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Russian Civil War Polities

Polities: "White" (anti-Bolshevik) central governments - Green republics - North and Northwest:  Government of Russian North-Western region - Ingria (Ingermanland) - Karelia provisional government - Murmansk - Northern Region (Arkhangelsk) - North Ingria (Kirjasalo) - Pskov voivodeship - Karelian United government - Karelian Workers' commune - Western Ingria (Kosemkina) - Western Russian Volunteer Army in Baltic - Belorussia, Bessarabia, Crimea, and Ukraine - Volga and the Urals: Bashkir autonomous government - Idel-Ural - Orenburg Cossack Host - Tambov - Ural Provisional Provincial government - Volga German commune - South and the Caucasus: All-Great Don Host - Astrakhan Cossack Host - Black Sea Soviet republic - Chechen emirate - Dagestan - Don Soviet republic - Kuban Cossack Host - Kuban Soviet republic - Mountain People's republic - North-Caucasian emirate - North Caucasian Soviet republic - South of Russia - South-East Union of Cossack Hosts - Stavropol Soviet Republic - Terek Soviet Republic - Siberia: Buryat-Mongol - Czechoslovak Corps - Karakorum-Altai - Khakass - Semirechye Cossack Host - Siberia regional government - Tannu Tuva (Urianay kray) - Ural Cossack Host - Yakutia - Zabaikalye (Transbaikal) - Far East: Amur - Chinese Eastern Railway Zone - Chukotka (Anadyr) - Far Eastern Republic - Kamchatka - Khabarovsk - Primorye (Priamurye) - Sakhalin - Tungus (Okhotsk)  - Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat ("Green Ukraine")  -

Note
:
This record contains a list of the polities that emerged on the territory of the former Russian Empire during the Russian civil war from 1917 to 1922, in Far East to 1931. These polities include (a) semi-autonomous regional Bolshevik "Red" Soviet Republics and (b) "White" (anti-Bolshevik) Russian central governments or autonomous regional polities as well as (c) secessionist or autonomous ethnic minority polities. Purely military or partisan guerilla authorities, as well as local administrators of "White" or "Red" central or regional governments are not listed. Many polities commonly referred to as "republics" were simply given that designation historically and were not actually republics.

Party abbreviations: KDP = Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya (Constitutional Democratic Party, "Kadets", Russian liberal, 12 Oct 1905-1920, banned by Bolsheviks from 12 Dec 1917); MPK = Mlado-Yakutskaya Partiya Konfederalistov (Young Yakut Party of Confederalists, 1927-1928, requested upgrade of Yakut A.S.S.R. to S.S.R.); NDS = Natsional-Demokraticheskiy Soyuz (National-Democratic Union, right-liberal, anti-socialist, 1921-1922); NSP = Narodno-Sotsialisticheskaya Partiya (People's Socialist Party, center-left, 1905-1920); Okt = Soyuz 17 Oktyabrya (Union of October 17, "Octobrists", conservative, Russian moderate constitutionalist, Nov 1905-1918); PLSR = Partiya Levykh Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, democratic socialist, 1917–1923, split from PSR, allied with RSDRP-B/RKP); PSRPartiya Sotsialistov-Revolyutsionerov (Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries, "SRs", democratic socialist, agrarian socialist, split Aug 1917 into Left [became PLSR] and Right wings, Jan 1902-1923); RKP = Rossiyskaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Communist Party [Bolsheviks], Marxist-Leninist communist, former RSDRP-B, state party, 8 Mar 1918 - 31 Dec 1925, renamed Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)[All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)]); RSDRP-B = Rossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Bol'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Bolsheviks], Russian revolutionary socialist, Marxist communist, 1 Mar 1898-8 Mar 1918, renamed RKP); RSDRP-MRossiyskaya Sotsial-Demokraticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya (Men'shevikov)(Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party [Mensheviks], split from RSDRP, democratic socialist, Orthodox Marxist, 1 Jan 1912-1922); SSO = Soyuz Sibirskikh Oblastnikov (Union of Siberian Regionalists, Siberian autonomist, 1905-1919); Mil = Military

Note: The data contained at present should not be taken as fully authoritative, assistance is welcome.


"White" (anti-Bolshevik) Central Governments
 
[Russian flag]
8 Jun 1918 - 16 Nov 1920

18 Jan 1918 - 19 Jan 1918  All-Russian Constituent Assembly convened in Petrograd
                             (elected 25 Nov 1917, chairman Viktor Mikhaylovich Chernov
                             [b. 1873 - d. 1952] PSR), it declared Russia a democratic federal
                             republic before it was dissolved by the Soviet government. 
 8 Jun 1918                Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")
                             created after occupation of Samara by the Czechoslovak Corps,
                             proclaimed itself the provisional supreme authority of the
                             Russian state, but was recognized by few local anti-Bolshevik
                             governments.
23 Sep 1918                Replaced by the Provisional All-Russian Government at Ufa
                             ("Ufa Directory") by the Act on Establishment of All-Russian
                             Supreme Authority, recognized as supreme authority of the Russian
                             state by most of local anti-Bolshevik governments in the
                             eastern part of Russia.
 4 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" declared all local governments dissolved (was
                              not fully effected).
18 Nov 1918                "Ufa Directory" disbanded, Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak granted
                             power as the Supreme
Ruler, recognized as supreme authority by all
                             local "White" Russian governments by Aug 1919, and
having the
                             de facto recognition by the Entente (Allied) powers.

15 Jan 1920                Upon arrest of Kolchak, the supreme authority devolved to Anton
                             Denikin, appointed on 4 Jan 1920 as successor, who accepted
                             neither the functions nor style of the Supreme Ruler (the supreme
                             authority lapsed).
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel'
(Wrangel), Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in
                             the South of Russia,
assumes the style of Ruler (without specific
                             territorial designation) claiming the supreme Russian authority
                             on the basis of resolution of the Governing Senate (supreme court)
                             of 6 Apr 1920 (his "government in South of Russia" obtained de
                             facto recognition by France on 10 Aug 1920).
16 Nov 1920                Last "White" forces under Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) are defeated in

                             Crimea by Soviet forces and depart to Turkey.
1922/1924                  End of "White" Russian political authority in exile (Russian
                             Council dissolved, end of diplomatic representation, recognition
                             of Soviet Russia by the U.K. and France).

Chairman of the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly ("Komuch")(in Samara)
 8 Jun 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Vladimir Kazimirovich Vol'skiy     (b. 1877 - d. 1937)  PSR
Chairmen of the All-Russian Provisional Government
("Ufa Directory")
24 Sep 1918 - 18 Nov 1918  Nikolay Dmitriyevich Avksentyev    (b. 1878 - d. 1943)  PSR
                             (in Ufa to 8 Oct 1918, then in Omsk)
 7 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918  Vasiliy Georgiyevich Boldyrev      (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil
                             (acting for Avksentyev, in Omsk)
Supreme Rulers (Verkhovnyy Pravitel')
18 Nov 1918                Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (acting)(chairman of council of ministers)
18 Nov 1918 - 15 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak      (b. 1874 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in Omsk to 12 Nov 1919, in Novo-Nikolayevsk from 20 Nov
                             1919 to 4 Dec 1919, then by Dec 25 1919 in Nizhneudinsk)
15 Jan 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Supreme "White" central authority lapsed
Ruler (Pravitel')  and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangel)(in Sevastopol')
Ruler (Pravitel') and Commander-in-Chief of
the Russian Army
19 Aug 1920 - 16 Nov 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Sevastopol')
Chairman of the Russian Council
 5 Apr 1921 - Oct 1922     Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (in Istanbul exile, from Sep 1922 in
                             Sremski Karlovci, Yugoslavia)

Chairman of the Council of Managers
16 Aug 1918 - 23 Sep 1918  Yevgeniy Frantsevich Rogovskiy     (b. 1888 - d. 1950)  PSR 
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

 4 Nov 1918 - 22 Nov 1919  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (s.a.)             PSR;Dec 1918 KDP
22 Nov 1919 - 15 Jan 1920  Viktor Nikolayevich Pepelyayev     (b. 1885 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             (left seat of government Irkutsk 26 Dec 1919,
                             to join Kolchak in Nizhneudinsk)
28 Dec 1919 -  5 Jan 1920  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Cherven-  (b. 1872 - d. 1920)  KDP
                             Vodali
                             (acting for Pepelyayev, in Irkutsk) 

Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief
11 Apr 1920 - 19 Aug 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (b. 1857 - d. 1921)  Non-party
                             (acting to 2 Jun 1920)
Chairman of the Council of Managers of Government in the South of Russia

19 Aug 1920 - 11 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Vasilyevich Krivoshein   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (in Sevastopol')



Green 'republics'

  At first "Greens" was the name of troops who hid in the woods (in the northern Caucasus and Crimean peninsula) and consisted of persons who had avoided mobilization into the army or deserters from both "Red" and "White" armies.  At first "Greens" were non-political and made previously diversionary raids with different "Green" detachments supported various Communist (red), anti-Communist (white), anarchist (black) or nationalist movements. 

  The largest Green Army existed in Black sea coast of Caucasus was the [pro-Communist] Kubano-Black Sea Red-Green Army (est. 15,000 persons) that resisted Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army in the summer of 1919 on the territory between Anapa and Adler. This Army and had no central commander and consisted of separate troops. In the winter of 1920 there were forces
under the Green 'Soviet' Army between Anapa and Tuapse (under commandant P.M. Morits) and Black Sea Peasants' Militia (between Sochi and Adler) that merged in Mar 1920 to form Red Army of Black Sea Land (est. 12,000 persons, under commandant Ye.S. Kazanskiy); it joined together with the "Red" Army to destroy Denikin's forces in the northern Caucasus. 

  pro-Communist "Green" (called "Red-Green") partisan troops in Crimea merged in Aug 1920 into the Rebel Army of Crimea (under commandant A.V. Mokrousov) and joined together with "Red" Army against Vrangel's (Wrangel) "White" forces. 

  Some "Greens" joined the "White" movement, these were often called "White-Greens." The best known of these forces was the Army for Revival of Russia (in 1920 under command of General Fostikov) in the northern Caucasus. 

  By mid-1920 nearly all the "Green" forces were dissolved, with some becoming part of Red Army.


North and Northwest


Government of Russian North-Western Region

ru_noroeste.gif

10 Oct 1918                "White" Russian Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern
                             Army established in Pskov–Ostrov–Rezekne area, which was occupied
                             by
Germany from 24 Feb 1918.
Nov 1918                   North-Western Russian Regional Government appointed in Pskov by the
                             North-Western Russian Regional Defense Council.
25 Nov 1918                Pskov occupied by Soviet Russian forces. Many soldiers deserted,
                             and part retreated to Courland (Latvia), about 2,000 men arrived
                             in southern-Estonia.
 
6 Dec 1918                By the terms of an alliance between the "White" Russians and the
                            Estonian government, the army is put under Estonian control.

13 May 1919                North-Western Russian Army, established in Narva, Estonia, in 8 Mar
                             1919, invaded Russia and occupied Yamburg (modern Kingisepp).
25 May 1919                Independent Corps of the Northern Army created in southern part
                             of Estonia in
Feb 1919, which had been invaded Soviet Russia.
15 Jun 1919                Northern Army merged with North-Western Russian Army.
11 Aug 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government, subordinated to the
                             Supreme Ruler Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, restored in Tallinn,
                             Estonia by
the Political Conference (established 24 May 1919 in
                             Helsinki,
Finland; moved to Tallinn 29 Jul 1919).
26 Aug 1919 - 15 Oct 1919  Pskov briefly occupied by the Soviet Russian forces.
18 Oct 1919                North-Western Russian Army reaches Tsarskoye Selo, a suburb of
                             Petrograd, but is defeated by Soviet Russian troops.
 5 Dec 1919                North-Western Regional Russian Government dissolved as all
                             territories were lost to Soviet Russia, the army is interned by
                             the Estonian government.

Commanders of Pskov Independent Volunteers Corps of the Northern Army (in Pskov, later Narva)
10 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (b. 1867 - d. 1933)  Mil
17 Nov 1918 -  6 Dec 1918  Heinrich Carl Timoleon von Neff    (b. 1880 - d. 1950)  Mil
Commander of the Independent Corps of the Northern Army (in Narva)
 
3 Jan 1919 -  1 Jun 1919  Anton Fyodorovich Dzerozhinskiy    (b. 1867 - d.bf.1939)Mil
Commander of the North-Western Russian Army (in Narva)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yudenich      (b. 1862 - d. 1933)  Mil

Chairman of the North-Western Regional Russian Government and of the 
North-Western Russian Regional Defense Council
12 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Aleksey Yefimovich Vandam          (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Political Conference
24 May 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Anton Vladimirovich Kartashyov     (b. 1875 - d. 1960)  KDP

Chairman of Council of Ministers of North-Western Russian Regional Government (in Tallinn)
11 Aug 1919 -  5 Dec 1919  Stepan Georgiyevich Lianozov       (b. 1872 - d. 1949)  Non-party
                             (Stepan Lianosyan) 


Northern Region (Arkhangelsk)

[Russian flag]

10 Nov 1917                Local Councils (Soviets) refuse to recognize Bolshevik authority.
 7 Dec 1917                Revolutionary Committee assumed temporary "supreme administration of
                             political, administrative, and economy affairs" of the
                             governorate.
17 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule recognized by the Governorate Council (Soviet).
 2 Aug 1918                Supreme Administration of the Northern Region ("VUSO")
is
                             declared by "White" Russians on the eve of occupation of
                             Arkhangelsk
by Anglo-American military forces.  
28 Sep 1918                Provisional Government of the Northern Region (Severnaya oblast)
                             es
tablished.
Oct 1918                   Recognized supreme authority of the "Ufa Directory."
30 Apr 1919               
Recognizes the supreme authority of the Kolchak government, but kept
                             "sovereignty" (samostoyatel'nost') in regional matters.

