d. 1670)
Mar 1669 -  9 Apr 1669    
.... (acting)
 9 Apr 1669 - 13 Jan 1672  Antonie din Pope
şti       
13 Jan 1672 - 20 Mar 1672  Radu Creţulescu (acting)
20 Mar 1672 - Nov 1673     Grigore Ghica (2nd time)          (s.a.)   
 6 Dec 1673 - Nov 1678     Gheorghe Duca (Doúkas)            (b. 16.. - d. 1685)
Nov 1678 -  6 Jan 1679     Badea Băleanu
                           + Hrizea Karydi
                           (acting)
 6 Jan 1679 - 29 Oct 1688 
Şerban Constantin Kantakozino
                             (Kantakouzịnós) 
30 Oct 1688 - 24 Mar 1714  Constantin Brâncoveanu            (b. 1654 - d. 1714)

25 Mar 1714 -  9 Jan 1716 
Ştefan Constantin Kantakozino     (b. 166. - d. 1716)   
 9 Jan 1716 - 30 Jan 1716  .... (acting)
30 Jan 1716 - 14 Nov 1716  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat     (b. 1670 - d. 1730) 
                             (1st time)
14 Nov 1716 - Dec 1716    
.... (acting)
Dec 1716 - 12 Feb 1719     Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat        (b. 1684 - d. 1719)
12 Feb 1719 - 26 Apr 1719 
.... (acting)
26 Apr 1719 - 23 Aug 1730  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Aug 1730 -  6 Oct 1730  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat    (b. 1711 - d. 1769)
                             (1st time)
Oct 1730 - Oct 1731        Mihai Ioan Racovi
ţă (1st time)    (b. 16.. - d. 1744)
Oct 1731 - May 1733        Constantin
Nicolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
May 1733 - Nov 1735       
Grigore Matei Ghica (1st time)    (b. 1690 - d. 1752)
Nov 1735 - Sep 1741        Constantin N
icolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
Sep 1741 - Jul 1744        Mihai Ioan Racoviță (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Jul 1744 - Apr 1748        Constanti
Nicolae Mavrocordat     (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
Apr 1748 - 23 Aug 1752    
Grigore Matei Ghica (2nd time)    (s.a.)
23 Aug 1752 - Sep 1752    
.... (acting)
 1 Oct 1752 - Jul 1753     Matei
Grigore Ghica               (b. 1715 - d. 1761)   
Jul 1753 - Mar 1756        Constantin Mihail Racovi
ţă        (b. 170. - d. 1764)
                             (1st time)
Mar 1756 - 15 Apr 1756    
.... (acting)
15 Apr 1756 - Sep 1758     Constantin
Nicolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (5th time)
Sep 1758 - Jun 1761        Scarlat
Grigore Ghica (1st time)  (b. 1715 - d. 1766)
Jun 1761 - Mar 1763        Constantin
Nicolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (6th time)
Mar 1763 - 23 Apr 1763     .... (acting)
23 Apr 1763 - 26 Jan 1764  Constantin Mihail Racovi
ţă        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
26 Jan 1764 - 1764         .... (acting)
1764 -  1 Sep 1765        
Ştefan Mihail Racoviță       
 1 Sep 1765 -  2 Dec 1766  Scarlat
Grigore Ghica (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Dec 1766 - Nov 1768        Alexandru Scarlat Ghica   
Nov 1768 -  5 Dec 1769    
Grigore Alexandru Ghica           (b. 1724 - d. 1777)
 5 Dec 1769 -  3 Feb 1775  Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich        (b. 1725 - d. 1796)
                             Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky
                           (Russian military administrator) 
 3 Feb 1775 - 14 Feb 1782  Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti          (b. c.1726 - d. 1807)
                             (Ypsilántis)
14 Feb 1782 - 18 Mar 1782  .... (acting)               
18 Mar 1782 - 27 Aug 1783  Nicolae Caragea
(Karadžě)         (b. 1737 - d. 1784)  
27 Aug 1783 - 17 May 1786  Mihai
Constantin Suţu (1st time)  (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
17 May 1786 -  4 Nov 1789  Nicolae Petru Mavrogheni          (b. 1738 - d. 1790)   
 4 Nov 1789 -  4 Sep 1791  Friedrich Josias Prinz von
                             Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld         (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                           (Austrian military administrator) 
 4 Sep 1791 - 15 Jan 1793  Mihai
Constantin Suţu (2nd time)  (s.a.)
15 Jan 1793 - Mar 1793    
.... (acting)                 
Mar 1793 - 21 Aug 1796     Alexandru
Constantin Moruzi       (b. c.1750 - d. 1816)  
21 Aug 1796 - Sep 1796    
.... (acting)                            
Sep 1796 - 24 Nov 1797     Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti          (b. c.1726 - d. 1807)  
24 Nov 1797 - Dec 1797    
.... (acting)                   
Dec 1797 - 18 Feb 1799     Constantin Hangerli               (b. 17.. - d. 1799)  
18 Feb 1799 - 14 Mar 1799 
.... (acting)                    
14 Mar 1799 - Oct 1801     Alexandru
Constantin Moruzi       (b. c.1750 - d. 1816)  
Oct 1801 - 20 Jun 1802     Mihai
Constantin Suţu (3rd time)  (s.a.)
29 Jun 1802 - 25 Aug 1802  Alexandru
"Draco" Nicolae Suţu    (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
                             (1st time) (acting)  
25 Aug 1802 - 14 Oct 1802 
.... (acting)        
14 Oct 1802 - 16 Aug 1806  Constantin Ipsilanti (1st time)   (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
16 Aug 1806 -  1 Oct 1806 
.... (acting)                    
 1 Oct 1806 - 10 Oct 1806  Alexandru
"Draco" Nicolae Suţu    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
11 Oct 1806 - 15 Dec 1806
  .... (acting)                       
15 Dec 1806 - May 1807     Constantin Ipsilanti (2nd time)   (s.a.)
28 Aug 1806 - 1809         Ivan Ivanovich Prozorovsky        (b. 1769 - d. 1840)
                           (Russian military administrator)
Mar 1809 - 
2 Oct 1812     Grigory Grigoriyevich Engelhardt  (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
                           (Russian military administrator)
 2 Oct 1812 - 12 Dec 1812 
.... (acting)                      
12 Dec 1812 - 29 Sep 1818  Ioan Gheorghe Caragea (
Karadžě)   (b. 1745 - d. 1845)
30 Sep 1818 - 17 Jan 1819 
.... (acting)                   
17 Jan 1819 - 19 Jan 1821  Alexandru
"Draco" Nicolae Suţu    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
15 Sep 1820 - 16 Mar 1821 
.... (acting)                     
16 Mar 1821 - 15 May 1821  Tudor
Constantin Vladimirescu     (b. c.1780 - d. 1821)
                           (Conducator [Leader], in rebellion)

16 May 1821 - 24 Sep 1822  Ştefan Vogoridi                   (b. 1774 - d. 1859)
                             (= Stojko Conkov Stojkov)   
                           (Ottoman governor)

12 Jul 1822 - 11 May 1828  Grigore (IV) Dimitrie Ghica       (b. 1755 - d. 1834)
Russian Military Administrators
22 Feb 1828 -  2 Feb 1829  Peter Christoph Graf von der      (b. 1771 - d. 1864)
                             Pahlen
 2 Feb 1829 - 14 Sep 1829  Pyotr Zheltukhin                  (b. 1777 - d. 1829)
24 Nov 1829 -  2 Apr 1834  Pavel Dmitriyevich Kiselyov       (b. 1788 - d. 1872)
                             (Kiselev)
Voivodes and Lordsą
 2 Apr 1834 - 19 Oct 1842  Alexandru (X) Dimitrie Ghica      (b. 1795 - d. 1862)
                             (1st time)
 1 Jan 1843 - 25 Jun 1848  Gheorghe Dimitrie Bibescu         (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
25 Jun 1848 - 10 Jul 1848  Neofit II (1st time)              (b. 1787 - d. 1850)
                           (President of the Provisional Government)
10 Jul 1848 - 12 Jul 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Teodor Văcărescu                (b. 1774 - d. 1853)
                           - Emanoil Băleanu (1st time)      (b. 1794 - d. 1862)
12 Jul 1848 -  9 Aug 1848  Neofit II (2nd time)              (s.a.)
                           (President of the Provisional Government)
 9 Aug 1848 - 25 Sep 1848  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Heliade Rădulescu          (b. 1802 - d. 1872)
                           - Nicolae Constantin Golescu      (b. 1810 - d. 1877)
                           - Christian Tell                  (b. 1807 - d. 1884)
25 Sep 1848 -  Jun 1849    Constantin Cantacuzino            (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                            (Princely Lieutenant)
28 Jun 1849 - 29 Oct 1853  Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbey (1st time) (b. 1799 - d. 1869)
29 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Aleksandr Ivanovich Budberg       (b. 1798 - d. 1876)
                           (Russian military administrator)
Ottoman Military Administrators
 8 Aug 1854 - Aug 1854     Halil Pasha (acting)              (b. 1795 - d. 1856)
Aug 1854 - 19 Aug 1854     Dervish Pasha                     (b. 1813 - d. 1868)
Voivodes and Lordsą
19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Johann Baptist Alexius Graf       (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
                             Coronini-Cronberg          
                           (Austrian Military Governor)
19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Eduard Freiherr von Bach          (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                           (Austrian
Civil Commissioner)
 5 Oct 1854 - 25 Mar 1856  Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbey (2nd time) (s.a.)
29 Jul 1856 - 30 Oct 1858  Alexandru (X) Dimitrie Ghica      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(Princely Lieutenant)
30 Oct 1858 -  5 Feb 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ioan Manu                       (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
                           - Emanoil Băleanu (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Filipescu        (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
 5 Feb 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru (XI) Ioan Cuza Voievod  (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers
 6 Feb 1859 -  8 Apr 1859  Ioan Alexandru Filipescu          (s.a.)               Con
 8 Apr 1859 - 18 Sep 1859  Constantin Alexandru Creţulescu   (b. 1809 - d. 1884)  Mod
                            
(Kretzulescu)
18 Sep 1859 - 23 Oct 1859  Nicolae A
lexandru Creţulescu      (b. 1812 - d. 1900)  Mod
                             (Kretzulescu)
23 Oct 1859 -  9 Jun 1860  Prince Ion Ghica (Ghika)          (b. 1817 - d. 1897)  Lib
 9 Jun 1860 - 25 Jul 1860  Nicolae Constantin Golescu        (s.a.)               Lib
25 Jul 1860 - 12 May 1861  Emanoil Costache Epureanu         (b. 1824 - d. 1880)  Lib
12 May 1861 - 24 May 1861  Barbu Ştefan Catargiu             (b. 1807 - d. 1862)  Con
24 May 1861 - 23 Jul 1861  Ştefan Golescu                    (b. 1809 - d. 1874)  Rad
31 Jul 1861 -  3 Feb 1862  Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica (Ghika) (b. 1817 - d. 1897)  Lib

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; Lib = Liberal; Mod = Moderate; Rad = Radical

 ąusual translation of the title: Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievoda si Domn a toată Ţara Ungrovlahiei ("by the grace of God, Voivode and Lord of all the Hungaro-Walachian Land").


Moldavia
 
[Moldavia
                          Princely State flag]
                         c.1485
[Moldavia stae
                          and war flag, 1834-c.1849 (Romania)]
        8 Nov 1834 - c.1849
[Moldavia state
                          and war flag, c.1849-c.1856 (Romania)]
            c.1849 - c.1856
[Moldavia state
                          and war flag, c.1856-1859 (Romania)]
              c.1856 - 1859
[Moldavia
                          merchant flag 1834-1861 (Romania)]
        1834 - 9 Jun 1861 Merchant flag
[Walachia-Moldavia
                          State and War flag, 1859-1861(Romania)]
               Feb 1859 - Dec 1861
Map of Moldavia
Capital: Iaşi  (Jassy)
(Suceava 1388-1565;
Siret c.1347-1388)
Currency: N/A
Population: 1,463,927 (1859)
1,267,000 (1832)

c.900 - 1347               Maramures Land (Romanian: Ţara Maramureşului) within Hungary.
c.1347                     Principality of Moldavia founded.
26 Sep 1387 - 1394         Under Polish suzerainty.
 9 Jun 1456 - 1471         Turkish tributary.
1394 - 1402                Under Hungarian suzerainty.
1402 - 1456
               Under Polish suzerainty.
1456 - 1473               
Ottoman tributary.
12 Jul 1475 - 1479         Under Hungarian suzerainty.

