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Former Foreign Colonies and Concessions in China

Contents Chinese Eastern Railway Zone - South Manchuria Railway Zone - Hong Kong - Kiaochow - Kwangchowan - Kwantung - Macau - Shanghai International Settlement - Shanghai French Concession - Tientsin Concessions - Weihaiwei


Chinese Eastern Railway Zone (CER)
 
[Chinese Eastern Railway Company flag,
                          1897 - 1915 (China)]
   10 Mar 1897 - 16 Aug 1915 CER Flag

[Chinese Eastern Railway Company flag,
                          1915 - c.1925 (reconstruction)(China)]
          16 Aug 1915 - c.1925 CER Flag
[ Chinese Eastern
                          Railway Company flag, c.1925 - 1932
                          (reconstruction) (China)]
         c.1925 - 23 Mar 1932 CER Flag
[ Chinese Eastern Railway Company flag,
                          1932 - 1935 (reconstruction) (China)]
     23 Mar 1932 - 1 Sep 1935 CER Flag



Map of Chinese Eastern
Railroad Zone (c.1931)
Headquarters: Harbin
(Changchun 1945-46, 1948-52;
Shenyang 1946-1948)
CER Zone Russian Population:
120,000 (1922)

 8 Sep 1896                Russia and China sign treaty for building Chinese Eastern
                             Railroad under the Chinese Eastern Railway Company to be funded
                             by the joint Russo-Chinese Bank. Treaty includes the right to
                             establish an administrative zone either side of the tracks and run
                             associated courts, police, customs and railway related industries.
16 Dec 1896                Chinese Eastern Railway Company (CER)(Russian: Kitaysko-
                             Vostochnaya zheleznaya doroga [KVZhD]) Statute approved by Russia
Jul 1897                   Construction begun on Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria
                             Manzhouli to Hilar to Harbin to Suifenhe. 
16 May 1898                Harbin headquarters established.
 6 Jul 1898                CER allowed to build a Southern Manchurian branch to Port Arthur -
                             Dalniy and to maintain a CER flagged steamship service.
Jun 1900 - 21 Jul 1900     "Boxer" rebels lay siege to Harbin and occupy most of the CER zone.
 3 Nov 1901                Official traffic
begins.
 1 Jul 1903                Chinese Eastern Railroad formally opened under Russian controlled
                             CER administration, regular passenger traffic begun from Saint
                             Petersburg to Vladivostok.
12 Aug 1903 -  1 Jul 1905  CER Zone subordinated to the Viceroy of Far East (see Port Arthur).
 5 Sep 1905                Southern branch (Changchun to Dalian) ceded to Japan by Russia as
                             the South Manchuria Railway.
 1 Aug 1906 -  1 Jul 1920  Ussurian branch line is granted on lease to the CER by Russia.
Nov 1917 -  6 Nov 1920     CER Zone administration under "White" Russian forces.
Nov 1917 - 1918            Russian Bolsheviks in Harbin attempt to take control of the CER.
10 Mar 1919 - 31 Oct 1922  CER administered by Inter-Allied Railway Technical Commission under
                             Britain, China, France, Italy, Japan, U.S. and "White" Russia.
31 Mar 1920                CER board ratifies reorganization that defines the railway as
                             strictly a commercial concern with no political authority. The
                             railway guards, local police and court system and are removed
                             from CER control and placed under Chinese administration.
25 Sep 1920                China revokes Russian extraterritorial rights and authority of
                             Russian consular officials in China; Harbin Russian consulate
                             general and Russian courts are closed.
 6 Nov 1920                China dismisses CER director Dmitry Horvath taking full control of
                             CER administration.
28 Dec 1920                Eastern Province Special District created by China to administer CER
                            
Zone, de jure abolition of CER zone (see under China provinces).
31 May 1924                Chinese-Soviet Peking treaty restores co-management and co-ownership
                             over the CER. China recognizes the Soviet Union, and Soviets
                             formally renounce all concessions and extraterritorial rights.
24 Sep 1924                Mukden Agreement Concerning Mutual Rights and Privileges, a
                             supplement to the agreement on general principles of 31 May 1924,
                             signed (ratified by the Peking government on 12 Mar 1925).  
10 Jul 1929 - 22 Dec 1929  Chinese warlord in Manchuria Zhang Xueliang unilaterally
                            
seizes control of CER (not recognized by Soviet Union or the
                             Chinese government).

18 Jul 1929 - 22 Dec 1929  Soviet Union severs diplomatic relations with China.
 3 Nov 1929 - 22 Dec 1929  Soviets occupy Manchurian border cities including Chalainor,
Hailar,
 
                            Fukdin and Manzhouli in support of Soviet claims to the CER.
22 Dec 1929                Khabarovsk Protocol guarantees continued Soviet co-administration

                             and rights.   
18 Sep 1931                Japanese invasion and occupation begins (Harbin occupied 9 Feb 1932)
 3 Mar 1932                Manchukuo replaces China on CER board, action is only de facto
                             recognized by Soviet Union (not recognized by China).
23 Mar 1935                Soviet Union sells its CER rights to Japan for 140 million yen
                             (China refuses to recognize this unilateral action).
 1 Sep 1935                CER formally transferred to Manchukuo and renamed North Manchuria
                             Railway. CER merged into National Railway of Manchuria which is
                             administered by the South Manchurian Railway (see below).
14 Aug 1945                Republic of China and Soviet Union sign Agreement about the Chinese
                             Changchun Railway.
18 Aug 1945                Harbin is occupied by Soviet Union.
20 Aug 1945                Soviet Union takes control of the CER.
22 Sep 1945                Chinese Changchun Railway Company established under joint Republic 
                             of China - Soviet Union administration. The new railroad unifies
                             the former CER with the former South Manchuria Railway.
18 Apr 1946 - 23 May 1946  Changchun under Chinese communist administration, Changchun Railway
                             headquarters moved to Shenyang.

28 Apr 1946                Harbin under Chinese communist administration.
25 Jul 1946                Chinese communist forces establish the Northeast Railway
                             Administration for all railway lines in Manchuria, including CER.
28 Nov 1946                Soviet Union withdraws its staff from Shenyang.
19 Oct 1948                Changchun under Chinese communist administration.
 1 Nov 1948                Shenyang under Chinese communist administration.
Mar 1949                   All lines of CER resume functioning.
 1 May 1950                Chinese Changchun Railway is formally re-established under joint
                             Soviet Union - People's Republic of China administration.
31 Dec 1952                Soviet Union transfers all rights in the joint administration of the
                             railway (with all properties appertaining to it) to China.
                             Transfer formalized by protocol. 
 1 Jan 1953                Renamed Harbin Railway.

Presidents of the Board of the Chinese Eastern Railway
(and from 31 May 1924, Directors-general)

17 Dec 1896 - Jan 1897     Stanislav Ippolitovich Kerbedz        (b. 1844 - d. 1906)
                             (1st time) (acting)
1897 - 28 Jul 1900         Xu Jingcheng (Hsü Ching-ch'eng)       (b. 1845 - d. 1900)
28 Jul 1900 - 1903         Stanislav Ippolitovich Kerbedz        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
1903 - 1919                Aleksandr Nikolayevich Ventsel        (b. 1854 - d. 1927)
                             (Wenzel) (acting)
1919 - 1920                Zhu Qinglan (Chu Ch'ing-lan)          (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
1920 - 1922                Song Xiaolian (Sung Hsiao-lien)       (b. 1863 - d. 1926)
1922 - Sep 1924            Wang Jingchun (Wang Ching-ch'un)      (b. 1882 - d. 1956)    
Sep 1924 - Sep 1925        Bao Guiqing (Pao Kuei-ch'ing)         (b. 1867 - d. 1934)
1925? - 1926               Liu Shanjin (Liu Shan-chin)
1926 - 1928?               Yue Jianhan (Yüeh Chien-han)
1928 -  7 Dec 1929         Lu Ronghuan (Lu Jung-huan)
Dec 1929                   Li Xiaogen (Li Hsiao-ken) (acting)    (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
Dec 1929                   Guo Fumian (Kuo Fu-mien) (acting)     (b. 1887 - d. 19..)
Dec 1929 -  3 Mar 1932     Mo Dehui (Mo Te-hui)                  (b. 1883 - d. 1968) 
                             (absent from Dec 1930)
Dec 1930 - 1935            Li Shaogeng (Li Shao-keng)            (b. 1896 - d. 19..)
                            
(acting [for Mo] to 3 Mar 1932, then
                             not recognized by China)
Presidents of the Board of the Chinese Changchun Rail
way
22 Sep 1945 - Mar 1947     Zhang Jia'ao (Chang Kia-ngau)         (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
1947 - 1948                Chen Yanjun (Ch'en Yen-chun)          (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
1948 - 1950                vacant?
 
1 May 1950 - 31 Dec 1952  Yu Guangsheng (Yü Kuang-sheng)        (b. 1907 - d. 1978)

Directors of the Chinese Eastern Railway and Civil Governors of the
Chinese Eastern Railway Zone
(in Harbin)
Nov 1902 -  6 Nov 1920     Dmitry Leonidovich Horvath (Khorvat)  (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
                             (from 27 Apr 1918, Director-Superintendent)
Nov 1917 - 26 Dec 1917     Martyemyan Nikitich Ryutin            (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
                             (chairman of Harbin Workers' and Soldiers'
                             Soviet; in dissidence)
31 Jan 1918 - 1918         Boris Aronovich Slavin                (b. 1888 - d. 1919)
                             (chairman of Harbin Soviet of Workers' 
                             and Soldiers' Deputies; in dissidence)
28 Apr 1918 - Nov 1920     Vasily Dmitriyevich Lachinov          (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
                             (acting for Horvath)
Mar 1919 - 31 Oct 1922     John Frank Stevens (U.S.)             (b. 1853 - d. 1943)
                             (president of the Inter-Allied Technical Board)
Directors (from 31 May 1924, Managers) of the Chinese Eastern Railway
(in Harbin)
1920 - 1921                Dmitry Petrovich Kazakevich           (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
                            
(Kozakiewicz) (acting)
 2 Feb 1921 -  3 Oct 1924  Boris V
asilyevich Ostroumov           (b. 1879 - d. 1944)
                             (Ostroumoff)
 3 Oct 1924 - 14 Apr 1926  Aleksey Nikolayevich Ivanov           (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
                             (arrested by Zhang Zuolin 21-24 Jan 1926)
1926 - 10 Jul 1929         Aleksandr Ivanovich Yemshanov         (b. 1891 - d. 1941)
                             (Emshanov)    
11 Jul 1929 - Dec 1929     Fan Qiguang (Fan Ch'i-kuang) (acting)

Dec 1929 - Mar 1935        Yuliy Vikentyevich Rudnyy (Rudnyj)    (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
1935 -  1 Apr 1937         Lev Vladimirovich Lemberg             (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
Managers of the Chinese Changchun Railway
26 Jan 1946 - af.1948      Aleksandr Fyodorovich Zhuravlyov      (b. 1918 - d. ....)
 1 May 1950 - 31 Dec 1952  Nikolay Aleksandrovich Grunichev      (b. 1908 - d. 19..)


