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Russian Civil War Polities   


Note: This record contains a list of the polities that emerged on the territory of the former Russian Empire during the Russian civil war 1918 to 1921. These polities included Bolshevik and "White" Russian polities as well as secessionist states and "Red" Soviet Republics. Many polities referred to here as "republics" are simply given that designation historically and were not actually republics, many in fact never established a form of administration.
classifications: self proclaimed central state; regional (province, etc.); national minority ([non-provincial] ethnic minority); military (wartime front administration); partisan guerrillas, etc.

Note: The data contained at present should not be taken as fully authoritative, any assistance is welcome.


Alternative Central Governments


Provisional All-Russian Government
 
[Russian flag]
           23 Sep 1918 - 16 Nov 1920
ru_kolchak.gif
            Kolchak's Personal Standard
   

23 Sep 1918                Provisional All-Russian Government formed at Ufa ("Ufa
                             Directory") by members of the former Russian National Assembly
                             dissolved by the Bolsheviks.
18 Nov 1918                Ufa Directory disbanded, Kolchak takes power as the head of
                             "White" forces.
16 Nov 1920                Last "White" army under Baron Wrangel defeated by Soviet forces.

Chairmen of the Provisional All-Russian Government (PARG)("Ufa Directory")
23 Sep 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  SRP
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasily Georgevich Boldyrev         (b. 1875-d. af.1932) Mil
                             (in Omsk)
Supreme Ruler
18 Nov 1919                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodsky       (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  SRP
                             (temporary head of state)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (to 12 Nov 1919 in Omsk, then Nizhneudinsk)
Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the South Russia
15 Jan 1920 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (to Mar 1920 in Novorossiysk, then Sevastopol)
 4 Apr 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (from 11 Apr 1920 styled Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Armed Forces in the South of Russia; from 19 Aug 1920
                             Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Russian Army)(in Sevastopol)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodsky       (s.a.)               SRP 
                             (appointed by the PARG; discharged by Kolchak) 
23 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             (appointed by Kolchak; arrested 15 Jan 1920)
Chairman of the Government of the South of Russia
19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol)

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno Demokraticheskaya Partiya  (Constitutional Democrat Party, "Kadets," conservative, social-democratic, 1905-1918); RCP = Russian Communist Party of Bolsheviks; SRP = Partita Sotsialistov-Revoliutsionerov (Socialist Revolutionary Party "SRs" (socialist, split 1917 with new "Left Socialist Revolutionary Party" which was more Marxist, 1902-1940); Mil = Military


Congress of the Constituent Assembly

[Russian flag]

 8 Jun 1918               Underground committee set up by members of the Russian
                            Constituent Assembly dissolved by the Bolsheviks in Jan 1918.
Sep 1918                  Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly created 
                            after occupation of Samara by the Czechoslovak Legion.
23 Sep 1918               Replaced by the Provisional All-Russian Government (see above).


Chairmen of the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch") 

 8 Jun 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Vladimir Kazymirovich Volsky       (b. 1877 - d. 1937) 

Chairman of the Governing Council
16 Aug 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Yevgeny Franzevich Rogowski        (b. 1888 - d. bf.1950)



Green 'Republics' (Zelyonaya Respublika)

  At first "Greens" (Zelyoniye) was the name of troops who hid in the woods (in the northern Caucasus and Crimean peninsula) and consisted of persons who had avoided mobilization into the army or deserters from both "Red" and "White" armies.  At first "Greens" were non-political and made previously diversionary raids with different "Green" detachments supported various Communist (red), anti-Communist (white), anarchist (black) or nationalist movements. 

  The largest Green Army existed in Black sea coast of Caucasus was the [pro-Communist] Kubano-Black Sea Red-Green Army (est. 15,000 persons) that resisted Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army in the summer of 1919 on the territory between Anapa and Adler. This Army and had no central commander and consisted of separate troops. In the winter of 1920 there were forces
under the Green 'Soviet' Army between Anapa and Tuapse (under commandant P.M. Morits) and Black Sea Peasants' Militia (between Sochi and Adler) that merged in Mar 1920 to form Red Army of Black Sea Land (est. 12,000 persons, under commandant Ye.S. Kazansky); it joined together with the "Red" Army to destroy Denikin's forces in the northern Caucasus. 

  Pro-Communist "Green" (called "Red-Green") partisan troops in Crimea merged in Aug 1920 into the Rebel Army of Crimea (under commandant A.V. Mokrousov) and joined together with "Red" Army against Wrangel's "White" forces. 

  Some "Greens" joined the "White" movement, these were often called "White-Greens." The best known of these forces was the Army for Revival of Russia (in 1920 under command of General Fostikov) in the northern Caucasus. 

  By mid-1920 nearly all the "Green" forces were dissolved, with some becoming part of Red Army.


North and Northwest



Government of Russian North-Western Region

ru_noroeste.gif

10 Oct 1918                "White" Russian Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern
                             Army established in Pskov–Ostrov–Rezekne area, which was occupied
                             by
Germany from 24 Feb 1918.
Nov 1918                   North-Western Russian Regional Government appointed in Pskov by the
                             North-Western Russian Regional Defense Council.
25 Nov 1918                Pskov occupied by Soviet Russian forces. Many soldiers deserted,
                             and part retreated to Courland (Latvia). About 2,000 men arrived
                             in southern-Estonia.
 
6 Dec 1918                By the terms of an alliance between the "White" Russians and the
                            Estonian government, the army is put under Estonian control.

13 May 1919                North-Western Russian Army, established in Narva, Estonia, in 8 Mar
                             1919, invaded Russia and occupying Yamburg (now Kingisepp).
25 May 1919                Independent Corps of the Northern Army created in southern part
                             of Estonia in
Feb 1919, which had been invaded Soviet Russia.
15 Jun 1919                Northern Army merged with North-Western Russian Army.
11 Aug 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government, subordinated to the
                             Supreme Ruler of Russian State, restored in Tallinn, Estonia, by 
                             the Political Conference, established 24 May 1919 in Helsinki, 
                             Finland (moved to Tallinn 29 Jul 1919).
26 Aug 1919 - 15 Oct 1919  Pskov briefly occupied by the Soviet Russian forces.
18 Oct 1919                North-Western Russian Army reached Tsarskoye Selo, a suburb of
                             Petrograd, but was defeated by the Soviet Russian troops.
 5 Dec 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government dissolved as all
                             territories were lost to Soviet Russia, the army is interned by
                             the Estonian government.

Commanders of Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern Army (in Pskov, later Narva)
10 Oct 1918 - 16 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (b. 1867 - d. 1933)
17 Nov 1918 - Dec 1918     Heinrich Karl Timoleon von Neff
Commander of the Independent Corps of the Northern Army (in Narva)
 
3 Jan 1919 - 1919         Anton Dzerozhinskiy
Commander of the North-Western Russian Army (in Narva)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich      (b. 1862 - d. 1933)

Chairman of the North-Western Regional Russian Government and of the 
North-Western Russian Regional Defence Council
12 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (b. 1867 - d. 1933)
Chairman of the Political Conference
24 May 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  A.V. Kartashev

Chairman of Council of Ministers of North-Western Russian Regional Government (in Tallin)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Stepan Georgyevich Lyanozov        (b. 1872 - d. 1951)


Northern Region

[Russian flag]

 2 Aug 1918                "White" Russian High Administration of Northern Region 
 6 Sep 1918                Provisional Government of the Northern Region
30 Apr 1919                Recognizes Kolchak government.
19 Feb 1920                Abolished by Soviet forces.

