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China
 
[War Ensign
                            1862-1872 (China)]
  22 Oct 1862 - 10 Nov 1872  War Ensign
 
[Flag of Imperial China,
                            1872-1890]
            10 Nov 1872 - 1890 
 
[Flag of
                            Imperial China, 1890-1912]
1890 - 12 Feb 1912; 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917
 
[1912 Flag of
                            Republic of China]
           1 Jan 1912 - 22 Dec 1915; 
           22 Mar 1916 - 1 Jul 1917; 
           12 Jul 1917 -  8 Oct 1928 

[Chinese
                            Imperial flag of Yuan Shi-kai 1915-1916]  
            22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916
 
 
 
[Flag of Republic
                            of China, 1928-1949]
             8 Oct 1928 - 1 Oct 1949
 
[Flag of People's
                            Republic of China]
                Adopted 1 Oct 1949
 

 

Map of China
Hear National Anthem
"Yiyonggjun Jinxingqu"
(The March of the Volunteers)
Adopted 27 Sep 1949
(provisional to 4 Dec 1982)
Former de facto Anthem
"Dongfang Hong"
(The East is Red)

(1966 - c.1978)
Constitution
  (4 Dec 1982)
China Military Regions Map
Japanese Occupation Map
Civil War Map (1945-1949)
Ethnolinguistic Map of China
Capital: Beijing
(Nanjing 1928-37, 1946-49;
Hankow 1937-1938;
Chungking  1939-1946)
Currency: Yuan (CNY) 
National Holiday: 1 Oct  (1949)
Anniversary of the Founding
 of  the People's Republic
Population: 1,349,585,838 (2013)
GDP: $13.37 trillion (2013) 
Exports: $2.21 trillion (2013)
Imports: $1.77 trillion (2013) 
Ethnic groups: Han (Chinese) 91.53%, Chuang (Zhuang) 1.30%, 
Manchu 0.86%, Hui 0.79%, Miao (Hmong) 0.72%, Uygur 0.68%, 
Tuchia 0.65%, Yi 0.62%, Mongol  0.47%, Tibetan 0.44%, Puyi (Buyi) 
0.24%, Tung (Dong) 0.24%, Yao 0.21%, Korean 0.15%, Pai 0.15%,
Hani 0.12%, Kazakh 0.10%, Tai 0.09%, other 0.54% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 2,285,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1964): est. 240 weapons (2012)
Merchant marine: 2,030 ships (2010)
Religions: Non-religious 39.2%, Daoist (Taoist) and
Chinese folk religionist 28.7%, Christian 10%,
Buddhist 8.4%, atheist 7.8%,
traditional beliefs 4.4%,
Muslim 1.5% (2005) 

note: state is officially atheist 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ADB, AfDB (nonregional), ANT, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, BTWC, CDB (nonregional), CICA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAS, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD (partner), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNSC (permanent), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
China Index
Chronology
 