27 Sep 1919                British evacuate Arkhangelsk (and Murmansk 12 Oct 1919).
19 Oct 1919                Provisional Government turned into department for civil affairs
                             under chief administrator of Northern Region but use of former
                             name continued.
19 Feb 1920                "White" government evacuates Arkhangelsk by sea to Norway.

21 Feb 1920                Bolsheviks enter Arkhangelsk.               

Chairman of the Arkhangelsk Governorate Revolutionary Committee
 
8 Nov 1917 - Feb 1918     A.A. Zhitkov                       (b. c.1887 – d. 19..)RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
(Severnaya oblast)
 2 Aug 1918 -  6 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)  NSP
                             (1st time)
Commander-in-chief of the Russian Army and Navy in the Northern Region
 6 Sep 1918 -  8 Sep 1918  Georgiy Yermolayevich Chaplin      (b. 1886 – d. 1950)  Mil
Chairman of the Supreme Administration of Northern Region
 8 Sep 1918 - 28 Sep 1918  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government of the Northern Region
28 Sep 1918 - 19 Feb 1920  Nikolay Vasilyevich Chaykovskiy    (s.a.)               NSP
                             (from 23 Jan 1919 on diplomatic mission to Paris)
23 Jan 1919 – 10 Feb 1920  Pyotr Yulyevich Zubov              (b. 1871 – d. 1942)  KDP
                             (acting for Chaykovskiy)
Chief administrator of Northern Region (Severnyy kray)(with rights of governor-general)
10 Sep 1919 – 19 Feb 1920  Yevgeniy Karlovich Miller          (b. 1867 - d. 1937)  Mil


Commanders—in-chief of British and (from Sep 1918) Allied troops in Northern Russia
Aug 1918 - Oct 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
Oct 1918 - Sep 1919        William Edmond Ironside            (b. 1880 - d. 1959)

Commanders of the American Expeditionary Force, North Russia

Sep 1918 - Apr 1919        George Evans Stewart               (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
Apr 1919 - Sep 1919        Wilds Preston Richardson           (b. 1861 - d. 1929) 



Ingria (Ingermanland)

[Ingrian flag, 1919-1920
                (Russia)]
                     8 Sep 1919 - 1920

Western Ingria (Kosemkina)

Chairman of the Interim Governing Council
Jan 1919 - 1920            Pietari Toikka                     (b. 1862 - d. 1930)

North Ingria (Republic Kirjasalo)

23 Jan 1919                Northern Ingermanland declares independence as Republic of North
                             Ingria (Pohjois-Inkerin tasavalta), also referred to as the
                             "Republic of Kirjasalo" (Kirjasalon tasavalta).
 5 Dec 1920                Government collapses with the withdrawal of Finnish forces

Chairmen of the Provisional State Council
 9 Jul 1919 - Sep 1919     Santeri Termona
14 Sep 1919 - Nov 1919     Juho Pekka Kokko                   (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Nov 1919 - May 1920     Yrjö (Georg) Elfvengren            (b. 1889 - d. 1927)  Mil
Jun 1920 -  6 Dec 1920     Jukka Tirranen


Pskov Voivodeship

[Russian flag]

Commandants (subordinated to North-Western Army under Yudenich)
25 May 1919 - 23 Aug 1919  Stanislav Nikodimovich Bulak-      (b. 1883 - d. 1940)  Mil 
                             Balakhovich
23 Aug 1919 - 26 Aug 1919  Boris Sergeyevich Peremykin        (b. 1890 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (Peremikin)



Karelia

[Provisional
                      Government of Karelia flag 1918-1920 (Russia)]
21 Jun 1918 - 29 Mar 1920

(Proposed
                      flag of [East Karelia] (Russia), 1919-1920]
1919 - 29 Mar 1920 Proposed Flag
(flag of [East] Karelia
                      (Russia) and Karelian United Government,
                      1920-1922]
29 Mar 1920 - 2 Feb 1922

15 May 1919                Olonets Government founded in Vidlitsa in Southern Karelia after
                             invasion by Finnish irregulars and occupation of Olonets (Aunus)
                             from 24 Apr 1919 to 13 May 1919.
27 Jun 1919                Vidlitsa captured by the Soviet Army; Olonets government flees to
                             Finland.
21 Jul 1919                Provisional Government of Karelia of Arkhangelsk (Arkangelin
                             Karjalan
väliaikaisen hallituksen
) formed at Uhtua (modern
                             Kalevala) in
Northern Karelia near the Finnish border.
21 Mar 1920                Renamed the Provisional Government of Karelia (Karjalan väliaikainen
                             hallitus), declares the independence of Karelia.
18 May 1920                Uhtua captured by Soviet Red Army, government moves to Vuokkiniemi 
                             (Voknavolok).
 8 Jun 1920                Karelian Labor Commune founded (within the Russian S.F.S.R.)
                             (see Karelia A.S.S.R. under Russian S.F.S.R. admin. divisions).
30 Jun 1920                Most of Northern Karelia is conquered by the Soviet Red Army, the
                             Provisional Government of Karelia
crosses the border into Finland.
14 Oct 1920                Russo-Finnish Peace Treaty of Tartu; by Mar 1921 Finland restores
                             Repola (Reboly) and Porajärvi (Porosozero) to Soviet Russia.
10 Dec 1920 - 1923         Karelian United Government formed in Finland exile by a merger of
                             the remnants of the former Provisional Government of Karelia and
                             the Olonets Government.
20 Oct 1921 -  2 Feb 1922  Intervention of Karelian exiles and Finnish volunteers from the
                             territory of Finland into Northern Karelia and Uhtua retaken; it
                             is eliminated by the Russian Red Army.

Chairman of the Olonets Government
15 May 1919 - 27 Jun 1919  German V. Kuttuyev
                             (in Finland exile to 10 Dec 1920)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
21 Jul 1919 - 21 Mar 1920  Anton Timofeyevich Tikhonov        (b. 1883 - d. 1942)
                             (= Antti Vierma)
21 Mar 1920 - 30 Jun 1920  Fyodor Timofeyevich Tikhonov       (b. 1880 - d. 1952)
                             (= Huoti Hilippälä)
                             (in Finland exile to 10 Dec 1920)     
Chairman of the United Government
10 Dec 1920 - 1923         Paavo Kettinen (in Finland exile)



Murmansk

[Russia flag]

 9 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule recognized in Murmansk.
 6 Mar 1918                Landing by British troops according to agreement of 3 Mar 1918.
30 Jun 1918                Local Council (Soviet), having non-Bolshevik majority from Mar 1918,
                             declares end of relations with Soviet Russia.

 5 Aug 1918                Recognizes authority of Supreme Administration in Arkhangelsk.
12 Oct 1919                British evacuate Murmansk.
21 Feb 1920                Local Bolsheviks seized Murmansk (on 13 Mar 1920 regular Soviet
                             troops reach Murmansk).

Chairman of Murmansk Kray Council of Deputies
Mar 1918 – Oct 1918        Aleksey Mikhaylovich Yuryev        (b. 1887 - d.af.1922)Non-party

Commanders of British Troops (from Aug 1918, subject to commander-in-chief in Arkhangelsk)
Mar 1918 - Jun 1918        Thomas Webster Kemp                (b. 1866 - d. 1928)  Mil
Jun 1918 - Aug 1918        Frederick Cuthbert Poole           (b. 1869 - d. 1938)  Mil
Aug 1918 - Oct 1919        Charles Clarkson Maynard           (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  Mil


Western Russian Volunteer Army in Baltic

 
[Russian flag]

17 May 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Unit formed from "White" Russian
                             prisoners of war in Germany. 
May 1919                   Moved from Germany to Jelgava (Mitau), Latvia.
18 Aug 1919                Upgraded to a Corps.
 2 Sep 1919                Separated from North Western Army as Western Russian Volunteer
                             Army (ZDA).
 3 Oct 1919                Germans transfer command of all units in Jelgava, Latvia,
                             and Lithuania to the Western Russian Volunteer Army. 
 8 Oct 1919                Unilateral offensive against Riga started.
 3 Nov 1919                Allied counter-offensive results in defeat of ZDA forces.
28 Nov 1919                Evacuated from Latvia.
13 Dec 1919                Evacuated from Lithuania.
 2 Dec 1919                Western Russian Volunteer Army is dissolved.

Commander-in-chief of the Western Russian Volunteer Army (in Jelgava)
 2 Sep 1919 -  2 Dec 1919  Pavel Rafailovich Bermondt Avalov  (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
                             (from 9 Oct 1919, Knyaz' Pavel Rafailovich Bermondt Avalov

Chairman of the Administrative Council (in Jelgava)
 6 Oct 1919 - 19 Nov 1919  Graf Konstantin Konstanovich fon   (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
                             der Palen


Belorussia, Bessarabia, Crimea, and Ukraine


Belorussian (Byelorussian) People's Republic: see Belarus


Belorussian (ByelorussianSocialist Soviet Republic: see Belarus


Bessarabia: see Moldova


Bessarabian Socialist Soviet Republic: see Transnistria under Moldova


Crimean Muslim Executive Committee ("Musispolkom") : see Crimea under Ukraine


Crimean People's Republic: see Crimea under Ukraine


Donetsk and Krivoy Rog Basins Soviet Republic (Donets'k-Kryvyy Rih): see under Ukraine
Galician Soviet Republic ("Galrevkom"): see under Ukraine

Green Ukraine: see Ukrainian Republic of the Far East
Lithuania and Belorussia ("Litbel"): see under Lithuania

Makhnovist Forces ("Makhnovshchina")/South Ukraine Labor Federation: see under Ukraine
Moldavian Democratic Republic: see Moldova
Odessa Soviet Republic: see under Ukraine
Romanian Front Committee ("Rumcherod"): see Odessa under Ukraine
Taurida (Tavrida) Republic ("Kyrm Revcom"): see Crimea under Ukraine
Ukrainian People's Republic: see Ukraine
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Ukraine

Volga and the Urals


Idel-Ural

[Idel-Ural, Milli Idare,
                flag 1917-1918]

Note: Idel-Ural was the end of the dream of recreating the state of the Golden Horde (Altin Ordu). It was to be a free federation of Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Volga-Ural region, remembering the glory of the Golden Horde.

20 Nov 1917                Congress of Muslims from Russia's Interior and Siberia proclaimed 
                             Independent State in the territory of Kazan and Ufa governorates
                             (guberni). Selection of the government of th
e state, Milli Idare.
                             Creation of the All-Russia Muslim
Military Council and election
                             of Idel-Ural delegates to attend the Versailles
Conference.
Feb 1918                   Non-Muslim nations of Chuvashia, Udmurtia, Mari El, and 
                             Mordovia join the Tatars and Bashkirs in the new state. 
Apr 1918                   After the German-Soviet Treaty Brest-Litovsk is concluded, the
                             Red Army liquidates
administration. 
Jul 1918                   With the help of the Czechoslovak Corps, the Idel-Ural administration
                             is restored. 
end 1918                   Dissolved.

Head of the National Administration (Milli idar)
12 Dec 1917 - 1918         Sadretdin Nizametdinovich Maxudov  (b. 1872/79 - d. 1957)
                             (= Arsal Sadri Maxudi)
                             (in exile from ... 1918)


Ural Provisional Provincial Government

[Provisional Provincial
                Government of Ural Region, 1918]
            18 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918

25 Jul 1918                Yekaterinburg occupied by the Czechoslovak Corps.
13 Aug 1918                Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region ("VOPU") formed
                             in Yekaterinburg.
26 Oct 1918                Transfers power to Supreme Ruler Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak.
10 Nov 1918                Included within the All-Russian Provisional Government

                             (see PARG above).

Chairman of the Provisional Provincial Government of Ural Region
13 Aug 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vladimirovich Ivanov                               KDP 



Orenburg Cossack Host


[Orenburg
                          Cossacks Possible flag 1917-1918]
1917 - 1918 Possible Flag

1755                       Orenburg Cossack Host formed.
 
8 Nov 1917                Ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Host does not recognize the Soviet
                             government and assumes supreme authority in the Orenburg
                             Governorate and (from 24 Dec 1917) in Turgay oblast (presently
                             the north-western part of Kazakhstan).
31 Jan 1918                Bolshevik forces take Orenburg, Dutov falls back to Verkhneuralsk,
                             which also surrenders in Mar 1918, then on 10 May 1918 he retreats
                             to Turgay (Torgay).
 3 Jul 1918                Orenburg Cossacks re-take Orenburg and proclaim (on 12 Aug 1918)
                             the autonomous Orenburg Host Oblast within a federal Russian
                             republic; recognized authority of "Komuch" (from Jul 1918) and
                             Provisional All-Russian Government (from Sep 1918).
Nov 1918                   Orenburg Cossacks recognized the authority of Aleksandr Vasilyevich
                             Kolchak, the Supreme
Ruler (autonomy continued de facto).
22 Jan 1919                Red Army retakes Orenburg, the Cossack capital moved to Troitsk
Sep 1919                   Orenburg Cossack Host evacuates the Orenburg Governorate (Troitsk
                             on 4 Aug 1919) and reached first (in Dec 1919) Semirechye (see
                             under Kazakhstan) and then (in Apr 1920) China.       
     