Governor-generals of the Northern Region (Severnogo oblasti)
28 Sep 1918 - 19 Nov 1918  Boris Andreevich Durov             (b. 1878 - d. 1977)  Mil
19 Nov 1918 - 13 Jan 1919  Vladimir Vladimirovich 
           (b. 1874 - d. 1952)  Mil
   
                         Marushevskiy
13 Jan 1919 - 19 Feb 1920  Evgeniy Karlovich Miller           (b. 1867 — d. 1937)  Mil

Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
 2 Aug 1918 -  6 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaikovsky     (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  NSP
Chief of the Civil Administration

 6 Sep 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Starchev    (b. 1873 - d. 19..)  KDP
Chief of the Military Administration
 6 Sep 1918 -  9 Sep 1918  Boris Andreyevich Durov            (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
 9 Sep 1918 - 28 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Yaykovskiy     (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  NSP
Chairman of the Provisional Temporary Government of the Northern Region
28 Sep 1918 - 10 Sep 1919  Nikolay Vasilyevich Yaykovskiy     (s.a.)               NSP
                            (from 30 Apr 1919, recognizes Kolchak government)
Chief Head of Northern Region (Severnogo kraya)
10 Sep 1919 -  7 Feb 1920  Evgeniy Karlovich Miller           (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Zemstvo and City Council

 7 Feb 1920 - 19 Feb 1920
 Evgeniy Karlovich Miller           (s.a.)               Mil



Ingria (Ingermanland)

[Ingrian flag, 1919-1920
                (Russia)]
                       1919 - 1920

Western Ingria (Kosemkina)

Chairman of governing council
Jan 1919 - Jan 1921        Pietari Toikka                     (b. 1862 - d. 1930)

Northern Ingria (Kirjasalo)

Chairmen of governing council
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termonen
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokko                   (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Georg (Yrjö) Elfvengren            (b. 1889 - d. 1927)
Jun 1920 -  5 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen


Pskov Voyevodship

[Russian flag]

Commandants (subordinate to North-Western Army under Yudenich)
25 May 1919 - 23 Aug 1919  Stanislav Nikodimovich Bulak-      (b. 1883 - d. 1940) 
                             Balakhovich
23 Aug 1919 - 26 Aug 1919  Boris Sergeyevich Peremykin        (b. 1890 - d. 1971)
                             (Peremikin)



Karelia

Provisional Government of Karelia

[Karelian flag adopted 1918 (Russia)]                        21 Jun 1918 - 1919
(flag of [East Karelia]
                      (Russia), 1919-1920]                  1919 - 29 Mar 1920
(flag of
                      [East] Karelia (Russia), 1920]            29 Mar 1920 - 10 Dec 1920

 1 Jul 1919                Provisional Government of Karelia, Arkhangelsk (Arkangelin Karjalan
                             väliaikaisen hallituksen) formed at Uhtua (Kalevala) near the
                             Finnish border.
21 Mar 1920                Renamed Provisional Government of Karelia (Karjalan väliaikainen
                            
hallitus).
18 May 1920                Uhtua captured by Soviet Red Army, government moves to Vuokkiniemi 
                             (Voknavolok).
Jun 1920                   Most of northern Karelia is conquered by Soviet Army.
10 Dec 1920                Government cross the border into Finnish Karelia, end of
                             administration.

Chairmen of the Government
21 Jul 1919 - 25 Mar 1920  A. Tikhonov (Tihonov)
25 Mar 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Kh. Tikhanov (Tihonov)


Olonets Government of Southern Karelia

[(East) Karelia flag
                adopted 1918 (Russia]
                   21 Jun 1918 - 20 Dec 1918

Note: South-Eastern Karelian lands between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega.

May 1920                   Olonets Government of Southern Karelia founded in Olonets (Aunus).
Aug 1920                   Olonets and Southern Karelia captured by the Soveit Army;
                             Olonets government flees to Finland.
20 Dec 1920                Merger with Provisional Government of Karelia to form the
                             Karelian United Government.

Chairman of the Government
May 1920 - 20 Dec 1920     G. Kuttuyev (Kuttuev)


Karelian United Government

(flag of [East] Karelia
                (Russia), 1920-1923]
                 20 Dec 1920 - 1923

20 Dec 1920                Karelian United Government formed in Finland exile by merger of
                             remnants of former Provisional Government of Karelia and Olonets
                             Government
of Southern Karelia.
31 Dec 1920                Finland cedes Repola and Porajärvi to Soviet Russia by the Treaty
                             of Tartu.
21 Apr 1921                Republic of Eastern Karelia (Itä Karjala) declared independent.
Oct 1921 - Feb 1922        Intervention of Karelian military troops supported by K.U.G. from
                             territory of Finland into eastern Karelia. During Dec 1920 - Feb
                             1921 conquered territories were again liberated by Russian
                             Red Army.
23 Jul 1923                Permanent Court of Arbitration refuses to make an advisory opinion
                             on the status of Karelia regarding the Russo-Finnish Treaty of
                             Tartu (of 14 Oct 1920).
1923                       Exile government dissolved.

Chairman of the Government
20 Dec 1920 - 1923         P. Kyöttinen (in Finland exile)


Karelian Workers' Commune: see Karelia under Russian S.F.S.R. admin
Western Russian Volunteer Army in Baltic
 
[Russian flag]

17 May 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Unit formed from "White" Russian
                             prisoners of war in Germany. 
May 1919                   Moved from Germany to Jelgava, Latvia.
18 Aug 1919                Upgraded to a Corps.
 2 Sep 1919                Separated from North Western Army as Western Russian Volunteer
                             Army (ZDA).
 3 Oct 1919                Germans transfer command of all units in Jelgava, Latvia (Kurland)
                             and Lithuania to the Western Russian Volunteer Army. 
 8 Oct 1919                Unilateral offensive against Riga started.
 3 Nov 1919                Allied counter-offensive results in defeat of ZDA.
28 Nov 1919                Evacuated from Latvia.
13 Dec 1919                Evacuated from Lithuania.
 2 Dec 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Army is dissolved.

Commander-in-Chief of the Western Russian Volunteer Army (in Jelgava, Latvia)
 2 Sep 1919 -  2 Dec 1919  Pavel Rafaylovich Bermondt         (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
                             (from 9 Oct 1919, Knyaz Avalov) 

Chairman of the Administrative Council (in Jelgava, Latvia)
 6 Oct 1919 - 19 Nov 1919  Konstantin Johann Georg Graf von   (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             der Pahlen


Ukraine


Ukrainian Democratic Republic: see Ukraine


Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: see Ukraine
Donetsko-Krivorogian Soviet Republic (Donets Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic): see Ukraine
Galitzian Soviet Republic: see under Ukraine


Green Ukraine: see Ukrainian Republic of the Far East


Komancza Republic: see under Ukraine


Lemko Rusyn Republic: see Ukraine
Tauride Republic: see Crimea under Ukraine

Volga and Ural Regions


Volga German Commune: see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.