c.2000 BC - c.1500 BC      Partly legendary Xia (Shia) dynasty.
c.1700 BC - c.1027 BC      Shang dynasty.
c.1027 BC - 221 BC         Zhou (Chou) dynasty.
475 BC - 221 BC            Period of the Warring States, fragmentation of 
                             Zhou kingdom.
22 Dec 221 BC              Qin (Ch'in) dynasty, from which modern China
                             derives its name, founded.
221 BC - 210 BC            First Emperor Qin Shi Huang (Ch'n Shi Huang
                             (b. 260 BC - d. 210 BC) reigns.
206 BC - 220 AD            Han dynasty (9 - 24 AD, briefly interrupted).
220 - 420                  Era of disunity under Warlords. China not unified
                             under any one power. Huns, Turks and nomadic
                             tribes invade the north.
420 - 589                  Divided under Northern and Southern dynasties.
 4 Mar 581 - 23 May 618    Reunification under the Sui dynasty.
907 - 979                  Era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
  4 Feb 960                 Song dynasty inaugurated.
18 Dec 1271                Great Yuan (Mongol) Empire (southern Song remnants
                             conquered 4 Feb 1276). 
28 Jan 1368                Great Ming Realm inaugurated (elements continue
                             in dissidence in southern China to Jan 1659).
15 May 1636                Great Qing (Ch'ing) Empire inaugurated (taking
                             Beijing on 6 Jun 1644).
28 May 1858                Left bank of Amur River annexed by Russia.
14 Nov 1860                Amur right bank below Ussuri junction (Primorye)
                             annexed by Russia.
 4 Jul 1871 - 24 Feb 1881  Russia briefly annexes Ili.
 2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945  Taiwan annexed by Japan.
Jul 1900 -  7 Sep 1901     Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan and allies
                             occupy Tientsin (14 Jul 1900), Peking 
                             (21 Aug 1901) and other areas during the 
                             Boxer Rebellion.
10 Oct 1911                Revolution begins.
 1 Jan 1912                Republic of China
Jan 1913 -  7 Oct 1951     Tibet (de facto) independent.
 1 Dec 1911                (Outer) Mongolia declares independence.
 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Restoration of Great Qing Empire.
19 Feb 1920 -  3 Feb 1921  Mongolia briefly re-incorporated.
10 Sep 1931 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupy Manchuria (Manchukuo).
 1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934  Communists declare Soviet Republic of China in 
                             Jiangxi province.
Sep 1937 - Aug 1945        Japan occupies northeastern China, the Yellow
                             River valley and the coastal provinces.
 1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China (from 8 Dec 1949,
                             Republic of China continues on Taiwan only.
 1 Jul 1997                Re-integration of the former British colony 
                             of Hong Kong.
20 Dec 1999                Re-integration of the former Portuguese colony 
                             of Macau.
People's
Republic of
China
Administrative
Divisions
Former Colonies
& Concessions
Chinese Empire

Rebellions

(1851-1874)
  • Taiping
  • Shengping
  • Cheng
  • Pingnan Guo
  •  Warlord Period
    (1911-1928)
    Nationalist
    China
     
    (1917-1949)
    Alternative
    Governments

    (1927-1934)
    Japanese
    Occupation
     (1937-1945)
    Manchukuo
    (1932-1945)
    Inner Mongolia
    (1936-1945)
    Kashgaria
    (1693-1877)
    ------------------
    East Turkestan
    (1933-1946)
    Dörben Oyriad
    (Dzungar Khanate)

    (1626-1757)
    Tibet
    (to 1951)
    ------------------

    Tibet Exile Govt.
    Historical Maps
    of China

    Note about Pinyin: Wade-Giles (Weituoma Pinyin) romanizations have been added to aid recognition. When known, names prior to 1979 are given with the Wade-Giles romanization in parentheses following the modern Hanyu Pinyin version i.e., Li Yuanhong (Li Yuan-hung). Hanyu Pinyin superseded older romanization systems, which was officially adopted by the People's Republic on 1 Jan 1979, but not by Taiwan. It was adopted by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982 and by United Nations in 1986.

    Chinese Empire
     
    Map of Chinese Empire
    National Anthem
    "The Tone of Li Zhongtang"
    (1896-1911) (unofficial)
    Hear National Anthem
    "Gong Jin'ou"
    (Cup of Solid Gold)
    (4 Oct 1911-12 Feb 1912
    and 1-12 Jul 1917)
    Constitution
      (none adopted)
    Capital: Peking
    Currency: Chinese Silver
    Tael (CST)
    National Holiday: 7 Feb (1906)
    Emperor's Birthday
    Population: 431,735,400 (1900)

    Note: Emperors are listed with their personal name (ming), followed by their temple name (miaohao), posthumous name (shi), and the era name (nianhao) roughly coextensive with the particular reign (note that the overlap is not perfect). Although it is customary in "Western" sources to refer to a Qing ruler by his nianhao (i.i., the Guangxu emperor), Chinese usually refer to a former emperor by his miaohao, perhaps preceded by the name of the polity (i.e., Qing Dezong). 