Atamans of Orenburg Cossack Host and (to 5 Nov 1918) Chairman of the Host Government
 8 Nov 1917 -  7 Feb 1921  Aleksandr Ilyich Dutov               (b. 1879 - d. 1921)
                             (in China exile from 2 Apr 1920; 13 Feb 1919
                              – 23 May 1919 also chief administrator of

                             the Orenburg kray with rights of governor-general)
1921 - 1923                Nikolay Semyonovich Anisimov (acting)(b. 1877 - d. 1931)
                             (in Harbin, China exile; in Vladivostok 1921–22;
                             from 1922 in Korea)
1923 - 1944                Ivan Grigoryevich Akulinin           (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
                             (in Yugoslavia exile; in Berlin 1923–1925; from 1925 in Paris)



Bashkir Autonomous Government


[Bashkir Autonomous
              Government 1917-1919]
                  Adopted 20 Aug 1918

20 Jul 1917                Bashkir Autonomous Government (within Russia).
Apr 1918 - Jun 1918        Suppressed by "White" Russian forces.
23 Mar 1919                Bashkir A.S.S.R. established witin the
Russian S.F.S.R.
                           
(see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.)

Chairmen of the Bashkir Government

20 Jul 1917 -  4 Feb 1918  Sharif Ahmetzyanovich Manat        (b. 1887 - d. 1936)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Sharif Ahmetyan uly Manat)
Feb 1
918 - Apr 1918        Abdullah Sibagatullovich Davletshin(b. 1894 - d. 1963)
                             (chairman of Provisional Revolutionary Council)
17 Jun 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Sagit Gubaydullovich Mryasov       (b. 1880 - d. 1932)
                             (= Meracov Sarit Gheabayzeulla uly)(acting)
Jul 1918 - Dec 1918        Yunus Yulbarisovich Bikbo        (b. 1883 - d. 1942)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Yunys Yulbary uly Bikbov)
Dec 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  
  Abdullah Kamaletdinovich Adigamov  (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  RSDRP-B
                            
(= Azeshamov Abdullah Kamaletdin uly)
                             (acting)
Feb 1919 - 23 Mar 1919     Mstislav Aleksandrovich Kulayev
    (b. 1873 - d. 1958)
                             (= Muhammethan Sahipgaray uly Kulaev)


Semirechye Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan

Tambov

19 Aug 1920                Union of Working Peasants (Soyuz Trudovogo Krestyanstva)
                             "Antonovshchina" revolt in Tambov region against Bolshevik power.
Jan 1921                   Peasant revolts spread to Samara, Saratov, Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan and
                             Siberia. In Feb 1921, the peasant army reached its peak, numbering
                             up to 70,000 it was known as the "Antonovtsi" or "Blue Army." 
1921                       Uprising was gradually quelled. Total losses among the population
                             of Tambov region in 1920–1922 resulting from the war, executions,
                             and imprisonment in concentration camps have been estimated
                             as at least 240,000.

Chief of Staff
19 Aug 1920 - Jun 1921     Aleksandr Antonov                    (b. 1888 - d. 1922)  PSR

Ural Cossack Host: see under Kazakhstan
Volga German Commune: see under Russian S.F.S.R. admin.

South and the Caucasus

Abkhazia: see under Georgia

Aradayan Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan

Aras (Araz/Araxes) Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan
Armenian National Council: see Armenia

Astrakhan Cossack Host

1818                       Astrakhan Cossack Host formed.
27 Nov 1917                Kalmyks incorporated in the Host as the Kalmyk Department on the
                             basis of the resolution of the Kalmyk Congress of Nov 12-14, 1917
                             (not fully effected).
30 Nov 1917                Committee of People's Authority formed, on 10 Dec 1917 it proclaimed
                             itself a provisional supreme authority in Astrakhan governorate.
25 Jan 1918                Take-over of Astrakhan by ataman of Astrakhan Cossack Host.
 6 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule in Astrakhan, the Astrakhan Cossacks retreated to Don
                             and Kuban (latter pro-German party), or joined the Ural Cossacks
                             (latter anti-German party; from Sep 1918 recognized authority of
                             the "Ufa Directory").
Jan 1919                   The re-united Host, then at Rostov-na-Donu, recognized the authority
                             of Denikin, the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in the
                             South
of Russia.
Jun 1919 – Jan 1920        "White" forces, including Astrakhan Cossacks, in control of the
                             Kalmyk Steppe and Tsaritsyn (which became seat of the Host
                             Ataman).

Apr 1920                   Cossacks departed to Crimea through Kuban and Tuapse.
 4 Aug 1920                "Full internal self-government" granted to four Cossack Hosts in
                              Southern Russia by Vrangel', the Ruler in the South of Russia.
Nov 1920                    Cossacks evacuated Crimea for Turkey.

Chairman of Committee of People's Authority
30 Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918  Aleksandr Semyonovich Perfilyev                           PLSR
Atamans of the Astrakhan Cossack Host
25 Jan 1918 - 15 Feb 1918  Ivan Alekseyevich Biryukov         (b. 1856 - d. 1919)   
                             (in office from 15 Oct 1917)   
Mar 1918 - Jan 1919        Danzan Tundutov (acting)           (b. 1888 - d. 1923)   
Mar 1918 - Dec 1918        German Mikhailovich Astakhov       (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
                             (in opposition, at the Ural Host)
Jan 1919 - Nov 1920        Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (b. 1878 - d. 1945)    Mil/KDP
                             (continued after 1920 in exile in Western Europe)

Chairmen of the Astrakhan Host Government
25 Jan 1918 – Mar 1918     Nikolay Vasilyevich Lyakhov        (s.a.)                 Mil/KDP
                             (in office from Nov 1917, continued in opposition to
                             Dec 1918 at the Ural Host)
Mar 1918 -  Jan 1919        Boris Emmanuilovich Krishtafovich  (d. 1944)              KDP
                             (acting)
Jan 1919 - Nov 1920        Sandzhi Bayanov                    (b. 1884 - d. af.1937) PSR

Azerbaijani People's Republic: see Azerbaijan
Adzharistan: see Adjaria under Georgia
Baku Commune: see under Azerbaijan

Batum (Batoum): see Adjaria under Georgia

Black Sea Soviet Republic

[Black Sea Soviet Republic]

10 Mar 1918                Black Sea Soviet Republic (Chernomorskaya) proclaimed in Black Sea
                             province.

30 May 1918                United with Kuban Soviet Republic to form Kuban-Black Sea Soviet
                             Republic.
27 Mar 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Novorossiysk.

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Abram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
10 Mar 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RKP


Central Caspian Dictatorship: see under Azerbaijan

Chechen Emirate 1917-1920: see under Russia


All-Great Don Host

[Flag of All-Great Don
                Cossack Host 1918-1920]
              21 Apr 1918 - 8 Jan 1920

1870                       Province of the Don Host.
20 Mar 1917                Last Tsarist appointed Ataman arrested.

25 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture N
ovocherkassk, eventually establishing
                             the Don Soviet republic.
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the area.
17 May 1918                All-Great Don Host
 8 Jan 1920                Province is lost to Soviet forces, Cossacks retreat toward

                             Kuban and the Crimea.

Chairmen of the Don Executive Committee
16 Mar 1917 - 20 Mar 1917  Andrey Ivanovich Petrovskiy        (b. 1867 - d. 1924)  KDP
Host Ataman
20 Mar 1917 -  1 Jul 1917  Yevgeniy Andreevich Voloshinov     (b. 1881 - d. 1918)  Mil
                             (acting to 8 May 1917, then interim)
 1 Jun 1917 - 11 Feb 1918  Aleksey Maksimovich Kaledin        (b. 1861 - d. 1918)  Mil
12 Feb 1918 - 25 Feb 1918  Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Nazarov      (b. 1876 - d. 1918)  Mil
Chairman of the Council of Defense
15 Apr 1918 - 21 Apr 1921  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (b. 1878 - d. 1924)  Mil

Chairman of the Don Provisional Government
21 Apr 1918 - 17 May 1918  Georgiy Petrovich Yanov            (s.a.)               Mil
Don Ataman

17 May 1918 - 15 Feb 1919  Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov         (b. 1869 - d. 1947)  Mil
15 Feb 1919 -  8 Jan 1920  Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (b. 1873 - d. 1934)  Mil 
                             (acting to 19 Feb 1919)

Chairman of the Host Government
25 Dec 1917 - 25 Feb 1918  Mitrofan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (b. 1881 - d. 1918) Non-party
Chairmen of the Council of the Directors of Departments

17 May 1918 - 19 Feb 1919  Afrikan Petrovich Bogayevskiy      (s.a.)               Mil
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Nov 1919  Pyotr Kharitonovich Popov          (b. 1867 - d. 1960)  Mil
Dec 1919 - Jan 1920        Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1882 - d. 1972)  Mil


Don Soviet Republic

[Don Soviet Republic 1918]

23 Jan 1918                Provisional Revolutionary Committee constituted at Kamenskaya.
24 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture Rostov-na-Donu.
26 Feb 1918                Bolsheviks capture N
ovocherkassk.
23 Mar 1918                Don Soviet Republic established at Rostov-na-Donu
 8 May 1918                German and Cossack forces retake the Rostov area, the
                             government of Don Soviet Republic goes to Tsaritsyn (Volgograd)
                             and then to Velikoknyazheskaya (Proletarsk) to 28 Jun 1918. 

Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee
23 Jan 1918 - 14 Apr 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (b. 1886 - d. 1918)  Mil
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
14 Apr 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Viktor Semyonovich Kovalyov        (b. 1883 - d. 1919)  RKP

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
23 Mar 1918 - 11 May 1918  Fyodor Grigoryevich Podtyolkov     (s.a.)               Mil
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Sergey Ivanovich Syrtsov (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1937)  RKP
11 Jun 1918 - 28 Jun 1918  Ippolit Antonovich Doroshev        (b. 1896 - d. 1939
)  RKP


Georgia Democratic Republic: see Georgia

Karabakh People's Government: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan
Kars National Council: see South-Western Caucasus under Turkey

Kuban Cossack Host

[Flag of Kuban Cossacks
                1918-1920]
               5 Dec 1918 - Mar 1920

Mar 1917                   Kuban Provisional Army Council founded at Yekaterinoslav.
26 Mar 1917                Last imperial Ataman removed, taken over by a commissioner.
30 Apr 1917                Kuban Host Rada constituted.
17 Jul 1917                Kuban Provincial Council dissolved and all executive functions
                             pass to the Host Government.

18 Oct 1917                Kuban Province is renamed Kuban Territory (Kubanskiy Kray).

14 Mar 1918 - 17 Aug 1918  Communist occupation (see Kuban Soviet)
1919 - 1920                Kuban Territory is gradually occupied by Bolshevik forces.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) retaken by Communist forces.
 3 May 1920                Capitulation of "White" Cossack forces in Kuban at Sochi and Tuapse.

Commissioner of Kuban Province
26 Mar 1917 - 23 Oct 1917  Kondrat Lukich Bardizh             (b. 1868 - d. 1918)  KDP
Kuban Host Atamans (Atamans of the Cossack Forces of the Kuban)
23 Oct 1917 - 23 Nov 1919  Aleksandr Petrovich Filimonov      (b. 1867 - d. 1948)  Mil
                            
(outside of Kuban Territory Apr - Jun 1918)
23 Nov 1919 - 24 Nov 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy (acting)(b. 1879 - d. 1957)  Non-party
24 Nov 1919 - 29 Dec 1919  Nikolay Mitrofanovich Uspenskiy    (b. 1875 - d. 1919)
  Mil
29 Dec 1919 - 13 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov (acting)
13 Jan 1920 - Mar 1920     Nikolay Andrianovich Bukretov      (b. 1876 - d. 1930)  Mil

Chairman of the Kuban Host Government
30? Apr 1917-14? Nov 1917  Alexander Petrovich Filimonov      (s.a.)               Mil
Chairmen of the Kuban Territorial Government

14? Nov 1917 - 31 Dec 1918 Luka Lavrentyevich Bych            (b. 1870 - d. 1945)  SRP
                             (outside of Kuban Territory Apr - Jun 1918)
18 Dec 1918 - 19 May 1919  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov
(1st time)                    Non-party
                             (
acting for Bych to 31 Dec 1918)
19 May 1919 - 25 May 1919  Daniil Yermolayevich Skobtsov      (b. 1884 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             (acting)
25 May 1919 - 11 Dec 1919  Pavel Ivanovich Kurganskiy         (s.a.)               Non-party
11 Dec 1919 - 18 Jan 1920  Filip Semyonovich Sushkov (2nd time)                    Non-party
18 Jan 1920 - Mar 1920     Vasiliy Nikolayevich Ivanis        (b. 1888 - d. 1974)  Mil


Kuban Soviet Republic

[Kuban Soviet Republic]

13 Apr 1918                Kuban Soviet Republic
30 May 1918                Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic (Kubano-Chernomorskaya) created by
                             merger of Kuban Soviet Republic and the Black Sea Soviet Republic.