Idel-Ural

[Idel Ural flag]

Note: Idel-Ural was the end of the dream of recreating the state of the Golden Horde (Altin Ordu). It was to be a free federation of Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of Volga-Ural Region, remembering the glory of the Golden Horde.

20 Nov 1917                Congress of Muslims from Russia's Interior and Siberia proclaimed 
                             Independent State in the territory of Kazan and Ufa governorates
                             (guberni). Selection of the government of th
e state, Milli Idare.
                             Creation of All-Russia Muslim
Military Council. Election of
                             Idel-Ural delegates to Versailles
Conference.
Feb 1918                   Non-Muslim nations of Chuvashia, Udmurtia, Mari El and 
                             Mordovia join the Tatars and Bashkirs in the new state. 
Apr 1918                   After the Brest Peace Treaty is concluded, Red Army liquidates 
                             administration. 
Jul 1918                   With the help of the Czech Legion, the Idel-Ural administration
                             is restored. 
end 1918                   Dissolved.

Head of National Administration (Milli idar)
12 Dec 1917 - 1918         Sadretdin Nizametdinovich Maxudov  (b. 1872/79 - d. 1957)
                             (Arsal Sadri Maxudi)(in exile from 1918)


Ural Provisional Provincial Government  (VOPU)

[Ural Autonomist flag,
                1918]
          18 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918

25 Jul 1918                Yekaterinburg occupied by the Czech Legion.
13 Aug 1918                Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region (VOPU) formed
                             in Yekaterinburg.
10 Nov 1918                Included within the All-Russian Provisional Government
                            (see PARG above).

Chairman of the Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region
13 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vladimirovich Ivanov 



Host of Orenburg Cossacks


[Orenburg
                          Cossacks flag to 1918]
                     1917 - 1918
[Wold War I
                          Battle flag of the 11th Orenburg Cossack
                          Regiment]
      Host's Battle Standard
   

Note
: The Orenburg Host was settled along the upper course of the Urals River. It was the third largest host, after the Don and Kuban.

 8 Nov 1917 - 31 Jan 1918  Commander of the Orenburg Cossack Host ousts Bolsheviks from
                             Orenburg.
31 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Orenburg, Dutov falls back to Verhneuralsk,
                             which also surrenders in Mar 1918.
 3 Jul 1918                Orenburg Cossacks re-take Orenburg.
Nov 1918                   Orenburg Cossacks join the "White" Russian forces of Kolchak.
22 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Orenburg.
Apr 1919 - Jun 1919        Orenburg withstands a siege by "White" Russian forces.       


Chief of the Army Administration and Ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Army

 8 Nov 1917 - 31 Jan 1918  Alexander Ilyich Dutov               (b. 1879 - d. 1921)


Tambov

19 Aug 1920                Union of Working Peasants (Soyuz Trudovogo Krestyanstva)
                             "Antonovshchina" revolt in Tambov region against Bolshevik power.
Jan 1921                   Peasant revolts spread to Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan and
                             Siberia. In Feb 1921, the peasant army reached its peak, numbering
                             up to 70,000 it was known as the Antonovtsi or "Blue Army." 
1921                       Uprising was gradually quelled. Total losses among the population
                              of Tambov region in 1920–1922 resulting from the war, executions,
                              and imprisonment in concentration camps have been estimated
                              as at least 240,000.

Chief of Staff
19 Aug 1920 - Jun 1921     Aleksandr Antonov                    (b. 1888 - d. 1922)  SRP


South and the Caucasus

Abkhazia: see under Georgia

Aradayan Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Araks Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Baku Soviet Commune: see Azerbaijan

Batum Republic: see under Georgia

Black Sea Soviet Republic

[Black Sea Soviet Republic]

10 Mar 1918                Black Sea Soviet Republic proclaimed in Black Sea province.
30 May 1918                United with Kuban Soviet Republic to form Kubano-Black Sea Soviet
                             Republic.
27 Mar 1920                Soviet forces retake Novorossiysk.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Avram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluian            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)



Don Cossack Republic

[Flag of Don Cossacks
                1918-1920]
              4 May 1918 - 8 Jan 1920

 7 Mar 1917                Last (Czarist) appointed Ataman arrested.
 2 Dec 1917                Don Civil Council founded at Novocherkassk.
25 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks captured Novocherkassk, eventually establishing
                             a Don Soviet republic.
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the area.
 8 Jan 1920                Province is lost to Soviet forces, Cossacks retreat toward
                             Kuban and the Crimea.

Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Don
 2 Mar 1917 - 1917         Andrey Ivanovich Petrovskiy        (b. 1867 - d. 1924)  KDP
25 Mar 1917 -  7 Apr 1917  Central Council of Cossacks
                             (in Novocherkassk)

Chairman of the First Convention of the Don Cossacks
Apr 1917 - 26 May 1917     Mitrofan Petrovich Bogaevskiy      (b. 1881 – d. 1918)  Non-party
Chairman of the Military Circle (Assembly) of the Don
26 May 1917 - 18 Jun 1917  M
itrofan Petrovich Bogaevskiy      (s.a.)               Non-party
Ataman
19 Jun 1917 - 29 Jan 1918  Aleksey Maksimovich Kaledin        (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Mil 

30 Jan 1918 - 25 Feb 1918  Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Nazarov      (b. 1876 - d. 1918)  Mil
 8 May 1918 - 16 May 1918  Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov          (b. 1867 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (in exile since 25 Feb 1918)
16 May 1918 - 19 Feb 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov         (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (acting)
Military Ataman of the Great Forces of the Don
19 Feb 1919 -  8 Jan 1920  Afrikan Petrovich Bogaevskiy       (b. 1872 - d. 1934)  Mil


Chairmen of the government
16 May 1918 - 19 Feb 1919  Afrikan Petrovich Bogaevskiy       (s.a.)               Mil
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Nov 1919  
Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov          (s.a.)               Mil


Don-Kavkaz Union

[Don-Kavkaz Union
                1918]
               Adopted 4 May 1918

15 Sep 1918                Don-Kavkaz Union (anti-Bolshevik alliance); controls territories
                             of Don,
Kuban, Astrakhan, Terek Cossack Hosts, Union of United
                             Highlanders of Northern Caucasus and Daghestan.
 8 Jan 1919                Alliance dissolved.

Ataman of Don Cossacks
15 Sep 1918 -  8 Jan 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov         (b. 1869 - d. 1947)

Chairman of the Don government
1918 - 1919                Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevsky       (b. 1873 - d. 1934)


Don Soviet Republic

[Don Soviet Republic 1918]

25 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks captured Novocherkassk
25 Mar 1918                Don Soviet Republic established
at Rostov-na-Donu.
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the Rostov area;
                             government of Don Soviet Republic goes to Tsaritsyn
                             (Volgograd) and then to Velikoknyazheskaya (Proletarsk). 