South Manchuria Railway Zone (SMR)

[South Manchuria Railway
                Company flag, c.1906-1945 (China)]
          SMR Flag c.1906 - 1945

Map of South Manchurian
Railroad Zone (c.1931)
Headquarters: Dairen
SMR Zone Japanese Population:
800,000 (1940)

 5 Sep 1905                Southern branch of Chinese Eastern Railway (Changchun to Dalian and
                             Mukden to Antung) ceded to Japan by Russia along with a zone
                             62 meters wide on either side of tracks and facilities including
                             the Fushun coal mine.
 7 Jun 1906                South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR)(Minami Manshu Tetsudo
                             Kabushiki-kaisha or "Mantetsu") founded by Japan.
 1 Apr 1907                SMR begins commercial operation.
12 Apr 1919                Kwantung army commander given the right to issue instructions
                             relating to the operation of the SMR for military purposes.
 1 Apr 1933                National Railway of Manchuria consigned to SMR administration
                             (formally from 1935).

23 Mar 1935                SMR is transferred to Manchukuo by Japan.
 5 Nov 1937                Japanese extraterritoriality ended in and administrative rights
                             over the SMR Zone transferred to Manchukuo.
20 Aug 1945                Soviet forces take control of the SMR.
23 Aug 1945                Dairen occupied by Soviet forces.
30 Sep 1945                SMR is dissolved by Soviet Union, assets merged into
the Chinese
                            
Changchun Railway (see above).

Presidents of the South Manchuria Railway Company (all from Japan)
13 Nov 1906 - 14 Jul 1908  Count Shinpei Goto                    (b. 1857 - d. 1929)
19 Dec 1908 - 18 Dec 1913  Yoshikoto Nakamura (Korekimi Nakamura)(b. 1867 - d. 1927) 
19 Dec 1913 - 15 Jul 1914  Ryutaro Nomura (1st time)             (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
15 Jul 1914 - 31 Jul 1917  Yujiro Nakamura                       (b. 1852 - d. 1928) 
31 Jul 1917 - 12 Apr 1919  Shimbei Kunisawa                      (b. 1864 - d. 1953) 
12 Apr 1919 - 31 May 1921  Ryutaro Nomura (2nd time)             (s.a.)
31 May 1921 - 14 Oct 1922  Senkichiro Hayakawa                   (b. 1863 - d. 1922)
24 Oct 1922 - 22 Jun 1924  Takeji Kawamura                       (b. 1871 - d. 1955) 
22 Jun 1924 - 19 Jul 1927  Banichiro Yasuhiro                    (b. 1859 - d. 1951) 
19 Jul 1927 - 14 Aug 1929  Jotaro Yamamoto                       (b. 1867 - d. 1936)
14 Aug 1928 - 13 Jun 1931  Mitsugu Sengoku                       (b. 1857 - d. 1931) 
13 Jun 1931 -  6 Jul 1932  Count Yasuya Uchida                   (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
26 Jul 1932 -  2 Aug 1935  Count Hakutaro Hayashi                (b. 1874 - d. 1968) 
 2 Aug 1935 - 24 Mar 1939  Yosuke Matsuoka                       (b. 1880 - d. 1946) 
34 Mar 1939 - 14 Jul 1943  Takuichi Ohmura                       (b. 1872 - d. 1946) 
14 Jul 1943 - 11 Apr 1945  Naoto Kohiyama                        (b. 1886 - d. 1949) 
 5 May 1945 - 30 Sep 1945  Motoki Yamazaki                       (b. 1889 - d. 1971) 

Civil Administrators of the South Manchurian Railway Zone
 7 Jun 1906 -  5 Nov 1937  the governors of Kwantung Territory



Hong Kong 
 
[Flag of the
                                  United Kingdom]
                       26 Jan 1841 - 1871 
 
[Hong
                                  Kong Colonial Flag 1871-76]
                            1871 - 1876
 
[Hong
                                  Kong flag 1876-1959]
                            1876 - 27 Jul 1959
 
[Colonial Flag of Hong Kong,
                                  1959-1997]
                    27 Jul 1959 - 30 Jun 1997 
 

 

Map of Hong Kong
Hear National Anthem
 "God Save the King/Queen"
Text of National Anthem
Constitution
(4 Apr 1990)
Capital: Victoria
Currency: Hong Kong Dollar (HKD); 1 Jun 1943-Aug
 1945
Military Yen (JMY)
National Holiday: 29 Aug (1945)
Liberation Day
Population: 6,547,189 (1997)
GDP: $175.2 billion (1997)
Exports: $180.7 billion (1996)
Imports: $198.6 billion (1996)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 96.8%, European 2%, 1% other (1991)
Total British Military Forces: 10,000 (1994)
Hong Kong Defense Force: 900 (1995)
Defense was the Responsibility of the U.K.
Merchant marine: 182 ships (1997)
Religions: Buddhist and Taoist 73.8%, Protestant 4.3%,
Roman Catholic 4.1%, New Religionist 3.2%, Muslim 0.8%, 
Hindu 0.2%, non-religious/atheist 13.6% (1994) 
International Organizations/Treaties (to 1997): ADB, APEC, BIS (pending member), ICFTU, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ISO  (correspondent), OECD (observer), WCO, WCL, WMO, WTO 
Hong Kong
Chronology

20 Jan 1841                Ceded to Britain by China (not ratified) and
                             proclaimed annexed by Captain Charles Elliot.
26 Jan 1841                British take possession of Hong Kong Island.
29 Aug 1842                China formally cedes Hong Kong Island to Britain in
                             Treaty of Nanking.
26 Jun 1843                British crown colony.
24 Oct 1860                Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island ceded by
                             China in Treaty of Peking (British annexation 
                             4 Feb 1861).
 1 Jul 1898                New Territories (comprising the territories north 
                             of Kowloon and 230 small islands [Lamma, Lantau,
                             etc.]) leased from China for 99 years.
20 Feb 1900                British terminate Chinese jurisdiction over Kowloon.
 3 Sep 1926                Official spelling changed from Hongkong to Hong Kong
25 Dec 1941 - 16 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation (siege begun on 8 Dec 1941).
28 Aug 1945 -  1 Sep 1946  British military rule.
19 Dec 1984                British agree on restoration of Hong Kong to China
                             on 1 Jul 1997.
 1 Jul 1997                Return of the whole colony to China as a special
                             administrative region (see autonomous regions).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Administrators (resident in Macau)
26 Jan 1841 - 12 Aug 1841  Charles Elliot                     (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
22 Jun 1841 - 26 Jun 1843  Alexander Robert Johnston          (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
                             (acting for Elliot and for Pottinger)
12 Aug 1841 - 26 Jan 1843  Sir Henry Eldred Curwen Pottinger  (b. 1789 - d. 1856)
Commanders-in-chief (resident in Hong Kong)
26 Jan 1841 -  1 Mar 1841  Sir James John Gordon Bremer       (b. 1786 - d. 1850)
 2 Mar 1841 - 22 Jun 1841  Sir Hugh Gough                     (b. 1779 - d. 1869)
Governors
26 Jun 1843 -  8 May 1844  Sir Henry Eldred Curwen Pottinger  (s.a.)
 8 May 1844 - 18 Mar 1848  Sir John Francis Davis             (b. 1795 - d. 1890)
18 Mar 1848 - 21 Mar 1848  William Staveley (acting)          (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
21 Mar 1848 - 12 Apr 1854  Sir Samuel George Bonham           (b. 1803 - d. 1863)
Mar 1852 - Feb 1853        William Jervois (acting for Bonham)(b. 1784 - d. 1862)
13 Apr 1854 -  5 May 1859  Sir John Bowring                   (b. 1792 - d. 1972)
 5 May 1859 -  9 Sep 1859  William Caine (acting)             (b. 1800 - d. 1871)
 9 Sep 1859 - 15 Mar 1865  Sir Hercules George Robert         (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
                             Robinson
15 Mar 1865 - 11 Mar 1866  William T. Mercer (acting)         (b. 1821 - d. 1879)
11 Mar 1866 - 11 Apr 1872  Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell      (b. 1814 - d. 1881)
11 Apr 1877 - 16 Apr 1872  Henry Wase Whitflield (acting)     (b. 1809 - d. 1877) 
16 Apr 1872 -  1 Mar 1877  Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
15 Oct 1874 -  5 Nov 1874  John Gardiner Austin (1st time)    (b. 1811? - d. 1900)
                             (acting for Kennedy)
11 Mar 1875 -  2 Dec 1875  John Gardiner Austin (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting for Kennedy)
 1 Mar 1877 - 22 Apr 1877  John Gardiner Austin (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
22 Apr 1877 -  7 Mar 1882  John Pope Hennessy                 (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
                             (from 21 Apr 1880, Sir John Pope Hennessy)
 7 Mar 1882 - 28 Mar 1882  Malcolm Struan Tonnochy (acting)
28 Mar 1882 - 30 Mar 1883  Sir William Henry Marsh (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1906)
                             (acting)
30 Mar 1883 - 21 Dec 1885  Sir George Ferguson Bowen          (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
21 Dec 1885 - 25 Apr 1887  Sir William Henry Marsh (2nd time) (s.a.)
                             (acting)
25 Apr 1887 -  6 Oct 1887  William Gordon Cameron (acting)    (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
 6 Oct 1887 -  7 May 1891  Sir George William Des Voeux       (b. 1834 - d. 1909)
 7 May 1891 - 10 Dec 1891  George Digby Barker (acting)       (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
10 Dec 1891 -  1 Feb 1898  Sir William Robinson               (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
 1 Feb 1898 - 25 Nov 1898  Wilsone Black (acting)             (b. 1837 - d. 1909)
25 Nov 1898 - 21 Nov 1903  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
21 Nov 1903 - 29 Jul 1904  Francis Henry May (1st time)       (b. 1860 - d. 1922)
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1904 - 20 Apr 1907  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
20 Apr 1907 - 29 Jul 1907  Sir Francis Henry May (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
29 Jul 1907 - 16 Mar 1912  Sir Frederick John Dealtry Lugard  (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
16 Mar 1912 - 24 Jul 1912  Claud Severn (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
24 Jul 1912 - 12 Sep 1918  Sir Francis Henry May (3rd time)   (s.a.)
12 Sep 1918 - 30 Sep 1919  Claud Severn (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
30 Sep 1919 - 19 Mar 1925  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
19 Mar 1925 -  1 Nov 1925  Claud Severn (3rd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1925 -  1 Feb 1930  Sir Cecil Clementi                 (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
 1 Feb 1930 -  9 Mar 1930  Wilfrid Thomas Southorn (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1957) 
                             (acting)
 9 May 1930 - 17 May 1935  Sir William Peel                   (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
17 May 1935 - 13 Sep 1935  Sir Wilfrid Thomas Southorn        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) (acting)
13 Sep 1935 -  1 Nov 1935  Norman Lockhart Smith (1st time)   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
                             (acting)
 1 Nov 1935 - 12 Dec 1935  Sir Wilfrid Thomas Southorn        (s.a.) 
                             (3rd time) (acting)
12 Dec 1935 - 16 Apr 1937  Sir Andrew Caldecott               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
16 Apr 1937 - 28 Oct 1937  Norman Lockhart Smith (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting)
28 Oct 1937 -  6 Sep 1941  Sir Geoffrey Alexander Stafford    (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
                             Northcote
Apr 1940 -  6 Aug 1940     Norman Lockhart Smith (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Northcote)
 6 Aug 1940 - 13 Mar 1941  Edward Felix Norton                (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Northcote) 
 6 Sep 1941 - 10 Sep 1941  Norman Lockhart Smith (4th time)   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
                             (acting)
10 Sep 1941 - May 1947     Sir Mark Aitchinson Young          (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
                             (Japanese prisoner 25 Dec 1941 - 16 Aug 1945) 
25 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  Takashi Sakai                      (b. 1887 - d. 1946) 
                           + Masaichi Niimi                   (b. 1887 - d. 1993)
                           (military chiefs)
20 Feb 1942 - 24 Dec 1944  Rensuke Isogai                     (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
 1 Feb 1945 - 16 Aug 1945  Hisaichi Tanaka                    (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
28 Aug 1945 - 30 Aug 1945  Franklin Charles Gimson            (b. 1890 - d. 1975)
                             (chief of provisional government)
 1 Sep 1945 -  1 May 1946  Sir Cecil Harcourt                 (b. 1892 - d. 1959)
                             (military governor)
May 1947 - 25 Jul 1947     David Mercer MacDougall (acting)   (b. 1904 - d. 1991)
25 Jul 1947 - Dec 1957     Sir Alexander William Grantham     (b. 1899 - d. 1978)
Dec 1957 - 23 Jan 1958     Edgeworth Beresford David (acting) (b. 1908 - d. 1965)
23 Jan 1958 - Mar 1964     Sir Robert Brown Black             (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
Mar 1964 - 14 Apr 1964     Edmund Brinsley Teesdale (acting)  (b. 1915 - d. 1997)
14 Apr 1964 - Oct 1971     Sir David Clive Crosbie Trench     (b. 1915 - d. 1988)
Oct 1971 - 19 Nov 1971     Sir Hugh Selby Norman-Walker       (b. 1916 - d. 1985)
                             (acting)
19 Nov 1971 - Apr 1982     Sir Murray MacLehose               (b. 1917 - d. 2000)
Apr 1982 - 20 May 1982     Sir Philip Haddon-Cave (acting)    (b. 1925 - d. 1999)
20 May 1982 -  4 Dec 1986  Sir Edward Youde                   (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
 4 Dec 1986 -  9 Apr 1987  Sir David Akers-Jones (acting)     (b. 1927)
 9 Apr 1987 -  9 Jul 1992  Sir David Wilson                   (b. 1935)
                             (from 14 Feb 1992, David Wilson,
                             Baron Wilson of Tillyorn) 
 9 Jul 1992 - 30 Jun 1997  Christopher "Chris" Patten         (b. 1944)



