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Indonesia
 
[Netherlands East India Company
                                    (Vereenigde Oostindische
                                    Compagnie)]
           20 Mar 1602 - 1 Jan 1801
        Dutch East India Company Flag

[National
                                    flag of the Netherlands]
              1 Jan 1801 - 8 Mar 1942; 
            29 Sep 1945 - 27 Dec 1949
[Japan]
             8 Mar 1942 - 17 Aug 1945
   
 
[National
                                    flag of Indonesia]
               Adopted 17 Aug 1945


 Map of Indonesia  Hear National Anthem
 "Indonesia Raya"
 (Great Indonesia)
 Text of National Anthem
  Adopted 17 Aug 1945
Constitution
 (Aug 1945 - 5 Jul 1949;
from 5 Jul 1959)
Map of  Administrative
Divisions
Historical Netherlands
East Indies Map
Map of situation
on 1 Dec 1948
Provisional Constitution
(17 Aug 1950 - 5 Jul 1959;
in Indonesian)
Capital: Jakarta
(Djakarta 17 Aug 1945 - 1971;
republic: Yogyakarta
Jan 1946 - Aug 1950;

Batavia 1619 - 17 Aug 1945
and 1947 - Dec 1949;
 Fort Oranje 1610-1619)
Currency: Indonesian
Rupiah
(IDR); 1945-1950
Indonesia Guilder (IDG);
1817-1945 Netherlands East
 Indies Guilder (IDDG)l;
1941-44 Netherlands Indies Gumpyo Gulden (IDDJ)
National Holiday: 17 Aug (1945)
Independence Day
Population: 251,160,124 (2013)
GDP: $1.28 trillion (2013)
Exports: $178.9 billion (2013)
Imports: $178.6 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%,
Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%,
Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 302,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 1,340 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%,
 Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CICA (observer), CP, CTBT, CWC, D-8, DLU (special partner), EAS, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OECD (partner), OIC, OPCW, OPEC (suspended), PIF (partner), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Indonesia Index
Chronology
 5 Jun 1596                First Dutch arrival in the East Indies.
20 Mar 1602                Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische
                             Compagnie [VOC]) begins settlements.
1603 - Aug 1682            English settlement at Bantam (Banten) Bay.
19 Dec 1610                Netherlands East Indies (under Dutch East India 
                             Company rule).
28 May 1619                Jakarta mostly burned and remnants renamed 
                             Batavia.
 1 Jan 1801                Dutch colony, VOC is dissolved.
18 Feb 1811 - 18 Sep 1811  Organized the French colony of Indes-Orientales,
                             de jure from 7 Sep 1810.
18 Sep 1811 - 19 Aug 1816  British occupy Java and dependencies; Batavia
                             occupied on 9 Aug 1811, Samarang on 10 Sep 1811
                            (British East India Company rule).
19 Aug 1816                Netherlands East Indies (restored to the
                             Netherlands).
 8 Mar 1942 - 29 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation (Tarakan from 11 Jan 1942,
                             Balikpapan from 23 Jan 1942, Ambon 31 Jan, Bali
                             14 Feb, and Timor 23 Feb, Batavia from 5 Mar 
                             1942, from 19 Apr in Hollandia, Dutch surrender
                             8 Mar 1942). The occupied territories are divided
                             into three parts: Java under the 16th Army at
                             Jakarta; Sumatra under 25th Army at Bukittinggi;
                             and Dutch Borneo & Moluccas with all islands of
                             the east under the Navy at Makassar.
17 Aug 1945                Independence proclaimed (Republic of Indonesia).
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1946  Allied occupation (from 31 Aug 1945 on Sumatra; 
                             29 Sep 1945 Batavia and, Riau; 10 Oct 1945 in 
                             Medan; 24 Oct 1945 Palemabang, Padang).
 1 Jul 1946                Allies turn over all of Indonesia to the Dutch,
                             except Java and Sumatra, which they hand over 
                             29 Nov 1946.
20 Sep 1948                Netherlands East Indies renamed Indonesia.
 7 Aug 1949 -  4 Jun 1962  Islamic State of Indonesia declared in West Java.
27 Dec 1949                Independence of Republic of the United States of 
                             Indonesia, comprising the Republic of Indonesia
                            (covering parts of Java and Sumatra) and various
                             states and autonomous territories that had been
                             established since 1946.
17 Aug 1950                Dissolution of Republic of the United States of
                             Indonesia together with its remaining 
                             components other than the Republic of Indonesia
                             which then becomes the successor to the entire
                             state.
15 Feb 1958 - 25 Aug 1961  Provisional Government of the Republic of 
                             Indonesia declared in rebellion (consisting of
                             10 component states, incorporating the regions
                             under rebel control on Sumatra & Sulawesi). On
                             8 Feb 1960, United Republic of Indonesia
                             proclaimed. The head of rebel government
                             surrenders 25 Aug 1961.
24 Jun 1976 - 19 Oct 1999  Annexation of East Timor.
Provinces
(from 1945)
States
1946-1950
Princely States
Part 1 - Part 2
Bantam
(1603-1682)
 
Bencoolen

(1685-1825)
Netherlands
New Guinea

(1945-1963)
South Moluccas
(1950-1952)
South Moluccas
Govt in Exile
Spice Islands
(1522-1817)

Ambon
(1605-1817)

