World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 



 


India
 
[Moghul flag]
       to 29 Mar 1858  Moghul Empire
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
          20 Oct 1774 - 22 Jul 1947 British India
 
 [Star of India
                                  flag of Governor-general of British
                                  India]
             c.1885 - 1947 Flag of Governor-general
 
[Star
                                    of British India Red Ensign]
             11 Nov 1928 - 22 Jul 1947 Unofficial 
 
[Flag of
                                    India]
                 Adopted 22 Jul 1947
 

 Map of India
Hear National Anthem
"Jana-Gana-Mana"
(Thou Art the Ruler of the
Minds of All People)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 24 Jan 1950
Constitution
(26 Jan 1950)
Capital: New Delhi
(Delhi  1192-1327, 1344-1501,
1648-1858; Daulatabad
  1327-1344;
Agra 1501- 1540,
 1599-1613, 1616-1648;
Fatehpur
 Sikri 1570-1585;
Lahore
 1585-1599; Ajmer 1613-1616)

(British India: New Delhi from
 1911;
Calcutta 1774-12 Dec 1911;
Summer capital: Simla 1911-1947)
Currency: Indian Rupee
(INR) 
National Holiday: 26 Jan (1950)
Republic Day
Population: 1,220,800,359
(2013)
GDP: $4.96 trillion (2013)
Exports: $317.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $515.1 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, 
Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 1,325,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1998): est. 80-100 weapons (2012)
Merchant marine: 340 ships (2010)
Religions: Hindu 72.04%, Muslim 12.26% (of which
 Sunni 8.06%, Shi'i 4.20%), Christian 6.81% (Protestant 1.74%,
Roman Catholic 1.62%, Orthodox 0.22%, other Christian 3.22%),
traditional beliefs 3.83%, Sikh 1.87%, Buddhist 0.67%,
Jain 0.51%, Baha'i 0.17%, Parsi (Zoroastrian) 0.02%,
non-religious 1.22%, atheist 0.17%, other 0.43% (2005)
 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ACS (observer), AfDB (nonregional), ADB, AL (observer), ANT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, BTWC, C, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, Intersputnik, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD (partner), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
India Index
Chronology
3300 BC - 1700 BC          Indus Valley Civilization.
1700 Bc - 1300 BC          Late Harappan Culture.
1500 BC - 500 Bc           Vedic Civilization.
1200 BC - 316 BC           Kuru dynasty.
700 BC - 321 BC            Maha Janapadas
684 BC - 321 BC            Madadha Empire 
321 Bc - 85 BC             Mauryan Empire
c.240 - 550 AD             Gupta Empire
848 - 1279                 Chola Empire (in the south).
1000 - 1346                Hoysala Empire (in the south).
1210 - 19 Apr 1526         Delhi Sultanate (in the north).
1347 - 1518                Bahmani Sultanate (in the south).
1336 - 23 Jan 1565         Vijayanagara Empire (in the south). 
27 May 1526                Babur founds the Empire of Hind (usually 
                             referred to by historians as the Mughal 
                             [Moghul] Empire).
17 May 1540                The Mughal rulers are expelled and superseded by
                             the Afghan Suri dynasty.
23 Jul 1555                Empire of Hind under the Mughal rulers restored.
18 Feb 1665                Bombay ceded to England by Portugal.
c.1690                     Calcutta founded by England.
12 Aug 1765                British take over administration of Bengal 
                             (under British East India Company rule).
20 Oct 1774                Union of all East India Company settlements. 
29 Mar 1858                The last Mughal ruler is deposed.
 2 Aug 1858                British Act of Parliament annexes the East India, 
                           areas creating British India (effective 1 Nov 1858)
28 Apr 1876                By proclamation, the Queen of United Kingdom takes 
                             the style "Empress of India" (proclaimed in India
                             on 1 Jan 1877).
Mar 1942 - Aug 1945        Japanese occupy Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
21 Oct 1943 - 18 Aug 1945  Provisional Government of Free India¹ proclaimed
                             (Arzi Hukumate-e-Azad Hind) at Singapore
                             (administering the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
                             only Dec 1943-Aug 1945).
25 Aug 1946                India granted limited self rule.
15 Aug 1947                British India, together with acceded states, is 
                             partitioned into Dominion of India and 
                             Dominion of Pakistan; style "Emperor of India"
                             is abandoned (retroactive proclamation that 
                             is dated 22 Jun 1948).
27 Oct 1947                Jammu and Kashmir accede to India.
17 Sep 1948                Hyderabad annexed by India.
26 Jan 1950                Republic of India, styled "India, that 
                             is Bharat." 
 1 Nov 1954                French India incorporated into India.
26 Jan 1957                The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir is 
                             declared to be complete.
16 Mar 1962                Goa annexed by India.
21 Nov 1962                China occupies Aksai Chin region of Kashmir.
26 Apr 1975                Annexation of Sikkim.
Indian States
(since 1947)
Princely states
A - J - K - Z
British India
Provinces
Free India in Exile
(1943-1945)
British East
India Company

(1783-1858)
Jammu & Kashmir
  Danish India
(1620-1845)
  Dutch India
(1608-1825)
  French India
(1673-1954)
Ostend Company
(1719-1744)
 Portuguese India
(1505-1962)
Sikkim
(1642-1975)
Map of British India
(1934-1947)
Historical Maps
of India
 

Emperors (title Padshah, sometimes Padshah-i Hind - emperor of India)
31 Jul 1658 -  2 Mar 1707  Mohyi ad-Din Abu'l Mozaffar        (b. 1618 - d. 1707)
                             Mohammad Awrangzib Bahadur 
                             `Alamgir Padshah-e Ghazi
14 Mar 1707 - 27 Apr 1707  Qotb ad-Din Abu'l Fayaz            (b. 1653 - d. 1707) 
                             Mohammad A`zam Shah Padshah-e 
                             Ghazi 
                            (continues in rebellion to 18 Jun 1707)
27 Apr 1707 - 27 Feb 1712  Qotb ad-Din Abu'n Nasr Sayyed      (b. 1643 - d. 1712)
                             Mohammad Shah `Alam I Bahadur 
                             Shah Padshah-e Ghazi             (b. 1643 - d. 1712)
                            (retroactive to 23 Mar 1707)
27 Apr 1707 - 13 Jan 1709  Mohammad Kam Bakhsh-e Dinpanah 
                             ebn Awrangzib `Alamgir Padshah   (b. 1666 - d. 1709)
                             (in rebellion)
29 Feb 1712 - 17 Mar 1712  Mohammad `Azim ash-Shan ebn 
                             Bahadur Shah Padshah             (b. 1664 - d. 1712)
29 Feb 1712 - 28 Mar 1712  Mohammad Rafi` ash-Shan ebn        (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
                             Bahadur Shah Padshah 
                             (in rebellion)
29 Feb 1712 - 27 Mar 1712  Jahan Shah ebn Bahadur Shah        (b. 16.. - d. 1712)
                             Padshah "Khojestan Akhtar" 
                             (in rebellion)
30 Mar 1712 - 11 Jan 1713  Mo`ezz ad-Din Abu'l Fath           (b. 1661 - d. 1713)
                             Mohammad Jahandar Shah Padshah
11 Jan 1713 -  1 Mar 1719  Mo`in ad-Din (or Jalal ad-Din)     (b. 1687 - d. 1719)
                             Abu'l Mozaffar Mohammad 
                             Farrokhsiyar Padshah
 1 Mar 1719 -  7 Jun 1719  Shams ad-Din Abu'l Barakat         (b. 1699 - d. 1719)
                             Soltan Mohammad Rafi` ad-Darjat 
                             Padshah-e Ghazi
30 Mar 1719 - 13 Aug 1719  Mohammad Shah Nikusiyar            (b. 1679 - d. 1723) 
                             (in rebellion)
 8 Jun 1719 -  6 Sep 1719  Mohammad Shah Jahan II Sani        (b. 1696 - d. 1719)
                             Padshah (Mohammad Rafi` ad-Dawla)
28 Sep 1719 - 26 Apr 1748  Naser ad-Din Abu'l Fath            (b. 1702 - d. 1748)
                            (from 1722 Abu'l-Mozaffar)
                             Mohammad Shah Padshah-e Ghazi 
                             "Rawshan Akhtar"
12 Oct 1720 - 19 Nov 1720  Zahir ad-Din Abu'l Fath Mohammad   (d. 1720)
                             Ebrahim Shah Padshah 
                              (in rebellion)
29 Apr 1748 -  3 Jun 1754  Mojahed ad-Din Abu'n Nasr Ahmad    (b. 1725 - d. 1773)
                             Shah Bahadur Padshah-e Ghazi
 3 Jun 1754 - 29 Nov 1759  `Aziz ad-Din Abu'l-`Adl Mohammad   (b. 1699 - d. 1759)
                             `Alamgir Padhsh-e Ghazi
11 Dec 1759 - 25 Dec 1759  Mohyi-e Millat (or Mohyi ad-Din) 
                             Shah Jahan III Sani ebn Mohyi-e 
                             Sannat Mohammad
25 Dec 1759 -  1 Aug 1788  Jalal ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                             Mohammad Shah `Alam II Padshah
                             "Ham-e Din" (1st time)           (b. 1728 - d. 1806)
 1 Aug 1788 -  9 Oct 1788  Mohammad Bidarbakht ebn Ahmad Shah
16 Oct 1788 - 10 Nov 1806  Jalal ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                             Mohammad Shah `Alam II Padshah
                             "Ham-e Din" (2nd time)           (s.a.)
18 Nov 1806 - 28 Sep 1837  Mo`in ad-Din Abu´n Nasr Mohammad   (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
                             Akbar Padshah Saheb Qiran-e Sani
29 Sep 1837 - 29 Mar 1858  Seraj ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar        (b. 1775 - d. 1862)
                             Mohammad Bahadur Shah Padshah II
                             (10 May 1857 - 22 Mar 1858, in 
                             in rebellion against British rule)
Emperors/Empresses¹
 1 Jan 1877 - 22 Jun 1948  the kings/queens of United Kingdom
Governors-general (of the British East India Company)
20 Oct 1774 -  1 Feb 1785  Warren Hastings                    (b. 1732 - d. 1818)
 1 Feb 1785 - 12 Sep 1786  John Macpherson (acting)           (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
12 Sep 1786 - 28 Oct 1793  Charles Mann Cornwallis,           (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
                             Earl of Cornwallis (1st time) 
28 Oct 1793 - Mar 1798     Sir John Shore                     (b. 1751 - d. 1834)
Mar 1798 - 18 May 1798     Sir Alured Clarke (acting)         (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
18 May 1798 - 30 Jul 1805  Richard Colley Wellesley,          (b. 1760 - d. 1842)
                             Baron Wellesley (from 1799, Richard
                             Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley) 
30 Jul 1805 -  5 Oct 1805  Charles Cornwallis,                (s.a.)
                             Marquess Cornwallis (2nd time) 
10 Oct 1805 - 31 Jul 1807  Sir George Hilario Barlow (acting) (b. 1762 - d. 1846)
31 Jul 1807 -  4 Oct 1813  Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound,
                             Baron Minto                      (b. 1751 - d. 1814)
 4 Oct 1813 -  9 Jan 1823  Francis Rawdon-Hastings,           (b. 1754 - d. 1826)
                             Earl of Moira (from 1817, Francis 
                             Rawdon-Hastings, Marquess of Hastings) 
 9 Jan 1823 -  1 Aug 1823  John Adam (acting)                 (b. 1779 - d. 1825)
 1 Aug 1823 - 13 Mar 1828  William Pitt Amherst,              (b. 1773 - d. 1857)
                             Baron Amherst (from 1826, William 
                             Pitt Amherst, Earl Amherst) 
13 Mar 1828 -  4 Jul 1828  William Butterworth Bayley         (b. 1782 - d. 1860)
                             (acting)
 4 Jul 1828 - 20 Mar 1835  William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck,  (b. 1774 - d. 1839)
                             Lord Bentinck 
20 Mar 1835 -  4 Mar 1836  Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe    (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
                             (acting) 
 4 Mar 1836 - 28 Feb 1842  George Eden, Baron Auckland        (b. 1784 - d. 1849)
                             (from 11 Dec 1839, George Eden, Earl of Auckland) 
28 Feb 1842 - Jun 1844     Edward Law, Baron Ellenborough     (b. 1790 - d. 1871)
Jun 1844 - 23 Jul 1844     William Wilberforce Bird (acting)  (b. 1784 - d. 1857)
23 Jul 1844 - 12 Jan 1848  Henry Hardinge, (from 21 Apr 1846) (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
                             Viscount Hardinge 
12 Jan 1848 - 28 Feb 1856  James Andrew Broun Ramsay,         (b. 1812 - d. 1860)
                            (from 4 Jun 1849, Marquess and) 
                             Earl of Dalhousie 
28 Feb 1856 -  1 Nov 1858  Charles John Canning,              (b. 1812 - d. 1862)
                             Viscount Canning 
Viceroys and Governors-general
 1 Nov 1858 - 21 Mar 1862  Charles John Canning,              (s.a.)
                             Viscount Canning (from 12 May 1859, 
                             Charles John Canning, Earl Canning) 
21 Mar 1862 - 20 Nov 1863  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
21 Nov 1863 -  2 Dec 1863  Sir Robert Cornelis Napier         (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
                             (acting)
 2 Dec 1863 - 12 Jan 1864  Sir William Thomas Denison         (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
                             (acting)
12 Jan 1864 - 12 Jan 1869  Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence       (b. 1811 - d. 1879)
12 Jan 1869 -  8 Feb 1872  Richard Southwell Bourke,          (b. 1822 - d. 1872)
                             Earl of Mayo 
 9 Feb 1872 - 23 Feb 1872  Sir John Strachey (acting)         (b. 1823 - d. 1907)
24 Feb 1872 -  3 May 1872  Francis Napier, Baron of Ettrick   (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
                             (acting)
 3 May 1872 - 12 Apr 1876  Thomas George Baring,              (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
                             Viscount Baring of Lee 
12 Apr 1876 -  8 Jun 1880  Robert Bulwer-Lytton, Baron Lytton (b. 1831 - d. 1891)
 8 Jun 1880 - 13 Dec 1884  George Frederick Samuel Robinson,  (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
                             Marquess of Ripon 
13 Dec 1884 - 10 Dec 1888  Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-  (b. 1826 - d. 1902)
                             Blackwood, Earl of Dufferin 
10 Dec 1888 - 11 Oct 1894  Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,           (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
                             Marquess of Lansdowne
11 Oct 1894 -  6 Jan 1899  Victor Alexander Bruce,            (b. 1849 - d. 1917)
                             Earl of Elgin 
 6 Jan 1899 - 18 Nov 1905  George Nathaniel Curzon            (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
18 Nov 1905 - 23 Nov 1910  Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-        (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
                             Kynynmound, Earl of Minto 
23 Nov 1910 -  4 Apr 1916  Charles Hardinge, Baron Hardinge   (b. 1858 - d. 1944)
                             of Penshurst 
 4 Apr 1916 -  2 Apr 1921  Frederic John Napier Thesiger,     (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
                             Baron Chelmsford
 2 Apr 1921 -  3 Apr 1926  Rufus Daniel Isaacs,               (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
                             Baron Reading of Erleigh 
10 Apr 1925 -  8 Aug 1925   Victor Alexander George Robert    (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             Bulwer-Lytton, Earl of Lytton 
                             (viceroy and acting governor-general)
 3 Apr 1926 - 29 Jun 1929  Edward Frederick Lindley Wood,     (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
                             Baron Irwin 
29 Jun 1929 - 18 Apr 1931  George Joachim Goschen,            (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
                             Viscount Goschen of Hawkhurst 
18 Apr 1931 - 18 Apr 1936  George Freeman Freeman-Thomas,     (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
                             Earl of Willingdon 
18 Apr 1936 -  1 Oct 1943  Victor Alexander John Hope,        (b. 1887 - d. 1952)
                             Marquess of Linlithgow 
 1 Oct 1943 - 21 Feb 1947  Archibald Percival Wavell,         (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
                             Viscount Wavell 
21 Feb 1947 - 15 Aug 1947  Louis Francis Mountbatten,         (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
                             Viscount Mountbatten of Burma 
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
15 Aug 1947 - 21 Jun 1948  Louis Francis Mountbatten,         (s.a.)
                             Earl Mountbatten of Burma 
21 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950  Chakravarti Rajagopalachari        (b. 1878 - d. 1972)
Presidents
26 Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962  Rajendra Prasad                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)INC/Non-party
13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967  Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan       (b. 1888 - d. 1975)  Non-party
13 May 1967 -  3 May 1969  Zakir Husain                       (b. 1897 - d. 1969)  Non-party
 3 May 1969 - 20 Jul 1969  Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1st time) (b. 1894 - d. 1980)  Non-party 
                             (acting) 
20 Jul 1969 - 24 Aug 1969  Muhammad Hidayatullah (acting)     (b. 1905 - d. 1992)  Non-party
24 Aug 1969 - 24 Aug 1974  Varahagiri Venkata Giri (2nd time) (s.a.)               Non-party
24 Aug 1974 - 11 Feb 1977  Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed               (b. 1905 - d. 1977)INC/Non-party
11 Feb 1977 - 25 Jul 1977  Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting)     (b. 1912 - d. 2002)  Non-party
25 Jul 1977 - 25 Jul 1982  Neelam Sanjiva Reddy               (b. 1913 - d. 1996)INc/Non-party
25 Jul 1982 - 25 Jul 1987  Giani Zail Singh                   (b. 1916 - d. 1994)INC/Non-party
25 Jul 1987 - 25 Jul 1992  Ramaswamy Venkataraman             (b. 1910 - d. 2009)INC/Non-party
25 Jul 1992 - 25 Jul 1997  Shankar Dayal Sharma               (b. 1918 - d. 1999)INC/Non-party
25 Jul 1997 - 25 Jul 2002  Kocheril Raman Narayanan           (b. 1920 - d. 2005)  Non-party
25 Jul 2002 - 25 Jul 2007  Aavul Pakkiri Jainulabidin (A.P.J.)(b. 1931)            Non-party
                             Abdul Kalam
25 Jul 2007 - 25 Jul 2012  Pratibha Devisingh Patil (f)       (b. 1934)          INC/Non-party
25 Jul 2012 -              Pranab Kumar Mukherjee             (b. 1935)          INC/Non-party