 7 Jul 1918                Merged into the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.

Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Committee of Kuban oblast
16 Feb 1918 - 13 Apr 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B;1918
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee                                        RKP
13 Apr 1918 - 30 May 1918  Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (s.a.)               RKP  
30 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  Avram Izrailevich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP

Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council
Apr 1918 -  7 Jul 1918     Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (s.a.)               RKP


Mountainous Armenia: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan


Nakhichevan: see under Azerbaijan


Mugan: see Talysh-Mughan under Azerbaijan



South of Russia

[Russian flag]

 1 Nov 1919                Provisional Federal Government of Russia created by Anton Ivanovich
                             Denikin
.

15 Jan 1920                Supreme authority of the Russian state devolved to Denikin,
                             appointed as successor of Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak on 4 Jan
                             1920, but he accepted
neither the functions nor style of Supreme
                             Ruler (the supreme
authority lapsed).
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Government in Southern Russia created by Denikin (recognized
                             as "head of authority in South of Russia", a status but not
                             style) in Novorossiysk by agreement with three Cossack Hosts.
17 Mar 1920                Yekaterinodar (Krasnodar) occupied by Soviet Russian forces
                             (Novorossiysk on 27 Mar 1920).
11 Apr 1920                Baron Vrangel' (Wrangel) assumes the style of the Ruler claiming
                             the supreme Russian authority (see Alternative "White" Central
                             Governments).

Commanders-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in the South of Russia
18 Nov 1918 -  4 Apr 1920  Anton Ivanovich Denikin            (b. 1872 - d. 1947)  Mil
                             (to Mar 1920 in Novorossiysk, then Feodosiya)
 4 Apr 1920 - 11 Apr 1920  Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Vrangel'  (b. 1878 - d. 1928)  Mil
                             (Wrangle)(in Sevastopol')

Chairmen of the Special Consultation with the Commander-in-chief
31 Aug 1918 -  8 Oct 1918  Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev      (b. 1857 - d. 1918)  Mil
 8 Oct 1918 - 25 Oct 1919  Avram Mikhaylovich Dragomirov      (b. 1868 - d. 1955)  Mil
Sep 1919 - 25 Oct 1919     Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (b. 1868 - d. 1939)  Mil
                             (acting for Dragomirov)
25 Oct 1919 - 30 Dec 1919  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of the Council of Managers with the Commander-in-chief
30 Dec 1919 - 21 Feb 1920  Aleksandr Sergeyevich Lukomskiy    (s.a.)               Mil
Chairman of Council of Ministers of the Government in the South of Russia
21 Feb 1920 - 27 Mar 1920  Nikolay Mikhaylovich Melnikov      (b. 1881 - d. 1972)  Non-party
                             (in Novorossiysk)



South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppe

 8 Oct 1917                Treaty of union of Cossack hosts of Don, Kuban and Terek, mountain
                             peoples of the Caucasus, and free people of the steppe is signed
                             in Yekaterinodar (Kuban).
20 Oct 1917                Kuban Rada approved the creation of the union.
14 Nov 1917                Treaty of union approved by the Don Host Government.
29 Nov 1917                United government of South-East Union of Cossack Hosts, Mountain
                             Peoples of the Caucasus, and Free People of the Steppe is
                             constituted in Yekaterinodar (Kuban).
28 Feb 1918                United government ceased to function.

Chairman of the United Government
29 Nov 1917 – 28 Feb 1918  Vasiliy Akimovich Kharlamov        (b. 1875 – d. 1957)  KDP


South-Western Caucasus Government: see under Turkey


Stavropol Soviet Republic

[Stavropol Soviet Republic]

 1 Jan 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic founded in Stavropol region.
21 May 1918                Under "White" forces, communist government goes into exile at
                             Nevinnomysskaya.
 
7 Jul 1918                Stavropol Soviet Republic merged into North Caucasian Soviet Rep.
29 Feb 1920                Soviet Russian forces retake Stavropol.

Chairmen of the Government Executive Committee
 1 Jan 1918 - 14 May 1918  Grigoriy Ivanovich Meshcheryakov
14 May 1918 -  7 Jul 1918  A. Deyneko                                         

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

 8 Jan 1918 - 28 Apr 1918  Aleksandr Andreyevich Ponomaryev   (b. 1876 - d. 1941)  RSDRP-B
28 Apr 1918 - 20 May 1918  ...


Syunik Republic: see Nakhichevan under Azerbaijan


Terek Soviet Republic

Communist govt

 3 Mar 1918                Terek Soviet Republic founded on by Congress of Terek 
                             Nations region at Pyatigorsk.
 
7 Jul 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  Merged into the North Caucasian Soviet Republic.
27 Jan 1919                Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
                             founded.
Feb 1919                   Occupied by Denikin's "White" Russian Voluntary Army.
17 Nov 1920                Some territory part of Mountain Autonomous Socialist Soviet
                             Republic.

Chairman of the Terek People's Council
 5 Mar 1918 - Aug 1918     Ye.S. Bogdanov
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
Aug 1918 - Feb 1919        F.Kh. Bulle

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissioners
 5 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1918  Samuil Grigoryevich Buachidze      (b. 1882 - d. 1918)
20 Jun 1918 - Aug 1918     Yuriy G. Paszkovskiy               (b. 18.. - d. 1918)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee for Defense of Terek Soviet Republic
27 Jan 1919 - Feb 1919     Grigoriy Konstantinovich           (b. 1886 - d. 1937)
                             Ordzhonikidze

Dagestan
 
[Dagestan
                            Emirate 1917]
1917 - Dec 1917
[Dagestan
                            Emirate flag 1919-1920]
1919 - 1920 Emirate Flag
[Terek cossacks flag 1917]
Nov 1917 - Dec 1917 Terek Flag

 3 Apr 1917                Daghestan Special Commissariat created, recognizing the rule 
                             of the Russian provisional government.
20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Provisional government of Terek-Dagestan.
Dec 1917                   Petrovsk-Port (Makhachkala) Soviet seizes power. 
 4 Mar 1918                Terek Cossacks declare independence.
30? Mar 1918               Occupied by "White" forces.
19/25 Apr 1918-12 Aug 1918 Communists retake Petrovsk-Port.
Oct 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Occupied by Bolshevik forces.
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     Emirate of Dagestan
30 Mar 1920                Soviet Red Army takes Petrovsk-Port.
13 Nov 1920                Dagestan A.S.S.R. (within Russian S.F.S.R.)

Chairman of the Provisional Regional Executive
20 Oct 1917 - Dec 1917     Zubair Temirkhanov                 (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
Chairmen of the Military Revolutionary Soviet in Port Petrovsk
1917 - 1918                Ullubuy Daniyalovich Buynakskiy    (b. 1890 - d. 1919)
1918                       Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (b. 1877 - d. 1937)
                             Korkmasov
Chairmen of the National Committee of the Berg-Region (Vedeno)
1918                       Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.)
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (1st time)
1919 - 1921                Nullah Naghm ad-Din bin            (s.a.) 
                             Muhammad (Gozinskiy) (2nd time)
Chairmen of the Executive Committee
1918 - 1920                Dzhalaleddin Aselderovich          (s.a.)
                             Korkmasov
1920 - 1921                Said Ibraimovich Gabiyev           (b. 1882 - d. 1963)

Heads of the government
 1 Dec 1917 - 13 Dec 1917  Mikhail Alexandrovich Karaulov     (b. 1878 - d. 1917)
Dec 1917 - Mar 1918        Rashid-Khan Zabitovich Kaplanov    (b. 1883 - d. 1937)
Prime minister 
Sep 1919 - 13 Nov 1920     Inaluka Dyshinskogo-Arsanukayev
                            (Inaluk Dishniyskim [Dyshninskiy])


Mountain People's Republic
 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1917-1918]
1917 - 1918 
[Mountain
                          People's Republic 1918-1919]
1918 - 12 Jun 1919
[Mountain
                          People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic
                          1920-21]
1920 - 1921

Nov 1917                   Mountain Republic founded in territories of Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             North Ossetia and Dagestan.
21 Dec 1917                Independence from Russia declared.
 5 Mar 1918                With founding of Terek Soviet Republic members of government fled
                             into exile in Tiflis, Georgia.
11 May 1918                Republic of the Union of Mountain People's of the Caucasus and 
                             Dagestan (North Caucasian Mountain Republic) founded in
                             western Dagestan.
Aug 1918                   Troops of (Soviet) Republic of Northern Caucasus occupy parts 
                             Dagestan.
Sep 1918 - Nov 1918        Turkish occupation.
Nov 1918                   Government moved to Temir-Khan-Shura (Buynaksk).
May 1919                   Abolished with occupation by Denikin's "White" forces.
17 Nov 1920                Mountain People's Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic proclaimed
                             in Vladikavkaz (included territories of modern Alania
                             (North Ossetia), Kabardino-Balkaria, Chechnya, Ingushetia,
                             Dagestan and part of Karachayevo-Cherkessia.
20 Jan 1921                Mountain A.S.S.R. part of the Russian S.F.S.R.

Dictator
May 1919 - Nov 1918        Nuh-Beg Tarkovskiy                 (b. 1878 - d. 1951)

Chairmen of the Government (prime ministers)
Nov 1917 - 1918            Abdulmajid Thapa Chermoyev         (b. 1882 - d. 1937) 
                             (in Georgia exile May - Nov 1918)
1918                       Vassan Giray Izhyevich Dzhabagyev  (b. 1882 - d. 1961)
                             (1st time)

1918 - May 1919            Pshemakho Tamashevich Kotsev       (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
1919                       Vassan Giray Izhyevich Dzhabagyev  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Mugan Republic: see under Azerbaijan
Nakhichevan Republic Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Azerbaijan

North-Caucasian Emirate

[Flag of North-Caucasian
                Emirate, 1919-1920]

19 Sep 1919                North Caucasian Emirate founded (in rebellion against Russian                              Volunteer "White" Army) in Mountainous Chechnya, capital Vedeno.
Apr 1920                   Supressed by the Soviet Red Army.

Emirs
19 Sep 1919 - 30 Mar 1920  Uzur Haji Khair Khan               (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
30 Mar 1920 - Apr 1930     Sheikh Dervish Mukhammad

Grand Vizier (chief minister)
Sep 1919 - Apr 1920        Inaluka Dyshinskogo-Arsanukayev
                            (Inaluk Dishniyskim [Dyshninskiy])


North Caucasian Soviet Republic

[North Caucasian Soviet
                Republic]

 7 Jul 1918                North Caucasian Soviet Republic (Severo-Kavkazkaya) founded on First
                             Congress of
Councils of Northern Caucasus in Yekaterinodar by
                             merger of the Kuban-Black Sea Soviet Republic, Stavropol Soviet
                             Republic, and the Terek Soviet Republic.

17 Aug 1918                Yekaterinodar captured by Denikin's Russian Volunteer Army,
                             government is moved to Pyatigorsk.
21 Oct 1918                Some members of Central Executive Committee (A.A. Rubin,
                             V.I. Krayny and others) are arrested and killed on the command
                             of I.L. Sorokin (commander of Red Army of Northern Caucasus).
28 Oct 1918                Second Extreme Congress of Councils of Northern Caucasus removed,
                             I.L. Sorokin and elected new members of Central Executive
                             Committee.
Dec 1918                   Northern Caucasus occupied by Denikin's "White" Russian
                             Volunteer
Army. Soviet Government went to exile to Tsaritsyn
                             (Volgograd).

11 Jan 1919                North Caucasian Soviet Republic liquidated.


Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
 
7 Jul 1918 - 21 Oct 1918  Avraam Azorgivich Rubin            (b. 1883 - d. 1918)  RKP
28 Oct 1918 - 11 Jan 1919  M.S. Akulov

Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Defense of the North Caucasus and Dagestan

 
7 Jul 1918 - Dec 1918     Yan Vasilyevich Poluyan            (b. 1891 - d. 1937)  RKP


Syunik Republic: see Nagorno-Karabakh under Azerbaijan


Transcaucasia Democratic Federative Republic: see under Georgia


Central Asia


Alash-Orda (All-Kirghiz People's Council): see Kazakhstan

Amudarya Provisional Government: see Karakalpakstan under Uzbekistan

Basmachi: see Kokand under Uzbekistan
Bukhara (Bokhara) and Bukharan People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Fergana Autonomy: see Kokand under Uzbekistan

Khorezm/Khiva/Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic: see under Uzbekistan
Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic: see under Kazakhstan
Pamir Revolutionary Committee: see Gorno-Badakshan under Tajikistan
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic ("Turksovnarkom"): see under Uzbekistan

Transcaspian oblast: see Turkmenistan

Turkestan Turkic Independent Islamic Republic: see Kokand under Uzbekistan
Siberia

Siberia Region

[Siberian Autonomist
                        flag, 1917-1918 (Russia)]
28 Oct 1917 - 14 Feb 1918;
26 May 1918 - 4 Nov 1918

[Siberian Tsentrosibir 1918 (Russia)]
14 Feb 1918 - 26 May 1918
“Tsentrosibir”
[Siberia
                      alternative flag (as used by Siberian troops)
                      1918]
26 May 1918 - 4 Nov 1918
Alternative Flag
(as used by Siberian troops)

[Tobolsk Council
                      (one of several flags) 1921]
1921
Tobolsk Council (one of several flags)

28 Oct 1917               First Siberian Oblast Assembly elects an executive committee at
                            Tomsk.