Banda Islands
(1810-1817)
Historical Maps
of Indonesia
 

Governors-general (of the Dutch East India Company to 1801)
19 Dec 1610 -  6 Nov 1614  Pieter Both                        (b. 1568 - d. 1615)
 6 Nov 1614 -  7 Dec 1615  Gerard Reynst                      (b. c.1568 - d. 1615)
19 Jun 1616 - 21 Mar 1619  Laurens Reael                      (b. 1583 - d. 1637)
30 Apr 1618 -  1 Feb 1623  Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1st time)    (b. 1587 - d. 1629)
 1 Feb 1623 - 30 Sep 1627  Pieter de Carpentier               (b. 1586 - d. 1659)
30 Sep 1627 - 21 Sep 1629  Jan Pieterszoon Coen (2nd time)    (s.a.)
25 Sep 1629 - 27 Sep 1632  Jacques Specx                      (b. 1585 - d. 1652)
27 Sep 1632 -  1 Jan 1636  Hendrik Brouwer                    (b. 1581 - d. 1643)
 1 Jan 1636 - 19 Apr 1645  Antonio van Diemen                 (b. 1593 - d. 1645)
19 Apr 1645 - 26 Apr 1650  Cornelis van der Lijn              (b. 1608 - d. 1679)
26 Apr 1650 - 19 May 1653  Carel Reyniersz                    (b. 1604 - d. 1653)
19 May 1653 -  4 Jan 1678  Joan Maetsuyker                    (b. 1606 - d. 1678)
 4 Jan 1678 - 25 Nov 1681  Rijcklof van Goens                 (b. 1619 - d. 1682)
25 Nov 1681 - 11 Jan 1684  Cornelis Speelman                  (b. 1628 - d. 1684)
11 Jan 1684 - 24 Nov 1691  Joannes Camphuys                   (b. 1634 - d. 1695)
24 Sep 1691 - 15 Aug 1704  Willem van Outhoorn                (b. 1635 - d. 1720)
15 Aug 1704 - 30 Oct 1709  Johan van Hoorn                    (b. 1653 - d. 1711)
30 Oct 1709 - 17 Nov 1713  Abraham van Riebeeck               (b. 1653 - d. 1713)
17 Nov 1713 - 12 Nov 1718  Christoffel van Swoll              (b. 1668 - d. 1718)
13 Nov 1718 -  8 Jul 1725  Henricus Zwaardecroon              (b. 1667 - d. 1728)
 8 Jul 1725 -  1 Jun 1729  Matthaeus de Haan                  (b. 1663 - d. 1729)
 1 Jun 1729 -  9 Oct 1731  Diederik Durven                    (b. 1676 - d. 1740)
28 May 1732 - 10 Mar 1735  Dirk van Cloon                     (b. 1684 - d. 1735)
11 Mar 1735 -  3 May 1737  Abraham Patras                     (b. 1671 - d. 1737)
 3 May 1737 -  6 Nov 1741  Adriaan Valckenier                 (b. 1695 - d. 1751)
 6 Nov 1741 - 28 May 1743  Johannes Thedens (acting)          (b. c.1680 - d. 1748)
28 May 1743 -  1 Nov 1750  Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff    (b. 1705 - d. 1750)
 1 Nov 1750 - 15 May 1761  Jacob Mossel (acting to 1752)      (b. 1704 - d. 1761)
15 May 1761 - 28 Dec 1775  Petrus Albertus van der Parra      (b. 1714 - d. 1775)
28 Dec 1775 -  3 Oct 1777  Jeremias van Riemsdijk             (b. 1712 - d. 1777)
 4 Oct 1777 -  1 Sep 1780  Reinier de Klerk                   (b. 1710 - d. 1780)
                             (acting to 9 Oct 1778)
 2 Sep 1780 - 16 Aug 1796  Willem Arnold Alting               (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
16 Aug 1796 - 22 Aug 1801  Peter Gerhardus van Overstraten    (b. 1755 - d. 1801)
22 Aug 1801 - 19 Oct 1804  Johannes Siberg (arrived Apr 1802) (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
19 Oct 1804 - 14 Jan 1808  Albertus Henricus Wiese            (b. 1761 - d. 1810)
14 Jan 1808 - 16 May 1811  Herman Willem Daendels             (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
16 May 1811 - 18 Sep 1811  Jan Willem Janssens                (b. 1762 - d. 1838)
Lieutenant governors
 9 Aug 1811 - Sep 1811     Sir Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound       (b. 1751 - d. 1814)
                             (British military commander)
Sep 1811 - Mar 1816        Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles    (b. 1781 - d. 1826)
Mar 1816 - Aug 1816        John Fendall, Jr.                  (b. 1762 - d. 1825)
Commissioners-general
19 Aug 1816 - 16 Jan 1819  Cornelis Theodorus Elout           (b. 1767 - d. 1841)
                           + Godert Alexander Gerard Philip   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
                             van der Capellen              
                           + Arnold Adriaan Buyskes           (b. 1771 - d. 1838)
Governors-general
16 Jan 1819 -  1 Jan 1826  Godert Alexander Gerard Philip     (s.a.)
                            (from 28 Apr 1822, baron) van der
                             Capellen                   
 3 Feb 1826 - 16 Jan 1830  Leonard P.J. burggraaf Du Bis de   (b. 1780 - d. 1849)
                             Gisignies 
 4 Feb 1826 - 16 Jan 1830  Hendrik Merkus de Kock             (b. 1779 - d. 1845)
                             (lieutenant governor [acting for de Gisignies])
16 Jan 1830 -  2 Jul 1833  Johannes van den Bosch             (b. 1780 - d. 1844)
 2 Jul 1833 - 29 Feb 1836  Jean Chrétien Baud (acting)        (b. 1789 - d. 1859)
29 Feb 1836 - 30 May 1840  Dominique Jacques de Eerens        (b. 1781 - d. 1840)
30 May 1840 -  6 Jan 1841  Carel Sirardus Willem graaf        (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
                             van Hogendorp (acting) 
 6 Jan 1841 -  2 Aug 1844  Pieter Merkus                      (b. 1787 - d. 1844)
                             (acting to 14 Feb 1843)
 2 Aug 1844 - 30 Sep 1845  Jan Cornelis van Reijnst (acting)  (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
30 Sep 1845 - 12 May 1851  Jan Jacob Rochussen                (b. 1797 - d. 1871)
15 May 1851 - 22 May 1856  Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist (b. 1809 - d. 1887)
22 May 1856 -  2 Sep 1861  Charles Ferdinand Pahud            (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
 2 Sep 1861 - 19 Oct 1861  Ary Prins (1st time) (acting)      (b. 1816 - d. 1867)
19 Oct 1861 - 25 Oct 1866  Ludolph Anne Jan Wilt baron Sloet  (b. 1806 - d. 1890)