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
25 Feb 1918 - 14 Apr 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (b. 1886 - d. 1918)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
14 Apr 1918 -  8 May 1918  Vladmir Kovalev                    (b. 1883 - d. 1919)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
14 Apr 1918 -  8 May 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (s.a.)


Central Caspian Dictatorship: see under Azerbaijan


Kuban 

[Flag of Kuban Cossacks
                1918-1920]
           5 Dec 1918 - 18 Apr 1920

Mar 1917                   Kuban Provisional Army Council founded at Yekaterinoslav.
26 Mar 1917                Last imperial Ataman removed, taken over by commissioner
30 Apr 1917                Provisional Kuban Cossack Rada established.
17 Jul 1917                Kuban declared a sovereign state within Russia.
28 Jan 1918                Kuban independence declared. 

14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  Communist rule (see below)
 5 Dec 1918                Foundation of Kuban Territorial Council after occupation of Kuban
                             by Denikin's Russian
Voluntary Army (Kuban People's Republic).
1919 - 1920                Gradual conquest by Bolshevik forces.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) retaken by Communist forces, state
                             abolished.
 3 May 1920                Capitulation of "White" Cossack forces in Kuban in Sochi and Tuapse.

Commissioner of Kuban oblast
 9 Mar 1917 - 11 Nov 1917  Lukich Bardizh                     (b. 1868 - d. 1918)  KDP
Military Ataman of the Cossack Forces of the Kuban and Administrator of the Kuban Region
11 Nov 1917 - 14 Mar 1918  Aleksandr Petrovich Filimonov      (b. 1867 - d. 1948)
14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  communist rule (see Kuban Soviet)
17 Aug 1918 - 24 Nov 1919  Aleksandr Petrovich Filimonov      (s.a.)
24 Nov 1919 - 30 Dec 1919  Nikolay Mitrofanovich Uspenskiy    (b. 1875 - d. 1919)
Jan 1920 - 17 Mar 1920     Nikolay Andrianovich Bukretov      (b. 1876 - d. 1930) 

Chairman of the Kuban regional govt. (in Ekaterinodar [Krasnodar])
11 Nov 1917 - 14 Mar 1918  Luka Lavrentyevich Bych            (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  
communist rule (see Kuban Soviet)
17 Aug 1918 -  6 Mar 1919  Mikola Stepanovich Ryabovol        (b. 1883 - d. 1919)
                             (Nikolay Ryabovol
)
 6 Mar 1919 -  6 Nov 1919  Luka Lavrentyevich Bych            (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1919 - 17 Mar 1920  Fyodor S. Sushkov


Kuban Soviet Republic

[Kuban Soviet Republic]

13 Apr 1918                Kuban Soviet Republic
30 May 1918                Kubano-Chernomorskaya Soviet Republic
 7 Jul 1918                North-Caucasian Soviet Republic (Severo-Kavkazkaya)
16 Aug 1918                Yekaterinodar lost to Denikin, government exiled to Pyatigorsk.
11 Jan 1919                Formally liquidated.

Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Committee of Kuban oblast
16 Feb 1918 - 13 Apr 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluian            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
13 Apr 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluian            (s.a.)
30 May 1918 - 21 Oct 1918  Avram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council
Apr 1918 - Dec 1918        Yan Vasilyevich Poluian            (s.a.)


Mugan Soviet Republic: see under Azerbaijan



Southern Russia

[Russian flag]

 1 Nov 1919                Provisional Federal Government of Russia created by Denikin
Mar 1920 - 4 Apr 1920      Government of Southern Russia created by Denikin in Novorossiysk.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) occupied by Soviet forces.
14 Apr 1920                Government of Southern Russia created by Baron Wrangel in
                             Fyodosia.
22 Jul 1920                Proclaimed a territorial federation that included the territories
                             under Wrangel's control (southern Ukraine and Crimea)
 4 Aug 1920                Cossack forces (of Don, Kuban, Terek and Astrahan) subjected
                             to VSYuR by agreement.
19 Aug 1920                A civil council composed of department heads is renamed
                             Government of the South of Russia, with Krivoshein as chairman.
15 Nov 1920                Wrangel leaves Sevastopol (02:40) aboard a British cruiser.
17 Nov 1920                Communist forces occupy Sebastopol. The Allies evacuate the 
                             remaining White forces.

Commanders-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the South Russia
18 Nov 1918 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (to Mar 1920 in Novorossiysk, then Sevastopol)
 4 Apr 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (from 11 Apr 1920 styled Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Armed Forces in the South of Russia; from 19 Aug 1920
                             Governor of the South of Russia and Commander-in-Chief of
                             the Russian Army)(in Sevastopol)
 

Chairmen of the special consultation with the commander-in-chief
31 Aug 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev      (b. 1857 - d. 1918)  Mil
 8 Oct 1918 - 25 Oct 1919  Avram Mikhaylovich Dragomirov      (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Mil
Sep 1919 - 25 Oct 1919     Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Mil
                             (acting for Dragomirov)
25 Oct 1919 - 30 Dec 1919  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the advisory government with the commander in chief
30 Dec 1919 - 21 Feb 1920  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of Council of Ministers of the Government of the South of Russia
21 Feb 1920 - 29 Mar 1920  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1881 - d. 1972)  Non-party
                             (in Novorossiysk)
29 Mar 1920 - 20 May 1920  Vacant
Chairman of the advice of the Ministry leaders with the commander-in-chief

20 May 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
Chairman of the Government of the South of Russia

19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol)


Southwestern Caucasian Republic: see under Turkey


Stavropol Soviet Republic

[Stavropol Soviet Republic]

 1 Jan 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic founded  in Stavropol region.
Jul 1918                   United with Kubano-Black Sea Soviet Republic to form the
                             North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
21 May 1918                Under White forces, communist government goes into exile at
                             Nevinnomysskaya.
29 Feb 1920                Communist forces retake Stavropol.

Chairman of the Government Executive Committee
 1 Jan 1918 - 14 May 1918  Grigoriy Ivanovich Mescheryakov
14 May 1918 - 21 Jun 1918  A. Deyneko                                         

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

 8 Jan 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Aleksandr Andreyevich Ponomarev    (b. 1876 - d. 1941)
28 Apr 1918 - 20 May 1918  ...


Syunik Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan


Terek Soviet Republic

Communist govt

 3 Mar 1918                Terek Soviet Republic founded on by Congress of Terek 
                             Nations region at Pyatigorsk.
Jul 1918                   Part of the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
27 Jan 1919                Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
                             founded.
Feb 1919                   Occupied by Denikin's "White" Russian Voluntary Army.
17 Nov 1920                Some territory part of Mountain Autonomous Socialist Soviet
                             Republic.