1479/80 - 1485             Ottoman tributary.
15 Sep 1485 - 1489         Under Polish suzerainty.
1489                       Ottoman tributary
1541 - 1861                Part of
Ottoman Empire
22 May 1600 - Sep 1600     Administered by Walachia.
26 Sep 1769 - 28 Sep 1774  Occupied by Russia.
Oct 1788 - May 1792        Occupied by Russia.
1806 - Nov 1812            Occupied by Russia.
 5 Jul 1812                Eastern half of Moldavia (Bessarabia) is ceded by Ottoman
                             Empire to Russia in Treaty of Bucharest (signed 28 May 1812).
13 Feb 1828 - Apr 1834     Occupied by Russia.
30 Oct 1853 - 16 Sep 1854  Occupied by Russia.
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Occupied by Austria.
30 Mar 1856 -  8 Oct 1878  Russia returns three districts in southern Bessarabia
                             (Bolgrad, Cahul and Ismail) to Moldavia.
19 Aug 1858                Autonomy renewed by international convention.

23 Dec 1861                Merger with Walachia into the United Rumanian 

                             Principalities.

Voivodesą
c.1347 - c.1354            Dragoş                            (b. 13.. - d. c.1354)

c.1354 - c.1363            Sas                               (b. 13.. - d. c.1363)       
c.1363 - 1367              Bogdan I                          (b. 13.. - d. 1367)
1367 - 1368                Petru I                           (b. 13.. - d. 1368)
1368 - 1375                Laţcu                             (b. 13.. - d. 1375)            
1375 - Dec 1391            Petru II                          (b. 13.. - d. 1391)
Dec 1391 - Dec 1394        Roman I                           (b. 134. - d. 1394)           
Dec 1394 - 1399            Ştefan I                          (b. 136. - d. 1399)
1399 - 1400                Iuga "Ologul" (= Gheorghe I)      (b. 136. - d. 1400?)
23 Apr 1399 - 1400         Alexandru "cel Bun"               (b. 137. - d. 1432)      
                             (pretender in dissidence) 
1400 -  1 Jan 1432         Alexandru "cel Bun"               (s.a.)  

 2 Aug 1414 -  2 Nov 1433  Ilia
ş I (1st time)                (b. 1409 - d. 1448)
                            
(co-ruler to 1 Jan 1432)
Sep 1433 -  4 Aug 1435    
Ştefan II (1st time)              (b. 1411 - d. 1447)
 4 Aug 1435 - Aug 1442    
Iliaş I (2nd time)                (s.a.)
18 Aug 1438 - 24 Feb 1442  Roman II -Co-ruler (1st time)     (b. 1427 - d. 1448)
Mar 1436 - 13 Jul 1447    
Ştefan II (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Apr 1443 - 1445            Petru III -Co-ruler (1st time)    (b. 1422 - d. 1448)
13 Jul 1447 - Aug 1447     Roman II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Aug 1447 - Jan? 1448      
Petru III (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Jan? 1448 - Mar 1448       Roman II (3rd time)               (s.a.)
Mar 1448 - Oct 1448        Petru III (3rd time)              (s.a.)
Oct 1448 - Dec 1448        Csupor de Monoszló (Ciubăr Vodă)
                             (acting)
Dec 1448 - 12 Oct 1449     Alexandru II (Alexăndrel)         (b. 1438 - d. 1455)
                             (1st time)

12 Oct 1449 - 15 Oct 1451  Bogdan II                         (b. 141. - d. 1451)
11 Feb 1450 - 15 Oct 1451  Ştefan "cel Mare" -Co-ruler       (b. 1433 - d. 1504)
                            
(1st time)
15 Oct 1451 - Feb 1452     Petru IV Aron (1st time)          (b. 141. - d. 1470)

Feb 1452 - 22 Aug 1454     Alexandru II (2nd time)           (s.a.)
22 Aug 1454 - Jan? 1455   
Petru IV Aron (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Jan? 1455 - 25 Mar 1455    Alexandru II (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Mar 1455 - 12 Apr 1457  Petru IV Aron (3d time)           (s.a.)  
12 Apr 1457 -  2 Jul 1504 
Ştefan III "cel Mare" (2nd time)  (s.a.)
24 Sep 1498 - 22 Apr 1517  Bogdan III "cel Chior"            (b. 1479 - d. 1517)
                            
(co-ruler to 30 Jun 1504)  
22 Apr 1517 - 14 Jan 1527 
Ştefan IV (Ştefăniţă)             (b. 1507 - d. 1527)
14 Jan 1527 - 20 Jan 1527  .... (acting)
20 Jan 1527 - 14 Sep 1538  Petru V Rareş (1st time)          (b. 1487 - d. 1546)
14 Sep 1538 - 21 Sep 1538 
.... (acting)
21 Sep 1538 - 20 Dec 1540 
Ştefan V "Lăcustă"                (b. 1508 - d. 1540)
21 Dec 1540 - 16 Feb 1541  Alexandru III Cornea              (b. 148. - d. 1541)   
16 Feb 1541 - 10 Mar 1541 
.... (acting)
10 Mar 1541 -  3 Sep 1546 
Petru V Rareş (2nd time)          (s.a.)  
 3 Sep 1546 - 30 May 1551  Ilia
ş II Rareş                    (b. 152. - d. 1555)
 1 May 1551 - 11 Jun 1551 
Ştefan Rareş -Regent              (b. 1531 - d. 1552)
 1 May 1551 - 11 Jun 1551  Elena (Elena Ecaterina)(f) -Regent       
11 Jun 1551 -  1 Sep 1552 
Ştefan VI Rareş                   (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1552 - 12 Sep 1552  Ioan (I) Joldea         
12 Sep 1552 - 18 Nov 1561  Alexandru IV Lăpu
şneanu (1st time)(b. 150. - d. 1568)
18 Nov 1561 -  9 Nov 1563  Ioan II "Despot Vodă" (usurper)   (b. 1523 - d. 1563)
                             (= Iákovos Irakleídis)

 9 Aug 1563 - Feb 1564
    Ştefan VII Tomşa                  (b. 15.. - d. 1564)
                            
(pretender in dissidence to 9 Nov 1563)
Feb 1564 -  9 Mar 1568    
Alexandru IV Lăpuşneanu (2nd time)(s.a.)
 9 Mar 1568 - Feb 1572     Bogdan IV Lăpu
şneanu              (b. 1554 - d. 1577)
 9 Mar 1568 - 12 Nov 1570  Ruxandra
(f) -Regent              (b. 1538 - d. 1570)
Feb 1572 - 11 Jun 1574     Ioan III "cel Viteaz"             (b. c.1520 - d. 1574)
11 Jun 1574 - 24 Jul 1574  .... (acting)
24 Jul 1574 -  2 Dec 1579  Petru VI "
Şchiopul" (1st time)    (b. 1534 - d. 1594)
18 Nov 1577 - 31 Dec 1577  Ioan IV "Potcoavă"                (b. c.1540 - d. 1578)
                             (pretender in dissidence) 
 9 Feb 1578 - 13 Mar 1578  Alexandru V "Potcoavă"            (b. 154. - d. 1578)
                             (pretender in dissidence) 
 2 Dec 1579 - Dec 1579     .... (acting) 
Dec 1579 - Sep 1582        Iancu "Sasul"                     (b. 152. - d. 1582)
Sep 1582 - 17 Oct 1582    
.... (acting)
17 Oct 1582 - 19 Aug 1591  Petru VI "
Şchiopul" (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 2 Feb 1590 - 19 Aug 1591 
Ştefan -Co-ruler                  (b. 157. - d. 1602)
19 Aug 1591 - Dec 1591     .... (acting)
Dec 1591 - Jun 1592        Aron "cel Cumplit" (1st time)     (b. 155. - d. 1595)
Jun 1592 -  8 Oct 1592     Nestor Ureche (acting)       
Jul 1592 -  4 Oct 1592     Petru VII "Cazacul"               (b. 154. - d. 1592)
                            
(pretender in dissidence) 
 8 Oct 1592 - 25 Jun 1595 
Aron "cel Cumplit" (1st time)     (s.a.)
Apr 1595 - 27 Aug 1595    
Ştefan VIII Răzvan (usurper)      (b. 15.. - d. 1595)
27 Aug 1595 - 22 May 1600  Ieremia Moghilă (1st time)        (b. 155. - d. 1606)

22 May 1600 - Sep 1600     administered by Walachia

14 Jun 1600 - Jul 1600     Princely Lieutenants
                           - Udrea Băleanu          

                           - Andronic Cantacuzino  
                           - Sava    
                          
- Negrea
Jul 1600 - Sep 1600
       Princely Lieutenants
                           - Marcu Cercel

                          
- Preda Buzescu

Sep 1600 - 30 Jun 1606     Ieremia Moghil
ă (2nd time)        (s.a.)     
30 Jun 1606 - 14 Sep 1607  Simion Moghilă                    (b. 156. - d. 1607)  

14 Sep 1607 -  6 Dec 1607  Mihail Moghilă                    (b. 158. - d. 1608)
 6 Dec 1607 - 18 Dec 1611  Constantin Moghil
ă                (b. c.1594 - d. 1612)
                             (pretender in dissidence Oct - 15 Nov 1607)  

18 Dec 1611 - 20 Dec 1611  .... (acting)
20 Dec 1611 - 20 Nov 1615 
Ştefan Tomşa (1st time)
21 Nov 1615 - 24 Jul 1616  Alexandru Moghil
ă
24 Jul 1616 - 10 Feb 1619  Radu Mihnea (1st time)            (b. c.1585 - d. 1626)
11 Feb 1619 - 10 Sep 1620  Gasparo Gratiani                  (b. c.1575 - d. 1620)
                            
(=
Gaspar Gratiani, duca di Naxos)
10 Sep 1620 - 15 Oct 1621  Alexandru Ilia
ş (1st time)        (b. 15.. - d. af.1633)
15 Oct 1621 - Aug 1623    
Ştefan Tomşa (2nd time)
Aug 1623 - Sep 1623        Ghianghea (1st time)(acting) 
Sep 1623 - 13 Jan 1626     Radu Mihnea (2nd time)            (s.a.)
13 Jan 1626 - 20 Jan 1626 
Ştefan Dumitraşcu (acting)
20 Jan 1626 - 30 Aug 1629  Miron Barnovschi Moghilă          (b. 158. - d. 1633)
                             (1st time)
30 Aug 1629 - May 1630     Alexandru V "Coconul"             (b. 1610 - d. 1632)
May 1630 - Jun 1630
       .... (acting)
Jun 1630 - Dec 1631        Moise Moghilă (1st time)          (b. 1596 - d. 1661)
Dec 1631 - Apr 1633        A
lexandru Iliaş (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Apr
1633 - 22 Jun 1633    
Miron Barnovschi Moghilă          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

22 Jun 1633 - Aug 1633    
Ghianghea (2nd time)(acting)
Aug 1633 - Mar 1634       
Moise Moghilă (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Mar 1634 - 27 Apr 1634    
Ghianghea (3rd time)(acting)
27 Apr 1634 -  3 Apr 1653  Vasile Nicolae Lupu (1st time)    (b. 1595 - d. 1661)
 3 Apr 1653 - 28 Apr 1653  Gheorghe
Ştefan Dumitraşcu        (b. 16.. - d. 1668)
                             (1st time)
28 Apr 1653 -  8 Jul 1653  Vasile Nicolae Lupu (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 8 Jul 1653 -  3 Mar 1658 
Gheorghe Ştefan Dumitraşcu        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Mar 1658 -  2 Nov 1659     Gheorghe Ghica
(Gíka)             (b. 1600 - d. 1664)
 2 Nov 1659 - 21 Nov 1659  Constantin
Şerban Basarab         (b. 158. - d. 1661)
                             (1st time)
21 Nov 1659 - 17 Jan 1661 
Ştefăniţă (Stefan) Lupu (1st time)(b. 1643 - d. 1661)
17 Jan 1661 - 16 Feb 1661 
Constantin Şerban Basarab         (b. 158. - d. 1661)
                             (2nd time)

16 Feb 1661 - 19 Sep 1661 
Ştefăniţă Lupu (2nd time)         (s.a.)
19 Sep 1661 - 1661        
.... (acting)               
1661 - 11 Sep 1665         Eustra
ţie Dabijea                 (b. 16.. - d. 1665)
11 Sep 1665 - Nov 1665
    .... (acting)             
Nov 1665 - 24 May 1666     Gheorghe Duca (Doúkas)(1st time)  (b. 16.. - d. 1685)
24 May 1666 -  8 Nov 1668  Ilia
ş Alexandru       
 8 Dec 1668 - 10 Aug 1672  Gheorghe Duca (2nd time)          (s.a.)
10 Aug 1672 - 23 Nov 1673 
Ştefan Toader Petriceicu          (b. 16.. - d. 1690)
                             (1st time)
23 Nov 1673 - Dec 1675    
Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino (1st time) (b. 1648 - d. 1685)
                             (Kantakouzinós)