                             van de Beele 
25 Oct 1866 - 28 Dec 1866  Ary Prins (2nd time) (acting)      (s.a.)
28 Dec 1866 -  1 Jan 1872  Pieter Mijer                       (b. 1812 - d. 1881)
 1 Jan 1872 - 26 Mar 1875  James Loudon                       (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
26 Mar 1875 - 12 Apr 1881  Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge        (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
12 Apr 1881 - 20 Jan 1884  Frederik s'Jacob                   (b. 1822 - d. 1901)
11 Apr 1884 - 29 Sep 1888  Otto van Rees                      (b. 1823 - d. 1892)
29 Sep 1888 - 15 Jul 1893  Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk         (b. 1847 - d. 1908)
17 Oct 1893 -  3 Oct 1899  Carel Herman Aart van der Wijck    (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
 3 Oct 1899 -  1 Oct 1904  Willem Rooseboom                   (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
 1 Oct 1904 - 18 Dec 1909  Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz      (b. 1851 - d. 1924)
18 Dec 1909 - 21 Mar 1916  Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
21 Mar 1916 - 24 Mar 1921  Johan Paul graaf van Limburg       (b. 1873 - d. 1948)
                             Stirum 
24 Mar 1921 -  6 Sep 1926  Dirk Fock                          (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
 7 Sep 1926 - 11 Sep 1931  Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff    (b. 1872 - d. 1957)
12 Sep 1931 - 16 Sep 1936  Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge       (b. 1875 - d. 1958)
16 Sep 1936 - 16 Oct 1945  Alidius Warmoldus Lambertus Tjarda (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
                             van Starkenbrogh Stachouwer
                            (8 Mar 1942 - Sep 1945, Japanese prisoner)
Japanese Military governors
- on Java (Commanders of Japanese 16th Army) -
 8 Mar 1942 -  9 Nov 1942  Hitoshi Imamura                    (b. 1886 - d. 1968)
 9 Nov 1942 -  7 Apr 1945  Kumakichi Harada                   (b. 1888 - d. 1947)
 7 Apr 1945 -  2 Sep 1945  Yuichiro Nagano 
- on Sumatra (Commanders of Japanese 25th Army)- 
Mar 1942 -  1 Jul 1942     Tomoyuki Yamashita                 (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1942 -  8 Apr 1943  Yaheita Saito                      (b. 1885 - d. 1953) 
 8 Apr 1943 - 15 Aug 1945  Moritake Tanabe                    (b. 1889 - d. 1949)
- on Dutch Borneo, Moluccas, Bali and eastern islands (Commanders of Southwest Fleet) -
10 Apr 1942 - 15 Sep 1942  Ibo Takahashi                      (b. 1888 - d. 1947)
15 Sep 1942 - 18 Jun 1944  AShiro Takasu                      (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
18 Jun 1944 -  1 Nov 1944  Gunichi Mikawa                     (b. 1888 - d. 1981)
 1 Nov 1944 - 15 Sep 1945  Denshichi Okawauchi
Borneo Allied Military governors
-
Commanders of British Forces on Java, Sumatra, Celebes, & islands east of Lombok -
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Jan 1946  Sir Philip Christison              (b. 1893 - d. 1993)
30 Jan 1946 - 19 Apr 1946  Sir Montagu Stopford               (b. 1892 - d. 1971)
19 Apr 1946 - 30 Nov 1946  E.C. Mansergh                      (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
- Commander of Australian Forces on Bali, Borneo, Dutch New Guinea, Moluccas,
&
islands west of Lombok -
 9 Sep 1945 -  1 Dec 1946  Sir Thomas A. Blamey (Australia)   (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
Lieutenant governor
 8 Mar 1942 - 15 Oct 1948  Hubertus Johannes van Mook         (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
                            (lieutenant governor [acting to 23 Feb 1945];
                             acting for Tjarda to 16 Oct 1945; in Brisbane,
                             Australia exile to 4 Oct 1945) 
High Commissioners
29 Oct 1948 - 18 May 1949  Louis Joseph Maria Beel            (b. 1902 - d. 1977)
18 May 1949 - 27 Dec 1949  Antonius Hermanus Johannes Lovink  (b. 1902 - d. 1995)
Presidents
17 Aug 1945 - 12 Mar 1967  Soekarno (from 1950, Sukarno)      (b. 1901 - d. 1970)  PNI
                            (arrested and exiled by Dutch 19 Dec 1948 - 6 Jul 1949)
22 Dec 1948 - 13 Jul 1949  Sjarfuddin Prawiraranegara         (b. 1911 - d. 1989)  PNI
                            (head of emergency government acting for Soekarno)
 7 Aug 1949 -  4 Jun 1962  Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo   (b. 1905 - d. 1962)
                            (imam of Islamic State of Indonesia, in rebellion)
27 Dec 1949 - 17 Aug 1950  Assaat Datuk Mudo                  (b. 1904 - d. 1976)  Non-party
                            (acting president of Republic of Indonesia)
15 Feb 1958 - 25 Aug 1961  Sjafruddin Prawiranegara           (s.a.)               Mas
                            (head of provisional government, in rebellion; from
                             8 Feb 1960, president of United Republic of Indonesia)
12 Mar 1967 - 21 May 1998  Suharto (Soeharto)                 (b. 1921 - d. 2008)  Golkar
                            (from 1991 sometimes in official use, Muhammad Suharto)
                            (acting to 27 Mar 1968)
21 May 1998 - 20 Oct 1999  Bacharuddin Jusef ("B.J.") Habibie (b. 1936)            Golkar 
20 Oct 1999 - 23 Jul 2001  Abdurrahman Wahid "Gus Dur"        (b. 1940 - d. 2009)  PKB
23 Jul 2001 - 20 Oct 2004  Dyah Permata Megawati Setyawati    (b. 1947)            PDI-P 
                             Sukarnoputri (f)
20 Oct 2004 - 20 Oct 2014  Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono           (b. 1949)            PD
20 Oct 2014 -              Joko Widodo                        (b. 1961)            PDI-P


