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Timor-Leste (East Timor)
 
[Portugal]
                 to 28 Nov 1975
 
[Portuguese Timor 1967 proposal
                                    colonial flag]
            1967 Proposed colonial flag 
 
[United Republic of Timor flag
                                    1961]
     9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961 (in rebellion)
 
[East
                                    Timor flag 1975, 1999-2002]
            28 Nov 1975 - 7 Dec 1975;
     25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002 unofficial
 
[National
                                    flag of Indonesia]
            7 Dec 1975 - 19 Oct 1999
 
 
[Timor-Timur (Indonesia
                                    Province) flag c.1976-1999]
   Timor Timur Province flag c.1976-1999
 
 
[Flag of
                                    UNO]
           25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002
 
[East Timor
                                    Flag]
                     Adopted 20 May 2002

Map of East Timor Hear National Anthem
 "Pátria" (Fatherland)
Text of National Anthem
 28 Nov - 7  Dec 1975,
Re-adopted 20 May 2002
Constitution
(22 Mar 2002)
Capital: Díli
(Lifau 1653-10 Oct 1769;
Cupão 1646-1653;
Larantuca 1613-1646;

Solor 1571-1613)
Currency: US Dollar (USD);
1975-1999 Indonesia Rupee
 (IDR); 1959-1975 Timor
Escudo (TPE);
1895-1959
 Timor Pataca (TPP)
National Holiday: 28 Nov (1975)
Independence Day
Population: 1,172,390 (2013)
GDP: $25.41 billion (2013)
Exports: $34.1 million (2011)
Imports: $689 million (2011)
Ethnic groups: East Timorese 80%, other (mainly Malayo-
Polynesian, Indonesian, and Papuan)
20%, small Chinese minority (1999)
Total Armed Forces: 1,332 (2010)
Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 96.9%, Protestant/Evangelical 2.2%,
Muslim 0.3%, other 0.6% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APM, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, CTBT (signatory), CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ITU, KP, LU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OPCW, PIF (special observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
East Timor
Chronology
c.1511                     Arrival of the first Portuguese traders.
25 Jan 1522                Timor visited by ships of Portuguese Capt Ferdinand
                             Magellan's fleet sailing for Spain.
1556                       Dominican friars establish the first Portuguese
                             settlement, at Lifao (Lifau).
1571                       Portuguese settlement on Solor Island.
18 Apr 1613 - 1615         Solor Island occupied by the Dutch.
1618 - 1629                Solor occupied by the Dutch.
1636                       Solor annexed by the Dutch.
1642                       Portuguese conquer the kingdom of Waiwiku-Wehale.
Apr 1652                   Dutch seize Cupão (Kupang) which is renamed
                             Fort Concordia.
 6 Aug 1661                Portugal and Netherlands agree to divide Timor
                             between them, into Dutch West Timor (part of 
                             Dutch East Indies and later Indonesia) and
                             Portuguese East Timor.
1665                       Islands of Timor, Solor, Flores and other Lesser
                             Eastern Sundas Islands, and its Dependencies
                       (Ilhas de Timor, Solor, Flores e outras Sondas
                        Menores ou Orientais, e suas dependências).
1665 - 1844                Portuguese possessions subordinated to Portuguese
                             India (see Goa).
1695                       Islands of Timor, Solor, Flores & its Dependencies
                           (Ilhas de Timor, Solor, Flores e suas dependências)
1812 - 1816                British occupy Dutch Timor (but not East Timor).
20 Sep 1844 - 30 Oct 1850  Subordinated to Macau (Solor e Timor).
30 Oct 1850 - 15 Sep 1851  Separate colony.
15 Sep 1851 - 23 Sep 1856  Subordinated to Macau.
23 Sep 1856 - 17 Sep 1863  Subordinated to Portuguese India.
20 Apr 1859                Netherlands and Portugal agree on border 
                             delimitation. Portugal cedes claims to islands
                             of Flores, Solor, Pantar and Alor and it
                             recognizes Dutch claim to Maucatar enclave (to
                             Portugal in 1904); Dutch cede Maubara to Portugal
                             and recognizes Portuguese claims to enclaves
                             of Oecussi-Ambeno (and Noimuti to Dutch in 1904).
17 Sep 1863 - 26 Nov 1866  Separate colony.
26 Nov 1866 - 15 Oct 1896  Subordinated to Macau. 
1895 - 1912                Revolt led by Dom Boaventura ruler of Manufai.
15 Oct 1896                Timor a separate autonomous district.
  9 Dec 1909                Timor province.
25 Jun 1914                Final international arbitration of enclave and