Kiaochow
 
[German Empire
                          1870-1919 (Germany)]
             14 Nov 1897 - 7 Nov 1914 
 
[Japan]
             7 Nov 1914 - 10 Dec 1922
 
Map of Kiaochow
Capital: Tsingtao (Qingdao)
Currency: 1897-1914
Kiau Chau Dollar (KCHD)
Population: 200,000 (1912)
(4,500 whites)

14 Nov 1897                Kiaochow (Kiautschou) Bay occupied by Germany.
 6 Mar 1898                Leased for 99 years to Germany (Deutsches Pachtgebiet Kiautschou).
23 Aug 1914                German lease canceled by China.
 7 Nov 1914                Occupied by Japan.
10 Dec 1922                Returned to China.
10 Jan 1938 - Sep 1945     Re-occupied by Japan.

Military Governor
14 Nov 1897 -  7 Mar 1898  Otto von Diederichs               (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
Governors
 7 Mar 1898 - 19 Feb 1899  Carl Rosendahl                    (b. 1852 - d. 1917)
19 Feb 1899 - 27 Jan 1901  Otto Ferdinand Paul Jäschke       (b. 1851 - d. 1901)
27 Jan 1901 -  8 Jun 1901  Max Rollmann (acting)             (b. 1857 - d. 1942)
 8 Jun 1901 - 19 Aug 1911  Oskar Truppel                     (b. 1854 - d. 1931)
19 Aug 1911 -  7 Nov 1914  Alfred Meyer-Waldeck              (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Japanese Military Governors
 7 Nov 1914 - Jun 1915     Kamio Mitsuomi                    (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
Jun 1915 - Aug 1917        Otani Kikuzu                      (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
Aug 1917 - Oct 1918        Fusataro Hongo                    (b. 1860 - d. 1931)
Oct 1918 - Aug 1919        Oshima Kenichi                    (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
Aug 1919 - 10 Dec 1922     Yuhi Mitsue                       (b. 1860 - d. 1940)



Kwangchowan  (Kwangchowwan)
           22 Apr 1898 - 14 Dec 1945
Map of Kwangchowan
Capital: Fort Bayard
Population: 250,000 (1935)

31 Mar 1898                Ceded to France by China.
22 Apr 1898                France takes possession.
27 May 1898                French leased territory (Territoire de Kouang-Tchéou-Wan).
 5 Jan 1900                Subordinated to French Indochina (see Vietnam).
Jun 1940 - 21 Feb 1943     Administration loyal to Free France.
21 Feb 1943 - 18 Aug 1945  Occupied by Japan.
30 Jul 1943                Retroceded to the Japanese sponsored Chinese National 
                             Government by Vichy France (not recognized by 
                             Free French or the Republic of China).
14 Dec 1945                France turns over administration to China.
28 Feb 1946                Formally restored to China by France; Port-Bayard is renamed
                             Zhanjiang.


Commander of the Naval Division of the Far East
1898 - 1900               
Charles Louis Théobald             (b. 1842 - d. 1902)                              Courrejolles
Commandants-superior

22 Apr 1898 - 1898         Jean Aimé Aristide Fort            (b. 1845 – d. 1913) 
1898 -  9 Nov 1899         Antoine Auguste Louis Bonifay      (b. 1854 - d. 1902)
 9 Nov 1899 - 17 Feb 1900  Maurice Pierre Charles Marot       (b. 1847 - d. 1928)

Administrators (subordinated to Governor-generals of French Indochina,
delegated to French Residents at Tonkin
[see under Vietnam])
17 Feb 1900 - Mar 1902     Gustave Alby (1st time)            (b. 1855 - d. 1920)

Mar 1902 - 1903            Théophile Henri Bergès             (b. 1851? - d. 1906)
1903 - Jul 1905            Gustave Alby (2nd time)            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1905 - Sep 1908     Jean-Fernand Gautret               (b. 1862 - d. 1912)
Sep 1908 - Nov 1908        Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 1918)
Dec 1908 - May 1910        Paul Edgar Dufrénil                (b. 1856 - d. 1935)
May 1910 - Jan 1912        Pierre Stéphane Salabelle          (b. 1857 - d. 19..)
Jan 1912 - May 1915        Henri Jean Auguste Caillard        (b. 1872 - d. 1926)
May 1915 - May 1917        Marius Albert Garnier              (b. 1870 - d. 1929)
May 1917 – Jan 1919        Frédéric Alexandre Vialla          (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
Jan 1919 - Mar 1922        Jean-Félix Krautheimer (1st time)  (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
Mar 1922 - Dec 1922        Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard (b. 1872 - d. 19..) 
                             de la Brosse (1st time)
Dec 1922 - Apr 1923        Jean-Félix Krautheimer (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Apr 1923 - Dec 1925        Paul Achille Michel Quesnel        (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
Dec 1925 - Dec 1926        Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard (s.a.) 
                             de la Brosse (2nd time)
Dec 1926 – May 1927        Moisy  
May 1927 – Jul 1927        René Simon Lacombe (acting)        (b. 1876 – d. 19..)
Jul 1927 - Apr 1929        Louis Félix Marie Édouard Rivet    (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
Apr 1929 - 1932            Achille Louis Auguste Sylvestre    (b. 1879 - d. 1937)
1932 - 1933                Pierre Charles Edmond Jabouille    (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
1933 - 1934                Paul Henri Desiré Delamarre        (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
                             (chef du territoire 1927-1933)
1934 - 1936                Henri Maurice Émile de Tastes      (b. 1883 - d. 1940)
1936 - 1937                Camille Fernand Chapoulart
1937 - Jun 1942            Jacques Henri Paul Le Prevôt
Jun 1942 - 1943            Pierre Marie Jean Domec            (b. 1891 - d. 1984)
1943 - 10 Mar 1945         Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
                             (1st time)(Japanese prisoner 10 Mar - Aug 1945)
21 Feb 1943 - 18 Aug 1945  Yamada -Japanese commander

18 Aug 1945 - 11 Dec 1945  Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)



Kwantung
 
[Russian
                            flag]
           27 Dec 1897 - 2 Jan 1905
 
[Japan]
   1894 - 1895, 2 Jan 1905 - 23 Aug 1945 
 
[Flag of USSR]
                  23 Aug 1945 - 11 Oct 1955
 
Map of Kwantung
Capital: Ryojun
(Port Arthur 1898-1905)
Population: 1,656,726 (1935)

21 Nov 1894                Japanese occupy Lushun.
17 Apr 1895                Lushun ceded to Japan by China under Treaty of Shimonoseki.
 5 May 1895                Russia, France, and Germany force Japan to retrocede 
                             the territory to China.
27 Dec 1897                Occupied by Russia.
27 Mar 1898                Russian leased territory of Kwantung (Kvantunskaya oblast),
                             Lushun renamed Port Arthur.
 8 Nov 1899                Dalniy is founded.
12 Aug 1903 - 1905         Seat of Russian Viceroyalty of the Far East.
 2 Jan 1905                Japanese occupation.
 5 Sep 1905                Japanese Kwantung leased territory; Dalniy is renamed
                             Dairen and Port Arthur renamed Ryojun.
25 May 1915                Japanese lease extended for 99 years.
12 Apr 1919                Civil administration begins, Japanese Kwantung army formed.
23 Aug 1945                Occupied by Soviet Union.
22 Sep 1945 - 11 Oct 1955  Joint Sino-Soviet administration; Dairen renamed Dalian
                             and Ryojun renamed Luda.
11 Oct 1955                Fully re-incorporated into China.