Director of the cabinet of the governor-general
 1 Sep 1940 - Mar 1942     Petrus Johannes Abram Idenbrug     (b. 1896 - d. 1976)  Non-party
                             (1st time)
Sep 1945 - Sep 1946        Petrus Johannes Abram Idenbrug     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (2nd time)
Prime ministers

14 Nov 1945 - 20 Jun 1947  Sutan Sjahrir                      (b. 1909 - d. 1966)  PSI
 3 Jul 1947 - 29 Jan 1948  Amir Sjarifoeddin                  (b. 1903 - d. 1948)  PSI
29 Jan 1948 - 16 Jan 1950  Muhammad Hatta                     (b. 1902 - d. 1980)  Non-party
                             (Dutch prisoner 19 Dec 1948 - 13 Jul 1949)
19 Dec 1948 - 13 Jul 1949  Susanto Tirtoprodjo                (b. 1900 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             (acting for Hatta)
16 Jan 1950 -  5 Sep 1950  Abdul Halim                        (b. 1911 - d. 1988)  Non-party
 5 Sep 1950 - 27 Apr 1951  Muhammad Natsir                    (b. 1908 - d. 1993)  Mas
27 Apr 1951 -  1 Apr 1952  Sukiman Wirjosandjojo              (b. 1898 - d. 1974)  Mas
 1 Apr 1952 - 30 Jul 1953  Wilopo                             (b. 1908 - d. 1981)  PNI
30 Jul 1953 - 11 Aug 1955  Ali Sastroamidjojo (1st time)      (b. 1903 - d. 1975)  PNI
11 Aug 1955 - 20 Mar 1956  Burhanuddin Harahap                (b. 1917 - d. 1987)  Mas
20 Mar 1956 -  9 Apr 1957  Ali Sastroamidjojo (2nd time)      (s.a.)               PNI
 9 Apr 1957 -  9 Jul 1959  Djuanda Kartawidjaja               (b. 1911 - d. 1963)  PNI
First minister
 9 Jul 1959 -  7 Nov 1963  Djuanda Kartawidjaja               (s.a.)               PNI


[United East
                          India Company (VOC)]
    20 Mar 1602 - 1 Jan 1801
 Dutch East India Company flag
Islamic State
                          of Indonesia flag 1949-1962
    7 Aug 1949 - 4 Jun 1962
    Islamic State of Indonesia

Territorial Disputes: Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary.

Party abbreviations: Golkar = Partai Golongan Karya (Party of the Functional Groups, conservative liberal, Pancasila, only legal party 1967-1998, est.1964); PD = Partai Demokrat (Democrat Party, conservative, Pancasila, est.2001); PDI-P = Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (Indonesian Democratic Party – Struggle, liberal socialist, liberal conservative, Pancasila, populist, est.1998); PKB = Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (National Awakening Party, moderate islamist, conservative, Pancasila, est.1999); PNI = Partai Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Party, nationalist, secular, ruling party 1959-1967, 1927-1931, 1945, 1946-1973, merged into PDI, re-est.1997); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: Mas = Partai Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia (Council of Indonesian Muslim Associations, islamist, 1945-1960); PSI = Partai Sosialis Indonesia (Socialist Party of Indonesia, socialist, 1948-1960)



Bantam

[Union flag of 1606]

1603                       English station established by East India Company.
Mar 1609                   Station becomes a Factory.
1617                       Presidency of Bantam
1621 - 1628                Expelled by the Dutch, government at Batavia.
1630 - 1634                Subordinated to Surat (see India).
1634 - 1652                Presidency of Bantam
1652                       Bantam Agency
Aug 1682                   English expelled by the Dutch.

Chiefs
1603                       William Starkey
1605                       Edmund Scott
1605 - 1608                Gabriel Towerson                  (d. 1623)
1608                       John Saris
1609                       Augustin Spalding (1st time)
1609                       Thomas Emsworth
1610                       Edward Neetles
1610                       Richard Woodies
1613                       Augustin Spalding (2nd time)
1613                       George Chauncey
1613                       Edmund Camden
1613                       John Jourdain                     (d. 1619)
1613                       Robert Larkin
1613                       George Ball
Chief factors
1613 - 1615                John Jourdain (1st time)          (s.a.)
1615                       Thomas Elkington                  (d. 1616)
1615 - 1616                John Jourdain (2nd time)          (s.a.)
1616 - 1617                George Berkeley                   (d. 1617)
Presidents
Mar 1617 - 19 Nov 1618     George Ball
19 Nov 1618 - 17 Jul 1619  John Jourdain                     (s.a.)
Jul 1619 - 1619            John Powell (acting)
1619 - 1620                Gabriel Towerson (acting)         (s.a.)
1620                       Thomas Brockedon (1st time)
                             (at Batavia)
1620 - 16 Oct 1623         Richard Fursland (at Batavia)     (d. 1623)
1623 - 1625                Thomas Brockedon (2nd time)
                             (at Batavia)
1625 - 1628                Henry Hawley
                             (at Batavia to 1628)
1628 - 1629                Richard Bix
1629 - 1630                George Muschamp (1st time)
Agents
1630 - 1631                George Willoughby
1631 - 1632                William Hoare
1632 - 1633                Thomas Woodson
1633 - 1634                John Ling
Presidents
1634 - 1636                George Willoughby
1636 - 1637                Robert Coulson
1637 - 1638                William Johnson
1638 - 1639                Gerald Pinson
1639 - 1640                George Muschamp (2nd time)
1640 - 1643                Aaron Baker (1st time)             (b. 1620 - d. 1683)
1643 - 1645                Ralph Cartwright
1645 - 1649                Aaron Baker (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1649 - 1650                Thomas Peniston
1650 - 1652                Aaron Baker (3rd time)             (s.a.)
Agents
1652 - 1658                Frederick Skinner
1658 - 25 Jul 1661         John Edwards
Jul - 20 Oct 1661          Henry Page
1661 - 1664                John Hunter
Jun 1664 - 25 Oct 1665     Charles Browne
1665 - Oct 1669            William Turner
19 Oct 1669 - Jul 1676     Henry Dacres
Jul 1676 - Apr/May 1677    Arnold White
Apr/May 1677 -  8 Jun 1678 Abel Payne    
 8 Jun 1678 - 1681         Robert Parker
1681 - Aug 1682            Nicholas Waite



Bencoolen (Benkulen)

[Flag of the United Kingdom]

1685                       British rule (Fort York); under the East India Company.
1685 - 1760                Subordinated to Madras (see India).
1714                       Renamed Fort Marlborough.
1760                       British Presidency of Bencoolen.
 3 Apr 1760 - Feb 1762     French and Dutch occupation.
1785 - 1825                Subordinated to Bengal (see India).
 1 Mar 1825                Part of Netherlands East Indies.