 
Secretaries of State for India (and 1937-1948, for Burma)(in London)
 2 Sep 1858 - 18 Jun 1859  Edward Henry Stanley,              (b. 1826 - d. 1893)
                             Lord Stanley
18 Jun 1859 - 16 Feb 1866  Sir Charles Wood                   (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
16 Feb 1866 -  6 Jul 1866  George Frederick Samuel Robinson, 
                             Earl of Ripon
 6 Jul 1866 -  8 Mar 1867  Robert Arthur Talbot               (b. 1830 - d. 1903)
                             Gascoyne-Cecil,
                             Viscount Cranborne (1st time) 
 8 Mar 1867 -  9 Dec 1868  Sir Stafford Henry Northcote       (b. 1818 - d. 1887)
 9 Dec 1868 - 21 Feb 1874  George Douglas Campbell,           (b. 1823 - d. 1900)
                             Duke of Argyll
21 Feb 1874 -  2 Apr 1878  Robert Arthur Talbot               (s.a.)
                             Gascoyne-Cecil,
                             Marquess of Salisbury (2nd time) 
 2 Apr 1878 - 28 Apr 1880  Gathorne Hardy, Viscount Cranbrook (b. 1814 - d. 1906)
28 Apr 1880 - 16 Dec 1882  Spencer Compton Cavendish,         (b. 1833 - d. 1908)
                             Marquess of Hartington
16 Dec 1882 - 24 Jun 1885  John Woodhouse, Earl of Kimberley  (b. 1826 - d. 1902) 
                             (1st time)
24 Jun 1885 -  6 Feb 1886  Randolph Henry Spencher Churchill  (b. 1849 - d. 1895)
 6 Feb 1886 -  3 Aug 1886  John Woodhouse, Earl of Kimberley  (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 3 Aug 1886 - 18 Aug 1892  Sir Richard Assheton, Viscount     (b. 1823 - d. 1914)
                             Cross
                            (from 18 Aug 1886, Richard Assheton
                             Cross, Viscount Cross) 
18 Aug 1892 - 10 Mar 1894  John Woodhouse, Earl of Kimberley  (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
10 Mar 1894 -  4 Jul 1895  Henry Hartley Fowler               (b. 1830 - d. 1911)
 4 Jul 1895 -  9 Oct 1903  Lord George Francis Hamilton       (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
 9 Oct 1903 - 11 Dec 1905  William St.John Fremantle Brodrick (b. 1856 - d. 1942)
11 Dec 1905 -  3 Nov 1910  John Morley, (from 5 May 1908)     (b. 1838 - d. 1923) 
                             Viscount Morley of Blackburn 
 7 Nov 1910 - 27 May 1915  Robert Crewe-Milnes, Earl of Crewe (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
                             (from 20 Jun 1911, Robert
                             Crewe-Milnes, Marquess of Crewe) 
 7 Mar 1911 - 25 May 1911  John Morley, Viscount Morley 
                             of Blackburn (acting for Crewe)  (s.a.)
25 May 1915 - 17 Jul 1917  Joseph Austen Chamberlain          (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
17 Jul 1917 - 10 Mar 1922  Edwin Samuel Montagu               (b. 1879 - d. 1924)
21 Mar 1922 - 23 Jan 1924  William Robert Wellesley Peel,     (b. 1867 - d. 1937)
                             Viscount Peel (1st time)
23 Jan 1924 -  7 Nov 1924  Sir Sydney Haldane Olivier,        (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
                             (from 12 Feb 1924, Sydney Haldane
                             Olivier, Baron Olivier) 
 7 Nov 1924 - 22 Oct 1928  Frederick Edwin Smith,             (b. 1872 - d. 1930)
                             Earl of Birkenhead 
 1 Nov 1928 -  7 Jun 1929  William Robert Wellesley Peel,     (s.a.)
                             Viscount Peel (2nd time)
 8 Jun 1929 - 26 Aug 1931  William Wedgwood Benn              (b. 1877 - d. 1966)
26 Aug 1931 -  7 Jun 1935  Sir Samuel John Gurney Hoare       (b. 1880 - d. 1958)
 7 Jun 1935 - 15 May 1940  Lawrence John Lumbey Dundas,       (b. 1876 - d. 1961)
                             Marquess of Zetland
15 May 1940 -  3 Aug 1945  Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett   (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
                             Amery 
 3 Aug 1945 - 23 Apr 1947  Frederick William Pethick-Lawrence,(b. 1871 - d. 1961)
                             Baron Pentick-Lawrence of Peaslake
23 Apr 1947 - 15 Aug 1947  William Francis Hare,              (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                             Earl of Listowel
Prime ministers
25 Aug 1946 - 27 May 1964  Jawaharlal Nehru                   (b. 1889 - d. 1964)  INC 
27 May 1964 -  9 Jun 1964  Gulzarilal Nanda (1st time)        (b. 1898 - d. 1998)  INC
 9 Jun 1964 - 11 Jan 1966  Lal Bahadur Shastri                (b. 1904 - d. 1966)  INC 
11 Jan 1966 - 19 Jan 1966  Gulzarilal Nanda (2nd time)        (s.a.)               INC
19 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977  Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (f)    (b. 1917 - d. 1984)  INC 
                             (1st time)
24 Mar 1977 - 28 Jul 1979  Morarji Ranchhodji Desai           (b. 1896 - d. 1995)  JP 
28 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1980  Choudhary Charan Singh             (b. 1902 - d. 1987)  JP-S
14 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984  Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (f)    (s.a.)               INC-I 
                             (2nd time)
31 Oct 1984 -  2 Dec 1989  Rajiv Gandhi                       (b. 1944 - d. 1991)  INC
 2 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990  Vishwanath Pratap Singh            (b. 1931 - d. 2008)  JD
10 Nov 1990 - 21 Jun 1991  Chandra Shekhar                    (b. 1927 - d. 2007)  SJP-R
21 Jun 1991 - 16 May 1996  Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (b. 1921 - d. 2004)  INC
16 May 1996 -  1 Jun 1996  Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1st time)    (b. 1924)            BJP 
 1 Jun 1996 - 21 Apr 1997  Haradanahalli Dodde Gowda Deve     (b. 1933)            JD
                             Gowda
21 Apr 1997 - 19 Mar 1998  Inder Kumar Gujral                 (b. 1919 - d. 2012)  JD
19 Mar 1998 - 22 May 2004  Atal Bihari Vajpayee (2nd time)    (s.a.)               BJP
22 May 2004 -              Manmohan Singh                     (b. 1932)            INC


British Residents to the Mughal Empire (in Delhi)
1803 - 25 Jun 1806         David Ochterlony
(1st time)        (b. 1758 - d. 1825)
25 Jun 1806 - 1811         Archibald Seton                    (b. 1758 - d. 1818)
25 Feb 1811 - 1818         Charles Theophilus Metcalfe        (s.a.)
                             (1st time)       
1818 - 1820                Sir David Ochterlony (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1820 - 1823                Alexander Ross                     (b. 1777 - d. 18..)
1823                       William Fraser (1st time)(acting)  (b. 1784 - d. 1835)
1823 - Oct 1825            C. Elliott
26 Aug 1825 - 31 Jul 1827  Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
31 Jul 1827 - 1828         Edward Colebrooke
1828 - 1829                William Fraser (2nd time)(acting)  (s.a.)
18 Sep 1829 - Nov 1830     Francis James Hawkins              (b. 1806 - d. 1860)
25 Nov 1830 - 1832         W.B. Martin 
1832 - 22 Mar 1835         William Fraser (3rd time)          (s.a.)
1835 - 1853                Sir Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe     (b. 1795 - d. 1853)
Nov 1853 - 11 May 1857     Simon Fraser                       (b. 1803 - d. 1857)

 
Provisional Government of Free India 
 
[Provisional Govt. of
                  Free India 1943-1945 (Indian National Congress flag
                  1931-1947)]]
        21 Oct 1943 - 18 Aug 1945
   
 
Hear National Anthem
"Jana-Gana-Mana"
(Thou Art the Ruler of the
Minds of All People)
Provisional Capital: Port Blair
(Nicobar Islands)
Indian National Army (1945) :
40,000 est.
 
Head of State and Prime minister of Provisional Government of Free India²
21 Oct 1943 - 18 Aug 1945  Subhas Chandra Bose                (b. 1897 - d. 1945)  AIFB
                            (styled Netaji [the leader], recognized by Axis powers;
                            in exile 21 Oct 1943 - 18 Aug 1945 [in Singapore
                            to Nov 1943, Nov 1944 - 10 Jan 1945; Nov 1943 -
                            Nov 1944, Jan 1945 - 24 Apr 1945 in Rangoon, Burma;
                            Apr - May 1945 in Bangkok, Thailand; Kuala Lumpur,
                            Malaya May - 12 Aug 1945; then in Singapore])
 
 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a) 28 Apr 1876 - 22 Jan 1901: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India";
(b) 4 Nov 1901 - 13 May 1927: "By the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India";
(c) 13 May 1927 - 22 Jun 1948: "By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; 
(d) 22 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950: "By the Grace of God of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith."

 ²the Provisional Government of Free India was eventually recognized by nine Axis powers: Germany, Japan, Italy (Mussolini), Croatia, China (Wang Jing Wei), Thailand, Burma (Ba Maw), Manchukuo, and The Philippines (José Laurel).

 
Territorial Disputes: Since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in Feb 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal.

Party abbreviations: BJP = Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian People's Party, social conservative, Hindu nationalist, est.1980); INC = Indian National Congress ("Congress Party", populist, socialist, est.1885); JD = Janata Dal (People's Party, social-democratic, est.1977); JD-S = Janata Dal-Socialist (People's Party-Socialist, JD Chandra Shekhar faction, social-democratic, split from JD); SJP-R =  Samajwadi Janata Party-Rashtriya (Socialist People's Party, split from JD, est.1990);
- Former parties: AIFB = All India Forward Bloc (left-wing nationalist, est.1939 by Subhas Chandra Bose, split from INC, pro-independence, pro-Japan); INC-I = Congress Party-Indira (INC Indira Ghandi faction, personalist, populist, socialist, 1980s-1990s); JP-S = Janata Party-Secular (anti-Indira Gandhi, est.1979)


British East India Company
[East India
                          Company, 1707]
            1707 - 1 Jan 1801 
   British East India Company flag 
[East India
                          Company, 1801]
       1 Jan 1801 - 2 Aug 1858 
   British East India Company flag