Japanese Military Governor

21 Nov 1894 -  5 May 1895  Count Nogi Maresuke                (b. 1843 - d. 1912)
Russian Military Governors
27 Dec 1897 - 13 May 1898  Fyodor Vasilyevich Dubasov         (b. 1845 - d. 1912)
13 May 1898 - 1898         Oskar Viktorovich Stark            (b. 1846 - d. 1828)
Administrator
18 Sep 1898 - Jul 1899     Dean Ivanovich Subbotich           (b. 1852 - d. 1920)
Chief administrators (and from 30 Jul 1903, Governors of the Far East)
19 Aug 1899 - 25 Oct 1904  Yevgeny Ivanovich Alekseyev        (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
                            (from 30 Jul 1903, Viceroy)
 5 May 1904 -  1 Jan 1905  Anatoly Mikhailovich Stessel       (b. 1848 - d. 1915)
                            (acting [for Aleksyev to 25 Oct 1904])
Japanese Military governor
 2 Jan 1905 - 18 Oct 1905  Baron Yasukata Oku                 (b. 1847 - d. 1939)
Governors-general
18 Oct 1905 - 26 Apr 1912  Baron Yoshimasa Oshima             (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
                            (from 21 Sep 1907, Viscount Yoshimasa Oshima)
26 Apr 1912 - 15 Sep 1914  Baron Yasumasa Fukushima           (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
15 Sep 1914 - 31 Jul 1917  Baron Satoru Nakamura              (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
31 Jul 1917 - 11 Apr 1919  Baron Yujiro Nakamura              (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
Governors
12 Apr 1919 - 24 May 1920  Baron Gonsuke Hayashi              (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
24 May 1920 -  8 Sep 1922  Isaburo Yamagata                   (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
 8 Sep 1922 - 19 Sep 1923  Baron Hikokichi Ijuin              (b. 1864 - d. 1924)
26 Sep 1923 - 17 Dec 1927  Hideo Kodama                       (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
17 Dec 1927 -  7 Aug 1929  Kenjiro Kinoshita                  (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
 7 Aug 1929 - 16 Jan 1931  Masahiro Ota                       (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
16 Jan 1931 - 11 Jan 1932  Seiji Tsukamoto                    (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
11 Jan 1932 -  8 Aug 1932  Mannosuke Yamaoka                  (b. 1876 - d. 1968)
 8 Aug 1932 - 27 Jul 1933  Baron Nobuyoshi Muto               (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
28 Jul 1933 - 10 Dec 1934  Takashi Hishikari                  (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
10 Dec 1934 -  6 Mar 1936  Jiro Minami                        (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
 6 Mar 1936 -  7 Sep 1939  Kenkichi Ueda                      (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
 7 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944  Yoshijiro Umezu                    (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
18 Jul 1944 - 23 Aug 1945  Otozo Yamada                       (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
Soviet Commandants

1945 - 1947                Vladimir Dmitriyevich Ivanov       (b. 1900 - d. 1968)
1947 - 1953                Afanasy Pavlantyevich Beloborodov  (b. 1903 - d. 1990)
May 1953 - 1955            Vasily Ivanovich Shvetsov          (b. 1898 - d. 1958)



Macau (Macao)
 
[Portugal]
                    to 19 Dec 1999 
 
[Macao
                                  1967 Portuguese proposed colonial
                                  flag]
          1967 proposed colonial flag
 
[Municipal flag of Leal Senado
                                  Macao (Loyal Senate of Macau) to1999]
             to 20 Dec 1999 City Flag
 
[Municipal government flag of
                                  Macau, 1975-1999]
     1975 - 20 Dec 1999 Government Flag
Map of Macau
Hear National Anthem
"A Portugesa"
(The Portuguese)
Text of National Anthem
Organic Statute of Macau
(17 Feb 1976; in Portuguese)
Capital: Macau
Currency: Pataca (MOP)
National Holiday: 10 Jun (1580)
Portugal Day
----------------------------

Local Holiday: 24 Jun (1622)
Macau Day
Population: 502,325 (1997)
GDP: $7.65 billion (1998)
Exports: $1.7 billion (1999)
Imports: $1.5 billion (1999)
Ethnic groups: Chinese 95%, Macanese (mixed
Portuguese and Asian ancestry), Portuguese, other 
Total Police Forces: 5,800 (1999)
Defense was the Responsibility of Portugal
Merchant Marine: None (1999)
Religions: Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%,
none and other 35% (1997) 
International Organizations/Treaties (to 1999): IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), UNESCO (associate), WCO, WMO, WTO, WToO (associate)
Macau
Chronology

1513                       Portuguese led by Jorge Álvares anchor in the 
                             Pearl River estuary.
1553                       First Portuguese settlement at Macau/Macao
                             (Cidade de Santo Nome de Deus de Macau).
1557                       Portuguese established a trading post at Macau 
                             (subordinated to Goa).
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Macau semi-autonomous during the union of Portugal
                             with Spain, refusing to recognize Spanish rule.
22-24 Jun 1622             Dutch fail to seize Macau.
1654                       City of Macau is granted the title Cidade do Santo
 
                           Nome de Deus de Macau, Não Há Outra Mais Leal
                            ("City of the Holy Name of God of Macau, There is
                             None More Loyal") by King João IV.
11 Sep 1808 - 18 Dec 1808  British occupation, but Portuguese rule continues.
20 Sep 1844                Made a separate overseas province of Portugal 
                             (action not recognized by China).
13 Mar 1849                Chinese customs officials expelled, Portuguese 
                             cease paying rent to China.
1851                       Portuguese occupy Taipa (Dangzai) Island.
1864                       Portuguese occupy Coloane (Luhuan) Island.
1883                       Portuguese Timor and Macau made a combined.
                             overseas province of Portugal under Goa.
 1 Dec 1887                Protocol of Lisbon under which China acknowledged 
                             Portuguese right of perpetual occupation of Macau.
Apr 1928                   China abrogates 1887 recognition of Portuguese 
                             occupation of Macau.
1890                       Ilha Verde (Qingzhou) incorporated into Macau.
1938 - 1941                Portuguese occupy the islands of Lapa and Montanha
                             (both are retaken by Japan and restored to China)
Dec 1941 - Aug 1945        Japanese troops enter the colony several times. The
                             Japanese control access of people and goods to 
                             the territory, making it a virtual protectorate  
                             by 1943, but it avoids occupation.
11 Jun 1951                Status changed from colony to overseas province.
29 Jan 1967                Portugal recognizes Macau as Chinese territory, 
                             China however, declines return of the territory.
25 Feb 1974                China again refuses to take back Macau.
17 Feb 1976                Status changed from overseas province to special
                             territory (collective entity), recognized by
                             Portugal as part of China.
 8 Feb 1979                Macau recognized by China as Chinese territory
                             administered by Portugal.
13 Apr 1987                Portugal agrees to restore Macau to China on 
                             20 Dec 1999.
20 Dec 1999                Return to China as a special administrative region
                             (see autonomous regions).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Captains-major
1557                       Francisco Martins
1557 - 1558                Leonel de Sousa
1558 – 1559                Diogo Pereira
1559 - 1560                Rui Barreto
1560 - 1561                Manuel de Mendonça
1561 - 1562                Fernão de Sousa
1562 - 1563                Pero Barreto Rolim
1563 - 1565                Diogo Pereira
1565 - 1566                João Pedro Pereira
1566 - 1567                Simão de Mendonça (1st time)
1567 - 1568                Tristão Vaz da Veiga (1st time)
1568 - 1569                António de Sousa
1569 - 1571                Manuel Travassos
1571 - 1572                Tristão Vaz da Veiga (2nd time)
1572 - 1573                João de Almeida (1st time)
1573 - 1574                António de Vilhena Manuel
1574 - 1575                Simão de Mendonça (1st time)
1575 - 1576                Vasco Pereira
1576 - 1579                Domingos Monteiro (1st time)
1579 - 1570                Lionel Brito
1580 - 1581                Miguel da Gama
1581 - 1582                Inácio de Lima
1582 - 1583                João de Almeida (2nd time)
1583 - 1585                Aires Gonçalves de Miranda
1585 - 1586                Francisco Pais
1586 - 1587                Domingos Monteiro (2nd time)
1587 - 1589                Jerónimo Pereira
1590 - 1591                Anrique da Costa
1591 - 1592                Roque de Melo Pereira
1592 - 1593                Domingos Monteiro (3rd time)
1593 - 1594                Gaspar Pinto da Rocha
1594 - 1595                Francisco de Sa
                             (did not take office)
1595 - 1596                Manuel de Miranda
1596 - 1597                Rui Mendes de Figuieredo
1598 - 1599                Nunho de Mendonça                   (b. 1560 - d. 1632?)
1599 - 1603                Paulo de Portugal
1603 - 1604                Gonçalo Rodrigues de Sousa
1604 - 1605                João Caiado de Gambôa
1605 - 1607                Diogo de Vasconcelos de Meneses
                             (1st time)
1607 - 1610                André Pessôa
1610 - 1611                Diogo de Vasconcelos de Meneses
                             (2nd time)
1611 - 1612                Pedro Martins Gaio
1612 - 1614                Miguel de Sousa Pimentel
1614 - 1615                João Serrão da Cunha
1615 - 1616                Martim da Cunha
1616 - 1617                Francisco Lopes Carrasco
1617 - 1618                Lopo Sarmento de Carvalho (1st time)(d. 1645)
1618 - 1619                António de Oliveira de Morais
1619 - 1620                Jerónimo de Macedo de Carvalho
1621 - 1622                Lopo Sarmento de Carvalho (2nd time)(s.a.)
1622 - 1623                Frei Antonio do Rosario
                             (president of governing Junta)
Governors