Deputy governors
1685                       Ralph Ord                          (d. 1687)
1685 - 1690                Benjamin Bloom
1690 - 1691                James Sowdon
1691 - 1695                Charles Fleetwood                  (d. 1707/08)
1695 - 1696                Charles Barwell
1696 - 1699                Matthew Mildmay 
1699 - 1700                Robert Broughton
1700 - 17 Dec 1705         Richard Watts                      (d. 1705)
1705 - 1708                Matthew Ridley
1708                       James Cross
1708                       Abraham Hoyle
1708                       John Delapie
1708 - 1710                Robert Skingle
1710                       Jeremiah Harrison -Supervisor
1710 - 1711                Anthony Ettricke 
1711 - 1712                John Daniell
1712                       John Hunter
1712 - 1716                Joseph Collett                     (b. 1673 - d. 1725)
1716 - 1717                Theophilus Shyllinge
1717 - 1718                Richard Farmer
1718 - 1719                Thomas Cooke -Supervisor
1719 - 1723                Isaac Pyke                         (d. 1738)
1723                       Thomas Dunster
1723 - 1728                Joseph Walsh
1728 - 1730                Nicholas Morse                     (b. 1700 - d. 1772)
1730 - 1731                Stephen Newcome                    (b. 1690 - d. 1732)
1731 - 1736                Francis Everest                    (d. 1736)
1736 - 1746                Robert Lennox                      (d. 1775)
1746 - 1752                Joseph Hurlock                     (b. c.1715 - d. 1793)
1752 - 1754                Robert Hindley
1754 - 1755                John Walsh -Supervisor
1755 - 1757                John Pybus                         (b. 1727/28 - d. 1789)
1757 - 1758                Randolph Marriott
1758 -  2 Apr 1760         Roger Carter 
  2 Apr 1760 - 1760         Charles Hector, comte              (b. 1729 - d. 1794)
                             d'Estaing -French Commander
Governors

Feb 1762 - Jul 1762        Samuel Ardley (acting) 
Jul 1762 - 1767            Roger Carter
1767 - 1776                Richard Wyatt
1776                       Robert Hay                         (b. 1731 - d. 1807)
1776 - 1780                William Broff                      (b. 17.. - d. 1780)
1780 - 1781                Hew Steuart
1781 - 1785                Edward Coles
Deputy governors
1785 - 1786                John Crisp (1st time)
1786 - 1787                Thomas Palmer
1787 - 1789                George Salmon -Supervisor
1789 - 1793                John Crisp (2nd time)
1793 - 1799                Robert Broff                       (b. 1752 - d. 1822)
1799                       John Crisp (3rd time)
1799 - 1800                Philip Braham (acting)
1800 - 1805                Walter Ewer
Residents
Apr 1805 - 23 Dec 1807     Thomas Parr                        (b. 1768? - d. 1807)
1808 - 1810                Richard Parry                      (b. 1776 - d. 1817)
1810 - 1812                William Parker
1812 - 22 Mar 1818         George John Siddons                (b. 1785 - d. 1848)
Lieutenant governor
22 Mar 1818 - 1824         Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles    (b. 1781 - d. 1826)
Resident
1824 -  1 Mar 1825         John Prince                        (b. 1772? - d. 1848)



Netherlands New Guinea
[National flag of
                            the Netherlands]
        24 Aug 1828 - 1 Oct 1962
 
 
 Dutch New Guinea
                            local
           1 Dec 1961 - 1 Oct 1962 
                    (Local Flag)
 
[Flag of UNO]
         1 Oct 1962 - 1 May 1963
 
 
Map of West Papua
Hear National Anthem
"Hai Tanahku Papua"
 (O My Country, Papua)
Text of National Anthem
(18 Nov 1961 - 1 May 1963,
Region anthem from 2003)
Constitution
(1 Dec 1961-1962)
Capital: Jayapura
(Hollandia 1945 - 10 Jan 1962;
Kotabaru 10 Jan 1962 -
1 May 1963; Sukarnopura
1 May 1963 - 1968)
Currency: 1963-1971 Irian
Barat Rupiah (IDIR);
1950-1963
Netherlands
New
Guinea Guilder
(NNGG) 
National Holiday:
1 Dec (1961)

National Day
Population: 730,000 (1962)
GDP: $NA (1962)
Exports: $147 million (1962)
Imports: $167 million (1962)
Ethnic groups: Papuan,
Javanese, Melanesian
Religions: Protestant, Roman
Catholic, Muslin, Hindu,
Buddhist, traditional beliefs 
International Organizations/Treaties 1949-1963: UPU, WMO; from 1975: UNPO
1546                       Spanish discover New Guinea, naming it Nueva Guinea.
1660                       Dutch East India Company recognizes the sovereignty of
                             the Sultan of Tidore over the "Papuan islands in general" 
                             but with exclusive Dutch trading rights. 
1793 - Apr 1795            First European settlement, Fort Coronation, founded at Doreri Bay
                             by Britain.
24 Aug 1828                Western New Guinea claimed as part of Netherlands East Indies
                             (Netherlands New Guinea).
1884                       Partition of New Guinea agreed by Netherlands, UK, and Germany
                             along the 141st meridian.
15 Apr 1942 - Aug 1945     Northern Dutch New Guinea areas occupied by Japan (in Hollandia
                             to 22 Apr 1944).
29 Dec 1949                Netherlands New Guinea a separate colony.
16 Aug 1956                Claimed by Indonesia which begins to appoint governors
                             based in Tiodre. 
 1 Dec 1961                Renamed West Papua.
 1 Oct 1962                UN Administration (United Nations Temporary Executive
                             Authority [UNTEA]) replaces Dutch rule.
 1 May 1963                Part of Indonesia (Irian Barat)(see Indonesia provinces).
28 Jul 1965                "Free Papua Movement" (Organisasi Papua Merdeka [OPM]) founded. 
 2 Aug 1969                Referendum endorses Indonesian rule.
17 Sep 1969                Formally incorporated into Indonesia (Irian Barat province).
 1 Mar 1973                Renamed Irain Jaya.
 9 Dec 1975                Separatists proclaim independence as "Republic of West Papua" 
                             with no effect.
 1 Jan 2000                Renamed Papua. 