Chairman of the Terek People's Council
 5 Mar 1918 - Aug 1918     Ye.S. Bogdanov
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
Aug 1918 - Feb 1919        F.Kh. Bulle

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissioners
 5 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1918  Samuil Grigoryevich Buachidze      (b. 1882 - d. 1918)
20 Jun 1918 - Aug 1918     Yuri G. Paszkovsky                 (b. 18.. - d. 1918)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
27 Jan 1919 - Feb 1919     Grigoriy Konstantinovich           (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
                             Ordzhonikidze

Dagestan
 
[Imamate of
                            Dagestan, 1828-1831]
                              1829 - 1831
[Imamate of
                            Dagestan 1831-1834]
                    1831 - 1834
[Republic of
                            the Country of the Mountain, 1834-1859]
                      1834 - 1859
[Imamate of
                            Dagestan, 1877]
                           1877
[Dagestan
                            Emirate 1917]
                 1917 - Dec 1917
[Dagestan
                            Emirate flag 1919-1920]
                     1919 - 1920 Emirate flag
[Terek cossacks flag 1917]
        Nov 1917 - Dec 1917 Terek flag 


12 Oct 1813                Sovereignty ceded by Persia to Russia by Treaty of Gulistan.
1828 - 1859                Imamate of Dagestan (in rebellion).
1859                       Re-incorporated into Russian Empire.
1877                       Imamate of Dagestan (in rebellion). 
 3 Apr 1917                Daghestan Special Commissariat created, recognizing the rule 
                             of the Russian provisional government.
20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Provisional government of Terek-Dagestan.
Dec 1917                   Port Petrovsk Soviet seizes power. 
 4 Mar 1918                Terek Cossacks declare independence.
30? Mar 1918               Occupied by "White" forces.
19/25 Apr 1918-12 Aug 1918 Communists retake Port Petrovsk.
Oct 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Occupied by Bolshevik forces.
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     Emirate of Dagestan
30 Mar 1920                Soviet Red Army takes port Petrovsk.
13 Nov 1920                Dagestan A.S.S.R.

Imams
1828 - 1832                Ghazi Muhammad (Ghazi Mullah)
1832 - 1834                Hamza Beg
1834 - 1859                Shamil bin Muhammad                (d. 1871)
1859 - 1877                Vacant
1877 - 1877                Haji Muhammad
1877 - 1917                Vacant
Sep 1917 - Nov 1917        Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy)
1919 - 13 Nov 1920         Uzur Haji Khair Khan               (b. 1848 - d. 1920) 

Chairman of the Provisional Regional Executive

20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Zubair Temirkhanov                 (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
Chairmen of the Military Revolutionary Soviet in Port Petrovsk
1917 - 1918                Ullubuy Daniyalovich Buynaksky     (b. 1890 - d. 1919)
1918                       Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (b. 1877 - d. 1937)
                             Korkmasov
Chairmen of the National Committee of the Berg-Region (Vedeno)
1918                       Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.)
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (1st time)
1919 - 1921                Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.) 
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Executive Committee
1918 - 1920                Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (s.a.)
                             Korkmasov
1920 - 1921                Said Ibrahimovich Gabiyev          (b. 1882 - d. 1963)

Head of government
 1 Dec 1917 - 13 Dec 1917  Mikhail Alexandrovich Karaulov     (b. 1878 - d. 1917)
Dec 1917 - Mar 1918        Rashidkhan Kh. Kaplanov
Prime minister 
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     V. Dyshuinsky Arsanakuyev


Mountain People's Republic
 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1917-1918]
                     1917 - 1918 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1918-1919]
                 1918 - 12 Jun 1919
[Mountain
                          People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic
                          1920-21]
                               1920 - 1921

Nov 1917                   Mountain Republic founded in territories of Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             North Ossetia and Dagestan.
21 Dec 1917                Independence from Russia declared.
 5 Mar 1918                With founding of Terek Soviet Republic members of government fled
                             into exile in Tiflis, Georgia.
11 May 1918                Republic of the Union of Mountain People's of the Caucasus and 
                             Dagestan (North Caucasian Mountain Republic) founded in
                             western Dagestan.
Aug 1918                   Troops of (Soviet) Republic of Northern Caucasus occupy parts 
                             Dagestan.
Sep 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Government moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (Buynaksk).
May 1919                   Abolished with occupation by Denikin's "White" forces.
17 Nov 1920                Mountain People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed
                             in Vladikavkaz (included territories of modern Alania
                             (North Ossetia), Kabardino-Balkaria, Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             Dagestan and part of Karachayevo-Cherkessia.
20 Jan 1921                Mountain A.S.S.R. part of Russian S.F.S.R.

Dictator
May 1919 - Nov 1918        Prince Nuh-Beg Tarkovsky           (b. 1878 - d. 1951)

Chairmen of the Government (prime ministers)
Nov 1917 - 1918            Abdulmajid Thapa Chermoyev         (b. 1882 - d. 1937) 
                             (in Georgia exile May - Nov 1918)
1918                       Vassan Giray Dzhabagiev (1st time)
1918 - May 1919            Pshemakho Tamashevich Kotsev
1919                       Vassan Giray Dzhabagiev (2nd time)


Mugan: see under Azerbaijan
Nakhichevan Republic Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Azerbaijan

North-Caucasian Emirate

[Flag of North-Caucasian
                Emirate, 1919-1920]

Sep 1919                   North Caucasian Emirate founded (in rebellion against Russian                              Volunteer "White" Army) in Mountainous Chechnya, capital Vedeno.
Mar 1920                   Supressed by the Red Army.

Imam and Emir
Sep 1919 - Mar 1920        Uzur Haji Khair Khan               (b. 1848 - d. 1920)

Grand Vizier (Chief minister)
Sep 1919 - Mar 1920        V. Dyshninsky Arsanakuyev


North Caucasian Soviet Republic

[North Caucasian Soviet
                Republic]

Jul 1918                   North Caucasian Soviet Republic founded on First Congress of
                             Councils of Northern Caucasus in Yekaterinodar.
17 Aug 1918                Yekaterinodar captured by Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army,
                             capital is moved to Pyatigorsk.
21 Oct 1918                Some members of Central Executive Committee (A.A. Rubin,
                             V.I. Krayny and others) are arrested and killed on the command
                             of I.L. Sorokin (commander of Red Army of Northern Caucasus).
28 Oct 1918                Second Extreme Congress of Councils of Northern Caucasus removed
                             I.L. Sorokin and elected new members of Central Executive
                             Committee.
Dec 1918                   Northern Caucasus fully occupied by Denikin's Russian Volunteer
                             Army. Soviet Government went to exile to Tsaritsyn (Volgograd).
11 Jan 1919                North Caucasian Soviet Republic abolished.