Nov/Dec 1917              Bolshevik authority established in most of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk
                            10 Nov, Irkutsk 2 Dec, Omsk 13 Dec, Tomsk 19 Dec, Barnaul 20 Dec)
                            under the largely autonomous Central Executive Committee of Soviets
                            of Siberia ("Tsentrosibir") in Irkutsk.
20-28
Dec 1917            All-Siberian Oblast Extraordinary Assembly is convened in Tomsk (with
                            representatives from the Governorates and Oblasts of Akmolinsk,
                            Altay, Irkutsk, Semipalatinsk, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Transbaikal,
                            Yakutsk, and Yenisey), and declares itself "autonomous oblast
                            authority" and its opposition to the Bolsheviks in Petrograd.

26 Dec 1917               Provisional Siberian Oblast Council
accepted 'regulations' for the
                            provisional institutions of the
Siberian administration
                            (provisional
constitution).
 
7-8 Feb 1918             Bolshevik forces begin arresting local autonomy leaders.
10 Feb 1918               Provisional Siberian Government (PSG) is established at Tomsk by the
                            first (underground) session of Siberian Oblast Duma (8 Feb-14 Feb
                            1918), which claimed "entire authority until convocation of the
                            Siberian Constituent Assembly."

Feb 1918                  PSG flees Bolshevik forces for Chita, then in exile in Harbin, later
                            Vladivostok; by then only the Tobolsk Governorate (to 9 Apr 1918)
                            and Yakutsk Oblast (see Yakutia) were outside of Bolshevik control.

20 May 1918               The Czechoslovak Corps refuses Bolshevik demands to disarm and
                            convenes a congress of
corps units delegates at Chelyabinsk and the
                            congress forms the Provisional Executive Committee of the
                            Czechoslovak Corps and the Military Council.
25-26 May 1918            Bolshevik forces in central Siberia are overthrown by Czechoslovak
                            Corps and "White" Russian (Siberian) forces. Bolsheviks evacuate
                            Novo-Nikolayevsk (modern Novosibirsk) on 26 May 1918, Tomsk on
                            31 May 1918, Omsk on 7 Jun 1918, Barnaul 15 Jun 1918, Tobolsk
                            18 Jun 1918, Krasnoyarsk 19 Jun 1918, Irkutsk 11 Jul 1918.

26 May 1918               Western Siberian Commissariat (WSC)(Zapadno-Sibirskiy Komissariat),
                            earlier established by PSG, at Novo-Nikolayevsk (in Omsk from 7 Jun
                            1918) led the anti-Bolshevik resistance (WSC nominally represented
                            PSG, on 30 Jun 1918 renamed the Provisional Government of
                            Autonomous Siberia [PGAS], located in Vladivostok [see Primorye]).

29 Jun 1918               Alternative Provisional Government of Siberia (PGS) formed in Omsk,
                            at a meeting featuring several members of the former body (PSG)
                            who were still in Western Siberia, and WSC dissolved (PGS rejected
                            authority of "Komuch" in Samara).

30 Jun 1918               PGAS in Vladivostok (see under Primorye) refuse to recognize the
                            reformed PGS in Omsk and continue in dissidence to 22 Sep 1918
                            claiming to be the legitimate Siberian government.

 4 Jul 1918               Declaration on Siberian state sovereignty (Deklyaraciya o
                            gosudarstvennoy samostoyatel'nosti Sibiri) "within Russian state"
                            adopted by PGS "until such time as territory of European Russia]
                            was cleared of Bolshevik and German occupation" (PGS claimed
                            "supreme authority of Siberia" from the Pacific to the Urals). The
                             declaration was opposed by the PGAS.

23 Sep 1918                PGS together with "Komuch" established Provisional All-Russian
                             Government in Ufa ("Ufa Directory")(see PARG
above) and recognized
                             its supreme authority.

 
3 Nov 1918                Provisional Government of Siberia passes power to Provisional All-
                             Russian Government and dissolves itself (as decided 23 Oct 1918).
27 Jan 1919                Trans-Siberian Railway between Novo-Nikolayevsk and Irkutsk made a
                             "Czechoslovak zone of operations" by the Inter-Allied Railway
                             Agreement of 9 Jan 1919.
Oct 1919/Jan 1920          Red Army retook Siberia as "White" troops of Supreme Ruler Kolchak
                             retreated (Tobolsk 21 Oct 1919, Omsk 15 Nov 1919, Barnaul 11 Dec
                             1919, Tomsk 22 Dec 1919, and Krasnoyarsk 4 Jan 1920).
25 Dec 1919 -  4 Jan 1920  Krasnoyarsk taken over by the Yenisey Governorate Zemstvo Board
                             (self-administration) with support of the local garrison.
 5 Jan 1920 – 21 Jan 1920  Irkutsk taken over by the socialist Political Center (claiming to be
                             Siberian authority) in opposition to Kolchak (on 21 Jan 1920 they
                             surrendered city to the "Red" partisans).
 7 Feb 1920                The Soviet government and the Command of the Czechoslovak Army sign
                             a truce in Irkutsk (by Mar 1920 Czechoslovaks left Irkutsk and by
                             2 Sep 1920 were evacuated via Vladivostok).

Feb 1921 – Jun 1921        "Western Siberian Peasant Rebellion," controls large areas
                             (except of main cities) from the Ob River stuary in the north to
                              Lake Balkhash in the south (no overall political administration,
                              but the principal center was Tobolsk).

Chairman of the Siberian Oblast Executive Committee (in Tomsk)
28 Oct 1917 - 26 Dec 1917  Vladimir Mikhaylovich Krutovskiy   (b. 1856 - d. 1938)  SSO
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee of Soviets of Siberia (in Irkutsk)
 5 Nov 1917 - 28 Feb 1918  Boris Zakharovich Shumyatskiy      (b. 1886 - d. 1938)  RSDSRP-B
28 Feb 1918 - 28 Aug 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Yakovlev      (b. 1886 - d. 1918)  RKP
Jul 1918 - 28 Aug 1918     Nikolay Andreyevich Gavrilov       (b. 1886 - d. 1919)  RKP
                             (acting for absent Yakovlev; in Verkhneudinsk,
                             from 16 Aug 1918 in Chita)
Chairmen of the Provisional Siberian Oblast Council
(in Tomsk, increasingly underground)
26 Dec 1917 - 14 Jan 1918  Grigoriy Nikolayevich Potanin      (b. 1835 - d. 1920)  SSO
14 Jan 1918 - 10 Feb 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Siberian Government (PSG)
10 Feb 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in Tomsk underground, in Feb 1918 briefly in Chita;
                             in Harbin, China exile 1 Mar - Jun 1918; continued as
                             chairman of Provisional Government of Autonomous
                             Siberia in dissidence to PGS in Vladivostok
                             30 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918)
Chairman of Tobolsk Governorate Executive Committee of Councils
(in opposition to Bolshevik rule)
19 Feb 1918-  9 Apr 1918  Vasiliy Nikolayevich Pignatti      (b. 1862 - d. 1920)  NSP
Western Siberian Commissariat of the Provisional Siberian Government

(in Novo-Nikolayevsk [Novosibirsk]; from 7 Jun 1918 in Omsk)
26 May 1918 - 30 Jun 1918  Mikhail Yakovlevich Lindberg       (b. 1889 - d. 1938)  PSR
                           + Boris Dmitriyevich Markov        (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  PSR
                           + Vasiliy Osipovich Sidorov        (b. 1884 - d.af.1920)PSR 
                           + Pavel Yakovlevich Mikhaylov      (b. 1889 - d. 1920)  PSR
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Provisional Government of Siberia (PGS)
30 Jun 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Pyotr Vasilyevich Vologodskiy      (b. 1863 - d. 1925)  PSR
                             (in Omsk, from 3 Sep 1918 often in Ufa and on All-Russian business)
Chairmen of the Administrative Council of Provisional Government of Siberia

(delegated the executive functions by PGS, in Omsk)
 3 Sep 1918 - 14 Sep 1918  Ivan Innokentyevich Serebrennikov  (b. 1882 - d. 1940)  SSO
14 Sep 1918 -  3 Nov 1918  Ivan Andrianovich Mikhailov        (b. 1891 - d. 1946)  SSO
Chairman of the Yenisey Governorate Zemstvo Board (in Krasnoyarsk)
25 Dec 1919 -  4 Jan 1920  Grigoriy Prokhorovich Sibirtsev    (b. 1874 - d. 1921)  Non-party?
                             (in office from 1918/1919)
Chairman of the Political Centre
(in Irkutsk)
 5 Jan 1920 - 21 Jan 1920  Florian Florianovich Fyodorovich   (b. 1876 - d. 1928)  PSR
Chairman of Tobolsk Peasants and City Council
27 Feb 1921 -  8 Apr 1921  Aleksey Petrovich Stepanov

Czechoslovak Corps


Commanders-in-chief of the Czechoslovak Corps (from 1 Feb 1919, Army)

10 Sep 1917 -  1 Sep 1918  Vladimir Nikolayevich Shokorov     (b. 1868 - d. 1940)  Mil
 1 Sep 1918 - Nov 1918     Jan Bohumír Syrový                 (b. 1888 - d. 1970)  Mil
                             (continued as "chief of operations" to Sep 1920)
Nov 1918 – Sep 1920        Pierre T.C. Maurice Janin          (b. 1862 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (also commander-in-chief of Allied Forces
                             in Siberia Feb 1919 - Feb 1920)



Buryat-Mongol

25 Apr 1917                Eventual Buryat-Mongol polity proclaimed at First All-Buryat
                             Assembly, the Assembly
requests autonomy of Buryat areas.
Jan/Feb 1918               Buryats organized 7 district (uyezd) level "aymaks" (4 within
                             Transbaikal Oblast, 3 within Irkutsk Governorate).
 
5 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) in Verkhneudinsk (modern Ulan-Ude).
 3 Jul 1918                Autonomy of Buryat people within Transbaikal Oblast recognized by
                             Transbaikal Oblast Soviet (confirmed by Transbaikal Cossack
                             Host Ataman Semyonov Oct 1918).
20 Aug 1918                Verkhneudinsk taken by Siberian and Czechoslovak troops (Sep 1918
                             replaced by Transbaikal Cossacks and Japanese troops).
Apr 1919 - Jan 1920        Verkhneudinsk sector of Trans-Siberian Railway garrisoned by U.S.
                             troops under the Inter-Allied Railway Agreement of 9 Jan 1919.
23 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  An attempt to organize theocratic Buryat state (Kodunay Erkhij
                             Balgasan).

Nov 1919                   People's Duma suspended by Ataman Semyonov (dissolved Oct 1920).

 2 Mar 1920                "Red" partisans of Pribaikalye (see under Transbaikal) entered
                             Verkhneudinsk.

Chairmen of the Buryat-Mongol Central National Committee 

Apr 1917 - Dec 1917        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (1st time)  (b. 1888 – d. 1938)  PSR
Dec 1917 - Mar 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (1st time)     (b. 1881 – d. 1942)  PSR
Mar 1918 - May 1918        Elbek-Dorzhi Rinchino (2nd time)  (s.a.)               PLSR?
May 1918 - Sep 1918        Tsyben Zhamtsarano (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PSR
Sep 1918 - Nov 1918        Dashi Sampilon                    (b. 1891 – d. 1937)  PSR
Chairman of the Buryat-Mongol People's Duma
Nov 1918 - Nov 1919        Dashi Sampilon                    (s.a.)               PSR
Ruler (title Tsog-Tuguldur Dharma Raja Khan) (in opposition)
23 Apr 1919 - 11 May 1919  Lubsan-Sandan Tsydenov            (b. 1841 - d. 1922)

Commander of the U.S. troops in Verkhneudinsk (subordinated to commander in Vladivostok)
Apr 1919 – Jan 1920        Charles Haskell Morrow            (b. 1877 - d. 1935)  Mil


Karakorum-Altai

[Karakorum-Altai, 1918-1919 (Russia)]
Adopted 7 Mar 1918

 1-6 Jul 1917              First Assembly of Representatives of Indigenous Sub-districts of
                             Altai takes place in Biysk. They adopted a declaration "On
                             Recognition of Self-Determination of Indigenous People of Altai"
                             and calls for a separate Mountainous Altai Zemstvo (provincial
                             council) in the future.
30 Dec 1917                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) recognized in the Biysk district
                             (to Jun 1918).
12 Mar 1918                Constituent Second Assembly of Indigenous and Peasants Deputies'
                             of the Mountainous Altai Kray (Land), in village of Ulala (modern
                             Gorno-Altaysk), proclaims the separation of Mountainous Altai
                             region from the Biysk district (not recognized by Soviet
                             authorities). The new entity is called the Karakorum-Altai Okrug
                             (district)(it was sometimes referred to as the "Oyrot Republic").
30 Dec 1918                New Karakorum uyezd ([district] within Altay Governorate) recognized
                             by the "White" Government (effective 18 Jan 1919).
Jan 1920                   District dissolved by Bolshevik forces (take over 18 Dec 1919).