Dec 1675 -  6 Dec 1678     Antonie Lascaris Ruset            (b. c.1615 - d. 1685)
                             (= Antonio Rosetti) 
 6 Dec 1678 - 25 Dec 1683  Gheorghe Duca (3rd time)          (s.a.) 
25 Dec 1683 - 29 Mar 1684 
Ştefan Toader Petriceicu          (s.a.)   
                             (2nd time)
29 Mar 1684 - Jun 1685
     Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino (2nd time) (s.a.)
Jun 1685 -  5 Jul 1685     Ioan Racoviţă (acting)  
 5 Jul 1685 - 17 Mar 1693  Constantin
Toader Cantemir        (b. 1612 - d. 1693)
17 Mar 1693 - 19 Mar 1693 
.... (acting)  
19 Mar 1693 - Apr 1693    
Dumitraşcu Constantin Cantemir    (b. 1673 - d. 1723)
Apr 1693 - 24 Jun 1693    
Constantin Gheorghe Duca
Dec 1695 - Jan 1696       
Princely Lieutenants
                           - Tudosie Dubău 
                           - Bogdan   
                           - Iordache Ruset 
Jan 1696 - 14 Sep 1700     Antioh Cantemir (1st time)        (b. 166. - d. 1726)
14 Sep 1700 - 15 Jun 1703  Constantin
Gheorghe Duca
15 Jun 1703 - 20 Nov 1703  Ioan Buhu
ş (1st time)(acting)
20 Nov 1703 - 12 Feb 1705  Mihai Ioan Racovi
ţă (1st time)    (b. 167. - d. 1744) 
12 Feb 1705 - 21 May 1705  Bogdan (acting)
21 May 1705 - Jul 1707     Antioh Cantemir (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Jul 1707 - 13 Nov 1707    
Princely Lieutenants
                           - Iordache Ruset  
                           - Ion Neculce 
                           - Ilie Cantacuzino
                           - Ilie Catargiu 
13 Nov 1707 - 17 Oct 1709 
Mihai Ioan Racoviţă (2nd time)    (s.a.)
17 Oct 1709 - 25 Jan 1710 
Ioan Buhuş (2nd time)(acting)
25 Jan 1710 - 23 Nov 1710  Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat     (b. 1680 - d. 1730)
                             (1st time)
23 Nov 1710 - 10 Dec 1710  Iordache Ruset (acting)  
10 Dec 1710 - 11 Jul 1711  Dimitrie Cantemir                 (b. 1673 - d. 1723)
            
11 Jul 1711 -  9 Sep 1711 
Princely Lieutenants
                           - .... (11 Jul - 1 Aug 1711)
                           - Lupu Gavril Costachi   
                              (1 Aug - 9 Sep 1711)     
                           - Maxut
  (1 Aug - 9 Sep 1711)  
                           - Antioh Jora
                              (1 Aug - 9 Sep 1711)     
                           - Gheorghe Apostol  

                              (10 Sep - 26 Sep 1711)
 
                         - Ioan Alexandru Mavrocordat      (b. 1684 - d. 1719)
                              (26 Sep - 8 Nov 1711)

 8 Nov 1711 - Jan 1716     Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat     (b. 1680 - d. 1730)
Jan 1716 - 12 Feb 1716     .... (acting)
12 Feb 1716 - Oct 1726     Mihai Ioan Racoviţă (3rd time)    (s.a.)  
Oct 1726 - 18 Dec 1726     Constantin Costache   
                           + Sandu Sturdza
                           (acting)
18 Dec 1726 - 13 Apr 1733 
Grigore Matei Ghica (1st time)    (b. 1690 - d. 1752)
13 Apr 1733 -  7 May 1733  .... (acting)               
 7 May 1733 - Nov 1735     Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat    (b. 1711 - d. 1769)
                             (1st time)
Nov 1735 - 13 Sep 1741     G
rigore Matei Ghica (2nd time)    (s.a.)
13 Sep 1741 -  1 Oct 1741 
.... (acting)    
 1 Oct 1741 - 20 Jul 1743  Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Jul 1743 - May 1747     Ioan Nicolae Mavrocordat          (b. 1712 - d. 1747)
May 1747 - 10 Jul 1747    
.... (acting)
10 Jul 1747 - Apr 1748     G
rigore Matei Ghica (3rd time)    (s.a.)     
Apr 1748 - Sep 1749        Constantin
Nicolae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Sep 1749 - Dec 1749        Iordache Stavarache (acting)       
Dec 1749 - Jul 1753        Constantin Mihail Racoviţă        (b. 170. - d. 1764)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1753 - Mar 1756        Matei
Grigore Ghica               (b. 1715 - d. 1761)
Mar 1756 - Mar 1757        Constantin Mihail Racovi
ţă        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Mar 1757 - Mar 1757        Dumitraşcu Sturdza (acting)
Mar 1757 - Aug 1758        Scarlat
Grigore Ghica             (b. 171. - d. 1766)
Aug 1758 - Aug 1758        Vidale (acting)  
Aug 1758 - Jun 1761        Ioan Theodor Callimachi (
Calimah) (b. 1700 - d. 1762)
Jun 1761 - Mar 1764       
Grigore Ioan Callimachi (Calimah) (b. 1723 - d. 1769)
                             (1st time)
Mar 1764 - Mar 1767       
Grigore Alexandru Ghica (1st time)(b. 1724 - d. 1777)
Mar 1767 - Jun 1769       
Grigore Ioan Callimachi (2nd time)(b. 1723 - d. 1769)
18 Jun 1769 - 26 Sep 1769 
Constantin Nicloae Mavrocordat    (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
26 Sep 1769 - 28 Sep 1774 
Russian Military Administration
18 Nov 1771 - Sep 1774     Andrey Ivanovich Meder 
                           (Russian administrator)
28 Sep 1774 -  1 Oct 1777 
Grigore Alexandru Ghica (2nd time)(s.a.)
 1 Oct 1777 - 24 Nov 1777 
.... (acting)         
24 Nov 1777 - Jun 1782    
Constantin Dimitrie Moruzi        (b. 1730 - d. 1787)
Jun 1782 - 20 Jan 1785     Alexandru
Constantin Mavrocordat  (b. 1742 - d. 1812) 
                             "Deli-bei"
20 Jan 1785 - Feb 1785    
.... (acting)               
Feb 1785 - 1786            Alexandru Ioan Mavrocordat        (b. 1754 - d. 1819) 
                             "Firaris"
1786 - 15 Jan 1787        
.... (acting)               
15 Jan 1787 -  8 Apr 1788  Alexandru Ioan Ipsilanti          (b. c.1726 - d. 1807)
 8 Apr 1788 -  7 Jul 1788 
.... (acting)              
 7 Jul 1788 - Mar 1789     Manole Giani Ruset                (b. 1715 - d. 1794)
Oct 1788 - May 1792        Count Aleksandr Vasiliyevich      (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
                             Suvorov (Russian military
                           administrator in northern region)
                           - together with -
Oct 1788 - 14 Oct 1790     Friedrich Josias Prinz von
                             Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld         (b. 1737 - d. 1815)
                           (Austrian military administrator)

                           (in southern region)
1788 - 1790                Franz Maria Freiherr von Thugut   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
                           (Austrian
administrator-general
                             of Moldavia and Walachia
)
May 1789 -  6 Oct 1789     Franz Leopold Freiherr von        (b. 1746 - d.  1789)

                            
Metzburg
                          
(Austrian civil
administrator)
1789 - 1790                Josef Graf von Brigido            (b. 1733 - d. 1817)

                           (Austrian civil administrator)
May 1792 -  4 Jan 1793     Alexandru
Constantin Moruzi       (b. c.1750 - d. 1816)
 4 Jan 1793 - 22 May 1795  Mihail
Constantin Suţu            (b. 1730 - d. 1803)
22 May 1795 - Apr 1799     Alexandru Ioan Callimachi
        (b. 1737 - d. 1821)
                            
(Calimah)
Apr 1799 - 1801            Constantin
Alexandru Ipsilanti    (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
1801 - Sep 1802            Alexandru Nicolae Su
ţu            (b. 1758 - d. 1821)
Sep 1802 - 28 Oct 1802    
.... (acting)                  
28 Oct 1802 - Aug 1806     Alexandru
Constantin Moruzi       (b. c.1750 - d. 1816)
Aug 1806 - 14 Oct 1806    
.... (acting)               
14 Oct 1806 - 1806         Scarlat
Alexandru Callimachi      (b. 1773 - d. 1821)
                            (
Skarlat Alexandru Calimah)
                            (1st time)
1806 - Nov 1812            Russian occupation      
Nov 1812 - 20 Jun 1819     Scarlat
Alexandru Callimachi      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
20 Jun 1819 - 29 Mar 1821  Mihail
Grigore Suţu               (b. 1784 - d. 1864)
29 Mar 1821 - 15 Jun 1821  M
etropolit Veniamin Costache      (b. 1768 - d. 1846)
                             (acting)
29 Jun 1821 - 12 Oct 1822  Ştefan Vogoridi (acting)          (b. 1774 - d. 1859)

                             (= Stojko Conkov Stojkov)
12 Oct 1822 -  5 May 1828  Ioan Alexandru Sturza             (b. 1761 - d. 1842)
Russian Military Administrator
Apr 1829 - Apr 1834        Fyodor Yakovlevich Mirkovich      (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
Voivode
Apr 1834 - Jun 1849        Mihai Grigore Sturza              (b. 1795 - d. 1884)
14 Oct 1849 - 30 Oct 1853  Grigore (IV) Alexandru Ghica      (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
                             (1st time)
30 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854  Mikhail Dmitriyevich Gorchakov    (b. 1793 - d. 1861)
                           (Russian Military Administrator)
19 Apr 1854 - Aug 1854     Omer Pasha                        (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
                           (O
ttoman Military Administrator)
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Johann Baptist Alexius Graf       (b. 1794 - d. 1880)
                             Coronini-Cronberg          
                           (Austrian Military Governor)
Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856     Eduard Freiherr von Bach          (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                           (Austrian
Civil Commissioner)
14 Oct 1854 -  8 Jul 1856  Grigore (IV) Alexandru Ghica      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 Jul 1856 - 22 Jul 1856  Extraordinary Administrative Council
23 Jul 1856 -  1 Mar 1857  Teodor Balş (Princely Lieutenant) (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
 1 Mar 1857 - Oct 1858     Nicolae Ştefan Conachi-Vogoride   (b. 1820 - d. 1863)
                             (Princely Lieutenant)
18 Oct 1858 - 18 Jan 1859  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Ştefan Catargiu (to 1 Nov 1858) (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
                           - Ioan Alexandru Cantacuzino      (b. 1829 - d. 1897) 
                             (from 1 Nov 1858)
                           - Vasile Sturza                   (b. 1810 - d. 1870)
                           - Anastasie Panu                  (b. 1810 - d. 1867)
18 Jan 1859 - 23 Dec 1861  Alexandru (XVI) Ioan Cuza Voievod (b. 1820 - d. 1873)

Prime ministers
29 Jan 1859 - 20 Mar 1859  Vasile Sturdza                    (s.a.)               Non-party
20 Mar 1859 -  9 May 1859  Prince Ion Ghica (Ghika)          (b. 1817 - d. 1897)  Lib
 9 May 1859 - 15 Apr 1860  Manolache Costache Epureanu       (b. 1824 - d. 1880)  Con
15 Apr 1860 - 29 Jan 1861  Mihail Ilie Kogălniceanu          (b. 1817 - d. 1891)  Lib
29 Jan 1861 - 17 Oct 1861  Anastasie Panu                    (s.a.)               Lib
17 Oct 1861 -  3 Feb 1862  Alexandru Constantin Moruzi       (b. 1805 - d. 1873)  Non-party

Party abbreviations: Con = Conservative; Lib = Liberal

 ąusual translation of the title: Din Mila lui Dumnezeu, Voievod si Domn al Ţării Moldovei ("by the grace of God, Voivode and Lord of the Moldavian Land").


Transylvania
 
[Austria-Hungary
                          Flag of Siebenburgen]
  c.1765 - 1 Dec 1918 Principality of Transyl.
 