                             boundary disputes. 
19 Nov 1927                Timor autonomous district.
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  Occupied by Australian and Dutch forces.
20 Feb 1942 - 11 Sep 1945  Occupied by Japan.
11 Jun 1951                Status changed to overseas province (Timor).
 9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961     United Republic of Timor proclaimed in Batugad,
                             sponsored by Indonesia.
11 Aug 1975 - 24 Sep 1975  Armed internal conflict between UDT and FRETILIN.
28 Nov 1975                Unilateral declaration of independence by FRETILIN
                             (Democratic Republic of East Timor).
 7-29 Dec 1975             Occupied by Indonesia (from 17 Dec 1975, renamed
                             Timor Timur [East Timor]).
17 Jul 1976                Annexed by Indonesia (Timor Timur province).
                            (not recognized by Portugal; remained recognized
                             by United Nations as Portuguese territory).
30 Aug 1999                Referendum votes for independence 78%.
19 Oct 1999                Annexation rescinded by Indonesia.
25 Oct 1999 - 19 May 2002  International administration (from 28 Feb 2000,
                             under United Nations administration; UN 
                             Transitional Admin. in East Timor [UNTAET]).
20 May 2002                Independence (Democratic Republic of East Timor).
 6 Aug 2003                Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (date of
                             communication to the United Nations that
                             Portuguese name is to be left untranslated).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Captains
1571 - 15..                Aires de Saldanha
1586 – 1590                Ant
ónio Viegas
1591                       Gaspar da Silva 
1595 – 1600                Ant
ónio de Andria       
1601 – 1603                Jerônimo Correia da Silva   
1604 - 1605                Sebastião Pinheiro de Abreu
1605                       João André Feio
1611 – 1613                Manuel Alvares 
1617 - 1618                Agostinho Lobato de Abreu 
1618 - 1619                Ant
ónio de Sá
1619                       Gonçalo Proença
1629                       Nuno Álvares Botelho
1632                       Francisco Pereira da Cunha 
1632 – 1634                Estácio Pereira 
1634 – 1642                Francisco Fernandes
1642 – 1645                Ant
ónio Carneiro de Sequeira  
1646 – 1647                João Calaça Tenreiro
1647 - 1649                António de São Jacinto
                             (in Cupão)
1649 - 1652                Francisco Carneiro de Sequeira  
                             (in Cupão)
1652 - 1665                Simão Luís                         (d. 1665)
Captains-major
1665                       Simão Luís                         (s.a.) 
1666 - 1669                António da Hornay (1st time)       (d. 1693)
                             (acting)
1669 - 1670                Fernão Martins da Ponte (acting)
1671 - 1673                Mateus da Costa (acting)           (d. 1673)
1673                       Manuel da Costa Vieira (acting)
1673 - 1693                António da Hornay (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                             (acting)
1680                       João Antunes Portugal
                             (refused by locals)
1693 - 1694                António de Madre de Deus (acting)
1694 - 1696                Francisco da Hornay
1696 - 1697                António de Mesquita Pimentel
1697                       André Coelho Vieira
                             (did not take office)
1697 - 1702                Domingos da Costa (acting)
Governors
20 Feb 1702 - 1704         António Coelho Guerreiro           (b. c.1650 - d. 17..) 
1704 - 1705                Pascoal de Mesquita Pimetal (acting)
1705                       Manuel de Santo António (acting)   (b. 1660 - d. 1733)
1705 - 1706                Lourenço Lopes (interim) 
1706 - 1708                Manuel
Guerreiro de Almeida (acting)
1708 - 1710                Jácome de Morais Sarmento  
1710 - 1714                Manuel de Souto-Maior
1714 - 1715                Manuel Ferreira de Almeida
1715 - 1718                Domingos da Costa (interim)        (d. 1722)
1718 - 1719                Francisco de Melo e Castro
                             (abandoned post)
1719 - 1722                Frei Manuel de Santo António
                             (acting)
1722 - 1725                António de Albuquerque de Coelho   (b. 1682 - d. 1745)
1725 - 1729                António Moniz de Macedo (1st time)
1729 - 1731                Pedro de Mello                     (d. 1738)
1731 - 1734                Pedro de Rego Barreto da Gama 
                             e Castro
1734 - 1737                António Moniz de Macedo (2nd time)
1737
- 1739                Governing Junta  
                           - João Hornay