Chairmen of the British East India Company (in London)
Apr 1783 - Nov 1783        Sir Henry Fletcher (1st time)      (b. 1727 - d. 1807)
Nov 1783 - Apr 1785        Nathaniel Smith (1st time)         (b. 1730 - d. 1794)
Apr 1785 - Apr 1786        William Devaynes (1st time)        (b. 1730 - d. 1809)
Apr 1786 - Apr 1787        John Michie                        (d. 1788) 
Apr 1787 - Apr 1788        John Motteux 
Apr 1788 - Dec 1788        Nathaniel Smith (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Dec 1788 - Apr 1790        William Devaynes (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Apr 1790 - Apr 1791        Stephen Lushington (1st time)      (b. 1744 - d. 1804)
Apr 1791 - Apr 1792        John Smith Burgess                 (b. c.1734 - d. 1803)
Apr 1792 - Apr 1793        Francis Baring                     (b. 1740 - d. 1810)
Apr 1793 - Apr 1795        William Devaynes (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Apr 1795 - Apr 1796        Stephen Lushington (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Apr 1796 - Apr 1797        David Scott (1st time)             (b. 1746 - d. 1805)
Apr 1797 - Apr 1798        Hugh Inglis (1st time)             (b. 1744 - d. 1822)
Apr 1798 - Apr 1799        Jacob Bosanquet (1st time)         (b. 1758 - d. 1828)
Apr 1799 - Apr 1800        Stephen Lushington (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Apr 1800 - Apr 1801        Hugh Inglis (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Apr 1801 - Sep 1801        David Scott (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Sep 1801 - Apr 1802        Charles Mills                      (b. 1755 - d. 1826)
Apr 1802 - Apr 1803        John Roberts
Apr 1803 - Apr 1804        William Fullerton Elphinstone      (b. 1740 - d. 1834)
                             (1st time)
Apr 1804 - Apr 1805        Charles Grant (1st time)           (b. 1778 - d. 1866)
Apr 1805 - Apr 1806        William Fullerton Elphinstone      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1806 - Apr 1809        Edward Parry
Apr 1809 - Apr 1810        Charles Grant (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Apr 1810 - Apr 1811        William Astell (1st time)          (b. 1774 - d. 1847)
Apr 1811 - Apr 1812        Jacob Bosanquet (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Apr 1812 - Apr 1813        Jacob Inglis (3rd time)            (s.a.)
Apr 1813 - Apr 1814        Robert Thornton                    (b. 1759 - d. 1826)
Apr 1814 - Apr 1815        William Fullerton Elphinstone      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) 
Apr 1815 - Apr 1816        Charles Grant (3rd time)           (s.a.)
Apr 1816 - Apr 1817        Thomas Reid (1st time)             (b. 1762 - d. 1824)
Apr 1817 - Apr 1818        John Bebb
Apr 1818 - Apr 1819        James Pattison (1st time)
Apr 1819 - Apr 1820        Campbell Majoribanks (1st time)    (b. 1769 - d. 1840)
Apr 1820 - Apr 1821        George Abercrombie Robinson        (b. 1758 - d. 1832) 
                             (1st time)
Apr 1821 - Apr 1822        Thomas Reid (2nd time)             (s.a.)
Apr 1822 - Apr 1823        James Pattison (2nd time)
Apr 1823 - Apr 1824        William Wigram                     (b. 1780 - d. 1858)
Apr 1824 - Apr 1825        William Astell (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Apr 1825 - Apr 1826        Campbell Majoribanks (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Apr 1826 - Apr 1827        George Abercrombie Robinson        (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1827 - Apr 1828        Hugh Lindsay                       (b. 1765 - d. 1844)
Apr 1828 - Apr 1829        William Astell (3rd time)          (s.a.)
Apr 1829 - Apr 1830        John Loch                          (b. 1781 - d. 1868)
Apr 1830 - Apr 1831        William Astell (4th time)          (s.a.)
1831                       Robert Campbell                    (d. 1858)
1832                       John Goldsborough Ravenshaw        (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
1833                       Campbell Marjoribanks              (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
1833                       John Loch                          (b. 1781 - d. 1868)
1834                       Henry St.George Tucker (1st time)  (b. 1771 - d. 1851)
1835                       William Stanley Clarke             (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
1836 - 1838                James Rivett Carnac                (b. 1784 - d. 1846)
1838                       James Law Lushington (1st time)    (b. 1779 - d. 1859)
1839                       Richard Jenkins                    (b. 1785 - d. 1853)
1840                       William Butterworth Bayley         (b. 1781 - d. 1860)
1841                       George Lyall                       (b. 1779 - d. 1853)
1842                       James Law Lushington (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1843                       John Cotton                        (b. 1783 - d. 1860)
1844                       John Shepherd (1st time)           (b. 1792 - d. 1859)
1845                       Henry Willock                      (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
1846                       James Weir Hogg (1st time)         (b. 1790 - d. 1876)
1847                       Henry St. George Tucker (2nd time) (s.a.)
1848                       John Law Lushington (3rd time)     (s.a.)   
1849                       Archibald Galloway                 (b. 1779 - d. 1850)
1850 - 1852                John Shepherd (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1852                       James Weir Hogg (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1853                       Russell Ellice                     (b. c.1799 - d. 1873)
1854                       James Oliphant                     (b. 1796 - d. 1881)
1855                       Elliot Macnaghten                  (b. 1807 - d. 1888)
1856                       William Henry Sykes                (b. 1790 - d. 1872)
1857                       Ross Donnelly Mangles              (b. 1801 - d. 1877)
Apr 1858 - 1858            Sir Frederick Currie               (b. 1799 - d. 1875)

Presidents of the Board of Control of the East India Company (in London)
 3 Sep 1784 - 12 Mar 1790  Thomas Townshend, Baron Sydney     (b. 1733 - d. 1800)
12 Mar 1790 - 28 Jun 1793  William Wyndham Grenville,         (b. 1759 - d. 1834)
                             Baron Grenville of 
                             Wotton-under-Bernewood 
28 Jun 1793 - 19 May 1801  Henry Dundas                       (b. 1742 - d. 1811)
19 May 1801 - 12 Jul 1802  George Legge, Earl of Dartmouth    (b. 1755 - d. 1810)
12 Jul 1802 - 12 Feb 1806  Robert Stewart, Viscount           (b. 1769 - d. 1822)
                             Castlereagh
12 Feb 1806 - 16 Jul 1806  Gilbert Elliot                     (b. 1751 - d. 1814)
16 Jul 1806 -  1 Oct 1806  Thomas Grenville                   (b. 1755 - d. 1846)
 1 Oct 1806 -  6 Apr 1807  George Tierney                     (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
 6 Apr 1807 - 17 Jul 1809  Robert Saunders-Dundas (1st time)  (b. 1771 - d. 1851) 
17 Jul 1809 - 13 Nov 1809  Dudley Ryder, Earl of Harrowby     (b. 1762 - d. 1847)
13 Nov 1809 -  7 Apr 1812  Robert Saunders-Dundas,            (s.a.)
                             Viscount Melville (2nd time)
 7 Apr 1812 - 20 Jun 1816  Robert Hobart,                     (b. 1760 - d. 1816)
                             Earl of Buckinghamshire
20 Jun 1816 - 16 Jan 1821  George Canning                     (b. 1770 - d. 1827)
16 Jan 1821 -  8 Feb 1822  Charles Bragge Bathurst            (b. 1751 - d. 1831) 
 8 Feb 1822 - 31 Jul 1828  Charles Watkin Williams Wynn       (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
31 Jul 1828 - 24 Sep 1828  Robert Saunders-Dundas,            (s.a.)
                             Viscount Melville (3rd time)
24 Sep 1828 -  1 Dec 1830  Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough      (b. 1790 - d. 1871)
                             (1st time)
 1 Dec 1830 - 18 Dec 1834  Charles Grant                      (b. 1778 - d. 1866)
18 Dec 1834 - 23 Apr 1835  Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
23 Apr 1835 -  4 Sep 1841  Sir John Cam Hobhouse (1st time)   (b. 1786 - d. 1869)
 4 Sep 1841 - 23 Oct 1841  Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough      (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
23 Oct 1841 - 17 May 1843  William Vesey-FitzGerald,          (b. 1783 - d. 1857)
                             Lord Fitzgerald
17 May 1843 -  8 Jul 1846  Frederick John Robinson,           (b. 1782 - d. 1859)
                             Earl of Ripon
 8 Jul 1846 -  5 Feb 1852  Sir John Cam Hobhouse (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1852 - 28 Feb 1852  Fox Maule-Ramsey, Baron Panmure    (b. 1801 - d. 1874)
28 Feb 1852 - 30 Dec 1852  John Charles Herries               (b. 1778 - d. 1855)
30 Dec 1852 -  3 Mar 1855  Sir Charles Wood                   (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
 3 Mar 1855 -  6 Mar 1858  Robert Vernon Smith                (b. 1800 - d. 1873)
 6 Mar 1858 -  5 Jun 1858  Edward Law, Earl of Ellenborough   (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
 5 Jun 1858 -  2 Sep 1858  Edward Henry Stanley,              (b. 1826 - d. 1893)
                             Earl of Derby



Jammu and Kashmir
 
[Jammu and
                          Kashmir Flag 1846-1936]
                     1846 - 1936
 
[Jammu and
                          Kashmir Maharaja's flag]
                 1846 - 1936  Maharaja's Flag
 
[Jammu and
                          Kashmir Flag 1936-1953]
                    1936 - 1953 
 
[Jammu and
                          Kashmir Flag 1953]
                    Adopted 1953
 


Map of Jammu and Kashmir
Capital: Srinagar (summer),
Jammu (winter)
Currency: Indian Rupee 
(INR)
Population: 12,548,926 (2011)
4,021,600 (1941)

....                       Kingdom of Kashmir established in remote (legendary) antiquity.
Early Middle Ages          State of Jammu established.
28 Jul 1589                Kashmir incorporated into (Mughal) Empire of Hind.
May 1752                   Kashmir conquered by the newly founded Afghan kingdom.
1816                       Jammu annexed to the Punjab.
 5 Jul 1819                Kashmir annexed to the Punjab.
17 Jun 1822                Independence of Jammu restored.
15 Mar 1846                U.K. government cedes Kashmir to the ruler of Jammu,
                             thus creating the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
16 Mar 1846 - 15 Aug 1947  Jammu and Kashmir a British protectorate.
27 Oct 1947                The ruler of Jammu and Kashmir declares the accession of the 
                             state to India in the face of tribal invasion from Pakistan
                             (Azad Kashmir annexed to Pakistan).
26 Jan 1957                The incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir into India is
                             declared to be complete.
21 Nov 1962                China occupies Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.

Jammu

Rajas
1675 - 1703                Gujai Dev                          (d. 1703)
1703 - 1725                Dhruv Dev                          (d. 1725)
1725 -  4 Apr 1782         Ranjit Dev                         (d. 1782)
 4 Apr 1782 - 1787         Brij Raj Dev                       (d. 1787)
1787 - Jun 1797            Sampuran Singh                     (b. 1786 - d. 1797)
1787 - Jun 1797            Mian Mota -Regent
Jun 1797 - 1816            Jit Singh                          (d. 1816)
1816 - 1820                Interregnum
1820 -  4 May 1822         Kishore Singh                      (d. 1822)
 4 May 1822 - 15 Mar 1846  Gulab Singh                        (b. 1792 - d. 1857)


Kashmir

Afghan Governors
1753  (5 months)           Ishak Aqasi
1753                       Abdullah Khan Kabuli
1753 - 1762                Raja Sukh Jiwan Mal
1762  
(3 months)           Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai (1st time)
1762 - 1764                Buland Khan Bamzai
1764 - 1765                Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai (2nd time)
1765 - 1766                Jan Muhammad Khan
1766                       Lal Khan Khatak (1st time)
1766 - 1767                Khurram Khan
1767                       Faqir Ullah Kanth
1767 - 1770                Nur-ud-din Khan Bamzai (3rd time)
1770 - 1771                Lal Khan Khatak (2nd time)
1771 
(6 months)           Khurram Khan
1771 - 1776                Amir Khan Jawansher
1778 - 1783                Haji Karimdad Khan
1783 - 1785                Azad Khan                          (d. 1785)
1785 - 1786                Madad Khan
1786 - 1788                Mirdad Khan
1788                       Mulla Ghafar Khan
1788 - 1792                Juma Khan Alokzai
1792 - 1793                Mirza Khan
1793 - 1794                Mir Hazar Khan
1794                       Rahmatullah Khan
1794 - 1795                Kifayat Khan
1795                       Muhammad Khan Jawansher
29 Sep 1795 - Dec 1795     Sher Muhammad Khan
1795 - 1801                Abdullah Khan Alokzai (1st time)
1801                       Vakil Khan
1801 - 1812                Abdullah Khan Alokzai (2nd time)
1812
 (5 months)           Sher Muhammad Khan
1813 - 1819                Atta Muhammad Khan


Jammu and Kashmir

Raja
15 Mar 1846 -  9 Nov 1846  Gulab Singh                        (s.a.)
Maharajas
 9 Nov 1846 - 20 Feb 1856  Gulab Singh                        (s.a.)
20 Feb 1856 - 12 Sep 1885  Ranbir Singh                       (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
12 Sep 1885 - 17 Apr 1889  Pratap Singh (1st time)            (b. 1848 - d. 1925)
17 Apr 1889 - 1898         Amar Singh                         (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
                             (chairman regency council)
1898 -  7 Sep 1925         Pratap Singh (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                             (chairman regency council to Oct 1905)
 7 Sep 1925 - 17 Nov 1952  Hari Singh                         (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
20 Jun 1949 - 17 Nov 1952  Karan Singh -Regent                (b. 1931)
Sadr-e Riyasat (roughly, "head of state")
17 Nov 1952 - 30 Mar 1965  Karan Singh                        (s.a.)
Governors
30 Mar 1965 - 15 May 1967  Karan Singh                        (s.a.)
15 May 1967 -  3 Jul 1973  Bhagwan Sahay                      (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
 3 Jul 1973 - 22 Feb 1981  Lakshmi Kant Jha                   (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
22 Feb 1981 - 26 Apr 1984  Braj Kumar Nehru                   (b. 1909 - d. 2001)
26 Apr 1984 - Jul 1989     Jagmohan (1st time)                (b. 1927)
Jul 1989 - 19 Jan 1990     K.V. Krishna Rao (1st time)        (b. 1923)
19 Jan 1990 - 26 May 1990  Jagmohan (2nd time)                (s.a.)
26 May 1990 - 12 Mar 1993  Girish Chandra Saxena (1st time)   (b. 1928)
12 Mar 1993 -  2 May 1998  K.V. Krishna Rao (2nd time)        (s.a.) 
 2 May 1998 -  4 Jun 2003  Girish Chandra Saxena (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 4 Jun 2003 - 25 Jun 2008  S.K. Sinha                         (b. 1926)
25 Jun 2008 -              Narinder Nath
Vohra                (b. 1936)

Chief ministers (Dewan)
1823 - 1836                Amir Chand (in Jammu)
1836 - 1865                Jwala Sahai                        (d. 1865)
1865 - 1876                Kirpa Ram                          (b. 1832 - d. 1876)
1876 - 15 Sep 1885         Wazir Punnu                        (d. 1885)
1885 - 1886                Anant Ram                          (d. 1892)
Mar 1886 - Jan 1887        Gobind Sahai
1887 - 1889                Lachman Das
1889 - 1909                Raja Amar Singh                    (s.a.)
1909 - 1917                Amar Nath
1917 - 1921                Raja Daljit Singh                  (b. 1882 - d. 1946)
Mar 1921 - Apr 1922        Bishandas
1922 - 1926                Raja Hari Singh                    (s.a.)
1926 - 1927                Jagat Dev Singh                    (b. 1903 - d. 1940)
1927                       Padam Deo Singh
1927 - Mar 1929            Sir Albion Banerjee                (b. 1871 - d. 1950)
1929 - 25 Jul 1931         G.E.C. Wakefield                   (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
1931 - 1933                Sir Hari Kishan Kaul               (b. 1881 - d. 1949)

Prime ministers
1933 - 1936                Elliot James Dowell Colvin         (b. 1885 - d. 1950)
1936                       Sir Barjor Jamshedji Dalal (acting)(b. 1871 - d. 1936)
1936 - Jul 1943            N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar            (b. 1882 - d. 1953)
                             (from 1 Jan 1941, Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar)
Jul 1943 - Feb 1944        Kailas Narain Haksar               (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
Feb 1944 - 28 Jun 1945     Sir Benegal Narsing Rau            (b. 1887 - d. 1953)  Non-party
28 Jun 1945 - 11 Aug 1947  Ram Chandra Kak                    (b. 1893 - d. 1983)  Non-party
11 Aug 1947 - 15 Oct 1947  Janak Singh (acting)               (b. 1872 - d. 1972)  Non-party
15 Oct 1947 -  5 Mar 1948  Mehr Chand Mahajan                 (b. 1889 - d. 1967)  INC
30 Oct 1947 -  9 Aug 1953  Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah           (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  JKNC 
                            "the Lion of Kashmir"
                            (to 5 Mar 1948, head of the emergency administration)
 9 Aug 1953 - 12 Oct 1963  Bakshi Ghulam Muhammad             (b. 1907 - d. 1972)  JKNC
12 Oct 1963 - 29 Feb 1964  Khwaja Shams-ud-Din                (b. 1922 - d. 1999)  JKNC
29 Feb 1964 - 30 Mar 1965  Ghulam Muhammad Sadiq              (b. 1912 - d. 1971)  INC
Chief ministers
30 Mar 1965 - 12 Dec 1971  Ghulam Muhammad Sadiq              (s.a.)               INC
12 Dec 1971 - 25 Feb 1975  Seyd Mir Qasim                     (b. 1921 - d. 2004)  INC
25 Feb 1975 - 26 Mar 1977  Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah           (s.a.)               JKNC
                             (1st time)
26 Mar 1977 -  9 Jul 1977  President's Rule
 9 Jul 1977 -  8 Sep 1982  Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah           (s.a.)               JKNC
                             (2nd time)
 8 Sep 1982 -  2 Jul 1984  Farooq Abdullah (1st time)         (b. 1936)            JKNC
 2 Jul 1984 -  6 Mar 1986  Ghulam Mohammad Shah               (b. 1920 - d. 2009)  ANC
 6 Mar 1986 -  7 Nov 1986  President's Rule
 7 Nov 1986 - 19 Jan 1990  Farooq Abdullah (2nd time)         (s.a.)               JKNC
19 Jan 1990 -  9 Oct 1996  President's Rule
 9 Oct 1996 - 18 Oct 2002  Farooq Abdullah (3rd time)         (s.a.)               JKNC
18 Oct 2002 -  2 Nov 2002  President's Rule
 2 Nov 2002 -  2 Nov 2005  Mufti Mohammad Sayeed              (b. 1936)            PDP
 2 Nov 2005 - 10 Jul 2008  Ghulam Nabi Azad                   (b. 1949)            INC
10 Jul 2008 -  5 Jan 2009  
President's Rule
 5 Jan 2009 -              Omar Abdullah                      (b. 1970
)            JKNC