[Transylvania
                          flag 1918-1919]
            1 Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919 
 
Map of Transylvania
Capital: Hermannstadt
 ([Nagyszeben/Sibiu]

1692-1791, 1849-65, 1918-19);
(Gyulafehérvár
[Weissenburg (from 1714?
 Carlsburg) Alba Iulia]

1541-1690, 1918; Klausenburg
 [
Kolozsvár/Cluj]
1791-1849, 5 Sep 1865-1918)

Ethnic groups: Romanian 51.9%; Hungarian 30.6%; German (Saxon) 10.4%;
Jewish 3.4%; Szeklers,
Gypsy, Serb, others 7%
(1910)
Population: 5,446,326 (1910)

376 – 454                  Ruled by the Huns.
454 – 567                  Part of the Kingdom of the Gepids.
567 – 827                  Avar rule.
827 - 895                  Bulgarian rule.
896 – 1091                 Pecheneg rule.
896                        The Magyars (Hungarians) invade the area; first dux 
                             ultrasilvanus (Duke of Transylvanian) recorded. 
1070 - 1170                Transylvania progressively attached to the Hungarian kingdom 
1176                       First governor with the style vajvoda recorded; this style 
                             becomes standard. 
1176 - 1540                A political structure emerges in which the vajvoda, still 
                             appointed by the Hungarian king, becomes progressively 
                             autonomous and an increasingly powerful diet is formed in 
                             which the "three nations" - Magyars, Széklers, and Saxons - 
                             are represented; the Magyars (i.e., the descendants of the 
                             Hungarian invaders) include most of the nobility; the
                             Széklers, although ethnically related to the Magyars, are a 
                             mystery regarding their origins; the Saxons are the descendants
                             of (peaceful) German settlers; the Romanian (mostly peasant) 
                             majority population had no political participation.
1211 - Aug 1225            German Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden) asked to colonize and
                             Christianize the area by the Hungarian kings, colony based in
                             Kronstadt (modern Braşov).
Apr 1241 - 1243            Mongol army invades, then withdraws. 
24 Feb 1538 - 26 Jan 1699  Under suzerainty of Ottoman Empire
Aug 1540                   János Zsigmond Szapolyai (or Zápolya), king of Hungary (in
                             contention with Ferdinand of Austria), inherits his father's
                             claim to the crown of Hungary, and establishes his base in
                             Transylvania.
29 Dec 1541                Treaty of Gilau, János Zsigmond Szapolyai having relinquished his
                             claim to the Hungarian crown to the Habsburgs, gets the title 
                             of a Prince of Transylvania instead.
31 Dec 1551                Ferdinand of Austria (later Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand I)
                             also lays claim to Transylvania.
16 Aug 1570                János Zsigmond Szapolyai, having relinquished his claim to
                             the crown of Hungary, adopts the style Erdélyi Fejedelem
                             (prince of Transylvania); Transylvania becomes an elective
                             principality.
 2 Nov 1765                Maria Theresia, queen of Hungary, princess of Transylvania,
                             transforms Transylvania into a hereditary grand-principality
                             (Grossfürstentum Siebenbürgen/Erdélyi Nagyfejedelemség).
30 May 1848                Transylvania unified with Hungary (emperor-king sanctions the
                             union on
10 Jun 1848, but it is ultimately not implemented).
18 Oct 1848 - 11 Mar 1849  Austrian military administration.
11 Mar 1849 - 21 Jul 1849  Hungarian occupation of
Hermannstadt.
21 Jul 1849 - 26 Aug 1849  Russian occupation of Hermannstadt.
17 Aug 1849                Crownland of Transylvania (
Kronland Siebenbürgen/Erdély
                             koronatartomány
) under Austrian administration.
10 Mar 1867                Hungarian personal union with Austria fully restored by Hungarian

                             constitution of 17 Feb 1867, the emperor-king preserving the
                             style of grand prince of Transylvania
.
 
6 Dec 1868                Formal unification with Hungary, effective 1 May 1869 (separate
                             royal commission abolished in 1872).
27 Aug 1916 - 13 Oct 1916  Rumanian occupation of eastern Transylvania (including Fogaras/
                             F
ăgăraş, Csíkszereda/Szeklerburg and Kronstadt/Brassó). 
31 Oct 1918                Central Romanian National Council established at Arad.
13 Nov 1918                Kingdom of Hungary enters into dissolution.

 1 Dec 1918                Transylvania declares independence.
11 Jan 1919                Transylvania incorporated into Rumania (autonomous to 4 Apr 1920).
 4 Jun 1920                Formally ceded to Romania by Hungary in the Treaty of Trianon.
30 Aug 1940                Under German pressure a major part of Transylvania is
                             retroceded to Hungary.
21 Sep 1944 -  9 Apr 1945  Soviet occupation of northern Transylvania (German and Hungarian
                             forces fully expelled 25 Oct 1944).
15 Sep 1947                Retroceded part of Transylvania is de jure returned to Rumania
                             (de facto since 11 Mar 1945).
24 Sep 1952 - 16 Feb 1968  Autonomous Hungarian Region in part of Transylvania (see below).  

Princes
c.950 – 9..                Gyula I
9.. – 1004                 Gyula II
1004 – 10..                Zoltán
10.. – 1111                ....
1111 – 1113                Mercurius (Merkúr)
1113 – 11..                ....
c.1176 – 11..              Leustachius
                             (Leusták Rátót)
11.. – 1199                ....
Governors (style Vajvoda/Voedvod)
1199 – 1200                Legforus                            (d. af.1200)
1200 – 1201                Eth (Écs)                           (d. af.1215)
1201 – 1202                Iula (Gyula) (1st time)
1202 – 1206                Benedict (1st time)
1206 – 1208                Smaragdus (Smaragd)
1208 – 1209                Benedict (2nd time)
1209 – 1212                Michael
1212 – 1213                Berthold von Meran                  (b. c.1180 – d. 1251)
1213 – 1214                Nikolaus
1214 – 1215                Iula (Gyula) (2nd time)
1215 – 1216                Simon
1217 – 1218                Ipoch (Hippolyt)
1219 – 1221                Neuka (Nevke)
1221 – 122.                Paul
1226 – 1229                Béla von Ungarn
1229 – 1231                Gyula
1231 – 1234                Dionysius
1234 – 1235                Andras
1235 – Mar 1240            Pósa (Pousa)
Mar 1240 – Apr 1241        ....
Apr 1241 – 1243            Sayban –Mongol governor
1243 – 1252                Lorincz (Laurentius)
125. – 126.                Ernye
May 1263 – 1264            Ladislaus (1st time)
1264 – Jun 1270            Miklós (Nikolaus)(1st time)
Jun 1270 – Aug 1272        Matthäus Csák (1st time)
Sep 1272 – May 1273        Heinrich von Güns
May 1273 – Jun 1273        Johannes
Jun 1273 – Sep 1274        Miklós (Nikolaus)(2nd time)
Sep 1274 – Jul 1275        Matthäus Csák (2nd time)
Jul 1275 – Dec 1275        Ladislaus (2nd time)
Dec 1275 – Aug 1276        Ugrinus (Ugrin Csák)               (d. 1311)
Aug 1276 – Oct 1277        Matthäus Csák (3rd time)
Nov 1277 – 1278            Nikolaus (1st time)
1278 – Mar 1279            Finta Alba
Mar 1279 – 1280            István von Güns
1280 – 1281                Nikolaus (2nd time)
1281 – 1283                Roland Borsa (1st time)            (d. 1301)
1283 – Jan 1284            Apor
Jan 1284 – Jun 1285        Roland Borsa (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Jun 1285 – Jun 1288        ....
Jun 1288 – Jul 1293        Roland Borsa (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Jul 1293 – Jun 1296        ....
Jun 1296 – Aug 1315        László Kán                         (d. 1315)
Aug 1315 – Jun 1318        Nikolaus (3rd time)
Jun 1318 – Nov 1321        Dosa von Debrecen                  (d. 1322)
                             (Dózsa Debreceni)
Apr 1322 – Aug 1342        Tomas Szécsény                     (b. c.1285 – d. 1354)
Nov 1342 – Jun 1344        Nikolaus von Siroka                (d. 1355/58)
Jul 1344 – 1350            István I Lakfi
1350 – Feb 1351            István von Ungarn
Feb 1351 – 1351            Tomas Cór
1351 – Mar 1356            Miklós Kont                        (d. 1367)
Apr 1356 – Oct 1359        Endre Lakfi
Nov 1359 – Jan 1367        Dionys Lakfi
Mar 1367 – Jan 1368        Miklós Lakfi
Feb 1368 – Sep 1372        Imre Lakfi
Feb 1373 – Apr 1376        István II Lakfi                    (b. 1340 - d. 1397)
Jun 1376 – Dec 1391        László Losonczy
Mar 1392 – Sep 1393        Imre Bebek (Emeric Bebek)          (d. 1395)
Oct 1393 – Sep 1395        Ferenc Szécsény
Oct 1395 – Apr 1401        Stibor Stiboriczi (1st time)       (b. c.1348 – d. 1414)
Apr 1401 – May 1403        Miklós Csáki (1st time)            (d. 1426)
May 1403 – Oct 1403        Miklós Marczali
Oct 1403 – Dec 1409        Janós Tamasi
Dec 1409 – Feb 1410        Jakob Lakfi
Feb 1410 – Feb 1414        Stibor Stiboriczi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1414 - Oct 1414            Vacant
Oct 1414 – 1426            Miklós Csáki (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1426 – 1435                László Csáki
1435 – Jan 1438            Petre Cseh
Jan 1438 – 1440            Desiderius Losonczi
                             (Dezso Losonczi)
1440 – Mar 1441            László Jakcs
Mar 1441 – Jun 1446        Janos Hunyadi (Iancu Hunedoara)    (b. 1386 – d. 1456)
                             (in Szörény)
Jun 1446 – May 1449        Imre Bebek                         (d. 1449)
Jun 1447 - Apr 1448        Miklós Ujlacki (1st time)          (b. 1410 – d. 1477)
                             (Nikola Ilocki)
Apr 1447 – May 1449        Iancu Hunedoarayi                  (b. c.1407 - d. 1456)
                             (Janós Hunyadi)
May 1449 – 1458            Miklós Ujlacki (2nd time)          (s.a.)
May 1449 – 1460            János Rozgonyi                     (d. 1471)
1458 – Apr 1460            Sebastian Rozgonyi (1st time)      (d. 1461)
                             (Sebestyén Rozgonyi)
1460 – Apr 1460            László Kaniszyi                    (d. 1477/78)
Apr 1460 – Apr 1461        Mihai Szilágyi (acting)
Apr 1461 – Sep 1461        Sebastian Rozgonyi (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1462 – 1465                Miklós Ujlacki (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1462 – 1465                Janós Pongrácz (1st time)          (d. 1476)
1465 – Oct 1467            Janós Szentgyörgyi                 (d. 1492)
1465 – 1467                Zsigmond Szentgyörgyi              (d. 1493)
1465 – 1468                Berthold Elderbach (Ellerbach)
1468 – 1472                Janós Pongrácz (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1468 – 1472                Miklós Caupor
Nov 1472 – Jan 1475        Blasius Magyar                     (d. 1490)
                             (Balázs Magyar)
Feb 1745 – 1476            Janós Pongrácz (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1476 – Mar 1479            Petre Geréb
Jul 1479 – Jan 1493        István Báthory                     (b. 1430 – d. 1493)
Jan 1493 – 1495            László Losonczy
Jan 1493 – 1499            Bartholomaeus Drágfi               (b. 1447 - d. 1501)
                             (Bertalan Drágffy)
1499 – 10 Nov 1510         Petre Szentgyörgyi
10 Nov 1510 – 10 Nov 1526  János Szápolyai                    (b. 1487 – d. 1540)
10 Nov 1526 – 1529         Petre Perényi                      (b. 1502 – d. 1548)
1529 – 1534                István Báthory, Simleui            (b. 1477 – d. 1534)
1530 – 1531                Bálint Török (acting)              (b. 1502 – d. 1551)
1531 – 1534                Hieronymus Laski (acting)          (b. 1496 – d. 1542)
                             (Jeromos Laszky)
1534 – Aug 1534            Imre Cibak
Aug 1534 – 24 Feb 1538     István Majláth                     (d. 1595)
Princesą
24 Feb 1538 – 21 Jul 1540  János Szápolyai                    (s.a.)
24 Feb 1538 – 22 Jul 1540  István Majláth (acting)            (s.a.)
22 Jul 1540 – Aug 1551     János Zsigmond Szápolyai           (b. 1540 – d. 1571)
22 Jul 1540 – Aug 1551     Regents
                           - Izabela Jagiellonka (f)          (b. 1519 – d. 1559) 
                           - György Martinuzzi, bishop        (b. 1482 – d. 1551)
                               in Nagyvárad
Aug 1551 – 1563            Ferdinand von Österreich           (b. 1503 - d. 1564)
Aug 1551 – 15..            Giovanni Battista Castaldo (acting)(b. c.1493 – d. 1563)
Apr 1552 – May 1553        Endre Bathóry de Ecsed        
May 1553 – Sep 1556        Ferenc Kendi (in dissidence)       (d. 1558)
May 1553 – Sep 1556        István Dobó (in dissidence)        (b. 1502 – d. 1572)
1563 - 14 Mar 1571         János Zsigmond Szapolyai           (b. 1540 - d. 1571)
                             (in dissidence from Aug 1540)
25 May 1571 - 12 Dec 1586  István Báthory de Somlyói          (b. 1533 - d. 1586)
                             (king of Poland/grand prince of Lithuania)
                             (acting to 28 Jan 1576)
1574 -  8 Jul 1575         Gáspár Békés de Kornyátai          (b. 1520 - d. 1580)
                             (in dissidence)
12 Dec 1586 - 23 Mar 1598  Zsigmond Báthory somlyói (1st time)(b. 1572 - d. 1613)
                             (acting to 8 Dec 1588)
 8 Apr 1598 - 14 Apr 1598  Rudolf von Österreich (1st time)   (b. 1552 - d. 1612)
                            (= Rudolf II as Holy Roman emperor)
18 Apr 1598 - 22 Aug 1598  Maria Christierna von             
(b. 1574 - d. 1621)
                             
Österreich -Princess
22 Aug 1598 - 21 Mar 1599  Zsigmond Báthory somlyói (2nd time)(s.a.)