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
Jul 1918 - 21 Oct 1918     Avraam Azorgivich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)
28 Oct 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  M.S. Akulov

Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Defense of the North Caucasus and Dagestan

Jul 1918 - Dec 1918        Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)


Syunik Republic: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan


Transcaucasia Democratic Federative Republic: see under Georgia


Central Asia

Autonomous Government of Turkestan: see under Uzbekistan

Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Provisional People's Council of Kazakh Autonomy ("Alash Orda"): see Kazakhstan

Bukharan Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Turkestan Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Uzbekistan

Siberia

Siberia

[Siberian Autonomist flag,
                1917-1918]
            28 Jan 1918 - 4 Nov 1918


28 Oct 1917               First Siberian Regional Congress elects a council at Tomsk.
 7-15 Dec 1917            All-Siberian Extraordinary Congress of Delegates from Public
                            Organizations is convened in Tomsk, and declares its opposition
                            to the Bolsheviks in Petrograd.
26 Dec 1917               Provisional Siberian Regional Soviet (15[28] Dec 1917 accepted
                            'regulations' for the provisional institutions of the
                             Siberian administration [provisional constitution]).
25-26 Jan 1918            Bolshevik forces begin arresting local autonomy leaders.
28 Jan 1918               Provisional Siberian Government (PSG) is established at Tomsk by the
                            first session of regional Duma (chairman of Siberian Regional Duma
                            I.A. Yakushev).
Mar 1918                  Derber, head of the PSG, flees Bolshevik forces for Harbin, later
                            Vladivostok.            
25-26 May 1918            Bolshevik forces in central Siberia are overthrown by the
                            Czechoslovak Legions and "White" Russian forces. Bolsheviks
                            evacuate Novo-Nikolayevsk on 26 May 1918, Tomsk on 31 May 1918 and
                            Omsk on 7 Jun 1918.
26 May 1918               Western Siberian Commissariat (WSC)(Zapadno-Sibirskij Komissariat)
                            established by PGAS at Novo Nikolayevsk (in Tomsk from 7 Jun 1918)
                            to organize the anti-Bolshevik resistance.
29 Jun 1918               Provisional Government of Siberia (PGS) formed in Omsk, at a meeting
                            featuring several members of the former body who were still in
                            Western Siberia.
30 Jun 1918               Derber, head of PSG in Vladivostok, and his successor Lavrov, refuse
                            to recognize the reformed PSG in Omsk and continue in dissidence
                            claiming to be the legitimate Siberian government.
 4 Jul 1918               Declaration on Siberian sovereignty (Deklaraciyu o gosudarstvennoy
                            samostoyatelnosti Sibiri
) adopted by PGS "until such time as its
                            territory [European Russia] was cleared of Bolshevik and German
                            occupation." The declaration was opposed by Derber & Dmitry Horvath
                            who later proclaims himself the Provisional Supreme Ruler of
                            Russia. The declaration rescinded on 3 Nov 1918.
23 Jul 1918               Council of ministers of the Provisional Government of Siberia formed
                            and Omsk is made capital of Siberia.
 8 Sep 1918               Horvath is appointed by PGS as its viceroy to the Far East
22 Oct 1918               PGAS in Vladivostok recognizes the Provisional All-Russian Government
                            "Ufa Directory" (see PARG above) and dissolves itself.
 4 Nov 1918               Provisional Government of Siberia passes power to Provisional All-
                            Russian Government, with Vologodskiy as premier (see PARG above).

Chairman of the Siberian Regional Executive Committee (in Tomsk)
15 Oct 1917 - 13 Dec 1917  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Krutovskiy   (b. 1856 - d. 1938)
Chairmen of the Provisional Siberian Regional Council
13 Dec 1917 -  1 Jan 1918  Grigoriy Nikolayevich Potanin      (b. 1835 - d. 1920)
 1 Jan 1918 - 28 Jan 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  SRP
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government (PSG)
(from 29 Jun 1918, Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia [PGAS])
28 Jan 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (s.a.)               SRP
                             (in Tomsk, Mar - Jun 1918 in Harbin, from 7 Jun 1919 Vladivostok)
                             (in dissidence from 30 Jun 1918)
21 Jul 1918 - 22 Oct 1918  I.A. Lavrov                                             SRP
                             (in dissidence; in Vladivostok)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Government of Siberia
(PGS)
30 Jun 1918 -  4 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1925) 
                             (in Omsk)

Western Siberian Commissariat
(in Novo Nikolayevsk [Novosibirsk]; from 7 Jun 1918 in Tomsk)
26 May 1918 - Jun 1918     Board of Commissioners
                           - Mikhail Yakovlevich Lindberg     (b. 1889 - d. 1938)  SRP
                             (acting to 31 May 1918)
                           - Boris Dmitriyevich Markov        (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  SRP
                             (to 31 May 1918)
                           - Vasiliy Osipovich Sidorov                             SPR  
                             (to 31 May 1918)
                           - Pavel Yakovlevich Mikhaylov      (b. 1889 - d. 1920)  SRP
                             (from 31 May 1918)



Czechoslovak Legion

Czechoslovak Legion

1914                       Czech Centuria (Ceská setnina) or Czech Company (Ceská druzina)
                             was established and attached to the Russian Army.
Feb 1916                   Re-organized as the regimental-sized Czechoslovak Rifle Corps
                             (Ceskoslovenský strelecký sbor).
May 1916                   Transformed into the Czechoslovak Rifle Brigade (Ceskoslovenská
                             strelecká brigáda) which was 7,300 strong.
Jun 1917                   Stationed on the left-bank Ukraine, in Kyiv and Poltava regions.
15 Jan 1918                Building an autonomous part of the French army.
Oct 1917                   First Hussite Rifle Division merged with the Second Rifle Division
                             (created in Jul 1917), forming the "Czechoslovak Corps in Russia"
                             (Ceskoslovenský sbor na Rusi).
Mar 1918                   Moved to the area of ​​Tambov and Penza.
26 Mar 1918                The Soviet government declared its readiness to facilitate the
                             evacuation of the Corps through Vladivostok, provided their
                             loyalty.
 2 May 1918                Supreme Council of the Entente decided to use the Legion to fight
                             against the Soviets in the Northern Russia and Siberia.
14 May 1918                Members of the Legion stormed the Chelyabinsk railway station, and
                             subsequently occupied the city of Chelyabinsk. This incident
                             triggered further hostilities between the Legion and the
                             Bolsheviks. Czechoslovaks began to occupy the cities on their
                             route: Chelyabinsk, Petropavlovsk, Kurgan, Novo Nikolayevsk,
                             Mariinsk, Nizhneudinsk and Kansk. At the same time as the Czechs
                             moved in, Russian officers' organizations overthrew the Bolsheviks
                             in Petropavlovsk and Omsk. Within a month the Whites controlled
                             most of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Lake Baikal to the Ural
                             Mountains regions.
Jun 1918                   Legion defeated the Red Guards near Samara and captured the city.
27 Jan 1919                Jan Syrový (commander-in-chief of all Czechoslovak troops in Russia)
                             claimed the Trans-Siberian Railway between Novonikolaevsk and
                             Irkutsk as a "Czechoslovak zone of operation." This made it
                             impossible for the White Army to use the railway for retreating at
                             the end of 1919.
Dec 1919                   Evacuation of the Czechoslovak Corps begins.
14 Jan 1920                Legion captures Admiral Kolchak and hands him over to the Left
                             Social Revolutionaries of the Political Centre in Irkutsk.
 7 Feb 1920                Between the Soviet government and the command of the Czechoslovak
                             Corps signed a truce.
 2 Sep 1920                67,739 soldiers (actually 53,455 soldiers; 3,004 officers; 6,714
                             civilians; 1,716 wives; 717 children; 1,935 foreigners; 198
                             others) are evacuated via Vladivostok.