British Residents (to 1885 in Hunza, then in Srinagar)
15 Mar 1846 - 1877         None
1877 - 1880                John Biddulph                      (b. 1840 - d. 1922)
1880 - 1883                Vacant
1883 - 1886                Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry      (b. 1837 - d. 1891)
                             St. John 
1886 - Jan 1889            Trevor John Chichele               (b. 1846 - d. 1905)
                             Chichele-Plowden 
1889 - 1892                Robert Parry Nisbet                (b. 1839 - d. 1916)
1892 - 1894                David William Keith Barr           (b. 1846 - d. 1916)
1894 - 1896                Hugh Shakespear Barnes             (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
1896 - 1900                Sir Adelbert Cecil Talbot          (b. 1845 - d. 1920)
1900 - 1901                Harold Arthur Deane                (b. 1854 - d. 1908)
1901 - 1903                Louis William Dane                 (b. 1856 - d. 1946)
1903 - 1905                Elliot Graham Colvin               (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
1906 - 1909                Sir Francis Edward Younghusband    (b. 1863 - d. 1942)
1910 - 1911                John Ramsay                        (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
1911 - 1914                Stuart Mitford Fraser              (b. 1864 - d. 1963)
1914 - 1915                Henry Venn Cobb                    (b. 1864 - d. 1949)
1916 - 1917                John Manners Smith                 (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
1917 - 1921                Arthur D'Arcy Gordon Bannerman     (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
1921 - 1923                Charles Joseph Windham             (b. 1867 - d. 1941)
1923 - 1927                Sir John Barry Wood                (b. 1870 - d. 1933)
1927 - 1929                Evelyn Berkeley Howell             (b. 1877 - d. 1971)
1929 - 1931                George Drummond Ogilvie            (b. 1882 - d. 1966)
1931 - 1932                Courtenay Latimer                  (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
Jul 1932 - 1935            Frederick Marshman Bailey          (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
1925 - 1938                Lionel Edward Lang                 (b. 1885 - d. 1956)
1938 - 1941                Denholm Fraser                     (b. 1889 - d. 1956)
1941 - 1943                Leslie Eric Barton                 (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
1943 - 1945                James Glasgow Acheson              (b. 1889 - d. 1973)
1945 - 1947                Wilfred Francis Webb               (b. 1897 - d. 1973)

Party abbreviations: ANC = Jammu and Kashmir Awami National Conference (split from JKNC, est.1988); INC = Indian National Congress ("Congress Party", populist, socialist, est.1885); JKNC = All Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (Kasmir unity, pro-autonomy, est.1939, as All All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference 1932-1939); PDP = Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (est.1999)


Ladakh
 
Capital: Leh
Population: 270,126 (2001)

c.900                      Mnga'-ris-skor-gsum (Ladakh) established by a
                             West-Tibetan branch of the Yar-lung dynasty.
1200's - 1300's            Under Mongol suzerainty.
1644 - 1685                Tributary of the (Mughal) Empire of Hind.
1690's - 1700's            Vassal state of Kashmir.
1783 - 17 Sep 1842         Tributary of Tibet (which itself is under suzerainty of China).
17 Sep 1842                Ladakh incorporated into the Jammu state, succeeded
                             by Jammu and Kashmir (with some nominal autonomy).
21 Nov 1962                China occupies the Aksai Chin region.

Kings (title Chos-rgyal-chen-po)¹
1694 - 1729                Nyi-ma rNam-rgyal
1729 - 20 Mar 1739         bDe-skyong rNam-rgyal
1739 - 1753                Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal
1753 - 1782                Tshe-dbang rNam-rgyal II
1782 - 1802                Mi-jigs-tshe-brtan rNam-rgyal
1802 - 1837                Tshe-dpal-mi-'gyur-don-grub        (d. 1840)
                             rNam-rgyal (1st time)
1837 - 1839                dNgos-grub-bstan-'dzin -Regent
                            (styled rGyal-tsab or sRid-skyong)
1839 - 1840                Tshe-dpal-mi-'gyur-don-grub        (s.a.)
                             rNam-rgyal (2nd time)
Jun 1840 - Jul 1840        'Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (1st time)    (b. 1833 - d. c.1873)
1840 - 1842                Kun-dga' rNam-rgyal II             (b. c.1832 - d. ....)
1842 - 17 Sep 1842         'Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (2nd time)    (s.a.)

 ¹From 1683 every ruler also used the name Aqibat Mahmud Khan.



Danish India 
 19 Nov 1620 - 7 Nov 1845
 
Map of Danish India
Capital: Tranquebar


19 Nov 1620                Tranquebar (Dansborg) a Danish possession.
1636 - 1643                Balasore a Danish possession.
1696 - 1722                Oddeway Torre (on Malabar coast) a Danish possession. 
1698 - 1714                Gondalpara (Dannemarksnagore) southeast of Chandernagore
                             a Danish possession.
1752 - 1791                Calicut a Danish possession.
1755 - 1824                Colachel (on Malabar coast) a Danish possession. 
 1 Jan 1846                Frederik Islands (Nicobar Islands) a Danish colony.
                             (subordinated to Tranquebar).
 8 Oct 1755                Serampore (Frederiksnagore) a Danish possession.
1763                       Balasore a Danish possession.
1779                       Danish crown colony.
1784 - 1807/09             Nicobar islands abandoned.
12 May 1801 - 17 Aug 1802  British occupy Danish India.
1807 - 1814                British occupy Nicobar Islands.
13 Feb 1808 - 20 Sep 1815  British occupy Danish India.
20 Sep 1815                Restored to Denmark.
11 Oct 1845                Frederiksnagore sold to Britain.
 7 Nov 1845                Tranquebar and remaining Danish India settlements
                             sold to Britain, part of British India.
16 Oct 1868                Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands sold to Britain,
                             which become part of British India.

Governors (of the Danish East India Company to 1779)
25 Aug 1620 - 31 May 1621  Ove Gedde                          (b. 1594 - d. 1660)
 
1 Jun 1621 -  9 Nov 1636  Roland Crappé                      (d. 1645)
 9 Nov 1636 -  5 Sep 1643  Bernt Pessart
 5 Sep 1643 - 1648         Willem Leyel                       (b. c.1593 - d. 1654)
1648 -  7 Sep 1655         Poul Hansen Korsør                 (d. 1655)
 7 Sep 1655 - 1669         Eskild Andersen Kongsbakke         (b. 1615 - d. 1674)
1669 - 1673                Henrik Eggers
1673 - Oct 1682            Sivart Adeler                      (b. 1647 - d. 1683)
Oct 1682 -  9 Jul 1686     Axel Juel                          (b. 1655 - d. 1720)
 9 Jul 1686 - Oct 1687     Wolf Henrik von Kalnein (Calneyn)  (d. 1690)
Oct 1687 - 1689            Christian Porck (1st time)
1689 - 1690                Moritz Hartmann                    (b. 1656 - d. 1695)
1690 - 1694                Christian Porck (2nd time)
1694 - 19 May 1701         Claus Vogdt (Voigt)
19 May 1701 - 1701         Andreas Andreae                    (d. 1701)
1701 - Jul 1702            Mikkel Knudsen Crone               (d. 1716)
Jul 1702 - 1704            Jørgen Hermansen Bjørn             (b. 1652 - d. 1704)
 1 Jul 1704 - 20 Oct 1716  Johan Sigismund Hassius            (b. 1664 - d. 1729)
20 Oct 1716 - 21 Jan 1720  Christen Brun-Lundegaard           (d. 1724)
23 Jan 1720 - 12 Oct 1726  Christian Ulrich von Nissen        (b. 1691 - d. 1756)
12 Oct 1726 -  8 Aug 1730  Rasmus Hansen Attrup               (d. 1745)
 8 Aug 1730 -  1 Aug 1733  Diderich Mühlenport                (d. 1746)
 1 Aug 1733 - 13 Jul 1741  Poul Krisk Panck                   (b. 1690 - d. 1747)
13 Jul 1741 - 17 Sep 1744  Ivar Bonsack                       (d. 1748)
17 Sep 1744 -  5 Sep 1754  Hans Ernst Bonsack
 5 Sep 1754 - 10 Aug 1759  Hans Georg Krog                    (b. 1720 - d. 1796)
1759                       Peter Henrich Meyer
 9 May 1759 -  4 Jul 1760  Christian Frederik Høyer           (d. 1763)
 4 Jul 1760 - 27 Apr 1761  Hermann Jacob Forck                (d. 1761)
29 Apr 1761 - 14 Feb 1775  Peter Hermann Abbestee (1st time)  (b. 1728 - d. 1794)
14 Feb 1775 - 17 Jan 1779  David Brown                        (d. 1784)
17 Jan 1779 - 17 May 1788  Peter Hermann Abbestee (2nd time)  (s.a.)
17 May 1788 -  7 Feb 1806  Peter Anker                        (b. 1744 - d. 1832)
 7 Feb 1806 - 13 Feb 1808  Johan Peter Hermanson (1st time)   (d. 1822)
13 Feb 1808 - 20 Sep 1815  British occupation
20 Sep 1815 - 19 Nov 1816  Gerhard Sievers Bille              (b. 1765 - d. 1816)
19 Nov 1816 - 15 Feb 1822  Johan Peter Hermanson (2nd time)   (s.a.)
16 Feb 1822 -  7 May 1823  Jens Kofoed                        (b. 1775 - d. 1833)
 7 May 1823 -  7 Mar 1825  Ulrich Anton Schönheyder           (b. 1775 - d. 1858)
 7 Mar 1825 - 26 Mar 1829  Hans Diderich Brinck-Seidelin      (b. 1779 - d. 1859)
26 Mar 1829 - 14 May 1832  Lauritz Christensen                (b. 1793 - d. 1832)
17 May 1832 -  1 May 1838  Konrad Emil Mourier                (b. 1795 - d. 1865)
 1 May 1838 - 18 Jun 1841  Johannes von Rehling               (b. 1775 - d. 1841)
18 Jun 1841 - 15 Sep 1841  Christian Tiemroth                 (b. 1799 - d. 1888)
16 Oct 1841 -  7 Nov 1845  Peter Hansen                       (b. 1798 - d. 1880)



Dutch India 
[National flag of the
                  Netherlands]
         1608 - 1 Mar 1825 
Map of Dutch India
Capital: Cochin

1608                       Dutch rule
1610 - 20 May 1784         Pulicat a Dutch possession.
1658 - 20 Oct 1795         Tuticorin a Dutch possession.
23 Jul 1658 - 1781         Negapatnam a Dutch possession.
1780 - 20 May 1784         Coromandel Coast occupied by Britain.
20 Oct 1795 - 31 Mar 1818  British occupation of Dutch India settlements.
20 Sep 1817                Coromandel settlements restored to Netherlands,
                             Malabar annexed to British India.
 1 Jun 1825                Dutch Coromandel ceded to Britain, part of British India.

Coromandel Coast

Governors
1608 - 1610                Pieter Issaksz. Eyloff
1610 - 1612                Jan van Wesick
1612 - 1615                Wemmer van Berchem                 (d. 1653)
1616                       Hans de Haze (1st time)
1616 - 1617                Samuel Kindt
1617 - 1619                Adolf Thomassen
1619 - 1620                Hans de Haze (2nd time)
1620 - 1622                Andries Soury (1st time)           (b. 1585 - d. 1664)
1622 - 1624                Abraham van Uffelen
1624 - 1626                Andries Soury (2nd time)           (s.a.)
1626 - 1632                Maerten IJbrantszoon (1st time)
1632                       Arent Gardenijs (1st time)         (b. 1605 - d. 1643)
1632 - 1633                David Pieterszoon de Vries         (b. 1593 - d. 1655)
1633 - 1636                Maerten IJbrantszoon (2nd time)
1636 - 1638                Carel Reyniersz                    (b. c.1604 - d. 1653)
1638 - 1643                Arent Gardenijs (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1643 - 1650                Arnold Heussen                     (b. c.1605 - d. 1660)
1650 - 1651                Laurens Pit (1st time)             (b. 1610 - d. 1684)
1651                       Jacob Fransz. de With              (b. 1603 - d. 1653)
1652 - 1663                Laurens Pit (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 Jun 1663 - 1665         Cornelis Speelman                  (b. 1628 - d. 1684)
1665 - 1676                Anthony Paviljoen (Pavilion)
1676 - 1679                Jacques Caulier                    (b. 1620 - d. 1679)
1679 - 1681                Willem Carel Hartsinck             (b. 1638 - d. 1689)
1681 - 1686                Jacob Joriszoon Pits
1686 - 1698                Laurens Pits de jonge        
1698 - 1705                Dirk Coomans                       (b. 1648 - d. 1708)
1705 - 1710                Johannes van Steelandt
1710 - 1716                Daniel Bernard Guilliams           (b. 1676 - d. 1761)
1716 - 1719                Adriaan de Visscher
1719 - 1723                Gerrit van Westrenen               (b. 1670 - d. 1730)
1723 - 1729                Dirck van Cloon                    (b. 1688 - d. 1735)
1729 - 1733                Adriaan van Pla                    (d. 1737)
1733 - 1737                Elias Guillot                      (d. 1743)
1738 - 1743                Jacob Mossel                       (b. 1704 - d. 1761)
1743 - 1747                Galenus Mersen
1747 - 1753                Librecht Hooreman                  (b. 1708 - d. 1774)
1753 - 1758                Steven Vermont
1758 - 1761                Lubbert Jan, baron van Eck         (b. 1719 - d. 1765)
1761 - 1765                Christiaan van Teylingen           (b. 1731 - d. 1780)
1765 - 1773                Pieter Haksteen
1773 - 1780                Reynier van Vlissingen
1780 - 1784                British occupation
1784 - 1789                Willem Blauwkamer
1790 - 20 Oct 1795         Jacob Eilbracht                    (b. 1738 - d. 1804)
1795 - 1818                British occupation
12 Feb 1818 - 1824         F.C. Regel
1824 -  1 Jun 1825         Henry Francis von Söhsten          (b. 1792 - d. 1866)


Malabar Coast

29 Dec 1658 - 14 Apr 1659  Quilon occupied by Dutch.
24 Dec 1661                Quilon a Dutch possession.
15 Jan 1662                Cranganore a Dutch possession.
 8 Jan 1663                Cochin a Dutch possession.
15 Feb 1663                Cannanore a Dutch possession.
20 Oct 1795 - 1818         British occupation.
1818                       Annexed to British India.