 7 Jul 1623 - 1626         Francisco Mascarenhas
19 Jul 1626 - 1629         Filipe Lôbo
1630 - 1631                Jerónimo da Silveira
 1 Dec 1631 - 1636         Manuel da Câmara de Noronha
Aug 1636 - 1638            Domingos da Câmara de Noronha
Aug 1638 - 1644            Sebastião Lôbo da Silveira
Aug 1645 - 1646            Luís de Carvalho de Sousa
1646                       Diogo Coutinho Doçem
Aug 1647 - 1650            João Pereira
Aug 1650 - 1654            João de Sousa Pereira
Aug 1654 - 1664            Manuel Tavares Bocarro
22 Jul 1664 - 1666         Manuel Coelho da Silva
31 Aug 1667 - 1670         Álvaro da Silva
20 Jul 1670 - 1672         Manuel Borges da Silva
20 Jul 1672 - 1677         António Barbosa Lôbo
10 Dec 1678 - 1679         António de Castro Sande
10 Dec 1679 - 1682         Luís de Melo Sampaio               (d. 1697)
10 Dec 1682 - 1685         Belchior do Amaral de Meneses
 5 Jul 1685 - 1688         António de Mesquita Pimentel
31 Jul 1688 - 1691         André Coelho Vieira
21 Jul 1691 - 1693         Francisco da Costa
23 Nov 1693 - 1694         António da Silva e Melo
21 Jul 1694 - 1697         Gil Vaz Lôbo Freire
17 Aug 1697 - 1697         Cosme Rodrigues de Carvalho e Sousa
28 Sep 1697 - 1698         Chamber Senate
 9 Aug 1698 - 1700         Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (1st time)   (b. 1623 - d. 1703)
 5 Aug 1700 - 1702         Diogo de Melo Sampaio
22 Jul 1702 - 1703         Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (2nd time)   (s.a.)
15 Aug 1703 - 1706         José da Gama Machado
 5 Aug 1706 - 1710         Diogo do Pinho Teixeira
28 Jul 1710 - 1711         Francisco de Melo e Castro
11 Jun 1711 - 1714         António de Noronha de Sequeira     (b. 1674 - d. 1720)
18 Jul 1714 - 1718         Francisco de Alarcão de Souto-Maior
30 May 1718 - 1719         António de Albuquerque Coelho      (b. 1682 - d. 1745)
 9 Sep 1719 - 1722         António da Silva Telo de Meneses   (b. c.1660 - d. 17..)
19 Aug 1722 - 1724         Cristóvão de Severim Manuel
 6 Sep 1724 - 1727         António Carneiro de Alcáçova
11 Aug 1727 - 1732         António Moniz Barreto
18 Aug 1732 - 1735         António do Amaral e Meneses
15 Jan 1735 - 1735         João do Casal
 4 Aug 1735 - 1738         Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (1st time)
25 Aug 1738 - 1743         Manuel Pereira Coutinho
25 Aug 1743 - 1747         Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (2nd time)
30 Aug 1747 - 1749         António José Teles de Meneses
 2 Aug 1749 - 1752         João Manuel de Melo
29 Jul 1752 - 1755         Rodrigo de Castro (1st time)       (b. 1713 - d. 1774)
14 Jul 1755 - 1758         Francisco António Pereira Coutinho
 1 Jul 1758 - 1761         Diogo Pereira de Castro            (b. 1717 - d. 1772)
 4 Jul 1761 - 1764         António de Mendonça Corte-Real     (b. 1717 - d. 1774)
14 Jul 1764 - 1767         José Plácido de Matos Saraiva
19 Aug 1767 - 1770         Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha
                             (1st time)
29 Jul 1770 - 1771         Rodrigo de Castro (2nd time)       (s.a.)
26 Jul 1771 - 1777         Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha
                             (2nd time)
27 Jan 1777 - 1778         Alexandre da Silva Pedrosa         (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
                             Guimarães, bispo de Macau
 1 Aug 1778 - 1780         João Vicente Ferreira da Silveira  (b. 1728 - d. ....)
                             e Meneses
 5 Jan 1780 - 1781         António José da Costa
28 Aug 1781 - 1783         Francisco de Castro
18 Aug 1783 - 1788         Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria   (b. 1754 - d. 1826)
                             (1st time)
21 Jul 1788 - 16 Jul 1789  Francisco Xavier de Mendonça       (b. c.1740 - d. 1789) 
                             Corte-Real
18 Jul 1789 - 1790         Lázaro da Silva Ferreira
29 Jul 1790 - 1793         Vasco Luís Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
27 Jul 1793 - 1797         José Manuel Pinto (1st time)
 8 Aug 1797 - 1800         Cristóvão Pereira de Castro        (b. 1733 - d. 1805)
 8 Aug 1800 - 1803         José Manuel Pinto (2nd time)
 8 Aug 1803 - 1806         Caetano de Sousa Pereira
 8 Aug 1806 - 1808         Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
11 Sep 1808 - 18 Dec 1808  William O'Brien Drury              (b. 1754 - d. 1811)
                             (British commander)
26 Dec 1808 - 1810         Lucas José de Alvarenga (1st time) (b. 1768 - d. 1831)
19 Jul 1810 - 1814         Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos Faria     (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
19 Jul 1814 - 1817         Lucas José de Alvarenga (2nd time) (s.a.)
19 Jul 1817 –  9 Aug 1822  José Osório de Castro Cabral de    (b. 1779 - d. 1857)
                             Albuquerque
 9 Aug 1822 – 23 Sep 1822  Paulino da Silva Barbosa
23 Sep 1822 – 28 Jul 1825  Government Council
                           - Frei Francisco de Nossa Senhora
                             da Luz Chacim (1st time)         (b. 1767 - d. 1828)
                           - João Cabral de Estefique
                           - Joaquim Antonio da Silva                
28 Jul 1825 - 1827         Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha        (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
15 Nov 1827 –  7 Jul 1830  Government Council
                           - Frei Francisco de Nossa Senhora
                             da Luz Chacim (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                              (to 18..)
                           - Ignacio da Silva (from 18..)
                           - José Filippe Pires da Costa
                           - Alexandre Joaquim Grand-Pré
                              (to 18..)
                           - Dyonisio de Mello Sampaio
                              (from 18..)           
 7 Jul 1830 - 1833         João Cabral de Estefique           (b. 1780 - d. 1854)
 3 Jul 1833 - 1837         Bernardo José de Sousa Soares      (b. 1795 - d. 1844)
                             de Andrea
23 Feb 1837 - 1843         Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto    (d. 1868)
 3 Oct 1843 - 1846         José Gregório Pegado
21 Apr 1846 - 22 Aug 1849  João Maria Ferreira do Amaral      (b. 1803 - d. 1849)
22 Aug 1849 - 1850         Government Council
                           - Jerônimo José da Mata (1st time) (b  1804 - d. 1865)
                           - Joaquim Antonio de Moraes
                             Carneiro (1st time)
                           - Ludgero Joaquim de Faria Neves
                             (1st time)
                           - Miguel Pereira Simões (1st time)
                           - José Bernardino Goularte
                             (1st time)
                           - Manuel Pereira (1st time)                           
30 May 1850 -  6 Jul 1850  Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
 7 Jul 1850 - 1851         Government Council
                           - Jerônimo José da Mata (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           - Joaquim Antonio de Moraes
                             Carneiro (2nd time)
                           - Ludgero Joaquim de Faria Neves
                             (2nd time)
                           - Miguel Pereira Simões (2nd time)
                           - José Bernardino Goularte
                             (2nd time)
                           - Manuel Pereira (2nd time)                           
 3 Feb 1851 - 1851         Francisco António Gonçalves        (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
                             Cardoso
19 Nov 1851 - 1863         Isidoro Francisco Guimarães,       (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
                            (from 1862) visconde da Praia
                             Grande de Macau
22 Jun 1863 - 1866         José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
26 Oct 1866 - 1868         José Maria da Ponte e Horta        (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
 3 Aug 1868 - 1872         António Sérgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
23 Mar 1872 - 1874         Januário Correia de Almeida,       (b. 1829 - d. 1901) 
                             visconde de São Januário 
 7 Dec 1874 - 1876         José Maria Lôbo de Ávila           (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
31 Dec 1876 - 17 Oct 1879  Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,   (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
                             visconde de Paço de Arcos    
17 Oct 1879 – 28 Nov 1879  Manuel Bernardo de Sousa Enes      (b. 1814 - d. 1887)
                             (president of Government Council)
28 Nov 1879 – 24 Mar 1883  Joaquim José da Graça              (b. 1825 - d. 1889)
24 Mar 1883 – 23 Apr 1883  Government Council (incomplete)  
                           - Francisco Alves Morgado Jr.          
                           - João José da Silva               (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
23 Apr 1883 -  7 Aug 1886  Tomás de Sousa Rósa                (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
 7 Aug 1886 - 13 Oct 1888  Firmino José da Costa              (b. 1843 - d. 1893)
13 Oct 1888 –  5 Feb 1889  João José da Silva                 (s.a.)
                             (president of Government Council) 
 5 Feb 1889 - 1890         Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
16 Oct 1890 - 24 Mar 1894  Custódio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
24 Mar 1894 - 15 Feb 1897  José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
15 Feb 1897 – 12 Mar 1897  Alvaro Maria Fornelos 
                             (president of Government Council) 
12 Mar 1897 - 21 Apr 1900  Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
21 Apr 1900 – 12 Aug 1900  José Manuel de Carvalho            (b. 1844 - d. 1904)
                             (president of Government Council)             
12 Aug 1900 - 1902         José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa 
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
17 Dec 1902 - 10 Dec 1903  Arnaldo Nogueira de Novaes Guedes
                             Rebelo                           (b. 1847 - d. 1917)
10 Dec 1903 -  5 Apr 1904  João Paulino de Azevedo e Castro   (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
                            (president of council of government
 5 Apr 1904 - 1907         Martinho Pinto de Queirós          (b. 1847 - d. 1919)
                             Montenegro
1907 –  6 Apr 1907         José Emilio de Santana da Cunha
                             Castel-Branco (acting)
 6 Apr 1907 – 14 May 1908  Pedro de Azevedo Coutinho          (b. 1865 - d. 1942)
14 May 1908 – 18 Aug 1908  Francisco Diogo de Sá (acting) 
18 Aug 1908 – 22 Sep 1909  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
22 Sep 1909 - 1910         Eduardo Augusto Marquês            (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
1910 – 17 Dec 1910         João Marques Vidal (acting)     
17 Dec 1910 – 14 Jul 1912  Álvaro Cardoso de Melo Machado     (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
14 Jul 1912 - 16 Jun 1914  Aníbal Augusto Sanches de Miranda  (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
16 Jun 1914 – 10 Jun 1914  José Maria Martins Pereira (acting) 
10 Jun 1914 –  5 Sep 1916  José Carlos da Maia                (b. 1878 - d. 1921)
 5 Sep 1916 – 22 Jun 1917  Manuel Ferreira da Rocha           (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
22 Jun 1917 - 21 Dec 1917  Fernando Augusto Vieira de Matos
21 Dec 1917 - 12 Oct 1918  Council of Government
                           - Américo Guilherme Botelho de     (b. 1877 - d. 19..)
                               Sousa
                           - José David Freire Garcia
                           - Manuel Ferreira da Rocha   
12 Oct 1918 – 17 Jul 1919  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa   (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)
17 Jul 1919 – 23 Aug 1919  Joaquim Augusto Tomé dos Santos
                             (acting)  
23 Aug 1919 - 20 May 1922  Henrique Monteiro Correia da Silva (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
20 May 1922 -  5 Jan 1923  Luís António de Magalhães Correia  (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
                             (acting)
 5 Jan 1923 - 16 Jul 1924  Rodrigo José Rodrigues             (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
16 Jul 1924 - 18 Oct 1925  Joaquim Augusto Tomé dos Santos    (b. 1867 - d. 1954)
                             (acting)
18 Oct 1925 -  1 Aug 1926  Manuel Firmino de Almeida Maia     (b. 1881 - d. 1932)
                             Magalhães
 1 Aug 1926 -  8 Dec 1926  Hugo Carvalho Lacerda Castelo      (b. 1860 - d. 1944)
                             Branco (acting)
 8 Dec 1926 –  5 Apr 1929  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa   (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time) 
 5 Apr 1929 – 30 Mar 1931  João Pereira de Magalhães          (b. 1873 - d. 1933) 
                             (1st time) (acting)
30 Mar 1931 – 15 Oct 1931  Joaquim Anselmo da Mata e Oliveira (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
15 Oct 1931 – 21 Jun 1932   João Pereira de Magalhães         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
21 Jun 1932 - 19 Sep 1935  António José Bernardes de Miranda  (b. 1885 - d. 1957)
19 Sep 1935 - 24 Dec 1936  João Pereira Barbosa
24 Dec 1936 -  7 Feb 1937  António Joaquim Godinho Ferreira   (b. 1887 - d. 1947)
                             da Silva Júnior
 7 Feb 1937 – 11 Apr 1937  João Pinto Crisóstomo (acting)
11 Apr 1937 - 10 Jul 1940  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa   (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
10 Jul 1940 - 29 Oct 1940  José Rodrigues Moutinho (acting)   (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
29 Oct 1940 - 1946         Gabriel Maurício Teixeira          (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
1946 –  1 Sep 1947         Samuel Conceição Vieira (acting)
 1 Sep 1947 - 19 Apr 1951  Albano Rodrigues de Oliveira       (b. 1904 - d. 1973)
19 Apr 1951 – 23 Nov 1951  Aires Pinto Ribeiro
                             (government Comissioner)
23 Nov 1951 – 22 Jun 1956  Joaquim Marquês Esparteiro         (b. 1895 - d. 1976)
22 Jun 1956 – 27 Nov 1956  João Carlos Guedes Quinhones de
                             Portugal da Silveira
                             (government commissioner)  
27 Nov 1956 - 1958         Pedro Correia de Barros            (b. 1911 - d. 1968)
1958 - 1959                Manuel Peixoto Nunes
18 Sep 1959 - 17 Apr 1962  Jaime Silvério Marques             (b. 1915 - d. 1986)
17 Apr 1962 – Jul 1966     António Adriano Faria Lopes dos    (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
                             Santos
Jul 1966 – 25 Nov 1966     Carlos Armando da Mota Cerveira    (b. 1920 - d. 1981)
                             (acting)
25 Nov 1966 – 29 Sep 1974  José Manuel Sousa Faro Nobre       (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
                             Carvalho
29 Sep 1974 – 19 Nov 1974  Government Commissioner
19 Nov 1974 -  1 Feb 1979  José Eduardo Martinho Garcia       (b. 1940?)
                             Leandro                   
 1 Feb 1979 – 28 Nov 1979  Victor Manuel de Oliveira Santos
                             (acting)  
28 Nov 1979 - 26 Feb 1981  Nuno Viriato Tavares de Melo       (b. 1922 - d. 2011)
                             Egídio                    
26 Feb 1981 - 16 Jun 1981  José Carlos Moreira Campos
                             (acting)
16 Jun 1981 – Jan 1986     Vasco Fernando Leotte de Almeida   (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                             e Costa                       
Jan 1986 – 28 May 1986     Manuel Maria Amaral de Freitas
                             (acting)   
28 May 1986 – Mar 1987     Joaquim Germano Pinto Machado      (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
                             Correia da Silva
Mar 1987 –  9 Aug 1987     Carlos Augusto Valente Pulido      (b. 1942)
                             Monjardino (acting)      
 9 Aug 1987 - 28 Sep 1990  Carlos Montez Melancia             (b. 1927)
28 Sep 1990 - 23 Apr 1991  Francisco Luis Murteira Nabo       (b. 1939)
                            (acting)                  
23 Apr 1991 - 19 Dec 1999  Vasco Joaquim Rocha Vieira         (b. 1939)