Commanders of the Czechoslovak Legion
10 Sep 1917 -  1 Sep 1918  Vladimir Nikolayevich Shokorov    (b. 1868 - d. 1940)
 1 Sep 1918 — Sep 1919     Jan Syrový                        (b. 1888 - d. 1970)

Chiefs of Staff of the Czechoslovak Legion
Mar 1918 - 26 Nov 1918     Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs (b. 1874 - d. 1937)

Zabaykalye (Transbaikal)

[Buryat flag 1918 - 1920]


Sep 1919                   Buryat Mongol Autonomous Republic declared at Chita.
 4 Jan 1920                Admiral Kolchak authorizes Semyonov to assume all civil and 
                             military authority in the east part of Russia.
Jul 1920                   People's Assembly founded at Chita.
Sep 1920                   Provisional Transbaikal People's Assembly (also called Transbaikal
                             Republic).
1920                       Semyonov recognizes the supreme authority of Baron Wrangel.
22 Oct 1920                Chita taken by communist forces, government dissolved by Red Army.
Sep 1921                   Semyonov forced to leave Russia.

Commander-in-chief of All Armed Forces of the East Part of Russia
(from 30 Apr 1920, Commander-in-chief of All Armed Forces and Field Ataman of All 
Cossack Troops of the East Part of Russia)
Sep 1919 - 22 Oct 1920     Grigory Mikhailovich Semyonov      (b. 1890 - d. 1946)


Yakutia

[Yakut (Sakhan) 1918
                  flag]
         22 Feb 1918 -  1 Jul 1918;
         5 Aug 1918 - 14 Dec 1919;
           Mar 1922 - Jul 1922
10 Nov 1917                Yakut Worker's Union of Federalists formed. This organization
                             then setup a self-administration for the province and remained
                             in control until being replaced by the Bolsheviks.
 1 Jul 1918 -  5 Aug 1918  Brief occupation by Bolsheviks from Irkutsk.
14/15 Dec 1919             Bolsheviks regain control.
Mar 1922                   Provisional Yakut Regional People's Government formed in Churapcha
                             by "White" Russian forces who seize town of Yakutsk on 23 Mar 1922
27 Apr 1922                Soviets establish the Yakut A.S.S.R.
summer 1922                "White" forces are ousted from Yakutsk and withdraw to the Pacific
                             coast occupying the port towns of Okhotsk and Ayan.
 2 Sep 1922                "White" General Anatoly Pepelyayev disembarked in Ayan and moved
                              upon Yakutsk. By the end of Oct 1922 Nelkan is occupied.
Mar 1923                   Soviets oust the "White" Army from Amga.
 6 - 16 Jun 1923           Remainder of the "White" Army are defeated near Okhotsk on 6 Jun
                             1923 and near Ayan on 16 Jun 1923.

Provincial Commissar of the Siberian Provisional Government
1918-14/15 Dec 1919         V.N. Solovyev                      (d. 1919)            SRP
Chairmen of the Provisional People's Administration

(in Churapcha, then later Okhotsk, finally in exile)
Mar 1922 - 1922             G. Yefimov                                              KDP
Sep 1922 -  7 Jun 1923      Vasili Alexandrovich Rakitin       (b. 18.. - d. 1923)  Mil


Far East


Amur

[Amur Soviet]
           13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918

28 Nov 1917                Amur regional self-administration formed by Bolshevik forces.
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Occupied by White Russian forces.
13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  
Bolshevik rule restored, Amur Labor Socialist Republic formed.
18 Sep 1918                Japanese and White military forces enter Blagoveshchensk.
10 Nov 1918                A joint gathering of democratic groups decided (a) to recognize
                             the Provisional All-Russian Government (PARG) and it's superiority
                             and (b) to dissolve the government and hand over power to
                             the self-administration.
 6 Feb 1920                Bolshevik forces regain control of Amur the region.
 9 Aug 1920                Part of the Far Eastern Republic
(see under Russia).


Chairman of the Amur Regional Self-Administration
28 Nov 1917 -  2 Mar 1918  Ivan Nikolayevich Shishlov         (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
Chairman of the Regional Executive Committee
 2 Mar 1918 -  7 Mar 1918  Fyodor Nikanorovich Mukhin         (b. 1878 - d. 1919)
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Forces
(head of military administration)
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Ivan Mikhaylovich Gamov
Chairman of the People's Council (head of civil administration)
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (b. 1884 - d. 19..)  SRP
Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration

18 Sep 1918 - 20 Sep 1918  Nikolay N
ikolayevichh Rodionov
Chairman of the Government of the Amur
18 Sep 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Aleksandr Nikolayevich            
(b. 1877/78-d. 19..) SRP 
                             Alekseyevskiy 
Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration
10 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  A
leksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               SRP
                             Alekseyevskiy

Oblast commissioner
17 Nov 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  A
leksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               SRP
                             Alekseyevskiy 

Chairman of the Regional Self-Administration
20 Feb 1919 - 191.
        Aleksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               SRP
                             Alekseyevskiy

Administrator (for Kolchak)
1918 -  4 Feb 1920         I.D. Prishchepenko
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Forces

 5 Mar 1919 -  6 Feb 1920  A.D. Kuznechov
Chairmen of the Regional Executive Committee
 6 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Yakov Fyopentovich Yakovlev (temporary)
16 Feb 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (b. 1885 - d. 1954)
Chairmen of the Amur Military-Revolutionary Committee
 5 Apr 1920 - 9 Aug 1920   Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (s.a.)

23 Sep 1918 -  5 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  SRP


Chinese Eastern Railroad Zone: see under China Foreign Colonies

Chukotka

[Free State of Chutkotka flag 1922]
                 Jul 1922 - Apr 1923

1918 - 1920                Bolsheviks take power in Chukotka.
1920                       Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
Dec 1920                  
Chukotka ceded to the Russian S.F.S.R. by Far Eastern Republic.
Jul 1922                   Chukotka Free State declared by "White" forces.
Apr 1923                   Bochkarev is killed at Nayakhan by Soviet forces.
Jun 1923                   Siberian volunteer army captured at Ayan by Soviet forces.

Chairmen of the Council of Soviet Deputies of Chukotka
Dec 1919 - 1920            A.M. Bychkov 
                           + G.G. Rudykh
Leader of White Russian Forces
Jul 1922 - Apr 1923        Bochkarev                          (d. 1923)


Kamchatka

[Flag of Kamchatka Free
                State, 1921]
              Oct 1921 - Oct 1922

1917 - Feb 1918            Petropavlovsk Soviet formed under Communist rule. 
Jul 1918 - Jan 1920        Administered by Kolchak's "White" government.
Jan 1920                   Kamchatka Revolutionary Committee formed.

1920                       Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
Oct 1921 - Nov 1922        Kamchatka occupied by the "White" forces led by Bochkarev under
                             the government of Provisional Priamur Government.