Chairman of Altai Mountainous Duma

Jul 1917 - Mar 1918        Grigoriy Ivanovich Choros-Gurkin  (b. 1870 – d. 1937)  PSR
Chairmen of the Karakorum-Altai (from Jan 1919, Karakorum) District Board
Mar 1918 - Feb 1919        Grigoriy Ivanovich Choros-Gurkin  (s.a.)               PSR
Feb 1919 - Dec 1919        Viktor Timofeyevich Tiber-Petrov  (b. 1879 - d. 1927)  Non-party?


Khakass


Jul 1917                   Khakass National Committee set up by the Second Khakass Assembly.
13 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) in Minusinsk district (to 24 Jun 1918).
14 Mar 1918                Khakass Steppe Duma and its Board replaced the National Committee,
                             requested separation of Khakass district (within Yenisey Governorate)
                             from Minusinsk district, the Khakass declared to be "self-governing
                             people."
Apr 1918 – Jun 1918        Khakass autonomy confirmed by the Soviets, the Khakass Steppe Duma
                             to be turned into the Khakass Steppe Soviet (not fully effected).
Jul 1918                   Khakass Steppe Duma and its Board re-established by the Sixth Khakass
                             Assembly.
 1 Jan 1919                Khakass uyezd (district) created (by resolution of the Yenisey
                             Governorate authorities of Sep 1918), but abolished in Mar 1919.

Chairman of Khakass National Committee

Jul 1917 - 14 Mar 1918     Stepan Dmitriyevich Maynagashev   (b. 1886 - d. 1920)  PSR
Chairman of Khakass Steppe Board
14 Mar 1918 - Mar 1919     Stepan Dmitriyevich Maynagashev   (s.a.)               PSR


Tannu Tuva (Urianay kray): see under Russia

Zabaikalye (Transbaikal)

[Russian flag]
               1 Sep 1918 - 22 Oct 1920

1851                       Transbaikal Cossack Host formed.
Nov/Dec 1917               Bolshevik rule rejected, Transbaikal oblast representatives
                             participated in the Siberian regional authorities.
 4 Jan 1918                People's Council established, it claimed "provisional coalition
                             authority" in Transbaikal oblast.

16 Feb 1918                Bolshevik rule (see Siberia) established in Chita.

 6 May 1918 – Sep 1918     Transbaikal Oblast Provisional Government formed in Borzya, in
                             opposition
to Bolshevik rule (dissolved upon recognition by Ataman
                             Semyonov of authority of the "White" "Ufa Directory" government).
26 Aug 1918                Chita taken by Siberian, Czechoslovak and Cossack troops (from 1 Sep
                             1918 only Cossacks remained).

Aug 1918 – 15 Oct 1920     Japanese troops present in Transbaikal (presence confirmed by the
                             Inter-Allied Railway Agreement of 9 Jan 1919).

21 Nov 1918 – 26 May 1919  Ataman Semyonov refuses to recognize authority of Aleksandr
                             Vasilyevich Kolchak
as the Supreme Ruler and claims "entire
                             authority" in the oblast

 4 Jan 1920                Admiral Kolchak authorizes Semyonov to assume all civil and 

                             military authority in the east part of Russia (Russkaya
                             vostochnaya
okraina)(no specific style;
effectively only in
                             Transbaikal).

 
5 Mar 1920                Provisional Zemstvo Government of Pribaikalye proclaimed at
                             Verkhneudinsk by "Red" partisans (on 6 Apr 1920, became the Far
                             Eastern
Republic [see under Russia]) in opposition to "White"
                            
Transbaikal government.
20 Sep 1920                Semyonov recognizes the supreme authority of Baron Vrangel'
                             (Wrangel), Ruler in the South of Russia.
22 Oct 1920                Chita occupied by the Far Eastern Republic (Transbaikal part of Far
                             Eastern Republic to 15 Nov 1922), Semyonov had moved to Borzya.

21 Nov 1920                Semyonov and his troops are forced to leave Transbaikal for China.

Chairman of Commissariat of Transbaikal Oblast People's Council
 4 Jan 1918 - 16 Feb 1918  Ivan Afanasyevich Butin               (b. 1886 – d. 1919)  PLSR
Chairman of Transbaikal Oblast Provisional Government 
 6 May 1918 - Sep 1918     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov        (b. 1890 - d. 1946)  Mil
                             (in opposition to Bolshevik rule to Aug 1918)
Atamans of the Transbaikal Cossack Host
Sep 1918 -  9 Jun 1919     Vasiliy Vasilyevich Zimin (nominal)   (b. 1874 - d. 1942)  Mil  
Sep 1918 - 19 Nov 1920     Grigoriy Mikhaylovich Semyonov        (s.a.)               Mil
                            (to 9 Jun 1919 as "Field Ataman" de facto acting for Zimin;
                             from 18 Jul 1919 to Jan 1920, with title "assistant chief
                             administrator"
and authority of governor-general of
                             Transbaikal oblast
granted by Kolchak; from Jan 1920
                             also authority in the east part of Russia)
Chairman of the Provisional Zemstvo Government of Pribaikalye
 
5 Mar 1920 -  6 Apr 1920  Ivan A. Pyatidesyatnikov                                    RSDRP-M
                             (at Verkhneudinsk, in opposition)
Ataman of the Transbaikal Cossack Host
1920 - 1946                Aleksey Proklovich Baksheyev          (b. 1873 - d. 1946)
                             (acting to 1922; in Harbin, China exile [1921-1922
                             in Vladivostok], from 1945 in Soviet captivity)

Assistants for Civil Affairs to authority in the East part of of Russia

16 Jan 1920 - 26 Jun 1920  Sergey Afanasyevich Taskin            (b. 1876 – d. 1952)  KDP
26 Jun 1920 - 18 Sep 1920  A.V. Volgin                       
Chairman of the Council of Managers with authority in the East part of Russia
18 Sep 1920 -  3 Nov 1920  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vinogradov   (b. 1877 - d. 1938)  KDP


Yakutia

[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine) first
                          proposal]
Nov/Dec 1917 - 1 Jul 1918;
21 Aug 1918 - 4 Nov 1918;
Sep 1922 - Jun 1923
[Russia]
4 Nov 1918 - 14/15 Dec 1919,
12 Mar 1922 - 2 Sep 1922

Nov/Dec 1917               Bolshevik rule rejected, Yakutsk oblast representatives participated
                             in the Siberian regional authorities.
22 Feb 1918                Yakutsk Oblast Council established, it assumed "supreme authority
                             until convocation of the Siberian or Russian Constituent Assembly"
                             in the oblast.
 1 Jul 1918                Bolshevik forces from Irkutsk (see Siberia) overthrow the pro-
                             independence Yakutsk government. 
21 Aug 1918                "White" Russian (Siberian) forces overthrow the Bolsheviks in
                             Ya
kutia.
14/15 Dec 1919             Local Bolsheviks regain control of Yakutia following the withdrawal
                             of Kolchak's "White" Russian forces (under "supreme Soviet
                             authority" of the partisan "Tsentrosovet", which by early Jan 1920
                             controlled large area from north-west of Lake Baikal to Okhotsk on
                             the Pacific).

12 Mar 1922               
Provisional Yakutsk Oblast People's Administration is formed at
                             Churapcha by local "White" Russian and Yakut rebels (recognized
                             authority of Priamurye [see under Primorye]), who besieged the town
                             of Yakutsk on
23 Mar 1922 (to Jun 1922) and took control of most of
                             Yakutia
(except the major towns along Lena River).
27 Apr 1922                Soviet Russia establishes the Yakut A.S.S.R. (within Russian SFSR).
Jul 1922                   "White" forces are ousted from Yakutsk and the remains withdraw to
                             the Pacific
coast to port towns of Okhotsk (see under Tungus) and
                             Ayan.

 2 Sep 1922                Local "White" forces are reinforced from Vladivostok by troops under
                             General Anatoliy Nikolayevich Pepelyayev (b. 1891 - d. 1938), acting
                             for autonomous Siberia cause, that
disembarks in Ayan and Okhotsk
                            
and moves towards Yakutsk.
Mar 1923                   Soviet troops oust the "White" Army from Amga (south-east of Yakutsk).
 6 - 16 Jun 1923           Remainder of the "White" Army is defeated near Okhotsk on 6 Jun 1923
                             and near Ayan on 16 Jun 1923.
Autumn 1923                A further Soviet expedition landed at Kolyma to crush the last
                             resistance to Soviet rule (Kolyma under "White" Russian control
                             since Mar 1922).
Sep 1927 – Jan 1928        Yakuts form "Young Yakut" party and again attempt a rebellion in
                             south-eastern
Yakutia.

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Yakutsk Oblast Council
22 Feb 1918 -  1 Jul 1918   Vasiliy Vasilyevich Popov          (b. 1876?-d.af.1923) PSR
Chairman of Temporary Central Soviet of North Eastern Kray ("Tsentrosovet")
 8 Nov 1919 - 26 Jan 1920   Vladimir Karlovich Brum                                 RKP
                              (to early Jan 1920 in rebellion against the "White"
                              troops; based in Ust'-Kut and other nearby locations
                              in Irkutsk governorate)
Chairmen of the Provisional Yakutsk Oblast People's Administration

(in Churapcha; from Aug 1922, in Okhotsk)
12 Mar 1922 - Jun 1923      Georgiy Semyonovich Yefimov        (b. 1892 - d.af.1960)Non-party
                              (left for Vladivostok in Sep 1922, then China;
                              did not resign)
Sep 1922 - Jun 1923         Ivan Fyodorovich Afanasyev         (b. 1885 - d. 1942)  Non-party
                              (acting for absent Yefimov)
Secretary-general of the Central Committee
 4 Dec 1927 -  1 Jan 1928   Pavel Vasilyevich Ksenofontov      (b. 1890 - d. 1928)  MPK


Far East
Anadyr: see under Chukotka
 
Amur

[Russia]
to 25 Feb 1918;
18 Sep 1918 - 6 Feb 1920

[Amur Soviet 1918]
25 Feb 1918 - 18 Sep 1918

1858                       Amur Cossack Host established.
21 Nov 1917                Ataman of Amur Cossacks provisionally a "supreme authority" in the
                             Amur oblast.
 4 Dec 1917                Public Safety Committee formed with transitional "supreme
                             legitimate authority."
 7 Dec 1917                Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board (self-administration) established, with
                             "full authority" in the oblast (confirmed 14 Feb 1918)
25 Feb 1918                Soviet rule established by Bolsheviks, subject to the Far East
                             Executive Committee of Soviets (see Khabarovsk).
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Blagoveshchensk briefly occupied by "White" Amur Cossack forces in
                             rebellion.
13 Mar 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  Bolshevik rule fully restored, on 10 Apr 1918 Amur Labor Socialist
                             Republic formed (within Russian S.F.S.R.), partly in rejection of
                             policy of Far East Executive Committee of Soviets.
18 Sep 1918                Japanese and "White" Amur Cossack forces enter Blagoveshchensk,
                             Zemstvo restored; on 21 Sep 1918 the Amur Oblast Provisional
                             Government takes over, with "full governmental authority."
10 Nov 1918                Recognized the Provisional All-Russian Government (see PARG above)
                             and it's superiority, dissolved the Oblast government and handed
                             over power to Zemstvo Board until appointment of the Oblast
                             commissioner (effective 11 Nov 1918); the oblast subject to
                             chief "White" representatives in Far East (see under Primorye).
 4 Feb 1918                Ataman of Amur Cossacks removed the Kolchak-appointed oblast
                             administrator and assumed authority nominally for Oblast Zemstvo
                             Board.
 6 Feb 1920                Bolshevik partisan forces regain control of Amur the region (the
                             period of partisan rule to Aug 1920 referred to as "Amur Oblast
                             Government"), and Cossack leadership goes into China exile
                             (Japanese troops withdrew by 19 Mar 1920).
 5 Aug 1920 - 15 Nov 1922  Amur oblast part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
Jan 1924 – Feb 1924        Rebellion of Amur Cossacks in the countryside.