    Emperors
    - Ming dynasty -
    19 Jul 1572 - 18 Aug 1620  Zhu Yijun                          (b. 1563 - d. 1620)
                                 miaohao: Shenzong/ shi: Xian huangdi
                                 nianhao 2 Feb 1573 - 27 Aug 1620: Wanli (Wan'li)
    28 Aug 1620 - 28 Sep 1620  Zhu Changluo                       (b. 1582 - d. 1620) 
                                 miaohao: Guangzong/ shi: Zhen huangdi
                                 nianhao 28 Aug 1620 - 21 Jan 1621: Taichang (T'ai-chang)
     1 Oct 1620 - 30 Sep 1627  Zhu Youjiao                        (b. 1605 - d. 1627)
                                 miaohao: Xizong (Shi-tsung)/ shi: Zhe huangdi
                                 nianhao 22 Jan 1621 - 4 Feb 1628: Tianqi (T'ien-ch'i)
     2 Oct 1627 - 25 Apr 1644  Zhu Youjian (Chu Yu-chien)         (b. 1611 - d. 1644)
                                 miaohao: Sizong (Szu-tsung)/ shi: Lie huangdi
                                 nianhao 5 Feb 1628 - 25 Apr 1644: Chongzhen (Ch'ung-chen)
    1642 - 1645                Li Zicheng (Li Tzu-ch'eng)         (b. 1606 - d. 1645)
                               (in rebellion, starting in Xiangfan)
                                 nianhao 8 Feb 1644 - 5 Jun 1644: Yongchang 
    - Qing dynasty -
    17 Feb 1616 - 30 Sep 1626  Nurhaci (Nu'erhachi)               (b. 1559 - d. 1626)
                                 miaohao: Taizu (T'ai-tsu)/ shi: Gao huangdi
                                 nianhao 17 Feb 1616 - 15 Feb 1627: Tianming (T'ien Ming)
    20 Oct 1626 - 21 Sep 1643  Huangtaiji (Huang Taiji)           (b. 1592 - d. 1643)
                                 miaohao: Taizong (T'ai Ts'ung)/ shi: Wen huangdi 
                                 nianhao 16 Feb 1627 - 14 May 1636: Tiancong (T'ien T'sung)
                                         15 May 1636 - 7 Feb 1644: Chongde (Ch'ung Te)
     8 Oct 1643 -  5 Feb 1661  Fulin                              (b. 1638 - d. 1661)
                                 miaohao: Shizu (Shih-tsu)/ shi: Zhang huangdi
                                 nianhao 8 Feb 1644 - 18 Feb 1662: Shunzhi (Shun-chih)
     8 Oct 1643 - 31 Dec 1650  Regents
                               - Duoergun (Dorgon)                (b. 1612 - d. 1650)
                               - Jirgalang (to 1647)              (b. 1599 - d. 1655)
                               - Dodo (1647 - 29 Apr 1649)        (b. 1614 - d. 1649)
     7 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722  Xuanye (Hsüan-yeh)                 (b. 1654 - d. 1722)
                                 miaohao: Shengzu (Sheng Tsu)/ shi: Ren huangdi
                                 nianhao 18 Feb 1662 - 4 Feb 1723: Kangxi (K'ang-hsi)
     7 Feb 1661 - May 1669     Regents
                               - Sukesaha (Suksaha) (to 1667)     (d. 1667)
                               - Suoni (Sonin) (to 1667)          (b. 1601 - d. 1667)
                               - Aobai (Oboi)                     (b. c.1610 - d. 1669)
                               - Ebilong (Ebilun) (to 1667)       (d. 1673)
    10 Jul 1706 - 1707         Wei Zhiye (in rebellion)
                                 nianhao 10 Jul 1706 - 1707: Wenxing
    1707 - 1708                Zhu Cihuan                         (b. 1633 - d. 1708)
                                (styled Ding wang, heading Great Ming [or Shining] Realm,
                                 in rebellion)
    26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721  Zhu Yigui (Chu Yi-gwe)             (b. 1689/90 - d. 1721)
                                (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                                 nianhao 26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721: Yonghe
    27 Dec 1722 -  8 Oct 1735  Yinzhen (Yin Chen)                 (b. 1678 - d. 1735)
                                 miaohao: Shizong (Shi Tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi
                                 nianhao 5 Feb 1723 - 11 Feb 1746: Yongzheng (Yung Cheng)
    18 Oct 1735 -  9 Feb 1796  Hongli (Hung Li)                   (b. 1711 - d. 1799)
                                 niaohao Gaozong (Kao Tsung)/ shi: Chun huangdi
                                 nianhao 12 Feb 1736 - 8 Feb 1796: Qianlong (Ch'ien Lung)
    Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788     Lin Tsuang-wen (Lin Shuangwen)     (b. 1756 - d. 1788)
                                 (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                                 nianhao Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788: Shuntian
     9 Feb 1796 -  2 Sep 1820  Yongyan (Yung Yen)                 (b. 1760 - d. 1820)
                                 niaohao: Renzong (Jen Tsung)/ shi: Rui huangdi
                                 nianhao 9 Feb 1796 - 2 Feb 1821: Jiaqing (Chia Ch'ing)
    Mar 1797 - 1797            Li Shu (in rebellion)
                                 nianhao Mar 1797 - 1797: Daqing
     3 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850  Minning (Min Ning)                 (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
                                 niaohao: Xuanzong (Hsuan Tsung)/ shi: Cheng huangdi
                                 nianhao 3 Feb 1821 - 31 Jan 1851: Daoguang (Tao Kuang)
     9 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861  Yizhu (Yi Chu)                     (b. 1831 - d. 1861)
                                 miaohao: Wenzong (Wen Tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi
                                 nianhao 1 Feb 1851 - 29 Jan 1862: Xianfeng (Hsien Feng)
    22 Aug 1861 - 12 Jan 1875  Regents
                               - Empress Dowager Cian (Tz'u An)(f)(b. 1837 - d. 1881)
                               - Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u Hsi)  (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                                 (f)(1st time)
                               - Prince Gong (Kung)               (b. 1833 - d. 1898)
    11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875  Zaichun (Tsai Ch'un)               (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
                                 miaohao: Muzong (Mu Tsung)/ shi: Yi huangdi
                                 nianhao 30 Jan 1862 - 5 Feb 1875: Tongzhi (T'ung Chih)
    25 Feb 1875 - 14 Nov 1908  Zaitian (Tsai T'ien)               (b. 1872 - d. 1908)
                                 miaohao: Te Tsung (Dezong)/ shi: Jing huangdi
                                 nianhao 6 Feb 1875 - 21 Jan 1909: Guangxu (Kuang-hsü)
    25 Feb 1875 -  4 Mar 1889  Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u Hsi)(f) (s.a.)
                                (2nd time) -Regent 
                                (de facto 3rd time; from 20 Sep 1898 to 2 Dec 1908)
                                (21 Aug 1900 - 7 Jan 1902 in Hsian Foo, Honan refuge)
     2 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912  Puyi (Pu-yi) (1st time)            (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                                 nianhao 22 Jan 1909 - 12 Feb 1912: Hsüan-T'ung (Xuantong)
     2 Dec 1908 -  6 Dec 1911  Prince Zaifeng -Regent             (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
                                (Ch'un Tsai-feng)
     6 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912  Empress Dowager Longyu Xiaoding    (b. 1868 - d. 1913)
                                (Long Yu Huagtaihou)(f) -Regent
                                (holder of the Imperial seal) 
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Puyi (Pu-yi) (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                               (from 12 Feb 1912 - 5 Nov 1924, Emperor
                                 inside the Forbidden City only¹)
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Zhang Xun (Chang Hsün) -Regent     (b. 1854 - d. 1923)