Japanese Commanders
Apr 1942 - 1942            Fujita Ruitaro                    (b. 1887 - d. 1947)
22 Dec 1942 - 15 Oct 1943  Nobumasa Tominaga                 (b. 1888 - d. 1943)
15 Oct 1943 -  1 Mar 1945  Kenzo Kitano                      (b. 1889 - d. 1960) 
Mar 1945 -  9 Aug 1945     Fusataro Teshima                  (b. 1889 - d. 1979)
Dutch Senior Officer of Netherlands Indies Civil Affairs
Oct 1944 - Aug 1945        Raden Abdulkadir Widjojoatmodjo   (b. 1904 - d. 1992)
Resident
Aug 1945 - 29 Dec 1949     Jan Pieter Karel van Eechoud      (b. 1904 - d. 1958)
Governors
29 Dec 1949 -  8 Feb 1950  Jan Pieter Karel van Eechoud      (s.a.)
                             (acting)    
 8 Feb 1950 - 24 Apr 1953  Simon Lodewijk Johan van          (b. 1900 - d. 1975)
                             Waardenburg
24 Apr 1953 - 31 Mar 1958  Jan van Baal                      (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
31 Mar 1958 -  1 May 1958  Jan Christoffel Baarspul (acting) (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
 1 May 1958 - 28 Sep 1962  Pieter Johannes Platteel          (b. 1911 - d. 1978)
28 Sep 1962 -  1 Oct 1962  Henk Veldkamp (acting)
UN Administrators
 1 Oct 1962 - 15 Nov 1962  José Rolz-Bennett (Guatemala)     (b. 1918 - d. 1972)
                             (acting)
15 Nov 1962 -  1 May 1963  Djalal Abdoh (Iran)               (b. 1910 - d. 1992)

Vice-Chairmen of the West New Guinea Council
 5 Apr 1961 - 1962         Nicolaas Jouwe                    (b. 1924)
1962 - Dec 1962            Markus Wonggor Kaisiepo           (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
Chairman of the Board of Delegates
23 Apr 1963 -  1 May 1963  Thontje Messet

West Papua in Exile

[Irian Jaya -
                  Independists]

Presidents

28 Jul 1965 - 1982        Markus Wonggor Kaisiepo             (s.a.)
                            (in Netherlands exile)
1975                      Seth Jafeth Rumkorem                (b. 1933)
President of the Free West Papua Revolutionary Council
1982 - 2000               Moses Werror
Chairmen of the Papua Presidium Council
May 2000 - 10 Nov 2001    Theys Hiyo Eluay                    (b. 1937 - d. 2001)
Nov 2001 -                Tom Beanal (vice-chairman to 200.)  (b. 1951?)


South Moluccas

[Flag of the South Moluccas]
                 Adopted 2 May 1950
 
Map of the South Moluccas
National Anthem
"Maluku, Tanah Airku"
(Maluku, My Homeland)
Adopted 31 Mar 1960
National Anthem 1950-1960
"Hena Masa Waja"
(The Call for Rain)

Constitution
(1950, provisional)
Capital: Ambon City
Currency: N/A
National Holiday: 25 Apr (1950)
Independence Day
Population: 1,088,516 (1995)
GDP: $N/A
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Ethnic Groups: mainly
Melanesian, others
Religions: Protestant,
Roman Catholic, Muslim
International Organizations/Treaties: None; Exile: UNPO (from 1991)

25 Apr 1950                Republic of South Moluccas (Republik Maluku Selatan) proclaimed
                             (Amboina, Buru, Ceram and adjoining islands).
28 Sep 1950                Government moved to Ceram Island.
Nov 1950                   Indonesian forces occupy Ambon.

17 Oct 1952                Extinguished by Indonesia.

Presidents
25 Apr 1950 -  3 May 1950  Johanes Herman Manuhutu (acting)    (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
 3 May 1950 - 17 Oct 1952  Christopel Robert Stephen Soumokil  (b. 1905 - d. 1966)
                             (in hiding on Ceram from Dec 1950)

Prime minister
25 Apr 1950 - 30 Oct 1950  Albert Wairisal                     (b. 1909 - d. 1990)
 

Republic of South Moluccas in Exile

[Flag of the South Moluccas]

Presidents
17 Oct 1952 - 12 Apr 1966  Christopel Robert Stephen Soumokil (s.a.)
                            (Indonesian prisoner from 2 Dec 1962)
1966 - 10 Apr 1993         Johannes Alvarez Manusama           (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
                            (in Netherlands exile)
10 Apr 1993 - 17 Apr 2010  Frans L.J. Tutuhatunewa             (b. 1923)
                            (in Netherlands exile)
17 Apr 2010 -              John Wattilete                      (b. 1955)
                            (in Netherlands exile)


Spice Islands

1522 - 15 Jul 1575         Portuguese settlements on Ternate Island.
 6 Jan 1578 - May 1605     Portuguese colony on Tidore Island.
May 1605                   Dutch seize Portuguese Tidore settlements.
Apr 1606 -  2 May 1663     Spanish colony on Tidore and Gammalamma, Forts Peter and Paul
                             on Ternate.
Jun 1607                   Dutch build Fort Malayu (renamed Fort Oranje 1609) on Ternate.
1610 - 1619                Ternate (alternating with Ambon) is the seat of the
                             governors-general of the Dutch East Indies.
21 Jun 1801 - 1803         British occupy the Moluccas
1810 - 1817                British occupy the Moluccas.
Mar 1942 - Sep 1945        Japanese occupy Moluccas, Timor with all islands of east,
                             administered by the Navy at Makassar.