                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão        (d. 1762)
                             (1st time)  
                           (acting)
1739 - 1741
                Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo
                             Sarmento (1st time)

1741                       Manuel Leoniz de Castro
1741 - 1742                Frei Geraldo de S
ão José
1742 - 1746                Francisco Xavier Doutel            (d. 1748)
1746 - 1750                Manuel Correia de Lacerda          (b. 1679 - d. 1751)
1750 - 1751               
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão       
(s.a.)
                             (2nd time)  
                           - João Hornay
                           (acting)
1751 - 1756                Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo
                             Sarmento (2nd time)
1756 - 1759                Vicente Ferreira de Carvalho
1759 - 1760                Padre Sebastião de Azevedo e Brito
1760 - 1762               
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei Jacinto da Conceicão
       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
                           - Vicente Ferreira de Carvalho
                           - José, régulo de Alas             (d. 1762)     
                           (acting)
1762 - 1763                Frei Francisco da Purificacao
                           + Francisco Hornay
                           (acting)
1763 - 1765                Dionísio Gonçalves Galvão e Rebelo
(d. 1765)
1765 - 1768                
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei António de São Boaventura
                           - J
oão Rodrigues Pereira
                           (acting)
1768 - 1776                António José Teles de Meneses
1776 - 1779                Caetano de Lemos Teles de Meneses  (b. 1739 - d. 1795)
1779 - 1782                Lourenço de Brito Correia
1782 - 1785                Jos
é Anselmo de Almeida Soares
1785 - 1788                João Baptista Vieira Godinho       (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
1788 - 1790                Feliciano António Nogueira Lisboa
1790 - 1795                Joaquim Xavier de Morais Sarmento
1795 - 1800                João Baptista Vesquaim
1800 - 1804                José Joaquim de Sousa
1804 – 14 Apr 1807         João Vicente Soares da Veiga       (b. 1769 - d. 18..)
14 Apr 1807 – 14 Apr 1810  António de Mendonça Côrte-Real     (b. 1755 - d. 1810)
14 Apr 1810 – 1810         António Botelho Homem Bernardes    (b. 1749 - d. 18..)
                             Pessoa (acting)
1810 –  7 Mar 1812        
Governing Junta  
                           - Frei José da Anunciação          (d. 1818)
                           - Gregório Rodrigues Pereira
                           - Joaquim António Duarte da Silva  (b. c.1740 - d. 18..)
                               Veloso
                           (acting)

 7 Mar 1812 – 22 May 1815  Vitorino Freire da Cunha Gusmão    (b. 1757 - d. 18..)
22 May 1815 - 13 Nov 1819  José Pinto Alcoforado de Azevedo
                             e Sousa                          (d. 1819)
13 Nov 1819 – 13 Mar 1821 
Governing Junta  
                           - Gregório Rodrigues Pereira
                           - Frei Bartolomeu Pereira
                           - Ant
ónio Caetano Dinis
                           (acting)
13 Mar 1821 - 14 Apr 1832  Manuel Joaquim de Matos e Góis     (b. 1781 - d. 1832)
14 Apr 1832 – 16 Apr 1832  Governing Junta  
                           - Frei Vicente Ferreira Varela  
                           - Jos
é Pereira de Azevedo    
                           - Francisco Inácio de Seabra
                           (acting)

16 Apr 1832 - 26 May 1832  Miguel Carlos da Cunha da Silveira (d. 1832)
                             e Lorena
26 May 1832 –  3 Jun 1834  Governing Junta
                           - Frei Vicente Ferreira Varela
                           - José Pereira de Azevedo   
                           - Francisco Inácio de Seabra 
                           (acting)