    Grand Secretaries (Da Qing Da Xueshi)(serving jointly)
    Jun 1682 - Nov 1701        Wang Xi                            (b. 1628 - d. 1703)
    Dec 1682 - Mar 1683        Hoang Ji                           (b. 1611 - d. 1686)
    Dec 1682 - Feb 1687        Wu Zhengzhi                        (b. 1618 - d. 1691)
    Sep 1684 - 1687            Song Deyi                          (b. 1626 - d. 1687)
    Apr 1687 - Feb 1688        Yu Guozho
    Sep 1687 - Feb 1688        Li Zhifang                         (b. 1622 - d. 1694)
    Feb 1688 - 1691            Liang Qingbao                      (b. 1620 - d. 1691)
    Feb 1688 - Jan 1703        Yiswang'a                          (b. 1638 - d. 1703)
    Jul 1689 - 1699            Alantai                            (d. 1699)
    Jul 1689 - 1690            Xu Yuanwen                         (b. 1634 - d. 1691)
    Aug 1690 - Aug 1698        Zhang Yushu (1st time)             (b. 1642 - d. 1711)
    Dec 1692 - 1699            Li Tianfu                          (b. 1635 - d. 1699)
    Sep 1698 - 1705            Wu Dian                            (d. 1705)
    Dec 1699 - Jun 1703        Xiong Cilü (2nd time)              (b. 1635 - d. 1709)
    Dec 1699 - May 1700        Folun                              (d. 1701)
    Dec 1699 - Jun 1709        Maqi (1st time)                    (b. 1651/52 - d. 1739)
    Dec 1699 - 1701            Zhang Ying                         (b. 1638 - d. 1708)
    Dec 1701 - Jul 1711        Zhang Yushu (2nd time)             (s.a.)
    Dec 1702 - Feb 1708        Sihana (Xihan)
    Jun 1703 - 1712            Cheng Tingjing (1st time)          (b. 1639 - d. 1712)
    Dec 1705 - 1718            Li Guangdi                         (b. 1642 - d. 1718)
    Jan 1708 - 1716            Wenda                              (d. 1716)
    Jan 1711 - Jan 1723        Xiao Yongzao                       (b. 1644 - d. 1729)
    Jul 1711 - 1712            Chen Tingjing (2nd time)           (s.a.)
    May 1712 - Jan 1723        Songzhu (1st time)                 (b. 1657 - d. 1735)
    May 1712 - Feb 1723        Wang Shan                          (b. 1645 - d. 1728)
    Jun 1716 - Nov 1735        Maqi (2nd time)                    (s.a.)
    Sep 1718 - 1725            Wang Xuling                        (b. 1642 - d. 1725)
    Jan 1723 - Aug 1725        Bai Huang (1st time)               (b. 1660 - d. 1737)
    Jan 1723 - 1728            Funing'an                          (d. 1728)
    Mar 1723 - 1725            Zhang Pengge                       (b. 1649 - d. 1725)
    May 1725 - Dec 1749        Zhang Tingyu                       (b. 1672 - d. 1755)
    Aug 1725 - Jan 1727        Gao Qiwei                          (b. 1646 - d. 1727)
    Oct 1725 - 1736            Zhu Shi                            (b. 1665 - d. 1736)
    May 1728 - Feb 1731        Jiang Tingxi                       (b. 1669 - d. 1732)
    Oct 1728 - Sep 1733        Ma'ersai                           (d. 1733)
    Feb 1729 - Sep 1733        Chen Yuanlong                      (b. 1652 - d. 1736)
    Feb 1729 - 1738            Yintai                             (b. 1651 - d. 1738/39)
    Feb 1732 - 1745            O-er-tai                           (b. 1680 - d. 1745)
    Jun 1733 - 1739            Ji Zengyun                         (b. 1671 - d. 1739)
    Sep 1735 - Apr 1747        Jalangga (Chalang'a)               (b. af.1680 - d. 1747)
    Sep 1735 - Jan 1738        Maizhu                             (b. 1670 - d. 1738)
    Dec 1736 - Aug 1744        Xu Ben                             (b. 1683 - d. 1747)
    Feb 1738 - Feb 1746        Fumin                              (b. 1673 - d. 1756)
    Feb 1739 - 1741            Zhao Guolin
    Sep 1741 - Feb 1749        Chen Shiguan (1st time)            (b. 1680 - d. 1758)
    Feb 1744 - Jul 1755        Shi Yizhi (1st time)               (b. 1682 - d. 1736)