Commanders
1663 - 1665                Ludolph van Coulster
1665 - 1667                Ijsbrand Goske                     (b. c.1626 - d. 1689)
1667 - 1669                Lucas van der Dussen               (b. 1620 - d. 1673)
1669 - 1676                Hendrik Adriaan van Reede          (b. 1636 - d. 1691)
                             tot Drakestein
1677 - 1678                Jacob Lobs
1678 - 1683                Marten Huysman
1683 - 1687                Gelmer Vosburgh                    (d. 1697)
1688 - 1693                Issack van Dielen                  (b. 1652? - d. 1693)
1693 - 1694                Alexander Wigman
1694 - 1697                Adriaan van Ommen
1697 - 1701                Magnus Wichelman                   (d. 1705)
1701 - 1704                Abraham Vink
1704 - 1708                Willem Moerman                     (b. 16.. - d. 1717)
1708 - 1709                Adam van der Duyn
1709 - 1716                Barend Ketel                       (b. c.1670 - d. 1719)
1716 - 1723                Johannes Hertenberg                (b. 1668 - d. 1725)
1723 - 1731                Jacob de Jong
1731                       Wouter Hendriks
1731 - 1734                Adriaan Maten
1734 - 1742                Julius Valentyn Stein van          (b. 1691 - d. 1755)
                             Gollonesse
1742 - 1747                Reinerus Siersma
1747 - 1751                Corijn Stevens
1751                       Abraham Cornelis de la Haye
1751 - 1756                Frederik Cunes
1756 - 1761                Casparus de Jong
1761 - 1765                Godefried Weyerman
1765 - 1768                Cornelis Breekpot                  (b. 1710 - d. 1770)
1768 - 1770                Christiaan Lodewijk Senff
1770 - 1781                Adriaan Moens                      (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
1781 - 1793                Johan Gerard van Angelbeek         (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
1793 - 20 Oct 1795         Jan Lambertus van Spall            (b. 1748 - d. 1816)
20 Oct 1795 - 1818         British occupation


Dutch Bengal 

1635                       Dutch factories at Pipley and Hougli (to 1676). 
1635 - 1655                Administered by Coromandel.
1676                       Dutch factories at Patna and Baleshwar (Bellasoor).
1710 - 1759                Dutch post at Murshidabad.
1781 - 20 May 1784         British occupation.
1795                       Annexed to British India.

Directors
1635 - 1655                the governors of Coromandel
1655 - 1658                Pieter Sterthemius                 (b. 1618? - d. 1676)
1658 - 1663                Mattheus van den Broucke           (b. 1620 - d. 1685)
1663 - 1665                Rogier van Heyningen               (d. 1665)
1665 - 1669                Vacant
1669 - 1673                Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (b. 1635 - d. 1714)
1673 - 1676                François de Haze                   (d. 1676)
1677 - 1678                Willem Volger                      (b. 1602 - d. 1679)
1678 - 1680                Jacob Verburgh
1681 - 1683                Nicolaas Baukes
1683 - 1685                Marten Huysman
1685 - 1688                Nicolaas Schaghen
1688                       Pieter Willeboorts
1688 - 1696                Arnoldus Muykens
1696 - 1701                Pieter van Dishoeck
1701 - 1705                Jacob Pelgrom
1705 - 1710                Willem de Roo
1710 - 1716                Anthony Huysman
1717 - 1722                Ewout van Dishoeck
1722 - 1724                Pieter Vuyst
1724 - 1727                Abraham Patras                     (b. 1671 - d. 1737)
1727 - 1731                Jacob Sadelijn                     (b. 1673 - d. 1732)
1731 - 1733                Rogier Beernards
1734 - 1744                Jan Albert Sichterman              (b. 1692 - d. 1764)
1744 - 1750                Jan Huyghens
1750 - 1755                Jan Karsseboom 
1755                       Louis Taillefert (1st time)
1755 - 1760                Adriaan Bisdom
1760 - 1763                Louis Taillefert (2d time)
1763 - 1769                George Lodewijk Vernet             (b. 1711 - d. 1775)
1769 -  6 May 1770         Boudewijn Versewel Faure           (b. 1734 - d. 1770)
1771 - 1776                Johannes Bacheracht
1776 - 1781                Johannes Mattheus Ross
1781 - 1784                British occupation
1784 - 1785                Gregorius Herklots (acting)        (b. 1739 - d. 1789)
1785 - 1792                Isaac Titsingh                     (b. 1745 - d. 1812)
1792 - 1795                Cornelis van Citters Aarnoutszoon  (b. 1747 - d. 1807)
1795                       Johan Willem Salomon von Haugwitz  (b. 1744 - d. 1796) 
                             (acting)



French India
   26 Sep 1816  - 1 Nov 1954
Map of French India
Capital: Pondichéry
(Pondicherry)
Currency: French India
Roupiah (INFR)
Population: 332,045 (1948)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: French, Indian
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, Hindu, Muslim

1688 - 1720                French factory at Surat.
 4 Feb 1673                Chandernagor (Chandernagore) a French possession.
1674                       Pondicherry (Pondichéry) a French possession.
 6 Sep 1693 - Sep 1699     Dutch occupation (see Dutch Coromandel).
 2 Apr 1721 - Feb 1725     Mahe (Mahé) a French possession.
1731                       Yanam (Yanaon) a French possession (confirmed 1750).
Dec 1725                   Mahé a French possession.
14 Feb 1739                Karikal a French possession.
10 Sep 1746 - Aug 1749     French occupy Madras.
1750 - 22 Jan 1760         Masulipatam a French possession.
16 Jan 1761 - May 1765     British occupation (in Changernagore from 23 Mar 1757); French
                             
Pondichéry is leveled, Mahé is given to rueler of Cannanore.
18 Sep 1778 - 10 Mar 1783  British occupation (in Changernagore from 6 Jul 1778, 
                             Mahe from 19 Mar 1779).
23 Aug 1793 - 11 Jul 1803  British occupation, administered as part of Madras.
25 Oct 1797 - 19 Apr 1801  French India nominally organized as Indes-Orientales département
                             of France (not effected because of British occupation).
11 Jul 1803 - 11 Sep 1803  Brief restoration of French rule according to Treaty of Amiens.
 1 Oct 1803 - 26 Sep 1816  British occupation (s.a.).
26 Sep 1816                Chandernagore, Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, and Mahé 
                             restored to France (Établissements Français dans l'Inde).
16 Jun 1940 -  9 Sep 1940  Administration loyal to Vichy France (from 9 Sep 1940, under
                             Free French; Chandernagore separately from 20 Jun 1940).
 2 May 1950                Chandernagore transferred to India (formally on 11 Apr 1952)
                             (see under Indian states).
13 Jun 1954                Yanaon taken by Indian military police.
15 Jul 1954                Mahé taken by pro-Indian groups.
 1 Nov 1954                Remaining territories (Pondichéry and Karikal) transferred
                             to India de facto (see under Indian states).
16 Aug 1962                De jure transfer of French India to India.

Commissioners
1668 - 1672                François Caron                     (b. 1600 - d. 1673)
1672 - 1681                François Baron                     (b. 1620 - d. 1683)
1681 -  6 Sep 1693         François Martin                    (b. 1634 - d. 1706)
 6 Sep 1693 - Sep 1699     Dutch occupation
Governors

Sep 1699 - 30 Dec 1706     François Martin (governor-general) (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1707 -  2 Jul 1708  Pierre Dulivier (1st time)
                             (acting for Martin from 15 Jun 1705)
 2 Jul 1708 - Sep 1713     Guillaume André d'Hébert           (b. 1653 - d. 1725) 
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 1713 - 18 Jul 1715  Pierre Dulivier (2nd time)
Aug 1715 - Aug 1718        Guillaume André d'Hébert           (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
1718                       Louis-Claude Boivin d'Hardancourt  (d. 1718)
                             (does not take office)
19 Aug 1718 - 11 Oct 1721  Pierre André Prévost de La
         (d. 1721)
                             Prévostière
11 Oct 1721 - Oct 1723     Pierre Christophe Lenoir           (b. 1683 - d. 1743) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
 6 Oct 1723 - 1726         Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant
 4 Sep 1726 - 1735         Pierre Christophe Lenoir           (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
19 Sep 1735 - 1741         Pierre Benoît Dumas                (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
14 Jan 1742 - 1754         Joseph François Dupleix            (b. 1697 - d. 1763)
 2 Aug 1754 - 10 Feb 1755  Charles Robert Godeheu de Zaimont
                             (acting)
10 Feb 1755 -  8 Apr 1755  Committee (interim)
                           - Barthélemy
                           - Boileau
                           - Guillard
 8 Apr 1755 - 1758         Georges Duval de Leyrit            (b. 1717 - d. 1764)
28 Apr 1758 - 16 Jan 1761  Thomas Arthur,                     (b. 1702 - d. 1766)
                             comte de Lally-Tollendal
17 Jan 1761 - Jan 1765     Vacant
26 Jan 1765 - May 1765     Jean Law de Lauriston, comte de
    (b. 1719 - d. 1797)
                             Tancarville (governor-general)
                             (1st time)  
May 1765 - 1766            François Nicolas (acting)
 1 Apr 1766 - 10 Feb 1767
  Antoine Boyelleau (acting)
10 Feb 1767 -  8 Jan 1777  Jean Law de Lauriston, comte de    (s.a.)
                             Tancarville (governor-general)  
                             (2nd time)
 8 Jan 1777 - 1778         Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe,   (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
                             seigneur de Teirac (1st time)
28 Jan 1778 - 1778         Louis Alexandre d'Albignac,        (b. 1739 - d. 1825) 
                             baron d'Albignac d'Arre
(acting)
Jul 1778 - 18 Sep 1778     Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe,   (s.a.)
                             seigneur de Teirac (2nd time) 
18 Sep 1778 - 10 Mar 1783  British occupation
10 Mar 1783 -  7 Jan 1785  Charles Joseph Pâtissier,          (b. 1718 - d. 1785)                              marquis de Bussy-Castelnau 
 8 Jan 1775 - 21 May 1785  Nicolas Coutanceau des Algrains    (b. 1730 - d. 1788)
                             (acting)
21 May 1785 - Oct 1785     François, vicomte de Souillac      (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
 8 Oct 1785 - 1787         David Charpentier de Cossigny      (b. 1740 - d. 1801)
20 Sep 1787 - 1789         Thomas, comte de Conway            (b. 1733 - d. c.1800)
 5 Oct 1789 - 1793         Camille Charles Leclerc,
                             chevalier de Fresne
 5 Feb 1793 - 1793         L. Leroux de Touffreville (acting)
18 Feb 1793 - 24 Aug 1793  Dominique Prosper, comte de        (b. 1741 - d. 1798)
                             Chermont     
British military governors
Aug 1793 - 1794            Floyer
1794 - 1795                Nixon
1795 - 1802                John Braithwaite
1802 - 11 Jul 1803         de Méron
Governors
11 Jul 1803 -  1 Oct 1803  Charles Matthieu Isidore,          (b. 1769 - d. 1832)
                             comte Decaen
                            (appointed
18 Jun 1802)
Aug 1803 -  1 Oct 1803     Binot (acting for comte Decaen)
13 Jul 1803 -  1 Oct 1803  Benoît Mottet de La                (b. 1745 - d. 1820)
                             Fontaine -Prefect
British military governors
1803 - 1804                St. John
1804 - 1805                Keith
1805 - 1810                E.W. Fallowfield
1810 - 1812                Lockhart
1812 - 1813                Hugh Fraser
1812 - 26 Sep 1816         James Stuart Fraser -Commissioner  (b. 1783 - d. 1869)
Governors

26 Sep 1816 - Oct 1825     André Julien, comte Dupuy          (b. 1753 - d. 1820)
15 Oct 1825 - 19 Jun 1826  Joseph Marie Emmanuel Cordier      (b. 1773 - d. 1837)
                             (1st time) (acting)
19 Jun 1826 -  2 Aug 1828  Eugène Panon, comte                (b. 1800 - d. 1859)
                             Desbassayns de Richemont
 2 Aug 1828 - 14 Aug 1828  Vincent-François Scipion (acting)  (b. 1780 - d. 18..)
14 Aug 1828 - 10 Apr 1829  J
oseph Marie Emmanuel Cordier      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
10 Apr 1829 -  3 May 1835  Auguste Jacques Nicolas Peureux
                             de Mélay
 3 May 1835 - Apr 1840     Henri Jean Victor,                 (b. 1782 - d. 1865)
                             marquis de Saint-Simon
27 Apr 1840 - 1844         Paul de Nourquer du Camper         (b. 1776 - d. 1849)
16 Nov 1844 - 1849         Louis Pujol                        (b. 1790 - d. 1855)
 5 Jan 1849 - 14 Jun 1850  Hyacinthe Marie de Lalande de      (b. 1802 - d. 1850)
                             Calan
14 Jun 1850 -  6 Jan 1851  R. Malassis (1st time)(acting)
 6 Jan 1851 - 1851         Philippe Achille Bédier            (b. 1791 - d. 1865)
 1 Dec 1851 - 1852         R. Malassis (2nd time)(acting)
29 Jul 1852 - Apr 1857     Raymond Jean Baptiste de Verninac  (b. 1794 - d. 1873)
                             de Saint-Maur
 1 Apr 1857 - Jan 1863     Alexandre Jean Baptiste Joseph     (b. 1807 - d. 1864) 
                             Jacques de Verninac Durand
                             d'Ubraye
18 Jan 1863 - Jun 1871     Napoléon Joseph Louis Bontemps     (b. 1813 - d. 1872)
27 Mar 1867 - 18 Oct 1867  Adolphe Joseph Antoine Trillard
   (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Bontemps)
Jun 1871 - Nov 1871        Antoine Léonce Michaux             (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
Nov 1871 - 1875            Pierre Aristide Faron              (b. 1814 - d. 1879)
15 May 1875 -  1 Jul 1875  Louis Bernard Amélius Delrieu      (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
 1 Jul 1875 - 13 Aug 1875  Bernardy de Sigoyer (acting)
13 Aug 1875 -  7 Nov 1875  Louis Démétrius Théodore Nesty     (b. 1825 - d. 1884)
                             (1st time)
 7 Nov 1875 - 1878         Adolphe Joseph Antoine Trillard    (s.a.)
27 Oct 1878 - 23 Feb 1879  Louis Démétrius Théodore Nesty     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
23 Feb 1879 - Apr 1881     Jean Joseph Marie Léonce Laugier   (b. 1829 - d. 1900)
 6 Apr 1881 - 12 Apr 1881  Haas (acting)   
12 Apr
1881 - Sep 1884     Julien Théodore Drouet             (b. 1817 - d. 1904)
14 Sep 1884 - 11 Oct 1884  Paul Louis Maxime Céloron de       (b. 1831 - d. 1899)
                             Blainville (1st time)(acting)
11 Oct 1884 - 29 Apr 1886  Étienne Antoine Guillaume Richaud  (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
29 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paul Louis Maxime Céloron de       (s.a.)
                             Blainville (2nd time)(acting)

