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Timor-Leste (East Timor)
 
[Portugal]
                 to 28 Nov 1975
 
Portuguese Timor 1967 proposed
                                    colonial flag
            1967 Proposed colonial flag 
 
[United Republic of Timor flag
                                    1961]
     9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961 (in rebellion)
 
[East
                                    Timor flag 1975, 1999-2002]
            28 Nov 1975 - 7 Dec 1975;
     25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002 unofficial
 
[National
                                    flag of Indonesia]
            7 Dec 1975 - 19 Oct 1999
 
 
[Timor-Timur (Indonesia
                                    Province) flag to 1999]
     Timor Timur Province flag to 1999
 
 
[Flag of
                                    UNO]
           25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002
 
[East Timor
                                    Flag]
                     Adopted 20 May 2002

Map of East Timor Hear National Anthem
 "Pátria" (Fatherland)
Text of National Anthem
 28 Nov - 7  Dec 1975,
Re-adopted 20 May 2002
Constitution
(22 Mar 2002)
Capital: Dili
(Lifau 1653-10 Oct 1769;
Cupão 1646-1653;
Larantuca 1613-1646;

Solor 1571-1613)
Currency: US Dollar (USD)
National Holiday: 28 Nov (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 1,172,390 (2013)
GDP: $25.41 billion (2013)
Exports: $34.1 million (2011)
Imports: $689 million (2011)
Ethnic groups: East Timorese 80%, other (mainly Malayo-
Polynesian, Indonesian, and Papuan)
20%, small Chinese minority (1999)
Total Armed Forces: 1,332 (2010)
Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 96.9%, Protestant/Evangelical 2.2%,
Muslim 0.3%, other 0.6% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, PIF (special observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
East Timor
Chronology
18 Aug 1515                Arrival of the first Portuguese traders.
25 Jan 1522                Timor visited by ships of Portugese Capt. Ferdinand
                             Magellan's fleet sailing for Spain.
1533                       First Portuguese settlements.
1571                       Portuguese settlement on Solor Island.
18 Apr 1613 - 1615         Solor Island occupied by the Dutch.
1618 - 1629                Solor occupied by the Dutch.
1636                       Solor annexed by the Dutch.
1642                       Portuguese colony (Portuguese Timor), subordinated
                             to Portuguese India (see Goa).
Apr 1652                   Dutch seize Cupão (Kupang) which is renamed
                             Fort Concordia.
 6 Aug 1661                Portugal and Netherlands formally divide Timor
                             between them into Dutch West Timor (part of 
                             Dutch East Indies and later Indonesia) and
                             Portuguese East Timor.
1811 - 1816                British occupy Dutch Timor.
20 Sep 1844 - 30 Oct 1850  Subordinated to Macau.
30 Oct 1850 - 15 Sep 1851  Separate colony.
15 Sep 1851 - 23 Sep 1856  Subordinated to Macau.
23 Sep 1856 - 17 Sep 1863  Subordinated to Portuguese India.
20 Apr 1859                Netherlands and Portugal agree on border 
                             delimitation. Portugal cedes claims to islands
                             of Flores, Solor, Pantar and Alor and 
                             recognize Dutch claim to Maucatar enclave (to
                             Portugal in 1904); Dutch cede Maubara to the
                             Portuguese and recognize Portuguese claims to
                             Oecussi and Noimuti (to Dutch in 1904) enclaves.
17 Sep 1863 - 26 Nov 1866  Separate overseas province.
26 Nov 1866 - 15 Oct 1896  Subordinated to Macau. 
1895 - 1912                Revolt led by Dom Boaventura ruler of Manufai.
15 Oct 1896                Separate colony (including the enclave of Ocussi
                             Ambeno).
25 Jun 1914                Final international arbitration of enclave and
                             boundary disputes. 
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  Occupied by Australian and Dutch forces.
20 Feb 1942 - 11 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan.
11 Jun 1951                Status changed from colony to overseas province.
 9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961     United Republic of Timor proclaimed in Batugad,
                             sponsored by Indonesia.
28 Nov 1975                Unilateral declaration of independence 