21 Mar 1599 -  3 Nov 1599  András Báthory somlyói             (b. 1562/66 - d. 1599)
18/28Oct1599 - Sep/Oct1600 János Mihály Basarab -Governor     (b. 1558 - d. 1601)
                            
(= Mihai "Viteazul")
Oct 1600 - Mar 1601        R
udolf von Österreich (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1601 -  3 Aug 1601  Zsigmond Báthory somlyói (3rd time)(s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Aug 1601 - 1601            Rudolf von Österreich (3rd time)   (s.a.)
Jul/Aug 1601-9/19 Aug 1601 János Mihály Basarab               (s.a.)
                             (Conducător [leader])
1601 - 26 Jul 1602         Zsigmond Báthory somlyó
i (4th time)(s.a.)
29 Jun 1602 - Mar 1603     Rudolf von Österreich (4th time)   (s.a.)
                             (in dissidence to 26 Jul 1602)
Mar 1603 - 17 Jul 1603     Mózes Székely seménfalvai          (b. 1550 - d. 1603)
                             (governor to 8 May 1603)
Jul 1603 - 1605            Rudolf von Österreich (5th time)   (s.a.)
21 Feb 1605 - 29 Dec 1606  István Bocskal de Bocskó et        (b. 1557 - d. 1606) 
                             Kismarjai
                            (elected prince of Hungary 20 Apr 1605,
                             resigns 9 Feb 1606)
17 Dec 1606 - 1607         Bálint Drugeth homonnai            (b. 1577 - d. 1609)
                             (in dissidence)
22 Jan 1607 -  5 Mar 1608  Zsigmond Rákóczy felsövadászi      (b. 1544 - d. 1608)
                             (governor to 11 Feb 1607)
 7 Mar 1608 - 22 Oct 1613  Gábor Báthory báthori              (b. 1589 - d. 1613)
23 Oct 1613 - 15 Nov 1629  Gábor Bethlen iktári               (b. 1580 - d. 1629)
                             (contender king of Hungary)
16 Nov 1629 - 21 Sep 1630  Katharina von Brandenburg -Princess(b. 1604 - d. 1649)
21 Sep 1630 - 26 Nov 1630  István Bethlen iktári              (b. 1582 - d. 1648)
                             (governor to 28 Sep 1630)
 1 Dec 1630 - 11 Oct 1648  György I Rákóczy felsövadászi      (b. 1591 - d. 1648)
11 Oct 1648 -  2 Nov 1657  György II Rákóczy felsövadászi     (b. 1621 - d. 1660)
                             (1st time)
 2 Nov 1657 - 14 Jan 1658  Ferenc Rhédey krisréde             (b. 1610 - d. 1667)
14 Jan 1658 -  7 Oct 1658  György II Rákóczy felsövadászi     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
                             (continues in dissidence to 30 Mar 1659,
                             and 24 Sep 1659 - 7 Jun 1660)
 7 Oct 1658 - 31 Dec 1660  Ákos Barcsay nagybarcsai           (b. 1619 - d. 1661)
 1 Jan 1661 - 22 Jan 1662  János Kemény gyerö-monostori       (b. 1607 - d. 1662)
22 Jan 1662 - 15 Apr 1690  Mihály I Apafi apa-nagyfalvai      (b. 1632 - d. 1690)
                             (in dissidence from 14 Sep 1661)
15 Apr 1690 -  1 Jun 1696  Mihály II Apafi apa-nagyfalvai     (b. 1676 - d. 1713)
 8 Jun 1690 - 25 Oct 1690  Imre Thököly késmárki              (b. 1657 - d. 1705)
                             (in opposition)
 1 Jun 1696 -  8 Jul 1704  Leopold von Österreich             (b. 1640 - d. 1705)
 8 Jul 1704 - 14 Nov 1711  Ferenc Lipót Rákóczy de            (b. 1676 - d. 1735)
                             felsövadászi
14 Nov 1711 - 20 Oct 1740  Karl Franz Joseph von Österreich   (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                            (= Karl VI as Holy Roman emperor)
Princess

20 Oct 1740 -  2 Nov 1765  Maria Theresia von Österreich      (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
Grand Princes/Princesses (title Erdélyi Nagyfejedelem/Nagyfejedelemnö)
 2 Nov 1765 -  7 Feb 1867  the rulers of Hungary
Governors
 4 Dec 1690 - 15 Nov 1708  György gróf Bánffy losonczi        (b. 1660? - d. 1708)
                             (acting to 7 Feb 1691)
15 Nov 1708 - 10 Aug 1709  .... (acting) 
10 Aug 1709 -  2 May 1710  István gróf Haller hallerköi       (b. 16.. - d. 1710)
                             (president of the diet)
 2 May 1710 - 31 Mar 1713  István báró Wesselényi hadadi      (b. 1674 - d. 1734)
                             (1st time) (president of the diet)
31 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1731  Zsigmond gróf Kornis gönczruszkai  (b. 1677 - d. 1731)
15 Dec 1731 - Jul 1732     István báró Wesselényi hadadi      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (president of the diet)
Jul 1732 - Jul 1734        Franz Anton Paul Graf Wallis       (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                             (president of the government)
Jul 1734 -  2 Dec 1734     .... (acting) 
 2 Dec 1734 - 18 Oct 1755  János gróf Haller hallerköi        (d. 1756)
18 Oct 1755 - Dec 1755     .... (acting) 
Dec 1755 -  6 Jul 1758     Franz Wenzel Graf Wallis           (b. 1696 - d. 1770)
                             (president of the government)
 6 Jul 1758 -  7 May 1762  László gróf Kemény gyerö-monostori (d. 1774)
                             (president of the government)
 7 May 1762 - 18 May 1764  Adolf Nicolaus Baron von Buccow    (b. 1712 - d. 1764)
                             (president of the government)
18 May 1764 - 21 Jul 1764  .... (acting) 
21 Jul 1764 - 20 Oct 1767  András gróf Hadik futaki           (b. 1710 - d. 1790)
                             (president of the government)
20 Oct 1767 - 14 Dec 1767  .... (acting) 
14 Dec 1767 - 28 Sep 1770  Carl O'Donnell Graf von Tyrconnel  (b. 1715 - d. 1771)
                             (president of the government)
28 Sep 1770 - 13 Jan 1771  .... (acting) 
13 Jan 1771 -  6 Jul 1774  Maria Joseph Graf Auersperg        (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
 6 Jul 1774 -  9 Jan 1787  Samuel Brekner, Baron von          (b. 1721 - d. 1803)
                             Brukenthal 
                             (president of the government to 16 Jul 1777)
 9 Jan 1787 -  5 Jul 1822  György gróf Bánffy losonczi        (b. 1747 - d. 1822)
 
5 Jul 1822 - Nov 1834     János báró Jósika branyicskai      (b. 1778 - d. 1843)
                             (president of the government to 25 Nov 1822)
Nov 1834 - 15 Aug 1840     János gróf Kornis gönczruszkai     (b. 1781 - d. 1840)
                             (president of the government to 30 Sep 1837)
15 Aug 1840 - 30 Mar 1842  Ádám
gróf Rhédey kis-rhédei        (b. 1768 - d. 1849)
                             (president of the government)

30 Mar 1842 - 18 Oct 1848  József gróf Teleki széki           (b. 1790 - d. 1855)
14 Nov 1848 - 22 Dec 1848  Imre gróf Mikó hidvégi (1st time)  (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
                             (president of the government)
Austrian Commanding general in Transylvania
18 Oct 1848 - 11 Mar 1849  Anton Freiherr von Puchner         (b. 1779 - d. 1852)

Hungarian Commander (of the Transylvanian Army)
11 Mar 1849 - 21 Jul 1849  Józef Zachariasz Bem               (b. 1794 - d. 1850)
Russian Commander
(of the 5th Infantry Corps)
21 Jul 1849 - 26 Aug 1849  Aleksandr Nikolayevich graf Liders (b. 1790 - d. 1874)
                             (Lüders)
Civil and Military Governors
26 Aug 1849 - 18 Apr 1851  Ludwig Freiherr von Wohlgemuth     (b. 1788 - d. 1851)

24 Feb 1851 - 25 May 1851  József b
áró Kalliány kallyáni      (b. 1786 - d. 1859)
                            (acting [for
Wohlgemuth to 18 Apr 1851])
25 May 1851 - 25 Jun 1858  Karl Borromäus Fürst zu            (b. 1802 - d. 1858)

                             Schwarzenberg
 
6 Apr 1858 - 20 Sep 1858  Heinrich Freiherr von Lebzeltern   (b. 1810 - d. 1889)
                            (acting [for
Schwarzenberg to 25 Jun 1858])
Governors
20 Sep 1858 - 23 May 1861  Friedrich Prinz zu Liechtenstein   (b. 1807 - d. 1885)

Dec 1860 -  7 Dec 1861     Imre gróf Mikó hidvégi (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                            (president of the government)
 
7 Dec 1861 -  7 May 1867  Ludwig Graf Folliot de Crenneville (b. 1813 - d. 1876)
                            (president of the government)
15 Mar 1867 -  7 May 1867  Gusztáv Groisz (Gustav Groiss)     (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
                            (
vice president of government acting for Graf Folliot)
Royal Commissioner
 7 May 1867 - 30 Sep 1872  Emanuel
gróf Péchy pécsujfalusi    (b. 1813 - d. 1889)
30 Sep 1872 - 31 Oct 1918  direct rule by Hungary
President of the Central Romanian National Council
(at Arad)
31 Oct 1918 -  1 Dec 1918  Ştefan Cicio-Pop                   (b. 1865 - d. 1934)  PNR 
President of the National Government of the Romanian Nation
 1 Dec 1918 -  2 Dec 1918  Gheorghe Pop de Băseşti            (b. 1835 - d. 1919)  PNR
President of the Directing Council 
 2 Dec 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Iuliu Maniu                        (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  PNR
                             (continues to 4 Apr 1920)
Hungarian Government Commissioners for Northern Transylvania
12 Apr 1944 - Sep 1944     Béla Ricsóy-Uhlarik                (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
Sep 1944 - Oct 1944        Béla gróf Bethlen                  (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
Romanian Commissioner
Oct 1944 - 12 Nov 1944     Ionel Pop                          (b. 1889 - d. 1985)  PNT
Chairmen of Executive Committee for Northern Transylvania

Feb 1945 - 1945            Teofil T. Vescan                   (b. 1913 - d. 1933)
                           + Lajos Jordáky                    (b. 1913 - d. 1974) 

Romanian Commanders in Eastern Transylvania
28 Aug 1916 - Sep 1916     Ioan Culcer                        (b. 1853 - d. 1928)
28 Aug 1916 -  8 Oct 1916  Alexandru Averescu                 (b. 1859 - d. 1938)
28 Aug 1916 - 13 Oct 1916  Constantin Prezan                  (b. 1861 - d. 1943)

  ąfull style to c.1740: Dei gratia Princeps Transylvaniae, Partium Regni Hungariae Dominus, et Siculorum Comes ("By the grace of God, Prince of Transylvania, Lord of a part of the kingdom of Hungary and Count of the Szeklers").

 Party abbreviations: PNR = Partidul Naţional Român din Transilvania şi Banat (Romanian National Party in Transylvania and Banat, liberal, Romanian autonomist, merger of Partidul Naţional al Românilor din Banat şi Ungaria [National Party of Romanians in Banat and Hungary] and Partidul Naţional al Românilor din Transilvania [National Party of Romanians in Transylvania], 1881-1926, from 1919 named Partidul Naţional Român [Romanian National Party], merged into PNT); PNT = Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc (National Peasants' Party, conservative, merger of PT and PNR, 1926-38, 1944-48)


Hungarian Autonomous Region

Map of Hungarian
Autonomous Region 1952-68
Capital: Marosvásárhely
(
Târgu-Mureş)
Population: 730,000 (1952)

24 Sep 1952                Hungarian Autonomous Region (Regiunea Autonomă Maghiară [Magyar
                             Autonóm Tartomány
]) created from Covasna, Harghita and part of
                             Mureş counties.
24 Dec 1960                Re-organized as Mureş Hungarian Autonomous Region (Regiunea Mureş-
                             Autonomă Maghiară
); some counties are ceded to Braşov Region
                             and some are acquired from Cluj Region.
16 Feb 1968                Region dissolved.