Dec 1920                   Kamchatka ceded to the Russian S.F.S.R. by Far Eastern Republic.
Nov 1922                   Soviet rule firmly established.


Chairman of the Committee of Public Safety of Provisional Government
Mar 1917 - Jul 1918        ....
Chairman of the Petropavlovsk Soviet

1917 - Feb 1918            Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (b. 1890 - d. 19..)
Chairman of Committee of Military, Labor and Peasants Deputies
Mar 1918 - Jul 1918        ....
Commissioners of Kolchak's "White" government
Jul 1918 - Jan 1920        ....
Chairmen of the Kamchatka Revolutionary Committee 

Jan 1920 - Dec 1920        Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (s.a.)
Dec 1920 - Oct 1921        ....
Leader of "White" Russian Forces

Oct 1921 - Nov 1922        Bochkarev                          (d. 1923)


Khabarovsk 

[Russian flag]

 4 Sep 1918                Bolshevik ruled ended by Japanese occupation.
 6 Apr 1920                "White" Russian government proclaimed at Khabarovsk.
23 Oct 1920                Japanese forces depart; part of the Far Eastern Republic 
                             (see under Russia).

22 Mar 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Far Eastern Republic rule interrupted by Vladivostok
                             authorities (see Primore).

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
May 1917 - 12 Aug 1917     Luka Yevdokimovich Gerasimov       (b. 189. - d. 1918)  RSDLP-B
12 Aug 1917 - 12 Dec 1917  N.A. Vakulin                                            RSDLP-M
12 Dec 1917 -  4 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich
             (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RSDLP-B
 
                           Krasnoshcokov 

Commander-in-Chief of "White" Forces in Khabarovsk
 5 Sep 1918 - 13 Feb 1920  Ivan Pavlovich Kalmykov            (b. 1890 - d. 1920)
                             (Ataman of the Ussuriy Cossacks)
12 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Modest Aleksandrovich Demishkhan   (b. 1888 - d. 1963)
                             (acting)
Head of the Khabarovsk Government

Apr 1920 - 23 Oct 1920     Konstantin Tikhonovich Likhoydov
Rule of Vladivostok authorities
22 Mar 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Viktorin Mikhaylovich Molchanov    (b. 1886 - d. 1975) 


Far Eastern Republic: see Russia
Trans-Amur (Priamur Republic): see Primore

Tungus Republic

[Provisional Central Tungus
                National Government, 1924-25 (Russia)]
 
10 May 1924                Port of Ayan on the Okhotsk Sea coast is taken by anti-Soviet
                             rebellion of Tungus (Evenks) and Yakuts.
Jul 1924                   All-Tungus Congress of the Okhotsk Coast meets in Nelkan
                             and proclaims the Provisional Tungus National Government.
14 Jul 1924                Independence declared.
 9 May 1925                Extinguished by Soviet Union.

Leaders
1924 -  9 May 1925         M.K. Artemyev
                           + P. Karamzin


Ukrainian Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine)
 
[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine) first
                          proposal]
                    First Proposal
[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine)
                          second proposal]
                   Second Proposal

24 Jun 1917                First All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Nikolsk-Ussuriysky.
                             formed the Far Eastern Kray Rada (regional council).
Jan 1918                   Second All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Khabarovsk. Green
                             Ukraine
was proclaimed as part of Ukrainian State.
Apr 1918                   Third All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress asked for creation of
                             independent Ukrainian state on the Pacific Ocean.
Jun 1919 - Jan 1920        Suppressed by the Kolchak regime.
11 Apr 1920                Order of Hetman Semyonov about right of far eastern Ukrainians
                             for national self-determination and autonomy in the limits of
                             united
Far eastern state of Cossacks, Buryats, and Ukrainians
 
5 Nov 1922                Dissolved.

Chairman of the Secretariat of Far Eastern Regional Rada
Jun 1918 - Jun 1919        Yuriy Kosmich Glushko (1st time)   (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
Jan 1920 -  5 Nov 1922     Yuriy Kosmich Glushko (2nd time)   (s.a.)


Urianay kray: see Tannu Tuva under Russia

Primorye (Priamur)

[Maritime
                            Province Japanese protectorate 1921-22]
                     1921 - 1922
[Primorye
                            (Priamur) (Transamur) 1922]
                 1922 - 25 Oct 1922

31 Jan 1920                Authority of the representatives of Admiral Kolchak in Primorye
                             (Vladivostok) overthrown; Provisional Government of the Local
                             Administration of Primorye Province (PGLAPP) established.
11 Dec 1920                People's Assembly (Narodnoe sobranie) of Primorye passes
                             law for incorporation into the Far Eastern Republic.
12 Dec 1920 - 26 May 1921  Primorye part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
26 May 1921                Provisional Primorye Government established.
 3 Aug 1922                Chairman of Local Assembly (Zemskiy Sobor), Nikandr Ivanovich
                             Mirolyubov decides, that supreme power in Russia belongs to
                             the Romanov dynasty, and voiced the wish to make a member of
                             Romanov dynasty (Mariya Fyodorovna [b. 1847 - d. 1928] mother of
                             Czar Nicholas II) Supreme Ruler of Primorye Region. Until a
                             Romanov is inaugurated a Supreme Governor is installed.
 8 Aug 1922                Mikhail Diterikhs is installed as Supreme Governor.
25 Oct 1922                Annexed by Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).


Chairmen of the Executive Committee
 4 Nov 1917 - Dec 1917     Arnold Yakovlevich Nejbut          (b. 1889 - d. 1919)
Dec 1917 - 29 Jun 1918     Konstantin Aleksandrovich Sukhanov (b. 1894 - d. 1918)
Minister-president of the Provisional Government of the Autonomous Siberia
29 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Petr Yakovlevich Derber            (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  SRP 
21 Jul 1918 - Oct 1918     Ivan Aleksandrovich Lavrov
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
Oct 1918 - 1918            I.V. Kharitonov
Oblast Commissar
1918 - Jan 1920            Ivan Innokentevich Zimmermann      (b. 1868 - d. 1931)
Provisional Government of the Local Administration of Primorye Province 
31 Jan 1920 - 11 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (b. 1880 - d. 1928)  SRP 
                             (chairman of the local administration)
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the P
rimorye
26 May 1921 -  8 Aug 1922  Spiridon Dionisyevich Merkulov     (b. 1870 - d. 1957)
Supreme Governor
 8 Aug 1922 - 25 Oct 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (Mikhail Dieterichs)

Commanders-in-chief of Japanese Expeditionary (and from 18 Aug 1918 Allied) Forces 
 3 Aug 1918 - 26 Aug 1919  Kikuzo Otani                       (b. 1856 - d. 1923)
26 Aug 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Shigemoto Ooi                      (b. 1863 - d. 1951)
 6 Jan 1921 - 11 Nov 1922  Koichiro Tachibana                 (b. 1861 - d. 1929)


Commander of the U.S. Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in Siberia  
 2 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1920  William Sidney Graves              (b. 1865 - d. 1940)







©  Ben Cahoon