 3 Jun 1834 – 22 Jan 1839  José Maria Marques
22 Jan 1839 –  7 Feb 1844  Frederico Leão Cabreira de Brito   (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
                             e Alvelos Drago Valente
 7 Feb 1844 – 22 Aug 1848  Julião José da Silva Vieira        (b. 1793 - d. 1855)
22 Aug 1848 - 24 Mar 1851  António Olavo Monteiro Tôrres      (d. 1851)
24 Mar 1851 – 23 Jun 1851  G
overning Junta
                           - Gregorio Barreto
                           - Ant
ónio Pereira 
                           - Manuel Pereira da Costa
                           - Mariano F. Pias 
                           (acting)
23 Jun 1851 –  8 Sep 1852  José Joaquim Lopes de Lima         (b. c.1797 - d. 1852)
 8 Sep 1852 - 1856         Manuel de Saldanha da Gama         (b. 1820 - d. 1875)
1856 –  8 Sep 1858         Luís Augusto de Almeida Macedo
 8 Sep 1858 – 1861         Afonso de Castro (1st time)        (b. 1824 - d. 1885)
1861 – 1862                Duarte Leão Cabreira (acting)      (b. 1811 - d. 1881)
1862 – 11 Apr 1863         Afonso de Castro (2nd time)        (s.a.)
11 Apr 1863 -  8 Apr 1864  José Manuel Pereira de Almeida
1864 - 1865                José Eduardo da Costa Meneses
1865                       Government Council  
12 Sep 1865 - 24 Apr 1869  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
24 Apr 1869 - 23 Aug 1870  António Joaquim Garcia             (b. 1835 - d. 1919)
1870                       Pedro Carlos de Aguiar Craveiro    (b. 1834 - d. ....) 
                             Lopes (did not take office)

23 Aug 1870 – 1871         João Clímaco de Carvalho (interim) (b. 1856 - d. 1873)

1871 – 30 Aug 1873         Manuel de Castro Sampaio 
30 Aug 1873 –  7 Nov 1876  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo    (b. c.1830 - d. 18..) 
                             Branco (1st time)
 7 Nov 1876 – 18 Jan 1878  Joaquim António da Silva Ferrão    (d. 1878)
1878 –  3 Jul 1878         José Alves da Costa (acting)
 3 Jul 1878 –  1 Sep 1880  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo    (s.a.)
                             Branco (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1880 – 30 Dec 1881  Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho  (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
30 Dec 1881 – 1882         José dos Santos Vaquinhas (interim)
 3 Mar 1882 - 1883         Bento da França Pinto de Oliveira  (b. 1833 - d. 1889)
1883                       Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (1st time) (interim)
1883                       Francisco de Paula da Cruz (interim) 
 4 Mar 1883 -  3 Jun 1885  João Maria Pereira
1885                       Cipriano Forjaz (1st time)(interim)
26 Sep 1885 -  3 Mar 1887  Alfredo de Lacerda Maia            (b. 1850 - d. 1887)
1887                       Adriano Augusto de Barros e Rego   (b. 1877 - d. 1966) 
                             (interim)
1887                       António Joaquim Garcia (interim)  
 1 Aug 1887 - 1888         António Francisco da Costa         (d. 1924)
 4 Oct 1888 -  4 Mar 1890  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
1890 - 1891                Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (2nd time) (interim)
 5 Feb 1891 - 19 Apr 1894  Cipriano Forjaz (2nd time)
1894                       Porfírio Zeferino de Sousa 
                             (3rd time) (interim)
11 May 1894 - 16 Jun 1908  José Celestino da Silva            (b. 1849 - d. 1911)
1895 - 1912                Boaventura of Manufai
                             (in rebellion)
16 Jun 1908 - 30 Aug 1908  Jaime Augusto Vieira da Rocha      (b. c.1880 - d. 19..)
                             (acting)
30 Aug 1908 - 27 Aug 1909  Eduardo Augusto Marques            (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
27 Aug 1909 - 25 Feb 1910  Gonçalo Pereira Pimenta de Castro  (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
                             (1st time) (interim)
25 Feb 1910 - 26 Nov 1910  Alfredo Cardoso de Soveral Martins (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
26 Nov 1910 - 13 Dec 1910  Anselmo Augusto Coelho de Carvalho
                             (acting)
13 Dec 1910 - 22 Jan 1911  José Carrazedo de Sousa das
                             Viana e Andrade
22 Jan 1911 - 18 Aug 1913  Filomeno da Cámara de Melo Cabral  (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
                             (1st time)
18 Aug 1913 - 22 Jan 1914  Gonçalo Pereira Pimenta de Castro  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (interim)
22 Jan 1914 - 14 Feb 1914  António Baptista Justo (1st time)
                             (acting)
15 Feb 1914 - 28 Sep 1917  Filomeno da Câmara de Melo Cabral  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
28 Sep 1917 - 29 Oct 1917  César Augusto Rocha de Abreu
                             Castelo Branco (interim)