First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Romanian Communist Party
Sep 1952 -  7 Jul 1961     Ludovic Csupor (Lajos Csupor)      (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
 7 Jul 1961 - 21 Aug 1965  József Bánk (Iosif Banc)           (b. 1921 - d. 2007)    
21 Aug 1965 - 1968         József Uglar (Iosif Uglar)         (b. 1920 - d. 2006)  

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Regional People's Council
Sep 1952 - 1958            Pál Bugyi                          (b. 1919 - d. ....)  PCR
1958 - 1959                Zoltán Szövérfi                                         PCR
1959 - Jan 1962            László Lukács (Laszlo Luca)        (b. 1898 - d. 1963)  PCR
Jan 1962 - 1968?           Demeter Puni (Dumitru Puni)                             PCR

Party abbreviation: PCR = Partidul Comunist Român (Romanian Communist Party, communist, 1965-1989 only legal party, 1921-48 named Partidul Comunist din România [Communist Party of Rumania], 1948-65 named PMR, 1921-1948 & 1965-90)

Romania

23 Dec 1861                United Rumanian Principalities (in usage by Ottoman suzerain
                             23 Dec 1861 - 13 Jul 1878:
United Principalities of Moldavia
                             and Romanian Lands
).
12 Jul 1866                Rumania
21 May 1877                Independence from Ottoman Empire proclaimed.
13 Jul 1878                Independence recognized internationally.
26 Mar 1881                Kingdom of Rumania
 
2 Sep 1916 - 29 Nov 1918  Occupation of Rumania (in Bucharest from 22 Dec 1916), by the
                             Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and
                             Ottoman Empire).

31 Aug 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Allied (Soviet) occupation.
30 Dec 1947                Rumanian People's Republic
21 Aug 1965                Socialist Republic of Rumania
Feb 1966                   English spelling officially changed to Romania.
29 Dec 1989                Romania

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR)
(21 Feb 1948 - 19 Jul 1965,
Romanian Workers' Party [PMR])
Oct 1945 - 20 Apr 1954     Gheorghe Tănase Gheorghiu-Dej      (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
First Secretaries of the Central Committee
20 Apr 1954 -  2 Oct 1955  Gheorghe Apostol                   (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
 2 Oct 1955 - 19 Mar 1965  Gheorghe Tănase Gheorghiu-Dej      (s.a.)
19 Mar 1965 - 22 Mar 1965  Secretaries
                           - Nicolae Andrută Ceauşescu        (b. 1918 - d. 1989)
                           - János Fazekas                    (b. 1926 - d. 2004)
                           - Vladimir Gheorghiu 
                           (acting)
22 Mar 1965 - 24 Jul 1965  Nicolae Andruţă Ceauşescu          (s.a.)
General Secretary
24 Jul 1965 - 22 Dec 1989  Nicolae Andruţă Ceauşescu          (s.a.)

Princesą
23 Dec 1861 - 23 Feb 1866  Alexandru Ioan I                   (b. 1820 - d. 1873)
23 Feb 1866 - 22 May 1866  Princely Lieutenancy
                           - Nicolae Constantin Golescu       (b. 1810 - d. 1878)  Lib
                           - Lascăr Constantin Catargiu       (b. 1823 - d. 1899)  Con
                           - Nicolae Constantin Haralambie    (b. 1831 - d. 1908)  Mil
                             
(Haralamb)
22 May 1866 - 26 Mar 1881  Carol I                            (b. 1839 - d. 1914) 

Kingsą
26 Mar 1881 - 10 Oct 1914  Carol I                            (s.a.)
11 Oct 1914 - 20 Jul 1927  Ferdinand I                        (b. 1865 - d. 1927)
                             (in refuge at Iaşi 6 Dec 1916 - 10 Dec 1918) 
20 Jul 1927 -  8 Jun 1930  Mihai I (Michael I)(1st time)      (b. 1921)
20 Jul 1927 -  8 Jun 1930  Regency
                           - Prince Nicolae de România        (b. 1903 - d. 1978)  Non-party
                           - Patriarch Miron Cristea          (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Non-party
                           - Gheorghe Vasile Buzdugan         (b. 1867 - d. 1929)  Non-party 
                              (to 7 Oct 1929)
                           - Constantin Constantin Sărăţeanu  (b. 1882 - d. 1935) 
                              (from 9 Oct 1929)
 8 Jun 1930 -  6 Sep 1940  Carol II                           (b. 1893 - d. 1953)
 6 Sep 1940 - 30 Dec 1947  Mihai I (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
Presidents of the Provisional Presidium of the Romanian People's Republic
30 Dec 1947                Petru Adam Groza (acting)          (b. 1884 - d. 1958)  FP
                             (president of the council of ministers)
30 Dec 1947 -  9 Jan 1948  Constantin Ion Parhon              (b. 1874 - d. 1969)  PCR
                           + Mihail Alexandru Sadoveanu       (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  BPD
                           + Ştefan Voitec                    (b. 1900 - d. 1984)  PCR
                           + Gheorghe Constantin Stere        (b. 1893 - d. 1970) 
                           + Ion Niculi                       (b. 1887 - d. 1979)  PCR
                           (acting)
 9 Jan 1948 - 13 Apr 1948  Constantin Ion Parhon              (s.a.)              PCR;1948 PMR
Presidents of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly
13 Apr 1948 -  2 Jun 1952  Constantin Ion Parhon              (s.a.)               PMR
 2 Jun 1952 -  7 Jan 1958  Petru Adam Groza                   (s.a.)               FP
 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Jan 1958  Mihail Alexandru Sadoveanu         (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Anton Moisescu                   (b. 1913 - d. 2002)  PMR
                           (acting)
11 Jan 1958 - 21 Mar 1961  Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer          (b. 1902 - d. 2000)  PMR
Presidents of the State Council
21 Mar 1961 - 19 Mar 1965  Gheorghe Tănase Gheorghiu-Dej      (s.a.)               PMR
19 Mar 1965 - 24 Mar 1965  Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer          (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Ştefan Voitec                    (s.a.)               PMR
                           + Avram Bunaciu                    (b. 1909 - d. 1983)  PMR
                           (acting)
24 Mar 1965 -  9 Dec 1967  Chivu Stoica                       (b. 1908 - d. 1975) PMR;1965 PCR
 9 Dec 1967 - 28 Mar 1974  Nicolae Andruţă Ceauşescu          (s.a.)               PCR
Presidents
28 Mar 1974 - 22 Dec 1989  Nicolae Andruţă Ceauşescu          (s.a.)               PCR
22 Dec 1989 - 26 Dec 1989  Council of the National Salvation Front˛
26 Dec 1989 - 29 Nov 1996  Ion Alexandru Iliescu (1st time)   (b. 1930)         FSN;1992 FSDN;
                            (president of the Council of the National Salvation    1996 PDSR
                             Front to 13 Feb 1990; then president of the
                             Provisional Council of National Unity to 21 Jun 1990)
29 Nov 1996 - 20 Dec 2000  Emil Ion Constantinescu            (b. 1939)            PNT-CD 
20 Dec 2000 - 20 Dec 2004  Ion Alexandru Iliescu (2nd time)   (s.a.)             PDSR;2001 PSD
20 Dec 2004 -              Traian Dumitru Băsescu             (b. 1951)            PD;2004 
                             (suspended 20 Apr - 23 May 2007                       Non-party
                             and 9 Jul - 27 Aug 2012)
20 Apr 2007 - 23 May 2007  Nicolae Văcăroiu                   (b. 1943)            PSD
                             (acting for suspended Basescu)
10 Jul 2012 - 27 Aug 2012  George Crin Laurenţiu Antonescu    (b. 1959)            PNL
                             (acting for suspended Basescu)


Presidents of the Council of Ministers (Prime ministers)
 3 Feb 1862 - 20 Jun 1862  Barbu Ştefan Catargiu              (b. 1807 - d. 1862)  Con
20 Jun 1862 -  6 Jul 1862  Apostol Arsachi (interim)          (b. 1789 - d. 1869)  Con
 6 Jul 1862 - 24 Oct 1863  Nicolae Alexandru Creţulescu       (b. 1812 - d. 1900)  Mod
                             (Kretzulescu)(1st time)  
24 Oct 1863 -  7 Feb 1865  Mihail Ilie Kogălniceanu           (b. 1817 - d. 1891)  Lib
 
7 Feb 1865 - 26 Jun 1865  Constantin Andrei Bozianu          (b. 1815 - d. 1882)  Mod
26 Jun 1865 - 23 Feb 1866  Nicolae Alexandru Creţulescu       (s.a.)               Mod
                             (2nd time)
23 Feb 1866 - 23 May 1866  Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica          (b. 1817 - d. 1897)  Lib
                             (Ghika)(1st time)
23 May 1866 - 28 Jul 1866  Lascăr Constantin Catargiu         (s.a.)               Con
                             (1st time) 
28 Jul 1866 - 13 Mar 1867  Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (2nd time)  
13 Mar 1867 - 29 Aug 1867  Constantin Alexandru Creţulescu    (b. 1809 - d. 1884)  Mod
                             (Kretzulescu)
29 Aug 1867 - 13 May 1868  Ştefan Dinicu Golescu              (b. 1809 - d. 1874)  Rad
13 May 1868 - 29 Nov 1868  Nicolae Constantin Golescu         (s.a.)               Rad
29 Nov 1868 - 14 Feb 1870  Prince Dimitrie Grigore Ghica      (b. 1816 - d. 1897)  Con
                             (Ghika)
14 Feb 1870 -  2 May 1870  Alexandru Iordache Golescu         (b. 1819 - d. 1881)  Mod 

 2 May 1870 - 30 Dec 1870  Emanoil Costache Epureanu          (b. 1824 - d. 1880)  PNL
                             (1st time) 
30 Dec 1870 - 24 Mar 1871  Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica          (s.a.)               Lib
                             (3rd time)   
24 Mar 1871 - 17 Apr 1876  Lascăr Constantin Catargiu         (s.a.)               Con
                             (2nd time)
17 Apr 1876 - 10 May 1876  Ion Emanoil Florescu (1st time)    (b. 1819 - d. 1893)  Con
10 May 1876 -  6 Aug 1876  Emanoil Costache Epureanu          (s.a.)               PNL
                             (2nd time) 
 6 Aug 1876 - 22 Apr 1881  Ion Constantin Brătianu (1st time) (b. 1821 - d. 1891)  PNL
22 Apr 1881 - 21 Jun 1881  Dimitrie Constantin Brătianu       (b. 1818 - d. 1892)  PNL
21 Jun 1881 -  3 Apr 1888  Ion Constantin Brătianu (2nd time) (s.a.)               PNL
 
3 Apr 1888 - 10 Apr 1889  Teodor Gheorghe Rosetti            (b. 1837 - d. 1923)  PC
10 Apr 1889 - 16 Nov 1889  Lascăr Constantin Catargiu         (s.a.)               PC
                             (3rd time) 
16 Nov 1889 -  6 Mar 1891  Gheorghe Ioan Manu                 (b. 1833 - d. 1911)  PC
 
6 Mar 1891 -  9 Dec 1891  Ion Emanoil Florescu (2nd time)    (s.a.)               PC
 9 Dec 1891 - 16 Oct 1895  Lascăr Constantin Catargiu         (s.a.)               PC
                             (4th time)
16 Oct 1895 -  3 Dec 1896  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza-        (b. 1833 - d. 1914)  PNL
                             Miclăuşanu (1st time)
 3 Dec 1896 - 12 Apr 1897  Petre Sebeşanu Aurelian            (b. 1833 - d. 1909)  PNL
12 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1899  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza-        (s.a.)               PNL
                             Miclăuşanu (2nd time)
23 Apr 1899 - 19 Jul 1900  Prince Gheorghe Grigore            (b. 1832 - d. 1913)  PC
                             Cantacuzino (1st time)
19 Jul 1900 - 26 Feb 1901  Petre Petre Carp (1st time)        (b. 1837 - d. 1918)  PC
26 Feb 1901 -  4 Jan 1905  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza         (s.a.)               PNL
                             Miclăuşanu (3rd time)
 
4 Jan 1905 - 24 Mar 1907  Prince Gheorghe Grigore            (s.a.)               PC
                             Cantacuzino (2nd time)
24 Mar 1907 -  9 Jan 1909  Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza-        (s.a.)               PNL
                             (4th time) 
 
9 Jan 1909 - 11 Jan 1911  Ioan Ioan Constantin Brătianu      (b. 1864 - d. 1927)  PNL
                             (1st time)
11 Jan 1911 - 10 Apr 1912  Petre Petre Carp (2nd time)        (s.a.)               PC
10 Apr 1912 - 16 Jan 1914  Titu Liviu Ioan Maiorescu          (b. 1840 - d. 1917)  PC
16 Jan 1914 - 11 Feb 1918  Ioan Ioan Constantin Brătianu      (s.a.)               PNL
                             (2nd time)(from 6 Dec 1916, in refuge at Iaşi)
11 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918  Alexandru Constantin Avarescu      (b. 1859 - d. 1938)  Mil
                             (1st time)(in refuge at Iaşi)
19 Mar 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Alexandru Iancu Marghiloman        (b. 1854 - d. 1925)  PC
 5
Nov 1918 - 11 Dec 1918  Constantin Henri Coandă            (b. 1857 - d. 1932)  Mil
11 Dec 1918 -  9 Oct 1919  Ioan Ioan Constantin Brătianu      (s.a.)               PNL
                             (3rd time)
 