Japanese Advisors (the Japanese Consuls in Macau)
(formally in charge of contacts with Portuguese governor) 
Oct 1940 -  3 Feb 1945     Fukui Yasumitsu                    (d. 1945)
1945                       Mitsujiro Iwai



Shanghai International Settlement
 
[Shanghai
                          International Settlement (China) first flag
                          c.1869]
                           c.1869 - af.1917
[Shanghai International Settlement
                          (China) flag to 1942]
                             af.1917 - 1942
Map of Shanghai 1935
GDP: $N/A  
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Land Regulations
(24 Sep 1869/25 Oct 1881)
Shanghai Volunteer Corps: 2,000 (1933)
British Force: 1,600
Japanese Force: 2,100
U.S. Forces: 1,900
Defense the Responsibility of Treaty Powers
Currency: British Pound
(GBP)
Population: 1,159,800 (1935)
(includes: 38,940 foreigners)
Ethnic groups: Chinese, American, British, French,
 Japanese, Italian, Russian, German and others
Religions: Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish,
Buddhist and Taoist

16 Jun 1842 - 29 Aug 1842  British occupation of Shanghai.
17 Nov 1843                Shanghai becomes a Treaty Port.
29 Nov 1845                First charter (Land Regulations) enacted.
20 Nov 1846                British concession established.
27 Nov 1848                Concession expanded.
1848                       American concession established.
1849                       Committee on Roads and Jetties formed.
17 Jul 1854                Municipal Council is established.
1862                       Proposal to make Shanghai an independent "free city" is rejected.
21 Sep 1863                Foreign Settlement created by merger of American and
                             British concessions (consummated Dec 1863).
29 Jun 1899                Renamed the International Settlement.
 7 Jul 1927                Chinese Greater Shanghai Municipality is established.
Jan/Feb 1931               Japanese occupy the Hongkew district.
 9 Nov 1937                Japanese occupy Chinese Shanghai and the Northern Districts
                             of the International Settlement.
 8 Dec 1941 - Sep 1945     Japanese occupy the International Settlement (but not
                             the French concession); it is dissolved by Japan in 1942.
11 Jan 1943                Settlement is officially retroceded to the Republic of China by the
                             United States and Britain, formal end of extraterritoriality.
15 Feb 1943                Internment of citizens from Allied nations begun.
 
1 Aug 1943                Settlement retroceded to Japanese sponsored Chinese National
                             Government by Japan.
 3 Sep 1945                Formally restored to China.

British Consuls
Nov 1843 - 1846            George Balfour                    (b. 1809 - d. 1894)
1846 - 1855                Rutherford Alcock                 (b. 1809 - d. 1897)
1855 - 1864                Daniel Brooke Robertson           (b. 1810 - d. 1881)
Chairmen of the Committee on Roads and Jetties
1849 - 1852                the British consuls
25 May 1852 - 21 Jul 1853  Edward Cunningham (U.S.)          (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
21 Jul 1853 - 11 Jul 1854  William Shepard Wetmore (U.S.)    (b. 1801 - d. 1862)
Chairmen of the Municipal Council
11 Jul 1854 - 1855         William Seton Brown (U.K.)
1855                       Christopher Augustus Fearon (U.K.)(b. 1788 - d. 1866)
Mar 1855 - 1855            William Shepard Wetmore (U.S.)    (s.a.)
1855 - 1856                William Thorburn (U.K.)           (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
Jan 1856 - 31 Jan 1857     James Lawrence Man (U.K.)         (b. 1818 - d. 1888)
31 Jan 1857 - Jan 1858     George Watson Coutts (U.K.)       (d. 1890)
Jan 1858 - Jan 1859        John Thorne (U.S.)
31 Jan 1859 - 15 Feb 1860  Robert Reid (U.K.)
15 Feb 1860 -  2 Feb 1861  Rowland Hamilton (U.K.)
 2 Feb 1861 - 31 Mar 1862  William Howard (U.K.)
31 Mar 1862 -  4 Apr 1863  Henry Turner (U.K.)
 4 Apr 1863 - 25 Apr 1865  Henry "Harry" William Dent (U.K.) (b. 1834 - d. ....)
25 Apr 1865 - 18 Apr 1866  William Keswick (U.K.)            (b. 1834 - d. 1912)
18 Apr 1866 - Mar 1868     F.B. Johnson (U.K.)
Mar 1868 -  2 Apr 1870     Edward Cunningham (U.S.)          (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1870 -  4 Apr 1871  George Basil Dixwell (U.S.)       (b. 1815 - d. 1885)
 4 Apr 1871 - Jan 1873     John Dent (U.K.)                  (b. 1821 - d. 1892)
Jan 1873 - 16 Apr 1874     Robert Inglis Fearon (U.S.)       (b. 1837 - d. 1897)
16 Apr 1874 - 1876         John Graeme Purdon (U.S.)         (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
                             (1st time)
1876 - Jan 1877            Alfred Adolphus Krauss (U.K.)     (b. 1839? - d. 1908)
Jan 1877 - 16 Jan 1879     J. Hart (U.S.)
16 Jan 1879 - 30 Jan 1882  Robert "Bob" W. Little (U.K.)     (b. 18.. - d. 1906)
30 Jan 1882 - 1882         H.R. Hearn (U.K.)                 (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
1882 - 1883                W.C. Ward (U.S.)
1883 - 22 Jan 1884         Alexander Myburgh (U.K.)          (b. 1849 - d. 1889)
22 Jan 1884 - 22 Jan 1886  James Johnstone Keswick (U.K.)    (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
22 Jan 1886 - 1889         A.G. Wood (U.K.)
1889 - May 1891            John Macgregor (1st time)(U.K.)   (d. 1893)
May 1891 - Jan 1893        John Graeme Purdon (U.S.)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1893 -  7 Nov 1893     John Macgregor (2nd time)(U.K.)   (s.a.)
Nov 1893 - 26 Jan 1897     James Lidderdale Scott (U.K.)     (b. 1848 - d. 1908)
26 Jan 1897 - 21 Apr 1897  E.A. Probst (U.K.)
Apr 1897 - Jan 1898        A.R. Burkill (U.K.)
Jan 1898 - Aug 1899        James S. Fearon (U.S.)
                             (absent 3 Aug - 30 Nov 1898)
 3 Aug 1898 - 30 Nov 1898  Joseph Welch (U.K.) (deputy)
Aug 1899 - Jan 1900        Frederick Anderson (U.K.)         (b. 1855 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)      
Jan 1900 - 25 Jan 1901     Edbert Ansgar Hewett (U.K.)       (b. 1860 - d. 1915)
26 Jan 1901 - 25 Jan 1902  John Prentice (U.K.)
25 Jan 1902 - 1904         William George Bayne (U.K.)       (b. 18.. - d. 1910)        
1904 - 25 Jan 1905         Frederick Anderson (U.K.)         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)      
25 Jan 1905 - 24 Jan 1906  Cecil W. Holliday (U.K.)
24 Jan 1906 - 1907         Henry Keswick (U.K.)              (b. 1870 - d. 1928)
May 1907 - 17 Jan 1911     David Landale (U.K.)              (b. 1868 - d. 1935)
17 Jan 1911 - 24 Jan 1913  Harry De Gray (U.K.)
24 Jan 1913 - 17 Feb 1920  Edward Charles Pearce (U.K.)      (b. 1862 - d. 1928)
17 Feb 1920 - 17 Mar 1922  Alfred Brooke Smith (U.K.)        (b. 1874 - d. 1938)
17 Mar 1922 - 12 Oct 1923  H.G. Simms (U.K.)
12 Oct 1923 -  5 Mar 1929  Stirling Fessenden (U.S.)         (b. 1875 - d. 1943)
 5 Mar 1929 - 1930         Harry E. Arnhold (1st time)(U.K.) (b. 1879 - d. 19..)
1930 - 22 Mar 1932         Ernest B. Macnaghten (U.K.)       (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
22 Mar 1932 - 27 Mar 1934  A.D. Bell (U.K.)
27 Mar 1934 - Apr 1937     Harry E. Arnhold (2nd time)(U.K.) (s.a.)
Apr 1937 - Apr 1938        Cornell Sidney Franklin (U.S.)    (d. 1959)
Apr 1938 - 1941            William Johnstone "Tony" Keswick  (b. 1903 - d. 1990)
                             (U.K.)
 1 May 1941 -  5 Jan 1942  John Hellyer Liddell (U.K.)       (b. 1899 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)
 5 Jan 1942 -  1 Aug 1943  Katsuo Okazaki (Japan)            (b. 1897 - d. 1965)

French Concession


 
Map of Shanghai 1933
Population: 478,552 (1932)
(includes: 16,210 foreigners)

 6 Apr 1849                French concession in Shanghai established
                             (Concession Française de Changhaï).
 1 May 1862                French concession municipal council created under
                             the authority of the French Consul-general.
Jul 1940 - 30 Jul 1943     Administration loyal to Vichy France.
30 Jul 1943                Vichy France retrocedes concession to Japanese sponsored  
                             Chinese National Government (not recognized by the 
                             Free French or the Republic of China).
30 Jul 1943 - Sep 1945     Occupied by Japan.
28 Feb 1946                Formally restored to China by France.