17 Nov 1886 - 1888         Aimé Louis
Édouard Manès           (b. 1835 - d. 1898)
25 Apr 1888 - 11 Aug 1888  Paul Fawtier (interim)             (b. 1837 - d. 1903)
11 Aug 1888 - 20 Aug 1888  Charles-Honoré Vassal (interim)    (b. 1833 - d. 1900)
20 Aug 1888 - 14 Nov 1888  Antoine-Léandre Mathivet (1st time)(b. 1852 - d. ....)
14 Nov 1888 - 18 May 1889  Georges Jules Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
18 May 1889 - 25 Jul 1889  Antoine-Léandre Mathivet (2nd time)(s.a.)
25 Jul
1889 - 1891         Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet        (b. 1844 - d. 1933)
 1 Feb 1891 - 1896         Léon Émile Clément-Thomas
27 Oct 1893 - 16 Jun 1894  Antoine Jean Pierre Louis Deloncle
                             (acting for Cl
ément-Thomas)
31 May 1896 - 27 Jan 1898  Louis Jean Girod                   (b. 1856 - d. 1922)
27 Jan 1898 -  5 Feb 1898  Jean-Baptiste Venant Emile Borne   (b. 1843 - d. 1904)
                             (interim)
 5 Feb 1898 - 11 Jan 1902  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 1913)
17 Apr 1900 -  2 Mar 1901  Paul Marie Armand Beuverand de     (b. 1847 - d. 1913)
                            
La Loyère (acting for Rodier)
18 Feb 1902 - 24 Oct 1902  Louis Pelletan (interim)           (b. 1842 - d. 1904)
24 Oct 1902 - Aug 1904     Victor Louis Marie Lanrezac        (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
13 Aug 1904 - Apr 1905     Jean-Baptiste Philémon Lemaire     (b. 1856 - d. 1932)
22 Apr 1905 - Oct 1906     Joseph Pascal François             (b. 1853 - d. 1914)
Oct 1906 -  3 Dec 1907     Gabriel Louis Angoulvant           (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
1908 - 1909                Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure         (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
1909 -  9 Jul 1910         Ernest Fernand Lévecque            (b. 1852 - d. 19..)
 9 Jul 1910 - 27 Jun 1911  Alfred Albert Martineau (1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
27 Jun 1911 -  8 Jul 1911  Henri Alphonse Lejeune (1st time)  (b. 1866 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)
 8 Jul 1911 -  4 Mar 1913  Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat         (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
 4 Mar 1913 -  7 Nov 1913  Henri Alphonse Lejeune (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 7 Nov 1913 - 29 Jun 1918  Alfred Albert Martineau (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jul 1914 -  4 Jun 1915  Henri Alphonse Lejeune             (s.a.)
                             (acting for Martineau)
29 Jun 1918 - 21 Feb 1919  Pierre Etienne Clayssen (interim)  (b. 1856 - d. 1928)
21 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1926  Louis Martial Innocent Gerbinis    (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
15 Sep 1922 -  1 Jul 1923  M
aurice Pierre Lapalud             (b. 1868 - d. 19..)
                             (acting for Gerbinis)
10 Feb 1926 -  5 Aug 1926  Henri Lagroua (interim)
 5 Aug 1926 - 14 Jan 1928  Pierre Jean Henri Didelot          (b. 1870 - d. 1941)
14 Jan 1928 - 29 Feb 1928  Joseph Georges Eugène Lanes        (b. 1880 - d. 1956)
                             (interim)
29 Feb
1928 - 16 Feb 1930  Robert Paul Marie de Guise
16 Feb 1930 - 24 May 1930  Edouard Victor Magnien (interim)   (b. 1873 - d. 19..)
24 May 1930 -  1 Nov 1933
  François Adrien Juvanon            (b. 1875 - d. 1950)
 1 Nov 1933 - 15 Aug 1934  Georges Charles Jean Bourret       (b. 1884 - d. 19..)
                             (interim)  
15 Aug 1934 - Oct 1936     Léon Solomiac                      (b. 1884 - d. 1960)
 9 Oct 1936 - 11 Aug 1938
  Horace Valentin Crocicchia         (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
                             (acting to 9 Dec 1936)
11 Aug 1938 - 26 Sep 1938  Emmanuel François Marie Philippon
                             (interim)
26 Sep 1938 - Jun 1945     Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin        (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
17 Jun 1945 - 20 Mar 1946  Nicolas Ernest Marie Maurice       (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
                             Jeandin (interim)
20 Mar 1946 -  4 Sep 1947  Charles François Henri Baron       (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
Commissioners
 4 Sep 1947 - Dec 1948     Charles François Marie Baron       (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1948 - 26 Jan 1949  Maurice André Thomas (interim)     (b. 1912 - d. 2001)
26 Jan 1949 - 12 May 1949  Christian Jacques Camouilly        (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
                             (interim)
12 May 1949 - 21 Apr 1950  Charles Chambon                    (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
21 Apr 1950 - Oct 1954     André Ménard                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
                             (acting to 31 Jul 1950)
Oct 1954 -  1 Nov 1954     Georges Escargueil (acting)        (b. 1907 - d. 1990)



Ostend East India Company

[Austrian War Ensign]

13 Aug 1719                Cabelon (Kovalam) post on Coromandel coast established.
19 Dec 1722                Imperial Ostend Company (Kaiserliche Ostender Kompanie), an
                             association of Flemish merchants from the Austrian Netherlands
                             trading in the east, is granted a charter by Holy Roman Emperor
                             Karl VI.
Jul 1723                   Banquibazar (Bankibazar) factory established in Bengal.
31 May 1727                Charter of Ostend Company is suspended by the Emperor.
 5 Jul 1727                Banquibazar officially ceded to Austria.
16 Mar 1731                Emperor agrees to dissolve the Ostend Company by Second
                             Treaty of Vienna.

c.1742                     Cabelon factory is lost.
 5 Nov 1744                Banquibazar factory lost.

Banquibazar

Governors-general
Jul 1723 - 27 Jun 1724     Jacques-André Cobbé                (b. 1682 - d. 1724)
27 Jun 1724 - 30 Jun 1724  Martin van Snaer 
                           + Pierre Sneyers
                           (acting)
30 Jun 1724 -  6 Feb 1726  Commanders
                           - T. Kint (to 18 Jul 1724)
                           - Vincent Parraber 
                             (from 18 Jul 1724)
 6 Feb 1726 - 29 Aug 1726  Commanders
                           - Jean Bos 
                           - François de Schonamille          (b. 1678 - d. 1745)
                             (1st time)
                           - Jean Ray
29 Aug 1726 - Dec 1730     Alexander Hume
Commander
Dec 1730 -  9 Nov 1744     François de Schonamille            (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 

Cabelon

Commanders
13 Aug 1719 - 1719         Godefroid de la Merveille
1719 - 23 Jul 1726         Luis Diaz de la Peña
23 Jul 1726 - 17..         Joseph Mérat
c.1730                     Joseph Cointrel



Portuguese India  (Goa)
 
[Portugal]
              to 19 Dec 1961 
 
[Portuguese
                          India flag proposal 1967]
     1967 (proposed colonial flag)
 
[Goa,
                          Portuguese India city flag]
                Goa City Flag
Map of Portuguese India
Capital: Goa
(Cochin 1500-1530)
Currency: Portuguese India
Rupias (INPR) 
Population: 547,448 (1960)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: 709.7 million
escudos (1960)
Imports: 750.7 million
escudos (1960)
Ethnic groups: Portuguese, Indian
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, Hindu, Muslim
Goa Dependencies

20 May 1498                Vasco da Gama arrives in India.
27 Sep 1503 -  7 Jan 1663  Cochin a Portuguese possession.
1502 – 15 Feb 1663         Cannanore a Portuguese possession.
1502 – 24 Dec 1661         Quilon a Portuguese possession
                             (Dutch occupation 29 Dec 1658 - 14 Apr 1659).
13 Sep 1505                Anjediva (Angediva) acquired by Portugal.
15 Feb 1510 - 30 May 1510  Portuguese occupy Goa. 
30 May 1510 - 25 Nov 1510  Bijapur occupies Goa.
25 Nov 1510                Goa a Portuguese colony.
1523 – 15 Jan 1662         Cranganore (Kottappuram) a Portuguese possession.
1523 - 1662                Portuguese settlement of São Tomé de Meliapore.
23 Dec 1534                Baçaim (Bassein) and its dependencies ceded to Portugal;
                             organized as the Northern Provinces.
21 Dec 1535                Diu acquired by Portugal.
 2 Feb 1559                Damão (Daman) acquired by Portugal .
15 Jul 1580 -  1 Dec 1640  Portuguese India along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
23 Jun 1661                Bombaim (Bombay) and its dependencies (s.a.) ceded to England.
18 Feb 1665                Final cession of Bombay to England (without its dependencies).
1687 - 21 Oct 1749         São Tomé de Meliapore re-occupied by Portuguese.
23 May 1739                Baçaim lost.
17 Dec 1779                Dadra, Nagar and Haveli acquired by Portugal.
 7 Sep 1799 - Nov 1802
    British troops garrison Goa, Portuguese rule continues.
 3 Sep 1803 -  2 Apr 1813  British troops garrison Goa, Portuguese rule continues.
18 Dec 1946                Overseas province of Portugal.
21 Jul 1954                Dadra then Nagar and Haveli (2 Aug 1954) occupied 
                             by Indian nationalists (Aug 1961 annexed by India).
19 Dec 1961                Goa, Damão, and Diu occupied by India.
16 Mar 1962                Annexed by India (see under Indian states).
31 Dec 1974                Annexation recognized by Portugal.

Viceroy
24 Oct 1505 -  4 Sep 1509  Francisco de Almeida               (b. c.1450 - d. 1510)
Governors-general
 4 Sep 1509 –  8 Sep 1515  Afonso de Albuquerque              (b. 1453 - d. 1515)
 8 Sep 1515 – 20 Dec 1518  Lopo Soares de Albergaria          (b. c.1442 - d. c.1520)
20 Dec 1518 – 22 Jan 1522  Diogo Lopes de Sequeira            (b. 1465 - d. 1530)
22 Jan 1522 –  4 Dec 1524  Duarte de Meneses                  (b. bf.1488 - d. 1539)  
 4 Dec 1524 - 24 Dec 1524  Vasco da Gama, conde de            (b. 1460 - d. 1524)
                             Vidigueira -Viceroy
25 Dec 1524 -  2 Feb 1526  Henrique de Meneses                (b. 1496 - d. 1526)
 2 Feb 1526 – 18 Nov 1529  Lopo Vaz de Sampaio                (b. c.1480  - d. 1538)
18 Nov 1529 - 14 Sep 1538  Nuno da Cunha                      (b. 1487 - d. 1539)
14 Sep 1538 -  3 Apr 1540  Garcia de Noronha -Viceroy         (b. 1480 - d. 1540)
 4 Apr 1540 –  7 May 1542  Estevão da Gama                    (b. 1510 - d. 1575)
 7 May 1542 – 12 Sep 1545  Martim Afonso de Sousa             (b. 1500 - d. 1564)
12 Sep 1545 -  6 Jun 1548  João de Castro -Viceroy            (b. 1500 - d. 1548)
 7 Jun 1548 - 13 Jun 1549  Garcia de Sá                       (b. c.1460 - d. 1549)
13 Jun 1549 – Nov 1550     Jorge Cabral                       (b. c.1500 - d. 15..)
Viceroys
Nov 1550 – 16 Sep 1554     Afonso de Noronha                  (b. c.1510 - d. c.1586)
16 Sep 1554 - 23 Jun 1555  Pedro Mascarenhas                  (b. 1470 - d. 1555)
23 Jun 1555 –  8 Sep 1558  Francisco Barreto -Governor        (b. 1520 - d. 1575)
 8 Sep 1558 –  7 Sep 1561  Constantino de Bragança            (b. 1532 - d. 1575)
 7 Sep 1561 – 29 Feb 1564  Francisco Coutinho, conde do       (b. 1517 - d. 1564)
                             Redondo
29 Feb 1564 –  3 Sep 1564  João de Mendonça -Governor         (b. c.1530 - d. 1578)
 3 Sep 1564 – 10 Sep 1568  Antão de Noronha                   (b. c.1520 - d. 1569)
10 Sep 1568 –  6 Sep 1571  Luís de Ataíde, conde              (b. 1517 - d. 1580)
                             de Atouguia (1st time)
 6 Sep 1571 –  9 Dec 1573  António de Noronha                 (b. c.1510 - d. 1574)
Governors
 9 Dec 1573 – Sep 1577     António Moniz Barreto              (b. c.1530 - d. 1600)
Sep 1577 – 31 Aug 1578     Diogo de Meneses                   (b. c.1540 - d. 1580)