Ataman of the Amur Cossack Host
21 Nov 1917 -  4 Dec 1917  Ivan Mikhaylovich Gamov            (b. 1885 - d. 1969)  Mil/KDP
                             (in office of Host Ataman Apr 1917 – Feb 1919;
                             in exile in China Mar 1918 - Sep 1918)
Public Safety Committee of Amur Oblast

 4 Dec 1917 -  7 Dec 1917  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (b. 1884 - d. 1937)  PSR
                           + Ivan Mikhailovich Gamov          (s.a.)               Mil/KDP
                           + Aleksandr Nikolayevich           (b. 1878 - d. 1957)  PSR
                              Alekseyevskiy
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board
 7 Dec 1917 - 25 Feb 1918  Ivan Nikolayevich Shishlov         (b. 1881 - d.af.1920)RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Executive Committee of Amur Oblast People's Council
 7 Mar 1918 - 13 Mar 1918  Nikolay Grigoryevich Kozhevnikov   (s.a.)               PSR
                             (in rebellion)
Chairman of Executive Committee of the Amur Soviet of Deputies
and of the Council of People's Commissars

10 Apr 1918 - 18 Sep 1918  Fyodor Nikanorovich Mukhin         (b. 1878 - d. 1919)  RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board

18 Sep 1918 - 20 Sep 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Rodionov      (b. 1886 - d. 1937)  Non-party?
                             (1st time)
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Provisional Government
21 Sep 1918 - 10 Nov 1918  Aleksandr Nikolayevich             (s.a.)               PSR 
                             Alekseyevskiy 
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Zemstvo Board

10 Nov 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Nikolay Nikolayevich Rodionov      (s.a.)               Non-party?
                             (2nd time)
Ataman of the Amur Cossack Host
 4 Feb 1920 -  6 Feb 1920  Andrey Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov      (b. 1878 - d. 1960)  Mil
                             (in office of Host Ataman from 5 Mar 1919;
                             from 24 Jan 1920 with authority [but not style]
                             of governor-general; continued in exile in China,
                             1921-1922 in Vladivostok, and then London)
Chairmen of the (Provisional to 16 Feb 1920) Executive Committee
of the Amur Oblast Soviet of Deputies

 6 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Yakov Ferapontovich Yakovlev       (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  RKP
16 Feb 1920 -  5 Apr 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (b. 1885 - d. 1954)  RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Revolutionary Committee
 5 Apr 1920 -  9 Aug 1920  Stepan Samoylovich Shilov          (s.a.)               RKP
Chairman of the Amur Oblast Provisional Government
14 Jan 1924 - Feb 1924     Rodion Grigoryevich Cheshev        (d. 1924)            Non-party
                             (in rebellion)


Chinese Eastern Railway Zone: see under China Foreign Colonies

Chukotka

[Russia]
                      to 16 Dec 1919;
              31 Jan 1920 - 28 Jul 1920;
                  Jan 1922 - 5  Jan 1923

14 Mar 1918 - 27 Jul 1918  Anadyr Uyezd (district) Council set up, did not recognized
                             Soviet rule in Kamchatka Oblast (see there).
16 Dec 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Anadyr taken over by local Bolsheviks, eliminated in a coup.
 8 Feb 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Non-Bolshevik council set up by locals (also in Uelen from Mar
                             1920).
Jul 1920                   Under effective rule from Kamchatka.
12 Dec 1920                Part (within Kamchatka) of Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921                Chukotka ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by the Far Eastern Republic.
Jan 1922                   Anadyr taken by "White" troops from Kamchatka (Uelen in Jul 1922).
Dec 1922 -  5 Jan 1923     Poorly recorded attempt by remaining "Whites" and Anadyr locals
                             to set up own administration, terminated by Soviet troops.

Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Council (in Novo-Mariinsk [modern Anadyr])
14 Mar 1918 - 27 Jul 1918  Vasiliy D. Pchelintsev             (d. af.1926)         Non-party
Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Revolutionary Committee

16 Dec 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Mikhail Sergeyevich Mandrikov      (b. 1888 - d. 1920)  RKP
Chairman of the Anadyr Uyezd Council

 8 Feb 1920 - 28 Jul 1920  Vasiliy I. Rybin                   (d. af.1923)         Non-party
Chairman of the Chukotka Uyezd Provisional Council
(in Uelen)

Mar 1920 - Jul 1920        Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Khrenov                          Non-party
Anadyr Uyezd People's Administration
(reported membership)
Dec 1922 -  5 Jan 1923     Nikita Andreyevich Polyakov        (d. 1923)            Mil
                           + Makovkin                                              Non-party
                           + Mark Kandel'                                          Non-party


Far Eastern Republic: see under Russia


Kamchatka

[Russian flag]
                    to 12 Mar 1918;
          12 Jul 1918  - 10 Jan 1920;
         30 Oct 1921 - 10 Nov 1922

 9 Nov 1917                Bolshevik rule "not recognized" by the Kamchatka Oblast Committee.
12 Mar 1918                Local Bolsheviks established the Oblast Soviet (subject to the
                             Far East Executive Committee of Soviets [see Khabarovsk]) and
                             dissolved the Committee.
12 Jul 1918                Oblast Committee restored (claimed provisional oblast "autonomy"
                             within Russia).
Oct 1918                   Oblast commissioner of Provisional Government of Siberia arrived
                             (followed to Jan 1920 by authorities of the Provisional All-
                             Russian Government [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak); the
                             Oblast subject to chief "White" representatives in Far East
                             (see under Primorye).
10 Jan 1920                Local socialists took over, Kamchatka Revolutionary Committee
                             formed (on 23 May 1920, until then referred to as "Kamchatka
                             Oblast Government," recognized [largely nominally] the supreme
                             authority of Provisional Government of Primorye [see Primorye]).
12 Dec 1920                Part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
22 Mar 1921                Kamchatka oblast ceded to Russian S.F.S.R. by Far Eastern Republic.
30 Oct 1921 -  2 Nov 1922  Kamchatka occupied by "White" forces under the Provisional
                             Government of Priamurye (see under Primorye). On 2 Nov 1922
                             "White" troops left for Japan.
 8 Jun 1922 -  2 Nov 1922  Japanese troops present in Petropavlovsk.
10 Nov 1922                Bolshevik partisans reached Petropavlovsk and take over the city
                             from the City Duma. 

Chairman of the Kamchatka Oblast Committee
Aug 1917 - 12 Mar 1918    Aleksandr Antonovich Purin          (b. 1885 - d. 1952)  Non-party
                            (1st time)
12 Jul 1918 - Oct 1918    Aleksandr Antonovich Purin          (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (2nd time)(continued in office to 2 Feb 1919)
Chairman of the Kamchatka Oblast Revolutionary Committee

10 Jan 1920 -  7 Apr 1920  Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (b. 1891 - d. 1921)  Non-party/
                                                                                   Feb 1920 RKP
Chairmen of the Executive Committee of the Kamchatka Oblast Soviet of Deputies
 7 Apr 1920 -  7 Jun 1920  Pyotr Sergeyevich Malovechkin      (s.a.)               RKP
 7 Jun 1920 - Dec 1920     Ivan Yemelyanovich Larin           (b. 1890 - d. 1980)  RKP


Khabarovsk 

[Russia]
to 25 Dec 1917;
4 Sep 1918 - 23 Oct 1920

[Soviet flag 1918]
25 Dec 1917 - 4 Sep 1918

1889                       Ussuri Cossack Host formed.
Nov 1917                   Bolshevik rule not recognized by Priamurye Kray (covered Amur,
                             Kamchatka, Primorye [Maritime], and Sakhalin Oblasti) institutions
                             in Khabarovsk.
24 Dec 1917 - 27 Dec 1917  Priamurye Kray Provisional Bureau of Zemstvo (self-administration)
                             declared itself "supreme provisional civil kray authority."
25 Dec 1917                Far East Executive Committee of Soviets (eventually largely
                             autonomous) formally assumed authority in the whole Far East for
                             Soviet Russia.
 4 Sep 1918                Bolshevik rule ended by the Ussuri Cossacks and Japanese occupation,
                             the Cossacks proclaimed "autonomy" and non-recognition of any
                             government (on 22 Oct 1918 non-recognition of "Ufa Directory"
                             declared).
Nov 1918 - Mar 1919        Ataman of Ussuri Cossacks refused to recognize Kolchak as Supreme
                             Ruler (from Mar 1919, the Cossacks subject to chief "White"
                             representatives in Far East [see under Primorye].
16 Feb 1920                Cossack leadership left Khabarovsk for China and then Grodekovo
                             (near Vladivostok) to Oct 1922, and Provisional Government of
                             Primorye (see Primorye) troops took over.
22 Aug 1920 – 23 Aug 1920  "White" Russian "independent" government proclaimed at Khabarovsk,
                             dissolved by Primorye troops.
23 Oct 1920                Japanese forces depart; Khabarovsk part of the Far Eastern Republic
                             (see under Russia), to 15 Nov 1922 as capital of new Priamurye
                             Oblast (on 11 Nov 1920 split from Primorye Oblast).
22 Dec 1921 - 13 Feb 1922  Far Eastern Republic rule interrupted by Provisional Government
                             of Priamurye (see under Primore).

Chairmen of Priamurye Kray (from 25 Dec 1917, Far East) Executive
Committee of Councils (Soviets)

25 Aug 1917 - 25 Dec 1917  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Vakulin     (b. 1881 - d. 1919)  RSDRP-M
12 Dec 19178 May 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich             (b. 1880 - d. 1937)  RSDRP-B
                             Krasnoshchekov 
Chairman of Priamurye Kray Provisional Bureau of Zemstvo
24 Dec 1917 - 27 Dec 1917  Mikhail Akimovich Timofeyev                             PSR
                             (in opposition to Soviets; continued to
                             25 Jan 1918 in exile in Blagoveshchensk)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Far East ("Dal'sovnarkom")
 8 May 1918 -  4 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Mikhaylovich             (s.a.)               RKP
                             Krasnoshchekov
                             (continued in exile in Blagoveshchensk to 18 Sep 1918)
Atamans of Ussuri Cossack Host

 5 Sep 1918 - 16 Feb 1920  Ivan Pavlovich Kalmykov            (b. 1890 - d. 1920)  Mil
                             (in office of Host Ataman Feb 1918 - Sep 1920;
                             to 4 Jul 1918 and from 12 Feb 1920 in exile in China
                             [4 Jul 1918 - Sep 1918 in Grodekovo]; from 2 Sep 1919
                             with authority [but not style] of governor-general)
12 Feb 1920 - 16 Feb 1920  Modest Aleksandrovich Demishkhan   (b. 1888 - d. 1963)  Mil
                             (acting for absent Kalmykov)
Chairman of the Khabarovsk Government
(in dissidence)
22 Aug 1920 - 23 Aug 1920  Konstantin Tikhonovich Likhoydov   (b. 1858 - d. 1923)  Non-party?
Ataman of Ussuri Cossack Host (submitted to authorities in control of Vladivostok)
Sep 1920 - Oct 1922        Yuriy Aleksandrovich Savitskiy     (b. 1890 - d.af.1922)Mil
                             (acting to Apr 1921; in Grodekovo [near Vladivostok]
                             to Oct 1922, then went in China exile)


Tungus (Okhotsk)
 
[Russia]
to 18 Apr 1918;
22 Sep 1918 - 14 Dec 1919;
3 Oct 1921 - 6 Jun 1923

[Provisional
                          Tungus National Government, 1924-25 (Russia)]
Jul 1924 - 9 May 1925

18 Apr 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Soviet rule in Okhotsk uyezd (district) of Kamchatka Oblast (even
                             after they lost the main part of the oblast on 12 Jul 1918).
14 Dec 1919                Bolsheviks re-took Okhotsk, to Jan 1920 subject to "Tsentrosovet"
                             (see under Yakutia), then events generally follow Kamchatka.
 3 Oct 1921                Okhotsk taken by the Priamurye (see Primorye) troops under Colonel
                             Valeryan Aleksandrovich Bochkarev (b. 1892 – d. 1923), based at
                             Nayakhan (present Evensk, east of Magadan) 25 Oct 1921-13 Apr 1923.
 6 Sep 1922 -  6 Jun 1923  Passed to the "White" troops of Anatoliy Nikolayevich Pepelyayev
                             (b. 1891 - d. 1938)(see under Yakutia), remained under the
                             administrators appointed by Priamurye.
Dec 1922 - May 1923        Poorly recorded attempts by Okhotsk locals to set up their own
                             administration (on 21 Apr 1923 even claiming "supreme authority"
                             in Okhotsk Kray).
10 May 1924                A group of Tungus (Evenks) and Yakuts take Nel'kan (on 6 Jun 1924
                             also the port of Ayan on the Okhotsk Sea coast).
14 Jul 1924                All-Tungus Assembly of the Okhotsk Coast in Nel'kan establishes the
                             Provisional Tungus People's Administration, which claims
                             autonomy and requests to join the Yakut A.S.S.R.
 9 May 1925                Extinguished by Soviet Red Army (by agreement).
Mar 1931 – Apr 1931        Another Tungus (Evenk) rebellion, in Udsk (south of Ayan).

Chairman of the Okhotsk Kray Assembly (Council) of Representatives (in Okhotsk)
c.Apr 1923                 Ivan Mikhaylovich Yanygin          (d. 1923)            Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Tungus People's Administration (in Nel'kan)
14 Jul 1924 -  9 May 1925  Ammosov Konstantin Afanasyevich    (b. 1883 - d.af.1943)Non-party
                             Struchkov
                            (formally to 10 Aug 1925)
Chairman of the Tungus Provisional Government (in Udsk)
16 Mar 1931 – Apr 1931     Nikolay Kirillovich Tretyakov      (b. 1885 - d.af.1932)Non-party


Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat ("Green Ukraine")

Note: Not a territorial entity, did not exercise territorial authority.

[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine) first
                          proposal]
First Proposed Flag
[Ukrainian
                          Republic of the Far East (Green Ukraine)
                          second proposal]
Second Proposed Flag

24 Jun 1917                First All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Nikol'sk-Ussuriyskiy.
                             (Ussuriysk) forms the Far Eastern Regional Council (Kray Rada).
30 Jan 1918                Second All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress at Khabarovsk. Green
                             Ukraine (
Zelenyy Ukrayiny) proclaimed as part of Ukrainian State
                            
(in spite of the lack of geographical connection).
 