                            (Democratic Republic of East Timor).
 7 Dec 1975                Occupied by Indonesia (from 17 Dec 1975, renamed
                             East Timor).
17 Jul 1976                Annexed by Indonesia (Timor Timur province).
                            (not recognized by Portugal; remained recognized
                             by United Nations as Portuguese territory).
30 Aug 1999                Referendum votes for independence 78%.
19 Oct 1999                Annexation rescinded by Indonesia.
25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002  International administration (from 28 Feb 2000,
                             under United Nations administration; UN 
                             Transitional Admin. in East Timor [UNTAET]).
20 May 2002                Independence (Democratic Republic of East Timor).
 6 Aug 2003                Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (date of
                             communication to the United Nations that
                             Portuguese name is to be left untranslated).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Captains
1571 - 15..                Aires de Saldanha
1586 – 1590                Ant
ónio Viegas
1591                       Gaspar da Silva 
1595 – 1600                Ant
ónio de Andria       
1601 – 1603                Jerônimo Correia da Silva   
1604 - 1605                Sebastião Pinheiro de Abreu
1605                       João André Feio
1611 – 1613                Manuel Alvares 
1617 - 1618                Agostinho Lobato de Abreu 
1618 - 1619                Ant
ónio de Sá
1619                       Gonçalo Proença
1629                       Nuno Álvares Botelho
1632                       Francisco Pereira da Cunha 
1632 – 1634                Estácio Pereira 
1634 – 1642                Francisco Fernandes
1642 – 1645                Ant
ónio Carneiro de Sequeira  
1646 – 1647                João Calaça Tenreiro
1647 - 1649                António de São Jacinto
                             (in Cupão)
1649 - 1652                Francisco Carneiro de Sequeira  
                             (in Cupão)
1652 - 1665                Simão Luís                         (d. 1665)
Captains-major
1665                       Simão Luís                         (s.a.) 
1666 - 1669                António da Hornay (1st time)       (d. 1693)
                             (acting)
1669 - 1670                Fernão Martins da Ponte (acting)
1671 - 1673                Mateus da Costa (acting)           (d. 1673)
1673                       Manuel da Costa Vieira (acting)
1673 - 1693                António da Hornay (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1680                       João Antunes Portugal
                             (refused by locals)
1693 - 1694                António de Madre de Deus (acting)
1694 - 1696                Francisco da Hornay
1696 - 1697                António de Mesquita Pimentel
1697                       André Coelho Vieira
                             (did not take office)
1697 - 1702                Domingos da Costa (acting)
Governors
20 Feb 1702 - 1704         António Coelho Guerreiro           (b. c.1650 - d. 17..) 
1704 - 1705                Pascoal de Mesquita Pimetal (acting)
1705                       Manuel de Santo António (acting)   (b. 1660 - d. 1733)
1705 - 1706                Lourenço Lopes (interim) 
1706 - 1708                Manuel
Guerreiro de Almeida (acting)
1708 - 1710                Jácome de Morais Sarmento  
1710 - 1714                Manuel de Souto-Maior
1714 - 1715                Manuel Ferreira de Almeida
1715 - 1718                Domingos da Costa (interim)        (d. 1722)
1718 - 1719                Francisco de Melo e Castro
                             (abandoned post)
1719 - 1722                Frei Manuel de Santo António
                             (acting)
1722 - 1725                António de Albuquerque de Coelho   (b. 1682 - d. 1745)
1725 - 1729                António Moniz de Macedo (1st time)
1729 - 1731                Pedro de Mello                     (d. 1738)
1731 - 1734                Pedro de Rego Barreto da Gama 
                             e Castro
1734 - 1737                António Moniz de Macedo (2nd time)
1737
- 1739                Governing Junta  
                           - João Hornay

                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão        (d. 1762)
                             (1st time)  
                           (acting)
1739 - 1741
                Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo
                             Sarmento (1st time)