29 Oct 1917 - 18 Mar 1918  José Machado Duarte Júnior
                             (interim)
18 Mar 1918 -  1 Apr 1919  Luís Augusto de Oliveira Franco
                             (1st time) (
interim)
 1 Apr 1919 – 11 Oct 1919  Manuel José de Meneses Fernandes
                             Costa (1st time)(
acting)     
11 Oct 1919 - 14 Feb 1920  Manuel Paulo de Sousa Gentil       (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
14 Feb 1920 - 11 Jun 1921  Luís Augusto de Oliveira Franco
                             (2nd time) (acting)
11 Jun 1921 -  7 Jul 1921 
Manuel José de Meneses Fernandes
                             Costa (2nd time) (acting)
 7 Jul 1921 - 11 Jul 1921  José de Paiva Gomes (1st time)
                             (acting)
11 Jul 1921 -  9 Nov 1921  Manuel José de Meneses Fernandes
                             Costa (3rd time)(
acting)
 9 Nov 1921 - 14 Nov 1921  Humberto José dos Santos Leitão    (b. 1885 - d. 1974)
                            
(1st time) (acting)
14 Nov 1921 - 27 Apr 1923  José de Paiva Gomes (2nd time)
27 Apr 1923 - 16 Oct 1924  Humberto José dos Santos Leitão    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
(acting)
16 Oct 1924 –  1 Jul 1926  Raimundo Enes Meira                (b. 1866 - d. 1937)
 1 Jul 1926 – 30 Sep 1926  Eduardo Rodrigues Areosa Feio      (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
                             (acting) 
30 Sep 1926 - 22 Dec 1928  Teófilo Duarte                     (b. 1898 - d. 1958)
22 Dec 1928 – 12 Apr 1929  Abel Teixeira da Costa Tavares
                             (1st time) (acting)   
12 Apr 1929 -  2 Nov 1930  Cesário Augusto de Almeida Viana
 2 Nov 1930 -  5 Dec 1930  Abel Teixeira da Costa Tavares
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 5 Dec 1930 - 23 Mar 1933  Antonio Baptista Justo (2nd time)
23 Mar 1933 - 14 Jun 1933  Miguel Xavier dos Mártires Dias
                             (acting)
14 Jun 1933 –  1 Jan 1934  José Luís Fontoura de Sequeira     (b. c.1905 - d. ....)
                             (acting)
 1 Jan 1934 -  3 Jul 1936  Raúl d'Antas Manso Preto Mendes    (b. 1893 - d. 1944)
                             Cruz
 3 Jul 1936 – 11 Sep 1937  Eduardo Bernardo Lápido Loureiro   (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
                             (acting)
11 Sep 1937 - 10 May 1940  Álvaro Eug
énio Neves de Fontoura   (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
30 Mar 1939 - 10 May 1940  António Jacinto Magro (acting)     (b. 1899 - d. 1970)
10 May 1940 -  7 Dec 1945  Manuel de Abreu Ferreira de        (b. 1893 - d. 1968)
                             Carvalho 
                            (considered himself a prisoner during allied rule
                             Dec 1941-Feb 1942; confined by Japanese Feb 1942-1 Sep 1945)
Allied Commanders
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  William Watt Leggatt               (b. 1894 - d. 1968) 
                             (commander of Australian forces)
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  Nico Leonard Willem van Straten    (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
                             (commander of Dutch forces)
Commanders of the Japanese Occupation Forces
20 Feb 1941                Takeo Itō                          (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
                             (commander of Japanese landing forces)
20 Feb 1942 - Aug 1942     Doi
Sadashichi                     (b. 1889 - d. 1968)
Aug 1942 - 22 Nov 1944     Tsuchihashi Yuitsu                 (b. 1891 - d. 1975)
22 Nov 1944 - 11 Sep 1945  Yamada Kunitarō                    (b. 1894 - d. 1984)
Governors
 7 Dec 1945 -  8 Jun 1950  Óscar Freire de Vasconcelos Ruas   (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
 8 Jun 1950 - 13 Jun 1950  Ant
ónio da Cunha Aragão (acting)   (b. 1904 - d. 1974)
13 Jun 1950 - 31 Dec 1950  Arnaldo Dionísio Carneiro de Sousa (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
                             e Meneses (acting)
31 Dec 1950 - 14 Jul 1958  César Maria de Serpa Rosa          (b. 1899 - d. 1968)
14 Jul 1958 - 20 Jun 1959
  Manuel Albuquerque Gonçalves de    (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
                             Aguiar (acting)