9 Oct 1919 - 13 Dec 1919  Arthur Văitoianu                   (b. 1864 - d. 1957)  PNL 
13 Dec 1919 - 16 Mar 1920  Alexandru Dionisie Vaida-Voievod   (b. 1872 - d. 1950)  PNR
                             (1st time)
22 Jan 1920 - 16 Mar 1920  Ştefan Cicio Pop                   (b. 1865 - d. 1934)  PNR
                             (acting for Vaida-Voievod)
16 Mar 1920 - 17 Dec 1921  Alexandru Constantin Avarescu      (s.a.)               PP
                             (2nd time)
17 Dec 1921 - 19 Jan 1922  Dumitru Gheorghe Ionescu           (b. 1858 - d. 1922)  PCD
19 Jan 1922 - 30 Mar 1926  Ion Ioan Constantin Brătianu       (s.a.)               PNL
                             (4th time)
30 Mar 1926 -  5 Jun 1927  Alexandru Constantin Avarescu      (s.a.)               PP
                             (3rd time) 
 5 Jun 1927 - 21 Jun 1927  Prince Barbu Alexandru Ştirbey     (b. 1873 - d. 1946)  Non-party
22 Jun 1927 - 24 Nov 1927  Ion Ioan Constantin Brătianu       (s.a.)               PNL
                             (5th time)
24 Nov 1927 - 11 Nov 1928  Vintilă Ion Constantin Brătianu    (b. 1867 - d. 1930)  PNL
11 Nov 1928 -  7 Jun 1930  Iuliu Ion Maniu (1st time)         (b. 1873 - d. 1953)  PNT
 7 Jun 1930 - 13 Jun 1930  Gheorghe Gheorghe Mironescu        (b. 1874 - d. 1949)  PNT
                             (1st time)  
13 Jun 1930 - 10 Oct 1930  Iuliu Ion Maniu (2nd time)         (s.a.)               PNT
                             (2nd time)
10 Oct 1930 - 18 Apr 1931  Gheorghe Gheorghe Mironescu        (s.a.)               PNT
18 Apr 1931 -  6 Jun 1932  Nicolae Nicu Iorga                 (b. 1871 - d. 1940)  PND
 6 Jun 1932 - 20 Oct 1932  Alexandru Dionisie Vaida-Voievod   (s.a.)               PNT
                             (2nd time)
20 Oct 1932 - 14 Jan 1933  Iuliu Ion  Maniu (3rd time)        (s.a.)               PNT
14 Jan 1933 - 14 Nov 1933  Alexandru Dionisie Vaida-Voievod   (s.a.)               PNT
                             (3rd time)
14 Nov 1933 - 29 Dec 1933  Ion Gheorghe Duca                  (b. 1879 - d. 1933)  PNL
30 Dec 1933 -  5 Jan 1934  Constantin Dumitru Angelescu       (b. 1869 - d. 1942)  PNL
 5 Jan 1934 - 28 Dec 1937  Gheorghe Tătărescu (1st time)      (b. 1886 - d. 1957)  PNL
28 Dec 1937 - 10 Feb 1938  Octavian Iosif Goga                (b. 1881 - d. 1938)  PNC
10 Feb 1938 -  6 Mar 1939  Patriarch Miron Cristea            (s.a.)               Non-party
 6 Mar 1939 - 21 Sep 1939  Armand Mihail Călinescu            (b. 1893 - d. 1939)  FRN
21 Sep 1939 - 28 Sep 1939  Gheorghe Vasile Argeşeanu          (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  Mil
28 Sep 1939 - 24 Nov 1939  Constantin Ioan Argetoianu         (b. 1871 - d. 1952)  FRN
24 Nov 1939 -  4 Jul 1940  Gheorghe Tătărescu (2nd time)      (s.a.)               FRN;1940 PN
 4 Jul 1940 -  4 Sep 1940  Ion Petre Gigurtu                  (b. 1886 - d. 1959)  PN
 4 Sep 1940 - 23 Aug 1944  Ion Victor Antonescu               (b. 1882 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (from 14 Sep 1940 styled Conducător al Statului
                             [Leader of the State])
23 Aug 1944 -  6 Dec 1944  Constantin Sănătescu               (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  Mil
26 Aug 1944 - 12 Apr 1945  Horia Sima                         (b. 1907 - d. 1993)  GF
                            (in dissidence; prime minister of the national 
                             government in Vienna [from Feb 1945, Altaussee] exile)
 6 Dec 1944 -  6 Mar 1945  Nicolae Radu Rădescu               (b. 1874 - d. 1953)  Mil
 6 Mar 1945 -  2 Jun 1952  Petru Adam Groza                   (s.a.)               FP
 2 Jun 1952 -  3 Oct 1955  Gheorghe Tănase Gheorghiu-Dej      (s.a.)               PMR
 3 Oct 1955 - 21 Mar 1961  Chivu Stoica                       (s.a.)               PMR
21 Mar 1961 - 28 Mar 1974  Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer          (s.a.)              PMR;1965 PCR
Prime ministers
28 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1979  Manea Mănescu                      (b. 1916 - d. 2009)  PCR 
29 Mar 1979 - 21 May 1982  Ilie Verdeţ                        (b. 1925 - d. 2001)  PCR
21 May 1982 - 22 Dec 1989  Constantin Dăscălescu              (b. 1923 - d. 2003)  PCR
22 Dec 1989 - 26 Dec 1989  Vacant
26 Dec 1989 -  1 Oct 1991  Petre Valter Roman                 (b. 1946)            FSN
 1 Oct 1991 - 20 Nov 1992  Theodor Dumitru Stolojan           (b. 1943)            PNL
20 Nov 1992 - 12 Dec 1996  Nicolae Văcăroiu                   (s.a.)       Non-party;1993 PDSR
12 Dec 1996 - 30 Mar 1998  Victor Ciorbea                     (b. 1954)            PNT-CD 
30 Mar 1998 - 17 Apr 1998  Gavril Dejeu (interim)             (b. 1932)            PNT-CD 
17 Apr 1998 - 13 Dec 1999  Radu Vasile                        (b. 1942 - d. 2013)  PNT-CD 
13 Dec 1999 - 22 Dec 1999  Alexandru Athanasiu (interim)      (b. 1955)            PSDR
22 Dec 1999 - 28 Dec 2000  Constantin Mugurel Isărescu        (b. 1949)            Non-party
28 Dec 2000 - 21 Dec 2004  Adrian Marian Năstase              (b. 1950)          PDSR;2001 PSD
21 Dec 2004 - 29 Dec 2004  Eugen Bejinariu (interim)          (b. 1959)            PSD
29 Dec 2004 - 22 Dec 2008  Călin Constantin Anton Popescu-    (b. 1952)            PNL
                             Tăriceanu
22 Dec 2008 -  6 Feb 2012  Emil Boc                           (b. 1966)            PDL
 6 Feb 2012 -  9 Feb 2012  Cătălin Marian Predoiu (interim)   (b. 1968)            PNL
 9 Feb 2012 -  7 May 2012  Mihai Răzvan Ştefan Ungureanu      (b. 1968)            Non-party
 7 May 2012 -              Victor-Viorel Ponta                (b. 1972)            PSD

Central Powers Occupation

German Commander of Army Group Mackensen (from 22 May 1918, Commander-in-chief
of the Army of Occupation in Rumania (from 22 Dec 1916 in Bucharest)
29 Aug 1916 - 11 Nov 1918  Anton Ludwig Friedrich August von  (b. 1849 - d. 1945)
                            
Mackensen
Governor of the Military Administration in 
Rumania
(joint condominium of the Central Powers)
22 Dec 1916 - 22 May 1918  Erich Theodor Franz Tülff von      (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
                            
Tschepe und Weidenbach (Germany)

Home Affairs Secretary-general
(subordinated to the Military Government in Rumania)
Dec 1916 -  7 May 1918    
Nicolae Lupu Costache                                   Non-party


Allied (Soviet) Occupation

Soviet Military Commander
31 Aug 1944 - 15 Sep 1944  Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovskiy     (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
Chairman of the Allied Control Commission
12 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovskiy     (s.a.)
                             (Soviet Union)
12 Sep 1944 - Feb 1945     Vladislav Petrovich Vinogradov     (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
                             (Soviet Union)(acting for Malinovskiy)
Feb 1945 - 15 Sep 1947     Ivan Zakharovich Susaykov          (b. 1903 - d. 1962)
                             (Soviet Union)(acting for Malinovskiy)

 ąThe full style of the rulers:
(a) 3 Feb 1862 - 12 Jul 1866 (New Style): Cu mila lui Dumnezeu şi voinţa naţională Domn [or Domnitor] Principatelor-Unite-Române ("with the God's help and by the Will of the Nation, Lord [or Ruler] of the United Romanian Principalities");
(b) 12 Jul 1866 - 26 Mar 1881 (New Style): Din graţia lui Dumnezeu şi prin voinţa naţională, Domn al Românilor ("by the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation, Lord of the Romanians") note: in this style, the word "Domn" (Lord) is often replaced by "Domnitor" (Ruler) or by "Principe" (Prince); and the words "al Românilor" (of the Romanians) are sometimes replaced by "al României" (of Romania). There was no obvious rule to these substitutions; they occur, i.e., on coins, state seals;
(c) 26 Mar 1881 - 30 Dec 1947: Prin graţia lui Dumnezeu şi voinţa naţională, Rege al României ("by the Grace of the God and by the Will of the Nation, King of Romania") note: in this style, the words "al României" {of Romania} are sometimes replaced by "al Românilor" (of the Romanians).

 ˛members of the Council of the National Salvation Front (Consiliul Frontului Salvării Naţionale) 22 Dec - 26 Dec 1989 were: Ion Iliescu (s.a.)(spokesman), Doina Cornea (f) (b. 1929), Ana Blandiana (f) (b. 1942), Mircea Dinescu (b. 1950), László Tökés (b. 1952), Dumitru Mazilu (b. 1934), Dan Deşliu (b. 1927 - d. 1992), Aurel Dragoş Munteanu (b. 1942 - d. 2005), Corneliu Mănescu (b. 1916 - d. 2000), Alexandru Bîrlădeanu (b. 1911 - d. 1997), Silviu Brucan (b. 1916 - d. 2006), Petre Roman (s.a.), Ion Caramitru (b. 1942), Sergiu Nicolaescu (b. 1930 - d. 2013), Mihai Montanu (b. 1949), Mihai Ispas, Gelu Voican-Voiculescu (b. 1941), Dan Marţian (b. 1935 - d. 2002), Vasile Neacşa, Cristina Ciontu (f), Marian Baciu, Bujor-Bogdan Teodoriu (b. 1953), Eugenia Iorga (f), Paul Negriţiu, Gheorghe Manole (b. 1949), Vladimir Ionescu, Adrian Sîrbu (b. 1955), Constantin Cîrjan, Géza Domokos (b. 1928 - d. 2007), Magdalena Ionescu (f), Marian Mierlă, Constantin Ivanovici (b. 1947), Vlad Ovidiu, Valeriu Bucurescu, Ştefan Guşă (b. 1940 - d. 1994), Victor Stănculescu (b. 1928), Dan Voinea (b. 1959), Mihai Lupoi (b. 1953 - d. 2012), and Emil Dumitrescu (b. 1935).