Viceroys
31 Aug 1578 - 10 Mar 1580  Luís de Ataíde, conde              (s.a.)
                             de Atouguia (2nd time)
10 Mar 1581 – 17 Sep 1581  Fernão Teles de Meneses, conde     (b. c.1530 - d. 1605)
                             de Vilar Maior -Governor
17 Sep 1581 – Nov 1584     Francisco Mascarenhas, conde       (b. c.1530 - d. 1608)
                             de Santa Cruz
Nov 1584 -  4 May 1588     Duarte de Meneses, conde de        (b. 1537 - d. 1588)
                             Tarouca
 4 May 1588 – 15 May 1591  Manuel de Sousa Coutinho -Governor (b. 1540 - d. 1591)
15 May 1591 – 25 May 1597  Matias de Albuquerque              (b. 1547 - d. 1609)
25 May 1597 – 25 Dec 1600  Francisco da Gama, conde de        (b. 1565 - d. 1632)
                             Vidigueira (1st time)
25 Dec 1600 – 20 May 1605  Aires de Saldanha                  (b. 1542 - d. 1605)
20 May 1605 –  4 Jun 1607  Martim Afonso de Castro            (b. c.1560 - d. 1649)
 4 Jun 1607 – 27 May 1609  Aleixo de Menezes, arcebispo       (b. 1559 - d. 1617)
                             de Braga -Governor
27 May 1609 –  5 Sep 1609  André Furtado de Mendonça -Governor(b. 1558 - d. 1611)
 5 Sep 1609 – 25 Dec 1612  Rui Lourenço de Távora             (b. 1566 - d. 1616)
25 Dec 1612 – 18 Nov 1617  Jerônimo de Azevedo                (b. 1540 - d. 1625)
18 Nov 1617 – 11 Nov 1619  João Coutinho, conde de Redondo    (b. c.1540 - d. 1619)
11 Nov 1619 – 19 Dec 1622  Fernão de Albuquerque -Governor    (b. 1540 - d. 1623)
19 Dec 1622 –  8 Mar 1627  Francisco da Gama, conde de        (s.a.)
                             Vidigueira (2nd time)
 8 Mar 1627 – 29 Jul 1629  Frei Luis de Brito e               (b. c.1570 - d. 1629)
                             Meneses -Governor
29 Jul 1629 – 21 Oct 1629  Governing Commission
                           - Nuno Álvares Botelho             (b. 1590 - d. 1631)
                           - Lourenço da Cunha                (d. 1633)
                           - Gonçalo Pinto da Fonseca
21 Oct 1629 –  9 Dec 1635  Miguel de Noronha, conde de        (b. c.1585 - d. 1647)
                             Linhares
 9 Dec 1635 - 24 Jun 1639  Pedro da Silva                     (b. c.1580 - d. 1639)
24 Jun 1639 – 24 Sep 1640  António Teles de Menezes, conde    (b. c.1600 - d. 1657)
                             de Vila Pouca de Aguiar -Governor
24 Sep 1640 – 30 Dec 1645  João da Silva Telo de Meneses,     (b. c.1600 - d. 1650)
                             conde de Aveiras
30 Dec 1645 – 31 May 1651  Filipe Mascarenhas                 (b. c.1580 - d. 1652)
31 May 1651 –  6 Sep 1652  Governing Commission
                           - Frei Francisco dos Mártires      (b. 1583 - d. 1652)
                           - Francisco de Melo de Castro      (d. 1664)
                               (1st time)
                           - António de Sousa Coutinho        (d. 1668)
                               (1st time)
 6 Sep 1652 – 22 Oct 1653  Vasco Mascarenhas, conde           (b. c.1605 - d. 1678)
                             de Óbidos
22 Oct 1653 – 23 Aug 1655  Brás de Castro -Governor           (d. 1655)
23 Aug 1655 - 14 Jan 1656  Rodrigo Lobo da Silveira, conde    (b. c.1600 - d. 1656)
                             de Sarzedas
14 Jan 1656 – 22 May 1656  Manoel Mascarenhas Homem           (b. c.1600 - d. 1657)
22 May 1656 – 14 Jun 1661  Governing Commission
                           - Manoel Mascarenhas Homem         (s.a.)
                               (1st time)
                           - Francisco de Melo de Castro      (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Ant
ónio de Sousa Coutinho        (s.a.)  
                               (2nd time)
14 Jun 1661 – 14 Dec 1662  Governing Commission
                           - Luis de Mendonça Furtado e
                               Albuquerque
                           - Pedro de Lancastre               (d. 1663)
                           - Manoel Mascarenhas Homem         (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
14 Dec 1662 – 17 Oct 1666  António de Melo Castro             (b. c.1640 - d. ....)
17 Oct 1666 –  6 Nov 1668  João Nunes da Castro, conde de     (b. 1619 - d. 1668)
                             São Vicente
 6 Nov 1668 – 22 May 1671  Governing Commission
                           - Ant
ónio de Melo e Castro         (s.a.)
                           - Luis de Miranda Henriques        (d. 1669)
                               (to Mar 1669)
                           - Manoel Corte-Real de Sampaio
22 May 1671 – 30 Oct 1677  Luís de Mendonça Furtado e         (b. c.1610 - d. 1677) 
                             Albuquerque, conde de Lavradio
30 Oct 1677 – 24 Jan 1678  Pedro de Almeida, conde de Assumar (b. 1630 - d. 1679)
24 Jan 1678 – 12 Sep 1681  Governing Commission
                           - Frei Ant
ónio Brandão             (b. 1620 - d. 1678)
                           - Ant
ónio Paes de Sande            (d. 1695)
                           - Francisco Cabral de Almada
12 Sep 1681 – 13 Dec 1686  Francisco de Távora, conde de      (b. 1646 - d. 1710)
                             Alvor
13 Dec 1686 - 23 Jun 1690  Rodrigo da Costa -Governor         (b. c.1640 - d. 1690)
23 Jun 1690 –  9 Jan 1691  Miguel de Almeida -Governor        (d. 1691)
 9 Jan 1691 – 28 May 1693  Governing Commisison
                           - Fernando Martins Mascarenhas de
                               Lancastre
                           - Frei Agostinho de Annunciação    (b. 1652 - d. 1713)
                               (1st time)
                           - Luis Gonçalves Cotta (to 1691)   (d. 1691)
28 May 1693 – 20 Sep 1698  Pedro António de Noronha           (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
                             Albuquerque e Sousa, marquês
                             de Angeja
20 Sep 1698 – 17 Sep 1701  António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara   (b. 1638 - d. 1702)
                             Coutinho
17 Sep 1701 -  2 Oct 1702  Governing Commission
                           - Frei Agostinho da Annunciação    (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Vasco Luís Coutinho da Costa
 2 Oct 1702 - 28 Oct 1707  Caetano de Melo e Castro           (b. c.1680 - d. 1718)
28 Oct 1707 - 21 Sep 1712  Rodrigo da Costa                   (b. 1657 - d. 1722)
21 Sep 1712 - 13 Jan 1717  Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses   (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
13 Jan 1717 - 16 Oct 1717  Sebastião de Andrade Pessanha      (b. c.1670 - d. 1737)
                             arcebispo primaz de Goa -Governor
16 Oct 1717 - 14 Sep 1720  Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier          (b. 1689 - d. 1742)
                             de Meneses, marquês de Louriçal
                             (1st time) 
14 Sep 1720 - 13 Jul 1723  Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro (b. c.1675 - d. 1723)
13 Jul 1723 - 13 Sep 1723  Cristóvão de Melo                  (b. 1672 - d. 1734)
13 Sep 1723 - 28 Oct 1725  Governing Commission
                           - Cristóvão de Melo (1st time)     (s.a.)
                           - Frei Ignácio de Santa Theresa    (b. 1682 - d. 1751)

                               (1st time)
                           - Cristóvão Luís de Andrade
28 Oct 1725 – 23 Jan 1732  João de Saldanha da Gama           (b. 1674 - d. 1752)
23 Jan 1732 -  7 Nov 1732  Governing Commission
                           - Cristóvão de Melo (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           - Frei I
gnácio de Santa Theresa    (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
                           - Tomé Gomes Moreira               (b. 1684 - d. 17..)        
 7 Nov 1732 - 18 May 1741  Pedro Mascarenhas, conde de        (b. 1670 - d. 1745)
                             Sandomil
18 May 1741 - 14 Jun 1742  Luís Carlos Inácio Xavier          (s.a.) 
                             de Meneses, marquês de Louriçal
                             (2nd time) 
14 Jun 1742 - 24 Sep 1744  Governing Commission
                           - Francisco de Vasconcellos        (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
                             (to 30 Mar 1743)
                           - Luís Caetano de Meneses          (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
                           - Lourenço de Noronha
                             (from 18 May 1743)
24 Sep 1744 - 27 Sep 1750  Pedro Miguel de Almeida e Portugal,(b. 1688 - d. 1756)
                             conde de Assumar, marquês de
                            
Castelo Novo, marquês de Alorna
27 Sep 1750 - 18 Sep 1754  Francisco de Assis da Tavora,      (b. 1703 - d. 1759)
                             marquês de Tavora
18 Sep 1754 - 28 Jun 1756  Luís Mascarenhas, conde de Alva    (b. c.1685 - d. 1756)
28 Jun 1756 - 23 Sep 1756  Governing Commission
                           - António Taveira da Neiva Brum    (b. 1706 - d. 1775)
                               da Silveira (1st time)
                           - João de Mesquita Matos Teixeira
                           - Filippe de Valladares Souto      (b. 1691 - d. 1775)
                               Maior
23 Sep 1756 - 19 Oct 1765  Manuel de Saldanha de Albuquerque  (b. 1712 - d. 1771)
                             e Castro, conde da Ega
19 Oct 1765 - 12 Mar 1768  Governing Commission
                           - António Taveira da Neiva Brum    (s.a.)
                               da Silveira (2nd time)
                           - João Baptista Vaz Pereira
                           - João José de Melo                (b. c.1700 - d. 1774)
Governors 
12 Mar 1768 - 13 Jan 1774  João José de Melo                  (s.a.)
13 Jan 1774 - 24 Sep 1774  Filippe de Valadares Sotomaior     (s.a.)
24 Sep 1774 - 26 May 1779  José Pedro da Câmara               (b. 1721 - d. 1789)
26 May 1779 -  3 Nov 1786  Federico Guilherme de Sousa        (b. 1737 - d. 1790)
 3 Nov 1786 - 22 May 1794  Francisco da Cunha e Meneses       (b. 1747 - d. 1812)
22 May 1794 - 30 May 1807  Francisco António da Veiga Cabral  (b. 1733 - d. 1810)
                             da Câmara Pimentel, visconde de
                             Mirandela
 7 Sep 1799 - Jan 1806 
   Sir William Clarke                 (b. 1762 - d. 1808)
                            (commander of British garrison)
1806 - 1807                Coleman
                            (commander of British garrison)
1807 - Mar 1811            Alexander Adams                    (d. 1835)
                            (commander of British garrison)
Viceroys

30 May 1807 - 29 Nov 1816  Bernardo José da Silveira e Lorena,(b. 1756 - d. 1818)
                             conde de Sarzedas
29 Nov 1816 - 16 Sep 1821  Diogo de Sousa, conde de Rio Pardo (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
16 Sep 1821 –  3 Dec 1821  Governing Commission
                           - Manuel Godinho da Mira
                           - Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva  (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
                               e Gama
                           - Gonçalo de Magalhães Teixeira    (d. 1825)
                               Pinto
                           - Manuel José Gomes Loureiro       (d. 1855)  
                           - Manuel Duarte Leitão             (b. 1787 - d. 1856)
 3 Dec 1821 - 18 Nov 1823  Governing Commission
                           - Manuel Maria Gonçalves Zarco da  (b. 1789 - d. 1825)
                               Câmara
                           - Frei Paulo de São Tomás de       (b. 1773 - d. 1823)
                               Aquino
                           - António José de Mello Souto      (b. 1776 - d. 1848)
                               Maior Telles
                           - João Carlos Leal
                           - António José de Lima Leitão      (b. 1787 - d. 1856)
                           - Joaquim Mourão Garcez Palha      (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
18 Nov 1823 – 17 Nov 1825  Manuel Maria Gonçalves Zarco da    (s.a.) 
                             Câmara (governor to 22 Aug 1824)
17 Nov 1825 -  9 Oct 1827  Governing Commission
                           - Frei Manuel de São Galdino       (b. 1769 - d. 1831)
                           - Candido José Mourão Garcez Palha (b. 1751 - d. 1837)
                           - António Ribeiro de Carvalho      (d. 1828)
 9 Oct 1827 - 14 Jan 1835  Manuel Francisco de Portugal e     (b. 1787 - d. 1854) 
                             Castro (governor to 7 Apr 1830)
Prefects
14 Jan 1835 - 31 Jan 1835  Bernardo Peres da Silva            (b. 1775 - d. 1846)
 1 Feb 1835 –  3 Feb 1835  Manuel Francisco Zacarias de
      (b. 1787 - d. 1843)
                             Portugal e Castro          
Chairman Provincial Committee
Feb 1835 -  3 Mar 1835     Joaquim Manuel Correia da Silva    (b. 1776 - d. 1838) 
                             e Gama
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
 3 Mar 1835 - Dec 1836     João Casimiro Pereira da Rocha     (d. 1845)
                             Vasconcellos
                           + Manuel José Ribeiro              (d. 1837)
                           + Frei Constantino de Santa Rita   (d. 1836)
Dec 1836 - Apr 1837        João Cabral de Estifique           (b. 1780 - d. 1854)
                           + António Maria de Mello
                           + Joaquim António de Moraes        (d. 1873) 
                             Carneiro
Apr 1837 - 23 Nov 1837     José António de Lemos
                           + António Mariano de Azevedo       (d. 1838)
Governors-general
23 Nov 1837 – 28 Sep 1838  Simão Infante de Lacerda de Sousa  (b. 1793 - d. 1838)
                             Tavares, barão de Sabroso 
28 Sep 1838 -  5 Mar 1839  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Feliciano de Santa Rita  (b. 1783 - d. 1839)
                               Carvalho
                           - José António Vieira da Fonseca   (b. 1793 - d. 1863)
                               (1st time)
                           - José Cancio Freire de Lima
                               (1st time)
                           - Domingo José Mariano Luiz
                               (1st time)
 5 Mar 1839 - 12 Nov 1839  José António Vieira da Fonseca     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
12 Nov 1839 - 18 Apr 1840  Manuel José Mendes, barão de       (b. 1787 - d. 1840)
                             Candal
19 Apr 1840 - 24 Sep 1840  Governing Council (acting)
                           - José António Vieira da Fonseca   (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - José Cancio Freire de Lima
                               (2nd time)
                           - António João de Athaíde
                               (1st time)
                           - Domingo José Mariano Luiz
                               (2nd time)
                           - José da Costa Campos (1st time)  (b. 1801 - d. 1876)
                           - Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos
                               (1st time)
24 Sep 1840 - 27 Apr 1842  José Joaquim Lopes de Lima (acting)(b. c.1797 - d. 1852)
27 Apr 1842 - 19 Sep 1842  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Ramalho da Sá            (d. 1860)
                           - Antonio José de Mello Souto
                               Maior Telles
                           - António João de Athaíde
                               (2nd time)
                           - José da Costa Campos (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos 
                               (2nd time)
19 Sep 1842 - 25 Apr 1843  Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira, (b. 1793 - d. 1852)
                             conde das Antas
25 Apr 1843 - 20 May 1844  Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha        (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
20 May 1844 - 15 Jan 1851  José Ferreira Pestana (1st time)   (b. 1795 - d. 1885)
15 Jan 1851 –  6 May 1855  José Joaquim Januario Lapa, 
                             visconde de Villa Nova de Ourém  (b. 1796 - d. 1859)
 6 May 1855 -  2 Nov 1855  Governing Council (acting)
                           - Joaquim de Santa Rita Botelho    (b. 1781 - d. 1859)
                           - Luís da Costa Campos             (b. 1802 - d. 1858)
                           - Francisco Xavier Peres
                           - Bernardo Heitor da Silveira e    (b. 1810 - d. 1871)
                               Lorena
                           - Victor Anastácio Mourão Garcez   (d. 1862)
                               Palha
 3 Nov 1855 - 24 Dec 1864  António César de Vasconcellos      (b. 1797 - d. 1865) 
                             Correia, visconde de Torres Novas
24 Dec 1864 -  7 May 1870  José Ferreira Pestana (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 7 May 1870 - 12 Dec 1871  Januario Correia de Almeida,       (b. 1829 - d. 1901) 
                             visconde de São Januario
12 Dec 1871 - 10 May 1875  Joaquim José de Macedo e Couto     (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
10 May 1875 - 24 Jul 1877  João Tavares de Almeida            (b. 1816 - d. 1877)
24 Jul 1877 – 12 Nov 1877  Governing Council (acting)
  