22 Jun 1959 -  3 Apr 1963  Filipe José Freire Temudo Barata   (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
 9 Apr 1961 - Apr 1961     Maoclão (in rebellion)
 3 Apr 1963 - 12 Jun 1963  Francisco Antonio Pires Barata     (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
                             (acting)    
12 Jun 1963 - 27 May 1967  José Alberty Correia               (b. 1917 - d. 2011)
27 May 1967 -  6 Feb 1968  Manuel Fernandes (acting)
 
6 Feb 1968 - 23 Sep 1971  José Nogueira Valente Pires        (b. 1914 - d. 2010)
23 Sep 1971 - 15 Jul 1974  Fernando Alves Aldeia              (b. 1925 - d. 1993)
                            
(acting to 26 Feb 1972)
15 Jul 1974 – 18 Nov 1974  Nívio Jos
é Ramos Herdade (acting)  (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
18
Nov 1974 - 27 Nov 1975  Mário Lemos Pires                  (b. 1930 - d. 2009) 
                             (moves to Atauro Island from 11 Aug 1975)
Presidents
(from 7 Dec 1975 in rebellion against Indonesian rule)

28 Nov 1975 - 29 Sep 1978  Francisco Xavier do Amaral         (b. 1937 - d. 2012)  FRETILIN
29 Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato (interim)  (b. 1952 - d. 1978)  FRETILIN
President of the Provisional Government
17 Dec 1975 - 17 Jul 1976  Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (b. 1913 - d. 1988)  APODETI
Governors
1976 - 1978                Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (s.a.) 
1978 - 1982                Guilherme Maria Gonçalves          (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
18 Sep 1982 - 18 Sep 1992  Mário Viegas Carrascalão           (b. 1937)
18 Sep 1992 - 25 Oct 1999  Abílio José Osório Soares          (b. 1947 - d. 2007)
UN Administrators
25 Oct 1999 - 16 Nov 1999  Ian Martin (U.K.) (acting)         (b. 1946)
17 Nov 1999 - 19 May 2002  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
Presidents
20 May 2002 - 20 May 2007  Xanana Gusmão                      (b. 1946)            Non-party
                             (= José Alexandre Gusmão)
20 May 2007 - 20 May 2012  José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (b. 1949)            Non-party
11 Feb 2008 - 13 Feb 2008 
Vicente da Silva Guterres          (b. 1955)            UDC/CNRT
                             (acting for 
incapacitated Ramos-Horta)
13 Feb 2008 - 17 Apr 2008 
Fernando "La Sama" de Araújo       (b. 1963 - d. 2015)  PD
                             (acting for incapacitated Ramos-Horta)
20 May 2012 -              Taur Matan Ruak                    (b. 1956)            Non-party
                             (= Jose Maria Vasconcelos)      


Prime minister

28 Nov 1975 -  7 Dec 1975  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
Chief minister
20 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002  Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri            (b. 1949)            FRETILIN
Prime ministers
20 May 2002 - 26 Jun 2006  Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
26 Jun 2006 - 19 May 2007  José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting as cabinet coordinator to 10 Jul 2006)
19 May 2007 -  8 Aug 2007  Estanislau da Conceição da Silva   (b. 1952)            FRETILIN
 8 Aug 2007 - 16 Feb 2015  Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               CNRT
16 Feb 2015 -              Rui Maria de Araújo                (b. 1964)            FRETILIN


Democratic Republic of East Timor (in rebellion)

[East Timor flag]

Presidents of National Council of Maubere Resistance (CNRM) 
 1 Jan 1988 - 27 Apr 1998  Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (Indonesian prisoner 20 Nov 1992 - Feb 1999)
Nov 1992 - 27 Apr 1998     José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (special representative, acting for
Gusmão)
Presidents of National Council for Timorese Resistance (CNRT) 