Moluccas 

Portuguese Captains (seat at Ternate)
1522 - 1525                Antonio de Brito 
1525 - 1527                Garcia Henriques 
1527 - 1530                Jorge de Meneses 
1530 - 1531                Gonçalo Pereira                    (d. 1531) 
1531 - 1534                Vicente da Fonseca
1534 - 1536                Tristão de Ataide 
1536 - 1540                Antonio Galvão 
1540 - 1544                Jorge de Castro 
1544 - 1546                Jordão de Freitas 
1546 - 1549                Bernaldim de Sousa (1st time)
Oct 1549 - Oct 1550        Cristovão de Sa 
1550 - 1552                Bernaldim de Sousa (2nd time)
1552 - Feb 1554            Francisco Lopes de Sousa           (d. 1554)
Feb 1554 - Nov 1555        Cristovão de Sa (2nd time)
1555 - Dec 1558            Duarte d'Eça
Dec 1558 - Oct 1560        António Pereira Brandão (acting)
Oct 1560 - 1561            Manoel de Vasconcellos             (d. 1561)
1561 - Mar 1562            Bastião Machado (acting)
Mar 1562 - 1564            Henrique de Sa 
1564 - 1567                Alvaro de Mendonça 
1567 - 1571                Diogo Lopes de Mesquita 
1571 - Dec 1574            Alvaro de Ataide 
Dec 1574 - 28 Dec 1575     Nuno Pereira de Lacerda
Captains-major (seat at Tidore)
1575 - 1578                Sancho de Vasconcellos             (d. 1599)
1578 - Oct 1582            Diogo de Azambuja (1st time)
Oct 1582 - Dec 1582        Alvaro de Castro                   (d. 1582)
Dec 1582 - Jan 1586        Diogo de Azambuja (2nd time)
Jan 1586 - 1589            Duarte Pereire de Sampaio
1589 - 1592                Rui Dias da Cunha
1592 - 1595                Tristão de Sousa
1595 - 20 Nov 1598         Julião de Noronha
20 Nov 1598 - 1601         Rui Gonçalves de Sequeira
1601 - 1603                Manuel de Melo
1603                       André Furtado de Mendonça          (b. 1558 - d. 1610)
1603 - 19 May 1605         Pedro Alvares de Abreu             (d. 1624)
Spanish Governors
1606 - 1609                Juan de Esquivel
1609 - 1610                Lucas de Vergara Gaviria (1st time)
                             (acting)
1610 - 1612                Cristobál de Azcueata Menchaca
                             (acting)
1612 - 1617                Jerónimo de Silva
1617 - 1620                Lucas de Vergara Gaviria (2nd time)
1620 - 1623                Luis de Bracamonte (acting)
1623 - 1636                Pedro de Heredia
1636 - 1640                Pedro Muñoz de Carmona y
                             Mendiola (acting)
1640 - 1642                Francesco Suárez de Figueroa
1642 - 1643                Pedro Fernández del Rio (1st time)
                             (acting)
1643 - 1652                Lorenzo de Olaso Achotegui
1652                       Pedro Fernández del Rio (2nd time)
1652 - 1656                Francesco de Esteybar (1st time)
1656 - 1658                Diego Sarria Lascano
1658 - 1659                Francesco de Esteybar (2nd time)
1659 - 1660                Francesco de Atienza Ibañez
                             (1st time)
1660 - 1661                Juan de Chaves
1661 - 1663                Agustín de Cepeda Carnacedo
1663                       Francesco de Atienza Ibañez
                             (2nd time)
Dutch governors
1599 - c.1602              Frank van der Does 
Jan 1601 - 160.            Jan Pieterszen Snyer (or Suyer
)
                             (chief factor)
c.Sep 1602 - 1604?         Christiaen Adriaensz den Dorst

                             (factor)
1604? - Apr 1605           Anthoni van Suylen van Nyevelt       (d. 1605)
                             (acting)
Jul 1605 - Mar 1606        Adriaan Antoniszen
1607 - 1608?               Gerrit Gerritszen van der Buis
                           + Pieter Janszen Boenen (factor)

Jul? 1608 - 1610?          Adriaan Woutersz. Stoop

 1/6 Jun 1610 - 1612       Paulus van Caerden                   (b. c.1569 - d. 1615/16) 
1612 - 1616                Pieter Both
1616 - 1621                Laurens Reaal
1621 - 1623                Frederik Houtman
1623 - 1627                Jacques le Fèbre
1627 - 1628                Gilles van Zeijst
1628 - 1629                Pieter Wagensveld (commissioner)
1629 - 1633                Gijsbert van Lodestein

1633 - 1635                Johan Ottens
1635 - 1640                Jan van Broekom
1640 - 1642                Anthoni Caen
1642 - 1648                Wouter Seroijen
1648 - 1653                Gaspar van den Bogaerde
1653 - 1656                Jacob Hustaart
1656 - 1662                Simon Cos
1662 - 1667                Anthoni van Voorst
1667 - 1669                Maximilian de Jong
1669 - 1672                Abraham Verspreet                   (b. 1588 - d. 1694)
1672 - 1674                Cornelis Franks
1675 - 1676                Willem Corput
1676                       Willem Harthouwer
1676 - 1677                Jacob de Ghein (commissioner)
1677 - 1682                Robert Padtbrugge                   (b. 1638 - d. 1703)

1682 - 1686                Jacob Lobs
1686 - 1689                Johan Henrik Thim
1689 - 1692                Johannes Cops
1692 - 1696                Cornelis van der Duin
1696 - 1701                Salomon le Sage
1701 - 1706                Pieter Rooselaar                    (b. 1660 - d. 1716)
1706 - 1710                Jacob Claaszoon
1710 - 1715                David van Petersom
1715 - 1720                Jacob Bottendorp
1720 - 1723                Antoni Heinsius
1723 - 1724                Jacob Cloeck 
1724 - 1728                Joan Happon 
1728 - 1731                Jacob Christiaan Pielat            (b. 1692 - d. 1470) 
1731 - 1734                Elias de Haeze 
1734 - 1735                Johannes Bernard (commissioner)
1735 - 1739                Paulus Rouwenhoff 
1739 - 1744                Marten Lelievelt 
1744 - 1750                Gerard van Brandwijk van Blokland 
1750 - 1754                J.E. van Mijlendonk 
1754 - 1758                Abraham Abeleven                   (b. 1714 - d. 1776) 
1758 - 1766                Jacob van Schoonderwoert 
1766 - 1767                Hendrik Breton                     (d. 1780) 
1767 - 1771                Hermanus Munnik 
1771 - 1778                Paulus Jacob Valckenaer
1778 - 1780                Jacob Roeland Thomaszen
1780 - 1793                Alexander Cornabé                  (b. c.1737 - d. 1813) 
1793 - 1796                J. Ekenholm 
1796 - 1799                Johan Godfried Burdach 
13 Sep 1799 - 21 Jun 1801  Willem Jacob Cranssen              (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
21 Jun 1801 - 1801         K.T. Farquhar -British Resident
1801 - 1803                H. Webber -British Resident
1803 - 1804                Pieter Adrianus Goldbach 
1804 - 1809                Carel Lodewijk Wieling             (b. 1775 - d. 1809) 
1809 - 1810                R. Coop à Groen 
1809 - 1810                 (commissioner)
British Residents in Moluccas
1810 - 1811                Edward Tucker (captain)
           (b. 1777 - d. 1864) 
1809 - Dec 1811            S. Kelly (military commander)      (d. 1811)
1811                       Forbes
1811 - 1813                W. Ewer
Dec 1811 - Apr 1817        Thomas Ramsay (military commander)  
1813 - 1815                W.G. Mackenzie (1st time)
1815 - 1816                R. Stuart 
1816 - 20 Apr 1817         W.G. Mackenzie (2nd time) 
Japanese civil administrators in Sulawesi
Jul 1942 - Mar 1944        Okada Fumihide                     (b. 1892 - d. 1989)
Mar 1944 - c.1944          Iwao Yamazaki                      (b. 1894 - d. 1968)


Ambon (Amboina)

25 Mar 1576 - 23 Feb 1605  Portuguese settlements on Ambon Island.
1600                       First Dutch garrison in Kaitetu near Hila on Ambon.
22 Feb 1605                Second Dutch second Ambon expedition the fort on Hila bay built
                             by the Portuguese in 1575 is renamed Fort Victoria.
1611 - 1619                Ambon (alternating with Ternate) is the seat of the governor-
                             general of the Dutch East Indies (from 1619 at Batavia).
1637                       Fort Amsterdam built in Hila Bay on Ambon.
17 Feb 1796 -  1 Mar 1802  British occupation.
19 Feb 1810 - 25 Mar 1817  British occupation.