1741                       Manuel Leoniz de Castro
1741 - 1742                Frei Geraldo de S
ão José
1742 - 1746                Francisco Xavier Doutel            (d. 1748)
1746 - 1750                Manuel Correia de Lacerda          (b. 1679 - d. 1751)
1750 - 1751               
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão       
(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  
                           - João Hornay
                           (acting)
1751 - 1759                Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo
                             Sarmento (2nd time)
1759 - 1760                Padre Sebastião de Azevedo e Brito
1760 - 1762               
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão
       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
                           - Vicente Ferreira de Carvalho
                           - José, régulo de Alas             (d. 1762)     
                           (acting)
1762 - 1763                Frei Francisco da Purificacao
                           + Francisco Hornay
                           (acting)
1763 - 1765                Dionísio Gonçalves Galvão e Rebelo
(d. 1765)
1765 - 1768                
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei António de São Boaventura
                           - J
oão Rodrigues Pereira
                           (acting)
1768 - 1776                António José Teles de Meneses
1776 - 1779                Caetano de Lemos Teles de Meneses  (b. 1739 - d. 1795)
1779 - 1782                Lourenço de Brito Correia
1782 - 1785                Jos
é Anselmo de Almeida Soares
1785 - 1788                João Baptista Vieira Godinho       (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
1788 - 1790                Feliciano António Nogueira Lisboa
1790 - 1795                Joaquim Xavier de Morais Sarmento
1795 - 1800                João Baptista Vesquaim
1800 - 1804                José Joaquim de Sousa
1804 – 14 Apr 1807         João Vicente Soares da Veiga       (b. 1769 - d. 18..)
14 Apr 1807 – 14 Apr 1810  António de Mendonça Côrte-Real     (b. 1755 - d. 18..)
14 Apr 1810 – 1810         António Botelho Homem Bernardes    (b. 1749 - d. 18..)
                             Pessoa (acting)
1810 –  7 Mar 1812        
Governing Junta  
                           - Joaquim António Duarte da Silva  (b. c.1740 - d. 18..)
                               Veloso
                           - Frei José da Anunciação          (d. 1818)
                           - Gregório Rodrigues Pereira
                           (acting)
 7 Mar 1812 – 22 May 1815  Vitorino Freire da Cunha Gusmão    (b. 1757 - d. 18..)
22 May 1815 - 1819         José Pinto Alcoforado de Azevedo
                             e Sousa                          (d. 1819)
1819 – 13 Mar 1821        
Governing Junta  
                           - Gregório Rodrigues Pereira
                           - Frei Bartolomeu Pereira
                           - Ant
ónio Caetano Dinis
                           (acting)
13 Mar 1821 - 1832         Manuel Joaquim de Matos e Góis     (b. 1781 - d. 1832)
1832 – 16 Apr 1832         Governing Junta  
                           - Francisco Inácio de Seabra
                           - Frei Vicente Ferreira Varela  
                           - Jos
é Pereira de Azevedo    
                           (acting)
16 Apr 1832 - 1832         Miguel Carlos da Cunha da Silveira (d. 1832)
                             e Lorena
1832 –  3 Jun 1834         Governing Junta
                           - Francisco Inácio de Seabra 
                           - Frei Vicente Ferreira Varela
                           - José Pereira de Azevedo   
                           (acting)
 3 Jun 1834 – 22 Jan 1839  José Maria Marques
22 Jan 1839 –  7 Feb 1844  Frederico Leão Cabreira de Brito   (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
                             Alvelos Drago Valente
 7 Feb 1844 – 22 Aug 1848  Julião José da Silva Vieira        (b. 1893 - d. 1855)
22 Aug 1848 - 1850         António Olavo Monteiro Tôrres      (d. 1850)
1850 – 23 Jun 1851         G
overning Junta
                           - Gregorio Barreto
                           - Ant
ónio Pereira 
                           - Manuel Pereira da Costa
                           - Mariano F. Pias 
                           (acting)
23 Jun 1851 –  8 Sep 1852  José Joaquim Lopes de Lima         (b. c.1797 - d. 1852)
 8 Sep 1852 - 1856         Manuel de Saldanha da Gama         (b. 1820 - d. 1875)
1856 –  8 Sep 1858         Luís Augusto de Almeida Macedo
 8 Sep 1858 – 1861         Afonso de Castro (1st time)        (b. 1824 - d. 1885)
1861 – 1862                Duarte Leão Cabreira               (b. 1811 - d. 1881)
1862 – 11 Apr 1863         Afonso de Castro (2nd time)        (s.a.)
11 Apr 1863 - 1864         José Manuel Pereira de Almeida
1864 - 1865                José Eduardo da Costa Meneses
1865                       Government Council  
1865 - 1869                Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
1869 - 1870                António Joaquim Garcia             (b. 1835 - d. 1919)
1870                       Pedro Carlos de Aguiar Craveiro    (b. 1834 - d. ....) 
                             Lopes (did not take office)

1870 – 1871                João Clímaco de Carvalho (interim) (d. 1873)