                           - Ayres de Ornellas e Vasconcelos  (b. 1837 - d. 1880)
                               (1st time)  
                           - João Caetano da Silva Campos
                               (1st time)  
                           - Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga (b. 1802 - d. 1887)
                               (1st time)  
                           - Eduardo Augusto Pinto Balsemão
                               (1st time)  
12 Nov 1877 -  3 May 1878  António Sérgio de Sousa,           (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
                             visconde de Sérgio de Sousa
May 1878 -  3 Dec 1878     Governing Council (acting)
                           - Ayres de Ornellas e Vasconcelos  (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)  
                           - João Caetano da Silva Campos
                               (2nd time)
                           - Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)(to ... 1878)
                           - Tomás Nunes da Serva e Moura 
                               (from ... 1878)
                           - António Sergio de Sousa, Jr.     (b. 1842 - d. 1906)
                           - Eduardo Augusto Pinto Balsemão
                               (2nd time)
 3 Dec 1878 – 10 Apr 1882  Caetano Alexandre de Almeida e     (b. 1824 - d. 1916)
                             Albuquerque
10 Apr 1882 –  2 May 1885  Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,   (b. 1834 - d. 1905) 
                             visconde de Paço de Arcos
 2 May 1885 – 12 Apr 1886 
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (b. 1846 - d. 1908)
                               (1st time)
                           - José de Sá Coutinho (1st time)
                           - José Inácio de Brito (1st time)  (b. 1806 - d. 1896)
                           - José Maria Teixeira Guimarães    (b. 1845 - d. 1915)  
12 Apr 1886 –  1 Nov 1886  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do      (b. 1843 - d. 1923)
                             Amaral
 1 Nov 1886 – 16 Dec 1886  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - José de Sá Coutinho (2nd time)
                           - José Inácio de Brito (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 Dec 1886 – 27 Apr 1889  Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho  (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
27 Apr 1889 – 16 Jun 1889 
Governing Council (acting)
                           - Antonio Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (3rd time)
                           - José Joaquim Borges de Azevedo
                               Enes
                           - José Inácio de Brito (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           - Joaquim A. Mousinho de           (b. 1855 - d. 1902)
                               Albuquerque
16 Jun 1889 – 10 Mar 1891  Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
10 Mar 1891 - 11 Dec 1891  Francisco Maria da Cunha           (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
11 Dec 1891 – 28 Mar 1892  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (4th time)
                           - João Manuel Correia Taborda      (b. 1839 - d. ....)
                               (1st time)
                           - Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes    (b. 1817 - d. 1902)
                               (1st time)
                           - Luis Fisher Berquó Poças Falcão  (b. 1852 - d. 1913)
                               (1st time)
28 Mar 1892 –  9 Apr 1893  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
 9 Apr 1893 –  3 Jul 1893  
Governing Council (acting)
                           - João Manuel Correia Taborda      (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Raimundo Maria Correia Mendes    (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
                           - Luis Fisher Berquó Poças Falcão  (s.a.)
                               (2nd time)
 3 Jul 1893 – 16 Aug 1894  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900) 
                             (1st time)
16 Aug 1894 –  7 Nov 1894 
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (5th time)
                           - João Manuel Correia Taborda      (s.a.)  
                               (3rd time)
                           - Francisco Ant
ónio Ochoa          (b. 1839 - d. 1912)
                           - Luis Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
                               (1st time)
 7 Nov 1894 –  8 Nov 1895  Elesbão José de Betencourt Lapa,   (b. 1831 - d. 1899)
                             visconde de Vila Nova de Ourém
 8 Nov 1895 – 13 Nov 1895 
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (6th time)
                           - João Manuel Correia Taborda      (s.a.)
                               (4th time)
                           - João José da Silva
                           - Luis Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
                               (2nd time)
13 Nov 1895 – 19 Mar 1896  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
19 Mar 1896 – 27 May 1896  Afonso Henriques de Bragança,      (b. 1865 - d. 1920)
                             duque de Pôrto –Viceroy
27 May 1896 – 13 Mar 1897  João António de Brissac das Neves  (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                             Ferreira
13 Mar 1897 – 19 Aug 1897 
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (7th time)
                           - João Manuel Correia Tabord
a      (s.a.)
                               (5th time)
                           - João de Melo de Sampaio (1st time)
                           - Abel Augusto Correia de Pinho
19 Aug 1897 – 22 Mar 1900  Joaquim José Machado               (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
22 Mar 1900 – 13 May 1900  
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (8th time)
                           - Francisco João Xavier
                           - João de Melo de Sampaio (2nd time)
                           - Abel Augusto Correia de Pinho
13 May 1900 – 22 Jul 1905  Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
22 Jul 1905 –  8 Nov 1905  
Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Sebastião Valente        (s.a.)
                               (9th time)
                           - Alfredo Augusto de Mendonça David
                           - José Emilio de Santana da Cunha
                               Castel-Branco
                           - Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                               (1st time)
 8 Nov 1905 – 14 Feb 1907  Arnaldo Nogueira de Novais Guedes
 (b. 1847 - d. 1917)
                             Rebelo   
14 Feb 1907 –  9 May 1907  
Governing Council (acting)
                           - Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                               (2nd time)
                           - Bernardo Nunes García
                           - C
ésar Augusto Roncon
 9 May 1907 – 12 Oct 1910  José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa  (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
12 Oct 1910 -  3 Jul 1917  Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
 3 Jul 1917 - 17 Jul 1917  Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira 
                             (1st time)(acting)
18 Jul 1917 - 24 Nov 1917  
Governing Council (acting)
                           - Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                               (3rd time)
                           - Francisco Peixoto de Oliveira e
                               Silva
                           - Francisco Ant
ónio Wolfango da    (b. 1864 - d. 1947)
                               Silva                  
24 Nov 1917 - 12 Jun 1919  José de Freitas Ribeiro            (b. 1868 - d. 1929)
12 Jun 1919 - 11 Nov 1919  Augusto de Paiva Bobelo da Mota    (b. 1879 - d. 1931)
                             (acting)
12 Nov 1919 -  7 Apr 1925  Jaime Alberto da Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
 7 Apr 1925 -  7 Jul 1925  Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 7 Jul 1925 - Jun 1926     Mariano Martins                    (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
Jun 1926 -  4 Aug 1926     Tito Augusto de Morais (acting)    (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
 4 Aug 1926 - 15 Aug 1926  Acúrsio Mendes da Rocha Dinis      (b. 1885 - d. 1943) 
                             (1st time)(acting)
15 Aug 1926 - 17 Apr 1929  Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
17 Apr 1929 – 12 Jul 1929  Ac
úrsio Mendes da Rocha Dinis      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
(acting)
12 Jul 1929 – 25 Aug 1929  Alfredo Pedro de Almeida           (b. 1888 - d. 1960) 
                             (acting)
25 Aug 1929 - 17 Sep 1936  João Carlos Craveiro Lopes         (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
Apr 1933 – Sep 1933        Alfredo Rodrigues dos Santos
                             (acting for Craveiro Lopes)
17 Sep 1936 -  6 Jun 1938  Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes    (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
 6 Jun 1938 -  5 Dec 1945  José Ricardo Pereira Cabral        (b. 1879 - d. 1956)
 5 Dec 1945 -  8 Apr 1946  Paulo Bénard Guedes (1st time)     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
                             (acting)
 8 Aug 1946 - 12 Aug 1947  José Silvestre Ferreira Bossa      (b. 1894 - d. 1970)
12 Aug 1947 - 27 Jun 1948  Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça      (b. 1898 - d. 1992) 
                             Dias (1st time) (acting)
27 Jun 1948 - 13 Nov 1948  José Alves Ferreira (acting)       (b. 1891 - d. ....)
13 Nov 1948 - 11 Oct 1952  Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça      (s.a.) 
                             Dias (2nd time)(acting)
11 Oct 1952 -  5 Nov 1952  Manuel Marques Abrantes Amaral
                             (acting)

 5 Nov 1952 -  9 Oct 1958  Paulo Bénard Guedes (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1958 –  4 Dec 1958  Ant
ónio Cyrne Rodrigues Pacheco    (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
                             (acting)
 4 Dec 1958 - 1962         Manuel António Vassalo e Silva     (b. 1899 - d. 1985) 
                             (nominal from 19 Dec 1961)
Indian Military Governor
19 Dec 1961 -  6 Jun 1962  Kenneth P. Candeth                 (b. 1916 - d. 2003)


British Envoys

1799 - 1801                Joshua Uhthoff                     (d. 1818)
1801                       Dillon (acting)
1801 - Jan 1806            Sir William Clarke                 (s.a.)
Feb 1806 - Aug 1806        Coleman (
acting)
Aug 1806 - 1815            Courtland Schuyler



Sikkim
 
[Sikkim
                          1877-c.1914]
                1877 - c.1914 
 
[Sikkim c.1914 -
                          1962]
              c.1914 - 1962
 
[Sikkim 1962-1967]
                  1962 - 1967
 
[Sikkim,
                          1967-1975]
                1967 - 16 May 1975
 
Map of Sikkim
National Anthem
"Sikkim Blooming So
Fresh and Beautiful"
(5 Apr 1970-Apr 1975)

Former National Anthem
"Our Kingdom Sikkim"
(c.1965-1970)
Constitution
(4 Jul 1974 - 16 May 1975)
Capital: Gangtok
(Tumlong 1793-1894;
Rabdantse 1760-1793;
Yoksam 1642-1760)
 Currency: Indian Rupee
(INR)
National Holiday: 22 May (1923)
Birthday of Chogyal

Palden Thondup Namgyal
Population: 162,189 (1961)
GDP: $ N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Nepalese 70%, Leptscha and
Bhutanese 20%, Khambers 10% (1961)
Total Armed Forces: 300 Guards (1975)
Defense was the responsibility of India
Merchant marine: None (1975)
Religions: Hindu 70%, Mahayana
Buddhist 25% (state religion) (1961)
International Organizations/Treaties: N/A

1642                       'Bras-ljongs kingdom (English name of the polity 'Sikkim' also
                             in official use after 1861)
.
1706                       Briefly occupied by Bhutan.
1730                       Tributary of Tibet.
bf.1793 - 1817             Annexed by Nepal.
10 Feb 1817                Protectorate of British India.
 1 Feb 1835                Darjeerling leased to British India.
Feb 1850                   Southern Sikkim and Darjeerling annexed by British India.
28 Mar 1861 - 15 Aug 1947  Sikkim a British protectorate.
17 Mar 1890                China formally recognizes British protectorate.
 7 Sep 1904                Tibet formally recognizes British protectorate.
1918                       Full internal autonomy granted.
15 Aug 1947                Independence declared.
15 Aug 1947 - 16 May 1975  Protectorate of India (formally from 5 Dec 1950).
 1 Mar 1975                Formally given the status of an associated state of India.
10 Apr 1975                Sikkim
assembly abolishes the monarchy and proclaims
                             accession to India (endorsed by referendum on 14 Apr 1975)
.
16 May 1975                Annexed to India (retroactive to 26 Apr 1975)
                             (see under Indian states).

Kings (Chogyal)¹
1642 - 1670                Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal I           (b. 1604 - d. 1670)
                            [Phuntso Namgyal I]
1670 - 1700                bsTan-srung rNam-rgyal             (b. 1644 - d. 1700)
                            [Tensung Namgyal]
1700 - 1716                Phyag-dor rNam-rgyal               (b. 1686 - d. 1716)
                            [Chhagdor Namgyal]
1716 - 1733                'Gyur-med rNam-rgyal               (b. 1707 - d. 1733)
                            [Gyurmed Namgyal]
1716 - 17..                Lama Jigme Pao -Regent
1733                       Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal II          (b. 1733 - d. 1780)
                            [Phuntso Namgyal II] (1st time)
1733 - 1736                Chan-dzod rTa-mgrin
                            [Chandzod Tamding] (usurper)
1736 - 1780                Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal II          (s.a.)
                            [Phuntso Namgyal II] (2nd time)
1736 - 17..                Rabden Sharpa -Regent
1780 - 1793                bsTan-'dzin rNam-rgyal             (b. 1769 - d. 1793)
                            [Tenzing Namgyal]
                            (in exile from 17..)
1793 - 1862                gTsug-phud rNam-rgyal              (b. 1785 - d. 1863)
                            [Tsugphud Namgyal]
                            (in exile ....-1817)
1862 - Apr 1874            Srid-skyong Sprul-sku rNam-rgyal I (b. 1819 - d. 1874)
                            [Sidkeong Trulku Namgyal I]
                            (regent 1861-62)
Apr 1874 - 10 Feb 1914     mThu-stobs rNam-rgyal              (b. 1860 - d. 1914)
                            [Thutob Namgyal (from 12 Dec 1911, Sir Thutob Namgyal)] 
                            (in exile in Tibet 1892-93 and in India 1893-95)
11 Feb 1914 -  5 Dec 1914  Srid-skyong Sprul-sku rNam-rgyal II(b. 1879 - d. 1914)
                            [Sidkeong Trulku Namgyal II]     
 5 Dec 1914 -  2 Dec 1963  bKra-shis rNam-rgyal               (b. 1893 - d. 1963)
                            [Tashi Namgyal (from 1 Jan 1923, Sir Tashi Namgyal)]
 3 Dec 1963 - 14 Apr 1975  dPal-ldan Don-grub rNam-rgyal      (b. 1923 - d. 1982)
                            [Palden Thondup Namgyal] (briefly in exile in 1973)
Chief Executive
14 Apr 1975 - 16 May 1975  Bipen Bihari Lal                   (b. 1917 - d. 2008)

President of the State Council
1944 - 1949                Palden Thondup Namgyal             (s.a.)               Non-party
Chief ministers

 9 May 1949 -  6 Jun 1949  Tashi Tshering                     (d. ....)            SSC
 6 Jun 1949 - 11 Aug 1949  Harishwar Dayal (interim)          (b. 1915 - d. 1964)  Non-party
Dewans
11 Aug 1949 - 1954         John S. Lall                       (b. 1914 - d. 2002)
1954 - 1959                Nari Kaikhosru Rustomji            (b. 1919)
22 Aug 1959 - 1963         Baleshwar Prasad                   (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
Principal administrative officer
1963 - 1969                Ramdas Narayan Haldipur            (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
Sidlon
1969 - Jul 1972            Inder Sen Chopra                   (b. 1909 - d. 19..)
Chief administrative officer
 9 Apr 1973 - 23 Jul 1974  Brajbir Saran Das                  (b. 1925)
Prime minister (Kazi)
23 Jul 1974 - 16 May 1975  Lhendup Dorjee Khangsarpa          (b. 1904 - d. 2007)  SNC
                             (Kazi Lhendup Dorji)

British Political Officers
1889 - Apr 1908            John Claude White                  (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
Sep 1906 - Jan 1907        Charles Alfred Bell                (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
                             (acting for White)
Apr 1908 - Apr 1918        Charles Alfred Bell (1st time)     (s.a.)
Apr 1918 - Jan 1920        William L. Campbell
                             (acting to Mar 1919)
Jan 1920 - Jan 1921        Charles Alfred Bell (2nd time)     (s.a.)
Jan 1921 - Mar 1921        William Frederick Travers O'Connor (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
                             (1st time) (acting)
Mar 1921 - Jun 1921        David Macdonald                    (b. 1870 - d. 1962)
Jun 1921 - May 1926        Frederick Marshman Bailey          (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
                             (1st time)
May 1926 - Dec 1926        Frederick Williamson (1st time)    (b. 1891 - d. 1935)
                             (acting)
Dec 1926 - Oct 1928        Frederick Marshman Bailey          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Oct 1928 - Apr 1931        Leslie Weir (1st time)             (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
Apr 1931 - Aug 1931        Frederick Williamson (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Aug 1931 - Jan 1933        Leslie Weir (2nd time)             (s.a.)         
Jan 1933 - 17 Nov 1935     Frederick Williamson (3rd time)    (s.a.)
Nov 1935 - Dec 1935        R.K.M. Battye (acting)             (b. 1905 - d. 1958)
Dec 1935 - May 1937        Basil J. Gould (1st time)          (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
May 1937 - Nov 1937        Hugh Edward Richardson (acting)    (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
Nov 1937 - Jun 1945        Basil J. Gould (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (from 1941, Sir Basil J. Gould) 
Jun 1945 - 15 Aug 1947     Arthur John Hopkinson              (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
Indian Political Officers
15 Aug 1947 - 1948         Arthur John Hopkinson              (s.a.)
1948 - 1952                Harishwar Dayal                    (s.a.)
Mar 1952 - 1955            Balraj Krishna Kapur               (b. 1910)
1955 - 1961                Apa Parshuram Rao Pant             (b. 1912 - d. 1992) 
23 Oct 1961 - Dec 1963     Inder Jeet Bahadur Singh           (b. 1914 - d. 1987)
1964 - 1966                Avtar Singh                        (b. 1921) 
1966 - 27 Jun 1967         Vincent Herbert Coelho             (b. 1917)
 3 Jul 1967 - 1969         Nedyam Balachandran Menon          (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
1969 - Jul 1972            Inder Sen Chopra                   (s.a.)
1972 - 1974                Kayatyani Shankar Bajpai           (b. 1928)
1974 - 16 May 1975         Gurbachan Singh                    (b. 1923)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Mi-dbang Chos-rgyal-chen-po (vernacular: Chogyal); in
communications with British and Indian authorities 1861 - 11 Mar 1965 styled: Maharaja.

Territorial Dispute: China did not formally recognize the 16 May 1975 incorporation of Sikkim into India until 11 Apr 2005.

Party abbreviations (None before 1947): NCP = Sikkim National Congress Party (mainly Nepali, pro-India, est.1960); SNC = Sikkim National Congress (non-communal, 1962-1945, merged into INC); SNP = Sikkim National Party (mainly non-Nepali, pro-independence, est.1950); SSC = Sikkim State Congress Party (social-democratic, pro-India, est.1949)






© Ben Cahoon