7 Apr 1918                Third All-Ukrainian Far Eastern Congress asked for creation of
                             an independent Ukrainian State on the Pacific Ocean.
20 Jun 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Suppressed by Kolchak's "White" Russian forces.
11 Apr 1920                Order of Hetman Semyonov about right of Far Eastern Ukrainians
                             for national self-determination and autonomy in the limits of
                             united
Far eastern state of Cossacks, Buryats, and Ukrainians
 
5 Nov 1922                Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat dissolved after the Soviet
                             takeover of Vladivostok. 

Chairmen of the Ukrainian Far Eastern Secretariat
25 Oct 1918 - 20 Jun 1919  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko (1st time)  (b. 1882 - d. 1942)
                            
(= Yuriy Kos'mich Glushko)
31 Jan 1920 -  5 Nov 1922  Yuriy Kos'mych Glushko (2nd time)  (s.a.)


Sakhalin

[Russia]
                     to 25 Jan 1918;
          7 Sep 1918 - 29 Feb 1920

Mar 1914 - 22 Nov 1920     Sakhalin oblast in addition to North Sakhalin (Sakhalin uyezd
                             [district]) included also mainland area around Nikolayevsk
                             (the latter made oblast capital in Apr 1917).
Nov 1917                   Bolshevik rule not recognized by the Oblast Council (Soviet) of
                             Deputies.
25 Jan 1918                Sakhalin Oblast Soviet taken over by the Bolsheviks, subject to
                             the Far East Executive Committee of Soviets (see under Khabarovsk).
 7 Sep 1918                Oblast Soviet transferred authority to the restored Sakhalin Oblast
                             Zemstvo Board (self-administration) in anticipation of the Japanese
                             landing at Nikolayevsk (which took place 9 Sep 1918).
26 Oct 1918                Oblast commissioner of Provisional Government of Siberia arrived
                             (followed to Feb 1920 by authorities of the Provisional All-Russian
                             Government [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak), the oblast subject
                             to chief "White" representatives in Far East (see under Primorye).
14 Jan 1920                Local socialists took over North Sakhalin (on 1 Feb 1920 recognized
                             authority of Provisional Government of Primorye [see Primorye]).
29 Feb 1920                Bolshevik partisans occupied Nikolayevsk (on 9 Mar 1920 North Sakhalin
                             submitted to authorities in Nikolayevsk).
15 Mar 1920                Japanese garrison at Nikolayevsk exterminated by partisans.
28 Mar 1920                Sakhalin Oblast Soviet of Deputies declared non-recognition of Far
                             Eastern Republic or Provisional Government of Primorye (this period
                             of local partisan rule referred to as "Nikolayevsk Commune").
22 Apr 1920 - 25 May 1925  Northern Sakhalin occupied by Japan.
 7 Jun 1920                Nikolayevsk occupied by Japan (on 2 Aug 1920 civil administration of
                             Sakhalin oblast taken over by Japanese military and Japanese law
                             made applicable).
25 Sep 1922                Japanese forces departed from Nikolayevsk, part of the Far Eastern
                             Republic (see under Russia) to 15 Nov 1922 (Sakhalin oblast was
                             dissolved already on 22 Nov 1920 and made part [nominally] of the
                             new Priamurye oblast).

Chairman of the Executive Committee of Sakhalin Oblast Council (Soviet) of Deputies
Nov 1917 - 25 Jan 1918     .... (name unknown)                                     RSDRP-M
Chairman of the Sakhalin Oblast Zemstvo Board
 7 Sep 1918 - 26 Oct 1918  Andrey Andreyevich Shelkovnikov    (d. 1920)            PSR?
                             (1st time)(continues in office to 1920) 
Chairman of the Sakhalin Uyezd Provisional Revolutionary Committee (in North Sakhalin only)
13/14 Jan 1920-9 Mar 1920  Aleksandr Trofimovich Tsapko       (b. 1884 - d. 1920)  Non-party
Chairman of the Sakhalin Oblast Zemstvo Board
Feb 1920 - 29 Feb 1920     Andrey Andreyevich Shelkovnikov    (s.a.)               PSR?
                             (2nd time)
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Sakhalin Oblast Soviet of Deputies
29 Feb 1920 -  7 Jun 1920  Fyodor Vasilyevich Zhelezin        (b. c.1885 - d. 1920)RKP
                             (chairman of Oblast Revolutionary Committee
to 28 Mar 1920)
Provincial Chief (in North Sakhalin only)
May 1920 - 22 May 1920     Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Grigoryev     (b. 1865 - d. 1932)  Non-party
                             (appointed by Japanese, did not take office)

Japanese Military Commanders in North Sakhalin (and Jun 1920 - Sep 1922 in Nikolayevsk)
22 Apr 1920 - May 1920     Jirō Tamon                         (b. 1878 - d. 1934)
May 1920 - 29 Jul 1920     Yonekura
29 Jul 1920 - 15 Jun 1921  Sojirō Kojima                      (b. 1869 - d. 1922)
15 Jun 1921 -  1 Apr 1923  Keiu Machida                       (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
 1 Apr 1923 - 25 May 1925  Kazutsugu Inoue                    (b. 1873 - d. af.1940)


Primorye (Priamurye)

[Priamurye
                            (Primorye) 1922]
29 Jun 1918 - 22 Sep 1918;
28 Oct 1918 - 12 Dec 1920;
26 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1922

21 Nov 1917                Vladivostok City Soviet of Deputies assumed authority in the city
                             (followed by the rest of Soviets of Primorye (Maritime) Oblast
                             by Dec 1917 [see Khabarovsk]).
29 Jun 1918                Czechoslovak Corps rebelled in Vladivostok, and Bolshevik rule ended.
Jun 1918 - Sep 1918        "White" authority disputed among the Primorye Oblast Zemstvo Board,
                             Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia (PGAS, previous
                             activity see under Siberia) and General Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat,
                             who proclaimed himself a Provisional Ruler of Russia.
 2 Jul 1918                PGAS is nominally recognized by the Zemstvo Board (self-administration)
                             as political "central state authority," while the Board remained in
                             control as "supreme oblast state authority" (none of them recognized
                             claims of Khorvat).
 6 Jul 1918                Allies declared Vladivostok to be under "temporary Allied protection"
                            (followed by landing of Japanese troops on 11 Jul 1918 and by U.S.
                             troops on 15 Aug 1918) and recognized the Zemstvo Board (but not
                             PGAS) as the authority.
Sep 1918                   Supreme authority of Provisional Government of Siberia (see under
                             Siberia; followed by the Provisional All-Russian Government
                             [see PARG] and Supreme Ruler Kolchak) recognized (22 Sep 1918 by
                             PGAS, and on 30 Sep 1918 by General Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat).
Jan 1919                   Parts of Trans-Siberian Railway within the Primorye oblast under
                             control of the U.S. troops by the Inter-Allied Railway Agreement
                             of 9 Jan 1919.
31 Jan 1920                Authority of the representatives of Admiral Kolchak in Primorye
 
                            Oblast overthrown; Provisional Government of the Zemstvo Board of
                             Primorye Oblast formed, with "provisional full authority" (on
                             26 Feb 1920 recognized by Soviet Russia, but only as "local oblast
                             authority").
31 Mar 1920                Provisional Government alternatively styled as Provisional Government
                             of the Far East, its claims of "provisional supreme authority"
                             extended to Amur, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin oblasti (the former
                             Priamurye Kray).
 1 Apr 1920                Departure of the U.S. troops completed.
 4 Apr 1920 - 23 Apr 1920  Japanese military forces prevent local government from functioning.
11 Dec 1920                People's Assembly (Narodnoye Sobraniye) of Primorskaya oblast passes
                             a law for incorporation into the Far Eastern Republic.
12 Dec 1920 - 26 May 1921  Primorye oblast part of the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia).
26 May 1921                Provisional Priamurye Government established, as "supreme independent
                             kray authority", in opposition to the Far Eastern Republic.
 3 Aug 1922                Land Assembly (Zemskiy Sobor) of Priamurye decides that supreme
                             power in Russia belongs to the Romanov dynasty, and voiced the
                             wish to make a member of Romanov dynasty a Supreme Ruler of
                             Priamurye. On 8 Aug 1922, General Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs
                             is installed as Ruler.
20 Oct 1922 - 22 Oct 1922  Abortive attempt by Siberian autonomists to take over Vladivostok.
25 Oct 1922 - 15 Nov 1922  Annexed by the Far Eastern Republic (see under Russia) after
                             departure of Japanese troops on 25 Oct 1922.

Chairman of the Primorye (Maritime) Oblast Zemstvo Board
29 Jun 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (b. 1880 - d. 1928)  PSR
                             (nominally recognized authority of PGAS
                             on 2 Jul 1918, continued in office to Dec 1920)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the
Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
30 Jun 1918 - 21 Jul 1918  Pyotr Yakovlevich Derber           (b. 1888 - d. 1929)  PSR
                             (in dissidence to 2 Jul 1918; arrived from Harbin, China)
21 Jul 1918 - 22 Sep 1918  Ivan Aleksandrovich Lavrov         (b. 1871 - d. 1942)  PSR
Provisional Ruler of Russia (self-proclaimed; in dissidence in Grodekovo [modern Pogranichnyy])
 9 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat        (b. 1858 - d. 1937)  Mil
Chief Administering Officers in Far East (with authority of governor-general)
22 Sep 1918 - 28 Oct 1918  Radola Gajda                       (b. 1892 - d. 1948)  Mil
Sep 1918 - Oct 1918        Eduard Kadlec                      (b. 1880 - d. 1961)  Mil
                             (acting for mostly absent Gajda)
Supreme Commissioner in Far East
(with authority of governor-general)
28 Oct 1918 - 18 Jul 1919  Dmitriy Leonidovich Khorvat        (s.a.)               Mil
Chief Administrator of Priamurye Kray
(with authority of governor-general)
18 Jul 1919 - 31 Jan 1920  Sergey Nikolayevich Rozanov        (b. 1869 - d. 1937)  Mil
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the Zemstvo Board of Primorye Oblast
31 Jan 1920 - 12 Dec 1920  Aleksandr Semyonovich Medvedev     (s.a.)               PSR
                             (prevented by Japanese from exercising functions 5-23 Apr 1920)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government of Priamurye Kray
26 May 1921 -  8 Aug 1922  Spiridon Dionisyevich Merkulov     (b. 1870 - d. 1957)  NDS
 3 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (b. 1874 - d. 1937)  Mil
                             (appointed without consent and in absence,
                             in attempted military coup)
 3 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Viktorin Mikhaylovich Molchanov    (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  Mil
                             (acting for absent Diterikhs)
Ruler (Pravitel') of Priamurye Kray

 8 Aug 1922 - 25 Oct 1922  Mikhail Konstantinovich Diterikhs  (s.a.)               Mil
                             (left Vladivostok 20 Oct 1922, to 27 Oct 1922 in Posyet)
Chairman of Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia
(in opposition)
20 Oct 1922 - 22 Oct 1922  Anatoliy Vladimirovich Sazonov     (b. 1861 - d. 1932)  PSR
                             (in exile in Japan and Shanghai to 1925)

Chairman of the Council of Managers ("Business Cabinet") of Provisional Government of Russia
10 Jul 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Stepan Vasilyevich Vostrotin       (b. 1864 - d. 1943)  KDP
                             (under Khorvat, Provisional Ruler of Russia; in Grodekovo)
Chairmen of the Council of Managers of Primorye Oblast

29 May 1920 - 10 Jul 1920  Pyotr Mikhaylovich Nikiforov       (b. 1882 - d. 1974)  RKP
10 Jul 1920 - 12 Dec 1920  Mechislav Stanislavovich Binasik   (b. 1883 - d. 1938)  RSDRP-M
Chairmen of the Council of Managers of Priamurye Kray

 5 Jul 1921 - Jul 1921     Vasiliy Fyodorovich Ivanov         (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1921 - af.Aug 1921     Vladimir Stepanovich Kolesnikov    (d. af.1922)
c.Nov 1921                 Vasiliy Fyodorovich Ivanov         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
c.Feb 1922                 Vladimir Pavlovich Razumov         (d. af.1928)
bf.Jun 1922 - Aug 1922     Stepan Ilyich Yefremov
Chairmen of the Council of Land Affairs (from 19 Sep 1922, Council of Land Duma)
of Priamurye Kray

 9 Aug 1922 - Sep 1922     Vladimir Pavlovich Razumov         (s.a.)
19 Sep 1922 - 20 Oct 1922  Ivan Kondratyevich Artemyev        (d. af.1930)

Commander-in-chiefs of the Japanese Expeditionary Forces 
 3 Aug 1918 - 26 Aug 1919  Kikuzō Ōtani                       (b. 1855 - d. 1923)  Mil
26 Aug 1919 -  6 Jan 1921  Shigemoto Ōi                       (b. 1863 - d. 1951)  Mil
 6 Jan 1921 - 25 Oct 1922  Koichirō Tachibana                 (b. 1861 - d. 1929)  Mil


Commander of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in Siberia  
 2 Sep 1918 -  1 Apr 1920  William Sidney Graves              (b. 1865 - d. 1940)  Mil





©  Ben Cahoon