1871 – 30 Aug 1873         Manuel de Castro Sampaio 
30 Aug 1873 –  1 Nov 1876  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo    (b. c.1830 - d. 18..) 
                             Branco (1st time)
 1 Nov 1876 – 1878         Joaquim António da Silva Ferrão
1878 –  3 Jul 1878         José Alves da Costa
 3 Jul 1878 –  1 Oct 1880  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo    (s.a.)
                             Branco (2nd time)
 1 Oct 1880 – 31 Dec 1881  Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho  (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
31 Dec 1881 – 1882         José dos Santos Vaquinas
1882 - 1883                Bento da França Pinto de Oliveira  (b. 1833 - d. 1889)
1883                       Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (1st time)
1883                       Francisco de Paula da Luz 
1883 - 1885                João Maria Pereira
1885                       Cipriano Forjaz (1st time)(interim)
1885 -  3 Mar 1887         Alfredo de Lacerda Maia            (b. 1850 - d. 1887)
1887                       António Joaquim Garcia (interim) 
1887                       Adriano Augusto de Barros e Rego   (b. 1877 - d. 1966) 
                             (interim)
1887 - 1888                António Francisco da Costa         (d. 1924)
1888 - 1889                Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
1889 - 1890                Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (2nd time)
1890 - 1894                Cipriano Forjaz (2nd time)(interim)
1894                       Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (3rd time)
1894 - 1908                José Celestino da Silva            (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
1895 - 1912                Boaventura of Manufai
                             (in rebellion)
1908                       Jaime Augusto Vieira da Rocha      (b. c.1880 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
1908 - 1909                Eduardo Augusto Marques            (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
1909 - 1910                Gonçalo Pereira Pimenta de Castro  (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time)
1910 - 30 Nov 1910         Alfredo Cardoso de Soveral Martins (b. 1869 -  d. 1938)
1910                       Anselmo Augusto Coelho de Carvalho
                             (interim)
1910 - 1911                José Carrazedo de Sousa das
                             Viana e Andrade (interim)
1911 - 1913                Filomeno da Cámara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
                             (1st time)
1913 - 1914                Gonçalo Pereira Pimenta de Castro  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (interim)
1914 - 1917                Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1917                       José Machado Duarte Júnior (interim)
1917                       César Augusto da Rocha Abreu
                             (interim)

1917 - 1919                Luís Augusto de Oliveira Franco
                             (1st time)(
interim)
1919 – 1919                Manuel José de Meneses Fernandes
                             Costa (1st time)(
interim)     
1919 - 1920                Manuel Paulo de Sousa Gentil       (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
1920 - 1921                Luís Augusto de Oliveira Franco
                             (2nd time)(interim)
1921                       José de Paiva Gomes (1st time)
1921                       Manuel José de Meneses Fernandes
                             Costa (2nd time)(
interim)     
1921                       Humberto José dos Santos Leitão    (b. 1885 - d. 1974)
                            
(1st time)(interim)
1921 - 1923                José de Paiva Gomes (2nd time)
1923 - 1924                Humberto José dos Santos Leitão    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
(interim)
1924 – Jul 1926            Raimundo Enes Meira                (b. 1866 - d. 1937)
Jul 1926 – 30 Sep 1926     Eduardo Rodrigues Areosa Feio      (b. 1887 - d. 19..)
                             (president of Governing Council) 
30 Sep 1926 - 1928         Teófilo Duarte                     (b. 1898 - d. 1958)
1928 – 1929                Abel Teixeira da Costa Tavares
                             (1st time)(acting)   
1929 - 1930                Cesário Augusto de Almeida Viana
1930                       Abel Teixeira da Costa Tavares
                             (2nd time)(acting)
1930 - 1933                Antonio Baptista Justo
1933                       Miguel Xavier dos Mártires Dias
1933 – 1934                José Luís Fontoura de Sequeira     (b. c.1905)
                             (acting)
1934 - 1936                Raúl d'Antas Manso Preto Mendes    (b. 1893 - d. 1944)
                             Cruz
1936 – 1937                Eduardo Bernardo Lápido Loureiro
                             (acting)
1937 - 1940                Álvaro Eug
énio Neves de Fontoura   (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
1940                       António Jacinto Magro (interim)
1940 -  8 Dec 1945         Manuel de Abreu Ferreira de        (b. 1893 - d. af.1956)
                             Carvalho 
                            (considered himself a prisoner during allied rule
                             Dec 1941-Feb 1942; confined by Japanese Feb 1942-1945)
Allied Commanders
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  William Watt Leggatt               (b. 1894 - d. 1968) 
                             (commander of Australian forces)
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  Nico Leonard Willem van Straten    (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
                             (commander of Dutch forces)
Japanese Commanders
20 Feb 1942 - Sep 1942     Sadashichi Doi                     (b. 1889 - d. 1960)
Sep 1942 - 22 Nov 1944     Yuitsu Tsuchihashi                 (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
22 Nov 1944 - 12 Sep 1945  Kunitaro Yamada
Governors
 8 Dec 1945 - 1950         Óscar Freire de Vasconcelos Ruas
1950                       Ant
ónio da Cunha Aragão (acting)
1950                       Arnaldo Dionísio Carneiro de Sousa
                             e Meneses
31 Dec 1950 - 14 Jul 1958  César Maria de Serpa Rosa          (b. 1899 - d. 1968)
14 Jul 1958 - 22 Jun 1959
  Manuel Albuquerque Gonçalves de
                             Aguiar (acting)