    Jul 1745 - 1748            Noqin
    Feb 1746 - Feb 1747        (Dong) Qinfu                       (d. 1749)
    May 1747 - 1755            Gao Bin                            (b. 1683 - d. 1755)
    Feb 1748 - 1764            Laibao                             (d. 1755)
    Nov 1748 - 1770            Fuheng                             (b. 1721 - d. 1770)
    Feb 1750 - May 1751        Zhang Yunsui
    Feb 1751 - Jun 1758        Chen Shiguan (2nd time)            (s.a.)
    Jul 1755 - 1759            Huang Tinggui                      (b. 1691 - d. 1759)
    Feb 1759 - 1761            Jiang Bo                           (b. 1708 - d. 1761)
    Jul 1761 - 1773            Liu Tongxun                        (b. 1700 - d. 1773)
    Aug 1763 - Dec 1763        Liang Shizheng                     (b. 1697 - d. 1763)
    Dec 1763 - 1764            Yang Tingzhang                     (b. 1688 - d. 1772)
    Jun 1764 - 1771            Yinjishan                          (b. 1696 - d. 1771)
    Sep 1764 - 1767            Yang Yinju                         (d. 1767)
    May 1767 - Apr 1771        Chen Hongmou                       (b. 1696 - d. 1771)
    Nov 1770 - Jan 1772        A'ertai                            (d. 1773)
    Apr 1771 - 1773            Liu Lun                            (b. 1711 - d. 1773)
    Jul 1771 - Feb 1779        Gao Jin                            (b. 1707 - d. 1770)
    Jan/Feb 1772-Jun/Aug 1773  Winfu                              (d. 1773)
    Aug 1773 - 1777            Shuhede                            (b. 1711 - d. 1777)
    Oct 1772 - 1780            Yu Minzhong                        (b. 1714 - d. 1780)
    Jan 1774 - 1777            Li Siyao                           (d. 1788)
    Jul 1777 - 1797            Agui                               (b. 1717 - d. 1797)
    Feb 1779 - 1784            Sanbao                             (d. 1784)
    Jan 1780 - Oct 1780        Chen Jingyi                        (d. 1786)
    Jun 1780 - 1783            Yinglian                           (b. 1707 - d. 1783)
    Sep 1780 - 1794            Ji Huang                           (b. 1711 - d. 1794)
    Sep 1783 - Jun 1785        Cai Xin                            (b. 1707 - d. 1800)
    Sep 1784 - 1786            Wumitai                            (b. 1713 - d. 1786)
    Jul 1785 - 1787            Liang Guozhi                       (b. 1723 - d. 1787)
    Sep 1786 - 1799            Hoshen                             (b. 1750 - d. 1799)
    Feb 1787 - Sep 1800        Wang Jie                           (b. 1725 - d. 1805)
    Oct 1792 - 1796            Fukang'an                          (d. 1796)
    Oct 1792 - 1796            Sun Shiyi                          (b. 1720 - d. 1796)
    Dec 1796 - May 1797        Dong Gao (1st time)                (b. 1740 - d. 1818)
    1797 - 1805                Liu Yong                           (b. 1720 - d. 1805)
    Nov 1797 - 1805            Suling'a 
    Feb 1799 - 1806            Baoning                            (d. 1808)
    May 1799 - 1813            Qinggui                            (b. 1735 - d. 1816)
    Jul 1799 - 1818            Dong Gao (2nd time)                (s.a.)
    Feb 1805 - 1807            Zhu Gui                            (b. 1733 - d. 1807)
    Dec 1806 - Aug 1811        Fukang                             (d. 1816)
    1807 - Jan 1810            Fei Chun                           (b. 1739 - d. 1811)
    Feb 1810 - Nov 1814        Feimo Lebao                        (b. c.1740 - d. 1819)
    Jul 1810 - 1811            Dai Quheng                         (b. 1756 - d. 1811)
    Jul 1811 - 1813            Liu Quanzhi                        (b. 1739 - d. 1818/22)
    Nov 1813 - 1835            Cao Zheyong                        (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