Territorial Disputes: The ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiinii/Zmiyinyy/Şerpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Party abbreviations: PDL = Partidul Democrat Liberal (Democratic Liberal Party, center-right, merger of PD and Partidul Liberal Democrat [Liberal Democratic Party], est.2007); PNL = Partidul Naţional Liberal (National Liberal Party, liberal, center-right, 1875-1938, 1944-47, re-est.1990); PNT-CD = Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat (Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, christian-democratic, PNT successor, est.1990); PSD = Partidul Social Democrat (Social Democrat Party, social-democratic, merger of PDSR and PSDR, est.16 Jan 2001); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: BPD = Blocul Partidelor Democrate (Democratic Parties Bloc, pro-communist electoral alliance of PCR, FP, PNL, PNT, PSDR, Uniunea Patrioţilor [Patriots Union], and Comitetul Democrat Evreiesc [Jewish Democratic Committee], 1946-1948); Con = Conservative (19th cent. conservatives); FP = Frontul Plugarilor (Ploughmen's Front left-wing agrarian, 1933-1953); FRN = Frontul Renaşterii Naţionale (National Renasisance Front, fascist, nationalist, only legal party, 15 Dec 1938-22 Jun 1940, replaced by PN); FDSN = Frontul Democrat al Salvării Naţionale (Democratic National Salvation Front, split from FSN, 7 Apr 1992-10 Jul 1993, then PSDR); FSN = Frontul Salvării Naţionale (National Salvation Front, split from PCR, 22 Dec 1989-31 Mar 1993, then PD); GF = Mişcarea Legionară sau Garda de Fier (Iron Guard Legionary Movement, fascist, banned Dec 1933, re-founded 1935 as Totul pentru Ţară [Everything for the Country], 1927-33, 1935-38, 14 Sep 1940-23 Jan 1941, in exile 1944-45); Lib = Liberal (19th cent. liberals); Mod = Moderate (19th cent. moderates); PC = Partidul Conservator (Conservative Party, conservative, 1880-1925); PCD = Partidul Conservator-Democrat (Conservative Democratic Party, split from PC, 1918-1922, merged with PNR); PCR = Partidul Comunist Român (Romanian Communist Party, communist, 1965-Dec 1989 only legal party, 1921-48 named Partidul Comunist din România [Communist Party of Rumania], 1948-65 named PMR, 1921-38, 1944-48 & 1965-12 Jan 1990); PD = Partidul Democrat (Democratic Party, social-democratic, former FSN, 1993-2007, merged into PDL); PDSR = Partidul Democraţiei Sociale din România (Party of Social Democracy in Romania, ex-communist, former FSDN, 10 Jul 1993-16 Jan 2001, merged into PSDR); PMR = Partidul Muncitoresc Român (Romanian Workers' Party, communist, state party, 21 Feb 1948-Jul 1965, previously and later named PCR); PN = Partidul Naţiunii (Party of the Nation, fascist, nationalist, former FRN, only legal party, 22 Jun 1940-14 Sep 1940, replaced by GF); PNR = Partidul Naţional Român (Rumanian National Party, liberal, until 1919 named Partidul Naţional Român din Transilvania şi Banat [Romanian National Party in Transylvania and Banat], 1881-1926, merged into PNT); PNT = Partidul Naţional Ţărănesc (National Peasants' Party, conservative, merger of PT and PNR, 1926-38, 1944-48); PP = Partidul Poporului (People's Party, populist, Alexandru Averescu personalist, 1918-1932); Rad = Radical (19th cent. radical liberals); PSDR = Partidul Social Democrat Român (Romanian Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1910-16, 1927-38, 1944-Feb 1948, merged with PMR, restored 1990-16 Jan 2001, merged into PSD)



Banat

10th cent.                 Duchy of Banat
29 Apr 1091                Under rule by the Cumans.
31 Jul 1227                Part of Hungary.
1279                       Part of Walachia.
 9 Jan 1438                Part of Ottoman Empire (from 1485, Pashalik of Temesvár).
17 Oct 1716 -  2 Nov 1716  Austrian occupation.
 2 Nov 1716 - 23 Apr 1779  Under Austrian administration (Banate of Temeswar).
23 Apr 1779                Incorporated into Hungary.
18 Nov 1849                Vojvodina autonomous within the Austrian Empire as 
                             Voivodship of Serbia and Banate of Temeswar
                             (see Vojvodina under Serbia).
27 Dec 1860                Autonomy abolished, re-incorporated into Hungary.
21 Dec 1867                Part of the "Hungarian" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
                             (i.e. of the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown"). 
31 Oct 1918                Independence declared as the Banat Republic (recognized only
                             by Hungary), with a capital at Temesvár (Timişoara).
15 Nov 1918 - 26 Jul 1919  Serbian occupation of Temesvár.
 3 Dec 1918 - 12 Aug 1919  Occupied by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers.
13 Jun 1919                Divsion of Banat of Temesvar agreed by Paris Peace Conference.
                            
eastern Banat (Temesvár/Timişoara) ceded to Romania; western
                             Banat (Bačka and Novi Sad) ceded to Serbia
.
28 Jul 1919              
  Romanian administration of Timişoara begins.
 4 Jun 1920                Treaty of Trianon with Hungary formally cedes eastern Banat to
                             Romania and western Banat to Serbia
(see under Vojvodina)

Pashas of Temesvar
1698 - 28 Feb 1699         Çelebi Yusuf Pasha
1699                       Sari Ahmed Pasha
1699 - 1701                Elci Ibrahim Pasha
1701 - 1702                Hagi Mustafa Pasha?  
                            (or Kandilci Huseyin or Ali Pasha?)
1702 - 1703                Yusuf Pasha
1703 - 1704                Hagi/Hazinedar Ibrahim Pasha
1704 - Feb 1706            Dellak Ali Pasha
 5 Jul 1706 - Oct 1708     Gümrükçü/Kiipti Ali Pasha
Oct 1708 - 1709            Firari Hasan Pasha
1709/10 - 1713             Sari Mustafa Pasha
15 Dec 1713 - 17 Oct 1718  Mustafa Pasha
Austrian Commander
17 Oct 1716 -  2 Nov 1716  François-Eugéne Fürst von Savoie-  (b. 1663 - d. 1736)
                             Soissons 
Governors
 2 Nov 1716 - 29 Jun 1734  Claudius Florimund, Count Mercy    (b. 1666 - d. 1734)
                             d'Argenteau 
1719 - 1722                Franz Paul Graf von Wallis         (b. 1677 - d. 1737)
                             (acting for Mercy)(1st time)
1733 - 1734                Franz Paul Graf von Wallis         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Mercy)(2nd time)
1734 -  9 Jan 1738         Johann Andreas Graf Hamilton       (b. 1679 - d. 1738)
 9 Jan 1738 - 18 Feb 1738  Johann Jakob Benedikt von Neffzern
                             (acting) 
18 Feb 1738 - 1740         Wilhelm Reinhard Graf von Neipperg (b. 1684 - d. 1774)
1740 - 1742                Scotti (acting)
1742 - 18 Oct 1753         Franz Leopold Anton Ponz Freiherr  (b. 1692 - d. 1772)
                             von Engelshofen
219 Dec 1753 - Dec 1768    Francesco de Paula Ramón Graf      (b. 1704 - d. 1773)
                             Vilana-Perlas, marchese de Rialpo
Jan 1769 - 1774            Franz Wenzel Graf von Clary und    (b. 1706 - d. 1788)
                             und Aldringen
1774 - 1779                Giovani Pompeo Graf von Brigido    (b. 1729 - d. 1811)
                             und Bresowitz
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Banat People's Council
31 Oct 1918 - 15 Nov 1918  Otto Roth                          (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
Serbian Commander
15 Nov 1918 - 24 Nov 1918  Živojin Mišić                      (b. 1855 - d. 1921)
Commander of Serbian Troops, Banat
28 May 1919 - 27 Aug 1919  Pantelija-Panta Grujić             (b. 1866 - d. 1958)
Prefect
20 Feb 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Martin Philippon (Serbia)          (b. 1884 - d. 1967)
Commander of Allied Forces in Banat
23 Jul 1919 - 12 Aug 1919  Charles Louis Joseph de Tournadre  (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
                             (France)


Lugos (Lugoj) Neutral Zone

22 Mar 1919                Allied occupation of a neutral zone (called Lugos county/circle)
                             in eastern Banat.
23 Jul 1919                Incorporated into Romania.

Allied Commanders 
22 Mar 1919 -  3 Jun 1919  Léon Gaston Jean-Baptiste Farret   (b. 1861 - d. 1928)
                            
(France)
22 Mar 1919 -  3 Jun 1919 
Papillon (1st time)(France)
                             (acting for Farret)

 3 Jun 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Charles Louis Joseph de Tournadre  (s.a.)
                             (France)
 3 Jun 1919 - 18 Jul 1919  Papillon (2nd time)(France)
                             (acting for de Tournadre)

18 Jul 1919 - 23 Jul 1919  Jean Joseph Colin Lucien Alfred    (b. 1867 - d. 1939)
                             Bétrix (France)

                             (acting for de Tournadre)

Bukovina: see under Ukraine

Dobruja

109.                       Part of Bulgaria.
1388                       Ottoman rule (vilayet of Silistra).
17 Mar 1390 - Oct 1396     Part of Walachia (Romanian: Dobrogea).
1404 - Oct 1419            Part of Walachia.
1810 - 1810                Russian occupation.
Apr 1828 - 1836            Russian occupation.
1864                       Merged into the vilayet Tuna (see Bulgaria).
10 Jun 1877 -  8 Oct 1878  Russian occupation.
19 Feb 1878 -  1 Jul 1878  Bulgaria is ceded the Mangalia strip.
 8 Oct 1878                Ceded by Russia to Romania in return for
three districts in
                             southern Bessarabia
1908                       Full incorporation into Romania.
 
8 May 1913                Bulgaria cedes city of Silistra to Romania.
10 Jul 1913                Romania occupies southern extension of Dobruja,
                             Cadrilater, with the counties Darstor and Caliacra.
10 Aug 1913                Southern Dobruja formally ceded by Bulgaria to Romania.
 9 Oct 1916                Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, German, and Ottoman occupation.
 7 May 1918 -  8 Dec 1919  Bulgaria annexes Southern Dobruja and Silistra.
 7 May 1918 - 25 Sep 1918  Joint Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and 
                             Ottoman Empire) condominium over Northern Dobruja.
25 Sep 1918 -  2 Dec 1918  Bulgaria is ceded the former Northern Dobruja condominium.
 2 Dec 1918 - 27 Nov 1919  Principal Allied and Associated Powers administration of all of
                             Dobruja (de facto Romanian
occupation under Allied supervision).
 8 Dec 1919                Southern Dobruja (Cadrilater) and Silistra ceded to Romania.
 7 Sep 1940                Southern Dobruja and Silistra restored to Bulgaria.


Walis (governors) of Silistra
1552                       Mehmed Raves
1598                       Ahmed Pasha
.... - 1621                Skender Pasha
1621 - 1625                Cantemir Mirza (1st time)
1625                       Diak Mehmed
1628 - 1629                Cantemir Mirza (2nd time)
1629 - 1631                Murteza Pasha
1631 - 1633                Abaza Pasha
1638 - 1639                Nasuf Hüseyin
1639 - 1643                ....
1643 - 16..                Dervish Mehmed Pasha (1st time)
16.. - 1649                ....
1649 - 1651                Dervish Mehmed Pasha (2nd time)
1651 - 1656                ....
1656                       Sary Kenan Pasha                   (d. 1659)
1656 - 1658                Sidi Hüseyin
1658 - 1660                Fazil Pasha
1660 - 1661                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1683 - af.Nov 1683         Fazil Mustafa Pasha Koprülü
af.Nov 1683 - 168.         Huseyin Pasha
1686 - 1687                Arap Receb Pasha (1st time)
1687 - 1687                Kara Mustafa Pasha
1688 - 1689                Arap Receb Pasha (2nd time)
1689                       Bosnak Huseyin Pasha
1689 - 1690                Misirli Mehmed Pasha
1690                       Cerkes Ahmed
1690                       Topal Huseyin Pasha
1690 - 169.                ....
169. - 1695                ....
1695                       Çelebi Yusuf Pasha
1695/96                    Cerkes Ibrahim Pasha
1696                       Ibsir Hasan Pasha
1696/97                    Kandilci Huseyin Pasha
1697 - ....                Hazinedar Ibrahim
.... - ....                ....
.... - 1703                ....
1704 - 17..                Yusuf Pasha
17.. - 1792                ...
Jun 1792 - 179.            Kahya (Kethuda) Hasan Pasha
179. - 180.                ....
180. - 1806                Bekir Pasha
1806 - 1806                Tirinikli Ismail Aga               (d. 1806)
1806 - 1806                Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha                (b. c.1756 - d. 1855)
1806 - 1807                Alemdar Mustafa Pasha "Bayrakdar"  (b. 1755/56 - d. 1808)
180. - 1810                Ilik-ogly
1810 - 1812                Russian occupation
1812 - 1822                ....
1822 - 182.                Mehmed Selim Pasha
182. - 1832                Mehmed Pasha
1828 - 1836                Russian occupation 
Dec 1833 - Oct 1839        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time)
Oct 1839 - Apr 1841        Gürcü Mehmed Vasif Pasha
Apr 1841 - Aug 1843        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time)
Oct 1843 - Sep 1844        Mühendis Hafiz Ahmed Pasha
Sep 1844 - Dec 1845        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time)
Dec 1845 - Jul 1847        Ibrahim Saib Pasha
Jul 1847 - Jul 1848        Cebel-i-Aktarzade Mehmed Sadik     (d. 1848)
                             Pasha
Jul 1848 - Apr 1851        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time)
Apr 1851 - Jun 1853        Gürümcü Mehmed Salih Pasha         (d. 1858)
Jun 1853 - Mar 1857        Mirza Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time)
Mar 1857 - Oct 1857        Ramazanoglu Mehmed Ismet Pasha
Nov 1857 - May 1858        Tepedenlizade Ismail Rahmi Pasha
May 1858 - Jun 1859        Özdemiroglu Mehmed Rifat Pasha
Jun 1859 - Mar 1861        Halil Kamili Pasha
Mar 1861 - Dec 1864        Mehmed Arif Pasha                  (d. 1866)
Russian Commander of the 14t Corps
10 Jun 1877 - 1877         Apollon Ernestovich Zimmermann     (b. 1825 - d. 1884)
German Commanders
 9 Oct 1916 - 19 Jan 1918  Robert Kosch                       (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
19 Jan 1918 - Sep 1918     ....







 © Ben Cahoon