22 Jun 1959 - Apr 1963     Filipe José Freire Temudo Barata   (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
 9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961     Maoclão (in rebellion)
Apr 1963 - 1963            Francisco Antonio Pires Barata
                             (acting)    
1963 - 1968                José Alberty Correia
1968 - 1972                José Nogueira Valente Pires        (b. 1914 - d. 2010)
1972 - 15 Jul 1974         Fernando Alves Aldeia
15 Jul 1974 – 14 Nov 1974  Nívio Herdade (acting)
14
Nov 1974 - 27 Nov 1975  Mário Lemos Pires                  (b. 1930 - d. 2009) 
                             (from 11 Aug 1975, on Atauro Island)
Presidents
(from 7 Dec 1975 in rebellion against Indonesian rule)

28 Nov 1975 - Sep 1978     Francisco Xavier do Amaral         (b. 1937 - d. 2012)  FRETILIN
Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1978     Nicolau dos Reis Lobato (interim)  (b. 1952 - d. 1978)  FRETILIN
President of the Provisional Government
17 Dec 1975 - 17 Jul 1976  Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (b. 1913 - d. 1988)  APODETI
Governors
1976 - 1978                Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (s.a.) 
1978 - 1982                Guilherme Maria Gonçalves          (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
18 Sep 1982 - 18 Sep 1992  Mário Viegas Carrascalão           (b. 1937)
18 Sep 1992 - 25 Oct 1999  Abilio José Osório Soares          (b. 1947 - d. 2007)
UN Administrators
25 Oct 1999 - 16 Nov 1999  Ian Martin (U.K.) (acting)         (b. 1946)
17 Nov 1999 - 19 May 2002  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
Presidents
20 May 2002 - 20 May 2007  Xanana Gusmão                      (b. 1946)            Non-party
                             (José Alexandre Gusmão)
20 May 2007 - 20 May 2012  José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (b. 1949)            Non-party
11 Feb 2008 - 13 Feb 2008 
Vicente da Silva Guterres          (b. 1955)            UDC/CNRT
                             (acting for 
incapacitated Ramos-Horta)
13 Feb 2008 - 17 Apr 2008 
Fernando "La Sama" de Araújo       (b. 1963)            PD
                             (acting for incapacitated Ramos-Horta)
20 May 2012 -              Taur Matan Ruak                    (b. 1956)            Non-party
                             (Jose Maria Vasconcelos)      


Prime minister

28 Nov 1975 -  7 Dec 1975  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
Chief minister
20 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002  Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri            (b. 1949)            FRETILIN
Prime ministers
20 May 2002 - 26 Jun 2006  Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
26 Jun 2006 - 19 May 2007  José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting as cabinet coordinator to 10 Jul 2006)
19 May 2007 -  8 Aug 2007  Estanislau da Conceição
da Silva   (b. 1952)            FRETILIN
 8 Aug 2007 -              Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               CNRT



Democratic Republic of East Timor (in rebellion)

[East Timor flag]

Presidents of National Council of Maubere Resistance (CNRM) 
 1 Jan 1988 - 27 Apr 1998  Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (Indonesian prisoner 20 Nov 1992 - Feb 1999)
Presidents of National Council for Timorese Resistance (CNRT) 