    Nov 1813 - Jul 1817        (Malate) Songyun                   (b. 1752 - d. 1835)
    Oct 1814 - Dec 1831        Tuojin                             (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
    Aug 1817 - Jun 1821        Mingliang                          (b. 1735 - d. 1822)
    May 1818 - 1820            Zhang Xu                           (d. 1824)
    Apr 1820 - May 1824        Dai Junyuan                        (b. 1746 - d. 1840)
    Aug 1821 - 1822            Bolin 
    Aug 1822 - Mar 1835        Changling                          (b. 1758 - d. 1835)
    Sep 1824 - 1825            Sun Yuting                         (b. 1753 - d. 1834)
    Aug 1825 - Nov 1830        Jiang Youxian                      (b. 1766 - d. 1830/31)
    Nov 1830 - Apr 1833        Liu Yingbo                         (b. 1760 - d. 1835)
    Jan 1832 - 1834            Fujun                              (b. 1749 - d. 1834)
    May 1833 - Jul 1850        Pan Shi'en                         (b. 1770 - d. 1854)
    Mar 1835 - 1838            Ruan Yuan                          (b. 1764 - d. 1849)
    Mar 1835 - Aug 1836        Wenfu                              (d. 1841)
    Sep 1836 - 1852            Muzhang'a                          (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
    May 1838 - Feb 1841        Qishan                             (b. 1790 - d. 1854)
    Jul 1838 - 1842            Wang Ding                          (b. 1768 - d. 1842)
    Mar 1841 - 1848            Jueluo Baoxing                     (b. 1776 - d. 1848)
    Jan 1845 - 1855            Zhuo Bingtian                      (b. 1782 - d. 1855)
    Dec 1848 - Dec 1850        Jiying (Kiying)                    (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
    Jul 1850 - Jan 1855        Qi Junzao                          (b. 1793 - d. 1866)
    Feb 1851 - Oct 1852        Saishanga                          (d. 1875)
    Oct 1852 - Jan 1854        Narjinga (Na'erjing'e) 
    Dec 1852 - 1858            Yucheng                            (d. 1858)
    Jan 1855 - Jul 1856        Jia Zhen (1st time)                (b. 1798 - d. 1874)
    Oct 1855 - 1856            Wenqing                            (b. 1796 - d. 1856)
    Jan 1856 - Jan 1857        Ye Mingzhen                        (b. 1807 - d. 1859)
    Nov 1856 - Oct 1860        Peng Yunzhang                      (b. 1792 - d. 1862)
    Jan 1857 - 1862            Guiliang                           (b. 1785 - d. 1862)
    Oct 1858                   Bojun                              (d. 1859)
    Oct 1858 - Jun 1859        Weng Xingcun (1st time)            (b. 1791 - d. 1862)
    Feb 1859 - Oct 1860        Ruilin (1st time)                  (d. 1874)
    Nov 1859 - 1867            Jia Zhen (2nd time)                (s.a.)
    Feb 1861 - 1871            Guanwen (1st time)                 (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
    Feb 1861 - 1867            Zhou Zupei                         (b. 1793 - d. 1867)
    Dec 1861 - 1862            Weng Xincun (2nd time)             (s.a.)
    Oct 1862 - 1871            Woren                              (b. af.1800 - d. 1871)
    15 Feb 1867 - 1871         Guanwen (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
    10 Jun 1867 - 1871         Zeng Guofan                        (b. 1811 - d. 1872)
    Apr 1868 - 1872            Zhu Fengbiao                       (d. 1873)
    Apr 1871 - 1872            Ruichang                           (d. 1872)
    Aug 1871 - 1874            Ruilin (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
    10 Aug 1872 - 1876         Wen Xiang                          (b. 1818 - d. 1876)
    16 Aug 1872 - 1901         Li Hongzhang                       (b. 1823 - d. 1901)
     1 Oct 1872 - 1874         Dan Moaqian                        (d. 1880)