27 Apr 1998 -  9 Jun 2001  Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)               Non-party
27 Apr 1998 -  7 Sep 1999  José Manuel Ramos-Horta            (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (vice-president, acting for Gusmão)
                            (in Australia and U.S. exile to 1 Dec 1999)

Commanders-in-Chief of FALINTIL
20 Aug 1975 - 31 Dec 1978  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato            (s.a.)               FRETILIN
Mar 1981 - 20 Apr 1992     Xanana Gusmão                      (s.a.)        FRETILIN/Non-party
                             (from 20 Nov 1992 Indonesian prisoner)
Nov 1992 - Apr 1993        Manecas Ma'Huno                                         Non-party
Apr 1993 - 11 Mar 1998     Nino Konis Santana                 (b. 1959 - d. 1998)  Non-party
11 Mar 1998 - 31 Jan 2001  Taur Matan Ruak                    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (Jose Maria Vasconcelos)
 

INTERFET (East Timor,
                1999-2001)

Commander of International Force in East Timor (INTERFET)
20 Sep 1999 - 28 Feb 2000  Peter Cosgrave (Australia)         (b. 1947)
Commanders of United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
28 Feb 2000 - Jul 2000     Jaime de los Santos (Philippines)  (b. 1946)
19 Jul 2000 - 31 Aug 2001  Boonsrang Niumpradit (Thailand)    (b. 1948)
 1 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002  Winai Phattiyakul (Thailand)       (b. 1948)
Commanders UN Mission of Support to East Timor (UNMISET)
20 May 2002 - Aug 2002     Winai Phattiyakul (Thailand)       (s.a.)
Aug 2002 - Aug 2003        Huck Gim Tan (Singapore)           (b. 1955)
Aug 2003 - 20 May 2005     Khairuddin Mat Yusof (Malaysia)    (b. 1949)
Commanders of International Stabilisation Force in East Timor (ISF)
(all from Australia)

25 May 2006 - 26 Oct 2006  Michael "Mick" Slater 
26 Oct 2006 -  1 Aug 2007  Mal Rerden                         (b. 1958)
 1 Aug 2007 - 30 Jan 2008  John M.B. Hutcheson                (b. 1963)
31 Jan 2008 - 30 Jul 2008  James Baker
30 Jul 2008 - 16 Jan 2009  Mark Holmes
16 Jan 2009 - 23 Oct 2009  W.T.B. "Bill" Sowry
23 Oct 2009 - 25 Feb 2010  Stuart C. Mayer
25 Feb 2010 -  9 Oct 2010  Simon Stuart                       (b. 1968)
 9 Oct 2010 - 27 Jun 2011  Michael "Mick" Reilly 
27 Jun 2011 - 26 Sep 2012  Luke Foster
26 Sep 2012 - 27 Mar 2013  Mick Sasse 

 
 
[FRETILIN -
                            Frente Revolucionária do Timor Leste
                            Independente flag]
           FRETILIN flag
[FALINTIL
                            -Forças Armadas de Libertação Nacional de
                            Timor Leste flag]
           FALINTIL flag 
[CNRT -
                            Conselho Nacional para a de Resistência
                            Timorese flag]
              CNRT flag

Territorial Disputes: Three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Economic Exclusion Zone boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; many refugees who left Timor-Leste in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; in 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste signed a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing agreement in lieu of a maritime boundary.

Party abbreviations: APODETI = Associação Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democratic Association, pro-integration with Indonesia, est.1974); CNRT = Congresso Nacional da Reconstrução de Timor (National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction, reformist, est.28 Mar 2007); FRETILIN = Frente Revolucionária do Timor-Leste Independente (Revolutionary Front of  Independent East Timor, social-democratic, nationalist, est.1974); PD = Partido Democrático (Democratic Party, center-left, est.2000); UDT = União Democrática Timorense (Timorese Democratic Union, conservative, est.1974); 
- Former parties: CNRT = Conselho Nacional para a de Resistência Timorese (National Council for Timorese Resistance, multi-party platform of the Timorese resistance, 1 Jan 1988 - 9 Jun 2001); FALINTIL = Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste (Armed Forces for the National Liberation of East Timor, military arm of the FRETILIN. When CNRT est., FALINTIL is declared the non-partisan military branch, 20 Aug 1975 - 1 Feb 2001)


© Ben Cahoon