27 Apr 1998 -  9 Jun 2001  Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               Non-party
Nov 1992 -  7 Sep 1999     José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (special representative to 27 Apr 1998,
                             then vice-president)
                            (in Australia and U.S. exile to 1 Dec 1999)

Commanders-in-Chief of FALINTIL
20 Aug 1975 - 31 Dec 1978  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
Mar 1981 - 20 Apr 1992     Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)        FRETILIN/Non-party
                             (from 20 Nov 1992 Indonesian prisoner)
Nov 1992 - Apr 1993        Manecas Ma'Huno                                         Non-party
Apr 1993 - 11 Mar 1998     Nino Konis Santana                 (b. 1959 - d. 1998)  Non-party
11 Mar 1998 - 31 Jan 2001  Taur Matan Ruak                    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (Jose Maria Vasconcelos)
 

INTERFET (East Timor,
                1999-2001)

Commander of International Force in East Timor (INTERFET)
20 Sep 1999 - 28 Feb 2000  Peter Cosgrave (Australia)         (b. 1947)
Commanders of United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
28 Feb 2000 - Jul 2000     Jaime de los Santos (Philippines)  (b. 1946)
19 Jul 2000 - 31 Aug 2001  Boonsrang Niumpradit (Thailand)    (b. 1948)
 1 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002  Winai Phattiyakul (Thailand)       (b. 1948)
Commanders UN Mission of Support to East Timor (UNMISET)
20 May 2002 - Aug 2002     Winai Phattiyakul (Thailand)       (s.a.)
Aug 2002 - Aug 2003        Huck Gim Tan (Singapore)           (b. 1955)
Aug 2003 - 20 May 2005     Khairuddin Mat Yusof (Malaysia)    (b. 1949)
Commanders of International Stabilisation Force in East Timor (ISF)
(all are from Australia)

25 May 2006 - 26 Oct 2006  Michael "Mick" Slater 
26 Oct 2006 -  1 Aug 2007  Mal Rerden                         (b. 1958)
 1 Aug 2007 - 30 Jan 2008  John M.B. Hutcheson                (b. 1963)
31 Jan 2008 - 30 Jul 2008  James Baker
30 Jul 2008 - 16 Jan 2009  Mark Holmes
16 Jan 2009 - 23 Oct 2009  W.T.B. "Bill" Sowry
23 Oct 2009 - 25 Feb 2010  Stuart C. Mayer
25 Feb 2010 -  9 Oct 2010  Simon Stuart                       (b. 1968)
 9 Oct 2010 - 27 Jun 2011  Michael "Mick" Reilly 
27 Jun 2011 - 26 Sep 2012  Luke Foster
26 Sep 2012 - 27 Mar 2013  Mick Sasse 

 
 
[FRETILIN -
                            Frente Revolucionária do Timor Leste
                            Independente flag]
           FRETILIN flag
[FALINTIL
                            -Forças Armadas de Libertação Nacional de
                            Timor Leste flag]
           FALINTIL flag 
[CNRT -
                            Conselho Nacional para a de Resistência
                            Timorese flag]
              CNRT flag

Territorial Disputes: Three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Economic Exclusion Zone boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; many refugees who left Timor-Leste in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; in 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste signed a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing agreement in lieu of a maritime boundary.

Party abbreviations: APODETI = Associação Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democratic Association, pro-integration with Indonesia, est.1974); CNRT = Congresso Nacional da Reconstrução de Timor (National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction, reformist, est.28 Mar 2007); FRETILIN = Frente Revolucionária do Timor-Leste Independente (Revolutionary Front of  Independent East Timor, social-democratic, nationalist, est.1974); PD = Partido Democrático (Democratic Party, center-left, est.2000); UDT = União Democrática Timorense (Timorese Democratic Union, conservative, est.1974); 
- Former parties: CNRT = Conselho Nacional para a de Resistência Timorese (National Council for Timorese Resistance, multi-party platform of the Timorese resistance, 1 Jan 1988 - 9 Jun 2001); FALINTIL = Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (Armed Forces for the National Liberation of East Timor, military arm of the FRETILIN. When CNRT est., FALINTIL is declared the non-partisan military branch, 20 Aug 1975 - 1 Feb 2001)


© Ben Cahoon