French Consuls-general of Shanghai and Presidents of the Municipal Council
23 Jan 1848 - 10 Jun 1853  Charles de Montigny (1st time)     (b. 1805 - d. 1868) 
                             (vice consul; President of Municipal Council from 1 May 1862)
15 Jun 1853 - 14 Jun 1857  Benoit Edan (1st time)(interim)    (b. 1803 - d. 1871)
14 Jun 1857 - 28 Jun 1859  Charles de Montigny (2nd time)     (s.a.)
28 Jun 1859 - 12 Feb 1863  Benoit Edan (2nd time)(interim)    (s.a.)
12 Feb 1863 - 28 Oct 1863  Pierre Victor Mauboussin           (b. 1815 - d. 1863) 
 
2 Nov 1863 - 18 Apr 1864  Chevrey-Rameau (acting)
18 Apr 1864 - 22 Dec 1864  Ernest Napoléon Marie Godeaux      (b. 1833 - d. 1906)
                             (1st time)(acting)
22 Dec 1864 - 20 Mar 1869  Antoine Brenier de Montmorand      (b. 1813 - d. 1894)
20 Mar 1869 - 23 Nov 1869  Claude-Philibert Dabry de          (b. 1826 - d. 1898)
                             Thiersant
23 Nov 1869 - 10 Jun 1872  comte de Méjean 
10 Jun 1872 -  9 Sep 1872  Julien René Emmanuel Stephen de    (b. 1844 - d. 1917)
                             Chappedelaine, comte de                            
                             Chappedelaine (1st time)(interim) 
 9 Sep 1872 - 24 Apr 1875  Ernest Napoléon Marie Godeaux      (s.a.)                              (2nd time)
24 Apr 1875 - 25 May 1875  Victor Gabriel Lemaire (1st time)  (b. 1839 - d. 1907) 
                             (acting)
25 May 1875 - 13 Feb 1876  Julien René Emmanuel Stephen de    (s.a.)
                             Chappedelaine, comte de
                             Chappedelaine (2nd time)(interim)
13 Feb 1876 - 28 Mar 1878  Ernest Napoléon Marie Godeaux      (s.a.)                                (3rd time)
28 Mar 1878 - 22 Apr 1880  Victor Gabriel Lemaire
(2nd time)  (s.a.)
1880 - 1881                Frédéric Benoit Garnier            (b. 1822 - d. 1883/84)
1882 - 1883                Maurice Ernest Flesch              (b. 1842 - d. 1910)
1883 - 1884                Alexandre Laurence de Lalande      (b. 1856 - d. ....)
                             (acting)
20 Sep 1884 - 1885         Victor Gabriel Lemaire (3rd time)  (s.a.)
1885                       Victor Émile Collin de Plancy      (b. 1853 - d. 1924) 
1885 - 1887                Emile Désiré Kraetzer              (b. 1839 - d. 1889)
1887 - 1888                Leon Adolphe Déjardin              (b. 1842 - d. 1912)
Mar 1888 - 1888            Fernand Emmanuel Jean Guillien     (b. 1860 - d. ....)
                             (1st time)
1888 - 1892                Raoul Wagner                       (b. 1836 - d. 1919)
1892 - 1894                Arnold Jacques Antoine Vissiere    (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
1894 - 1896                Fernand Emmanuel Jean Guillien     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1896 - 1898                Pierre René Georges Dubail         (b. 1845 - d. 1932)
Oct 1898 - 25 Oct 1899     Paul Claudel (1st time)            (b. 1868 - d. 1955)
1898 - 1899                Georges-Gaston Servan de           (b. 1852 - d. 1917) 
                             Bezaure (1st time)
1899 - 1900                Paul Claudel (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1900 - 1901                Georges-Gaston Servan de           (s.a.)
                             Bezaure (2nd time) 
1901 - 1909                Louis Onezime Ratard               (b. 1852 - d. 1914) 
1909 - 1913                Marie Joseph Maurice Déjean        (b. 1863 - d. 19..)  
                             de la Bâtie
1911 - 1912                P. Dubois (deputy consul)
1912 - 1914                Gérard Japy (deputy consul)
1913 - 1915                Camille Gaston Kahn                (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
1915 -  3 Apr 1917         Paul Émile Naggiar (1st time)      (b. 1883 - d. 1961) 
 3 Apr 1917 - 21 Jan 1920  Auguste Henry Wilden (1st time)    (b. 1879 - d. 19..)
22 Jan 1920 - 14 Jan 1921  Ulysse-Raphaël Reau (interim)      (b. 1872 - d. 19..)
14 Jan 1921 - 23 Jan 1921  Georges Dufaure de la Prade
                             (interim)
23 Jan 1921 - 20 Nov 1924  Auguste Henry Wilden (2nd time)    (s.a.)
20 Nov 1924 - 16 Apr 1926  Jacques Meyrier (1st time)         (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
                             (interim)
16 Apr 1926 -  9 Jan 1928  Paul Émile Naggiar (2nd time)      (s.a.) 
 9 Jan 1928 - 10 Dec 1928  Jacques Meyrier (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                             (interim)
10 Dec 1928 -  7 Mar 1932  Edgard Napoleon Auguste Koechlin   (b. 1887 - d. 1932)
                             (interim)
 7 Mar 1932 - 30 Jan 1935  Jacques Meyrier (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                             (interim)
30 Jan 1935 - Feb 1938     Marcel Baudez (1st time)           (b. 1878 - d. 1941)
Feb 1938 - 26 Nov 1938     Pierre Augé (1st time)(interim)
26 Nov 1938 -  7 May 1940  Marcel Baudez (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 7 May 1940 -  6 Sep 1940  Pierre Augé (2nd time)(interim)
 6 Sep 1940 - 23 Oct 1940  Duval (interim)
23 Oct 1940 - 22 Sep 1944  Roland Jacquin de Margerie         (b. 1899 - d. 1990)
22 Sep 1944 - 14 Nov 1945  Baron Guy Fain
14 Nov 1945 - 28 Feb 1946  Jean Filliol



United States Shanghai Concession

[U.S. 37 Star Flag -
                (1867-1877)]

May 1845                   Despite British protest Russell and Co. acquires a tract of land
                             from Chinese authorities.
Dec 1848                   Renewed raising of the U.S. flag. American Concession now gradually
                             expands, eventually consisting of the American Protestant
                             Episcopal Church Mission, the Shanghai Dock, some wharves, 
                             and 'some establishments for the entertainment of sailors.'
Aug 1854                   American Concession is formally delineated.
21 Sep 1863                Shanghai International Settlement created by union of American
                             and British concessions (consummated Dec 1863).

Agents of Russell and Co.
1845 - 1848                Henry Griswold Wolcott             (b. 1820 - d. 1852)
Dec 1848 - Jan 1854        John Noble Alsop Griswold          (b. 1822 - d. 1909)
U.S. Consuls
15 Feb 1854 - Jun 1857     Robert Creighton Murphy            (b. 1827 - d. 1888)
1858 - 1861                William L.G. Smith                 (b. 1814 - d. 1878)
23 Dec 1861 - 1863         George Frederick Seward            (b. 1840 – d. 1910)
                             (from 1863, Consul-general)


Tientsin (Tianjin) Concessions 

Map of Tientsin Concessions
Population: 6,261 (1935)
(note: 536 foreigners)

30 Jun 1900 - 15 Aug 1902  Tientsin Provisional Government, city occupied and administered
                             by the allied nations (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany,
                             Italy, Japan, Russia, U.K. and U.S.)

Secretary-general of the provisional government district of Tientsin
18 Jul 1900 - 15 Aug 1902  Charles Denby, Jr. (U.S.)          (b. 1861 - d. 1838)


Tientsin Austro-Hungarian Concession 
[Compromise Flag]
 7 Sep 1901                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Austria-Hungary.
14 Aug 1917                Lease terminated by China.
10 Sep 1919                Austria formally renounces its former concession
                             (Hungary on 4 Jun 1920).

Austro-Hungarian Consuls

14 Nov 1901 - 1908         Karl Bernauer (vice consul)        (b. 1867 - d. 1929)
1908                       Erwin Ritter von Zach              (b. 1872 - d. 1949)
Nov 1908 - Dec 1912        Miloslav A. Kobr                   (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
1913 - 14 Aug 1917         Hugo Schumpeter                    (b. 1881 - d. 1930)


Tientsin Belgian Concession
[Flag of Belgium]
 6 Feb 1902                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Belgium in exchange
                             of a yearly indemnity.
31 Aug 1929                Treaty between China and Belgium, Belgium agrees to retrocede
                             the concession to China.
15 Jan 1931                Formal restoration of the concession to China.

Belgian Consul-generals
1902 - 1906                Henri Ketels    
1906 - 1914                Albert Disière                     (b. 1876 - d. 19..)
1914 - 1919                Auguste Dauge
1919 - 1923                Ernest Franck
1923 - 1929                Alphonse van Cutsem
1929 - 15 Jan 1931         Tony Snyers


Tientsin British Concession
[Flag of the United Kingdom]
Map of Tientsin Concession
Land Regulations
(24 Nov 1866)

24 Oct 1860                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to U.K.
1862                       British Concession Tientsin Municipal Council created.
 9 Aug 1940                British garrison withdrawn.
 8 Dec 1941 - Sep 1945     Concession occupied by Japan.
29 Mar 1942                Japan surrenders British concession to Nanjing government.
11 Jan 1943                Concession officially abolished by Britain.
24 Nov 1945                China formally assumes administration.

British Consul-generals
24 Dec 1860 - 1877         James Mongan
1870                       William Hyde Lay
                             (acting for Mongan)
 9 Nov 1877 - 1885         Chaloner Alabaster                 (b. 1838 - d. 1898)
23 Dec 1885 - 1893         Byron Brenan                       (b. 1847 - d. 1927)
15 Jun 1893 - 1897         Henry Barnes Bristow               (b. 1848 - d. ....)
27 Sep 1897 - May 1899     Benjamin Charles George Scott
13 May 1899 - 1901         William Richard Carles             (b. 1848 - d. 1929)
22 Mar 1901 - 1908         Lionel Charles Hopkins             (b. 1854 - d. 1952)
 1 Sep 1908 - 1912         Alexander Hosie                    (b. 1853 - d. 1925)
 1 Oct 1912 - 1917         Sir Henry English Fulford          (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
 1 Apr 1917 - 1926         William Pollock Ker                (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
1926 - 1930                James William Jamieson             (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
 8 Feb 1928 - 21 Nov 1934  Lancelot Giles                     (b. 1878 - d. 1934)
19 Feb 1935 - 1938         John Barr Affleck                  (b. 1878 - d. 1941)
 6 Aug 1938 - 1939         Edgar George Jamieson              (b. 1882 - d. 1959)
 1 Nov 1939 - 1941         Oswald White
Apr 1941 -  8 Dec 1941     Sir Alwyne Ogden (acting)          (b. 1889 - d. 1981)


Tientsin French Concession



24 Oct 1860                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to France.
1861                       French concession in Tientsin (Concession Française Tien-Tsin).
Jul 1940 - 19 May 1943     Administration loyal to Vichy France.
19 May 1943                Vichy France retrocedes concession to Japanese sponsored Chinese 
                             National Government (not recognized by Free French or 
                             Republic of China).
19 May 1943 - Sep 1945     Occupied by Japan.
24 Nov 1945                China formally assumes administration.
28 Feb 1946                Formally restored to China by France.