Portuguese Captains
1562 - bf.Apr 1564         Antonio Pais                           (d. 1564)
1565 – Mar 1571            Gonçalo Pereira Marramaque             (d. 1571)
1571                       Duarte de Meneses
1572 - 1591                Sancho de Vasconcelos                  (d. 1599)
1592 - 1596                Antonio Pereira Pinto
1596/97 - 1599             João Caiado de Gamboa
 2 Mar 1599 - 1602         Estevão Teixeira de Macedo

1602 - 1605                Gaspar de Melo
Dutch Landvoogden
1605 - 1611                Frederik de Houtman                    (b. 1571 - d. 1627)
1611 - 1615                Caspar Janszoon
1615 - 1616                Adriaen Maartenszoon Blok              (b. c.1582 - d. 1661)
1616 - 1618                Steven van der Hagen                   (b. 1563 - d. 1621)
1618 - 1625                Herman van Speult                      (d. 1626)

1625 - 1628                Jan van Gorcum
1628 - 1631                Philip Lucaszoon
1631 - 1634                Artus Gysels
1634 - 1635                Antonie van den Heuvel
1635 - 1637                Joachim Roelofszoon van Deutekom
1637 - 1641                Johan Ottens
1642                       Antonie Caan
1642 - 1647                Gerard Demmer
1647 - 1651                Arnout de Vlamingh van Oudtshoorn      (b. 1618 - d. 1662)
                             (1st time)
1651 - 1654                Willem Verbeek
1654 - 1656                Arnout de Vlamingh van Oudtshoorn      (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1656 - 1662                Jacob Hustaart
1662 - 1664                Simon Cos
1664 - 1665                Johan van Dam
1666 - 1667                Pieter Marville
1669 - 1672                Jacob Cos
1672 - 1678                Antonie Hurdt
1678 - 1682                Robert de Vicq
1682 - 1687                Robert Padtbrugge                      (b. 1638 - d. 1703)
1687 - 1691                Dirk de Haas 
1691 - 1696                Nicolaas Schagen
1697 - 1701                Willem van Wijngaarden
1701 - 1706                Balthasar Coyett                       (b. c.1650 - d. 1725)
1706 - 1720                Simon van der Stel                     (b. 1639 - d. 1712) 
1720 - 1721                Rochus Hollem (acting)
1721 - 1725                Pieter Gabri
1725 - 1727                Stephanus Versluys                     (b. 1694 - d. 1736)
1727 - 1733                Johannes Bernard
1733 - 1738                David Johan Bake
1738 - 1743                Jacob de Jong 
1743 - 1748                Nathaniël Steinmetz 
1748 - 1750                Cornelis Roosenboom
1750 - 1752                Nicolaus Jongma
1752                       Goderd Ludolf van Beusechem
                             (1st time)(acting)
1752 - 1757                Gerard Cluysenaar
1757 - 1763                Meyert Johan van Idsinga 
1763                       Goderd Ludolf van Beusechem
                             (2nd time)
1763 - 1764                Josias Alexander de Villeneuve
                             (acting)
1764 - 1767                Willem Fockens                        (d. 1780)
1767 - 1770                Hendrik Breton                        (d. 1780)
1770 - 1775                Johan Abraham van der Voort
1775 - 1785                Bernardus van Pleuren                 (d. 1786) 
1785 - 1788                Adriaan de Bock 
1788 - 1794                Johan Adam Schilling 
1794                       Balthasar Smissaerd (acting)
1794 - 1796                Alexander Cornabé                     (b. c.1737 - d. 1813) 
17 Feb 1796 - Dec 1796     Rainier 
Dec 1796 -  1 Feb 1799     William Jones -British Resident
 1 Feb 1799 - 16 Jan 1802  Robert T. Farquhar -British Resident  (b. 1776 - d. 1830)
16 Jan 1802 -  4 Mar 1803  James Oliver -British Resident
1803 - 1804                Carel Lodewijk Wieling                (b. 1775 - d. 1809) 
1804 - 1808                Willem Jacob Cranssen                 (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
1808 - Mar 1809            C.E. von Jelt 
Mar 1809 - 19 Feb 1810     Jean-Philippe-François Filz           (b. 1771 - d. 1810)
British governors of Ambon
19 Feb 1810 - Jun 1810     Edward Tucker                         (b. 1777 - d. 1864) 
Jun 1810 - Feb 1811        M.H. Court
1811 - 25 Mar 1817         William Byam Martin


Banda Islands 

1512                       Discovered and annexed for the Portuguese by Antonio d'Abreu.
17th cent.                 Portuguese expelled by the Dutch.
1608                       English build a factory on Wai, which is demolished by the 
                             Dutch as soon as the English vessel left. 
23 Dec 1616                English occupy the Banda Island of Run.
 6 Jul 1621                Dutch Governor-general John Pieterszoon Coen takes Banda Islands.
21 Jul 1667                England formally cedes claim to the Dutch, by Treaty of Breda.
 7 Feb 1796 - 1800         British occupation.
 9 Aug 1810                British seize Dutch Fort Belgica, on Neira, gaining control
                             of Banda Islands. 
1817                       Islands are restored to the Dutch.

Commander
23 Dec 1616 - 20? Oct 1620 Nathaniel Courthope                     (b. 1585 - d. 1620)
British Deputy Residents
(subordinated to the Residents on Ambon)
 9 Aug 1810 - 15 Aug 1810  Christopher Cole (commander)            (b. 1770 - d. 1836)
15 Aug 1810 - Feb? 1811    Charles Foote (governor)                (b. 1780 - d. 1811)
Feb? 1811 - Apr 1812       M.H. Court
                             (resident on Banka Island Jul 1813 - Dec 1816)
1812? -  8 Apr 1815        David Forbes                            (d. 1815)
May 1815 - 181.            Serjeant







© Ben Cahoon