French Consuls
1863 - 1868                Charles de Montigny                (b. 1805 - d. 1868)
1869 - 21 Jun 1870         Henri Victor Fontanier             (b. 1830 - d. 1870)
1870 - 1883                Charles Dillon                     (b. 1842 - d. 1889)
May 1883 - Jul 1884        Joseph Hippolyte Frandin           (b. 1852 - d. 1924)
17 Jul 1884 - Jun 1885     Paul Ristelhueber (1st time)       (b. 1849 - d. 1925)
Jun 1885 - Sep 1885        Georges-Gaston Servan de Bezaure   (b. 1852 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
1885 - Mar 1890            Paul Ristelhueber (2nd time)       (s.a.)
1890                       Edouard Lefèvre (acting)
27 Nov 1890 - 10 May 1892  Geores-Gaston Servan de Bezaure    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1892 - 1894                Marie Jacques Achille Raffray      (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
27 Jan 1894 - 1897         Jean Marie Guy Georges du          (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
                             Chaylard (1st time)    
 5 Apr 1897 - 22 May 1898  Arnold Jacques Antoine Vissiere    (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
1898 - 1902                Jean Marie Guy Georges du          (s.a.)
                             Chaylard (2nd time)             
1902 - 1903                Marie Henri Leduc                  (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
1903 - 1906                Émile Rocher                       (b. 1846 - d. 1924)
1906                       Henri Séraphin Bourgeois (1st time)(b. 1864 - d. 1919)
1906 - 1909                Paul Claudel                       (b. 1868 - d. 1955)
1909 - 1913                Camille Gaston Kahn                (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
1913 - 1918                Henri Séraphin Bourgeois (2nd time)(s.a.)
1918 - 1928                Jean Émile Saussine                (b. 1876 - d. 1948)
1928 - May 1932            Jacques Meyrier                    (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
May 1932 - 1935            Charles Jean Lépissier (1st time)  (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
1935 - 1937?               Pierre Jean Crépin (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1961)
1937? - 1939?              Charles Jean Lépissier (2nd time)  (s.a.)
1939? - 1943               Lucien Colin (acting to 21 Sep 1940)
1943 - 1946                Georges Cattand                    (b. 1902 - d. 1989)


Tientsin German Concession

[Germany 1871-1921, N.
                  Ger. Confed. 1867-1870]
1899                       China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Germany.
16 Mar 1917                Lease terminated by China.
28 Jun 1919                Germany formally renounces its former concession.

German Consuls
1889 - 1896                Edwin A. Freiherr von Seckendorff  (b. 1854 - d. 1933)
1896 - Mar 1900            Rudolf Eiswaldt                    (b. 1859 - d. 1930)
1900 - 1902                Arthur Zimmermann                  (b. 1864 - d. 1940)
1902 - 1905                Paul Max Eckardt                   (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
1906 - 1913                Hubert von Knipping                (b. 1868 - d. 1935)
1913 - 1917                Fritz Wendschuch                   (b. 1873 - d. 19..)


Tientsin Italian Concession 

[Kingdom of Italy flag]

 7 Sep 1901                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Italy.
 7 Jun 1902                Tientsin Italian concession (Concessione di Tien-Tsin).
10 Sep 1943 - Sep 1945     Occupied by Japan.
27 Jul 1944                Italian Social Republic retrocedes the concession to
                             the Japanese sponsored Chinese National Government
                             (not recognized by Kingdom of Italy or Republic of China).
24 Nov 1945                China formally assumes administration.
10 Feb 1947                Italy formally renounces its concessions in China.

Italian Consuls
18 Apr 1901 - 31 Jul 1903  Cesare Poma 
11 Feb 1904 -  6 Jun 1906  Giuseppe Chiostri
14 Oct 1906 -  7 Jun 1911  Oreste Da Vella 
1912 - 1920                Vincenzo Fileti                    (b. 1875 - d. 19..) 
Nov 1920 - 1921            Marcello Roddolo                   (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
 3 Jul 1921 - Jul 1924     Luigi Gabrielli 
1925 -  1 Nov 1927         Guido Segre                        (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
 1 Nov 1927 - Mar 1932     Luigi Neyrone                      (b. 1877 - d. 19..) 
Mar 1932 - Feb 1938        Filippo Zappi                      (b. 1896 - d. 1961)
 3 Feb 1938 - 10 Sep 1943  Ferruccio Stefenelli               (b. 1898 - d. 1980)  


Tientsin Japanese Concession
[Japan]
17 Apr 1895                China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Japan.
Jan 1943                   Japan retrocedes its concession to the Japanese sponsored
                             Chinese National Government (not recognized by Republic of China).
24 Nov 1945                China formally assumes administration.

Japanese Consul-generals  
1895 - 1896                Minoji Arakawa                     (b. 1857 - d. 1949)
1896 - 1902                Tei Nagamasa                       (b. 1862 - d. 1916)
1902 - 1907                Hikokichi Ijuin                    (b. 1864 - d. 1924)
1907                       Kato Motoshiro (acting)
Sep 1907 - 1913            Obata Yukichi                      (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
1913 - 1914                Kubota Bunzo
1914 - 1919                Matsudaira Tsuneo                  (b. 1877 - d. 1949)
1918                       Ishii Itaro (acting for Tsuneo)    (b. 1889 - d. 1954)
1919 - Nov 1921            Tatsuichiro Funatsu                (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
1921 - 1922                Yagi Motahachi
1922 - 1925                Shigeru Yoshida                    (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
1925 - 1927                Arita Hachiro                      (b. 1884 - d. 1965)
1927 - 1929                Kato Sotomatsu                     (b. 1890 - d. 1942)
1929 - 1930                Okamoto Takezo
Apr 1930 - 1931            Tajiri Akiyoshi                    (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
1931 - 1933                Kuwashima Kazue                    (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
 1 Sep 1933 - 1934         Kurihara Tadashi
1934 - Apr 1936            Kawagoe Shigeru                    (b. 1881 - d. 1969)
Aug 1936 - 1938            Horiuchi Tateki                    (b. 1889 - d. 1951)
Apr 1938 - c.1939          Tashiro Shigenori                  (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
1942 - 1943                Kato Shigeshi
1943 - 1945                Shinichi Takase



Tientsin Russian Concession
[Russian flag]
1903                       China cedes a concession in Tientsin to Russia.
1918                       Russian garrison withdrawn.
25 Sep 1920                China takes over administration and terminates the
                             Russian concession.
31 May 1924                Soviet Union renounces all concessions in China.

Russian Consul-generals
1903 - 1907                Nikolay Vasilyevich Laptev         (b. 18.. - d. 1907)
1907 - 1909                Nikolay Maksimovich Poppe          (b. 18.. - d. 1913)
1909 - 1910                Nikolay Sergeyevich Muliukin
                             (acting)
1910 - 1913                Khristofor Petrovich Kristi        (b. 18.. - d. 1937)
1913 - 1914                Konstantin Viktorovich Uspensky    (b. 1881 - d. 1940)
                             (acting)
1914 - 1920                Pyotr Genrikhovich Tiedemann       (b. 1872 - d. 1941)
                             (consul to 1915)


Tientsin United States Concession

[U.S. 37 Star Flag -
                (1867-1877)]

18 Jun 1858                U.S. granted the right to have a concession
in Tientsin by
                             the Treaty of Tientsin, a formal concession is not established.
1871                       U.S. consulate established in Tientsin, but a formal concession
                             never materializes, although the U.S. consulate exercises some
                             jurisdiction over the area.
12 Oct 1880                Relegated to an uncertain status while U.S. retained a right in
                             principle to take over the concession in the future.
16 Aug 1900 - 1901         U.S. occupies the area following the Boxer Rebellion. Bu plans for
                             the establishment of a concession are soon canceled.
1901                       Sanitary and police control handed over to the British concession.
Nov 1902                   Formally annexed to British Concession as its southern extension.

U.S. Consuls

 6 Apr 1871 - 1876         Eli Taylor Sheppard                (b. 1842 - d. 1927)
19 Nov 1877 - 1880         Owen Nickerson Denny               (b. 1938 - d. 1900)
29 Mar 1880 - 1881         Willie Person Mangum, Jr.          (b. 1827 - d. 1881)
20 May 1881 - Nov 1883     James Clay Zuck                    (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
 4 Jul 1884 - 1887         George T. Bromley                  (b. 1817 - d. 1909)
 6 Apr 1887 -  1 Jul 1889  Enoch Joyce Smithers               (b. 1828 - d. 1895)
19 Dec 1889 - 1893         William Bowman                     (b. 1842? - d. 1914)
29 Sep 1893 - 1897         Sheridan Pitt Read                 (b. 1861 - d. 1912)
1897 - 1903                James Wilson Ragsdale              (b. 1848 - d. 1932)


Weihaiwei
 
[flag of United
                            Kingdom]
                               1898 - 1903 
 
[flag of
                            Commissioner of Liu Kung Tau 1899-1903]
                 1899 - 1903 Commissioner's Flag
[Weihaiwei
                            colonial flag 1903-1930]
                          1903 - 30 Sep 1930
 
Map of Weihaiwei Capital: Port Edward Population: 154,416 (1921) Order in Council
(24 Jul 1901)

17 Feb 1895 - 23 May 1898  Occupied by Japan.
24 May 1898                Weihaiwei leased to United Kingdom.
 1 Oct 1930                Weihaiwei returned to China (see under China provinces).

Japanese Military governor
17 Feb 1895 - 1898         Sakuma Samata                      (b. 1844 - d. 1915) 
Naval Commissioner and Commander of the British Naval Forces in China
 1 Jul 1898 - 1901         Sir Edward Hobart Seymour          (b. 1840 - d. 1929)
Civil Commissioner
10 Aug 1899 - 10 Dec 1901  Arthur Robert Ford Dorward         (b. 1848 - d. 1934)
                             (from 23 May 1900, Sir Arthur Robert Ford Dorward) 
Officer in Charge
10 Dec 1901 - May 1902     John Dodson Daintree               (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
Commissioners
May 1902 - 1921            James Haldane Stewart Lockhart     (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
1921 - 1923                Arthur Powlett Blunt               (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
1923 - 1927                Walter Russell Brown               (b. 1879 - d. 1966)
1927 - 30 Sep 1930         Reginald Fleming Johnston          (b. 1874 - d. 1938)






© Ben Cahoon