    18 Oct 1874 - 1885         Zuo Zongtang                       (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
    Jul 1874 - 1884            Baoyun                             (b. 1807 - d. 1891)
    Feb 1877 - 1878            Yingghui                           (b. 1798 - d. 1878/9)
     5 Jul 1878 - 24 Oct 1880  Zailing                            (d. 1883)
    23 Dec 1880 - 20 Oct 1881  Quanqing                           (b. c.1820 - d. 1882/83)
    26 Dec 1881 - 1885         Linggui                            (d. 1885)
    23 Jun 1884 - 28 Nov 1884  Wen Yu                             (d. 1884)
    Nov 1884 - 15 Apr 1896     Olohubu (Elehuobu)                 (b. af.1830 - d. 1901)
    Jan 1886 - 1892            Encheng                            (d. 1892)
    Jan 1886 - 23 Aug 1888     Yan Jingming                       (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
    Jan 1889 - 20 Oct 1896     Zhang Zhiwan                       (b. 1811 - d. 1897)
    Oct 1892 - 26 Jun 1895     Fukun                              (b. af.1830 - d. 1895)
    17 Aug 1895 - 1898         Linshu                             (d. 1898)
    14 Jun 1896 - 1903         Kun'gang                           (d. 1907)
     9 Dec 1896 - 1900         Xu Tong                            (b. 1819 - d. 1900)
    15 Jun 1898 - 1903         Runglu (Ronglu)                    (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
     6 Jan 1900 - 21 Jun 1907  Wang Wenshao                       (b. 1830 - d. 1908)
    31 Jan 1902 - 1909         Sun Jianai                         (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
    Oct 1903 - 16 Oct 1904     Jingxin                            (d. 1908)
    15 Oct 1903 - 29 Jun 1905  Chongli                            (d. 1908)
     9 Nov 1905 - 28 Oct 1906  Yüde                               (d. 1906)
    10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911  Shi Xu                             (b. 1852 - d. 1921)
    10 Jan 1905 - 1911         Natong                             (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
    10 Aug 1907 - 1909         Zhang Zhidong                      (b. 1837 - d. 1909)
     6 Nov 1909 - 1910         Lu Zhuanlin (Lu Ch'uan-lin)        (b. 1836 - d. 1910)
    Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911     Lu Runyang                         (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
    Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911     Xu Shichang                        (b. 1858 - d. 1939)
    Premiers
     8 May 1911 -  1 Nov 1911  Prince Yiguang                     (s.a.)
     2 Nov 1911 - Mar 1912     Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)       (b. 1859 - d. 1916)  Mil
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Zhang Xun (Chang Hsün)             (s.a.)               Mil

      ¹According to the treaty signed between the Qing (Ch'ing) court and government of the Republic of China, Puyi (Pu-yi)(s.a.) retained the title Emperor, received an annual payment from the Republic of China government, had the right to live in the Forbidden City, to be protected by imperial troops, to grant noble and honorary titles, and to maintain certain government organs in the Forbidden City (mainly for management of the Forbidden City and other palaces, management of imperial families, etc). Inside the Forbidden City the flag of the Qing dynasty was flown. People in the Forbidden City continued to wear the Qing official dress and used the Qing calendar system. On 1 Dec 1922, the Emperor married and his wife was called Empress. On 5 Nov 1924, Puyi was forced to leave the Forbidden City by a faction of the army of the Republic of China and the above mentioned privileges were ended.


    Polities Rebelling against the Qing (Ch'ing) Empire 1851-1872

    Taiping

    [Taiping Heaven and Earth
                Society Flag, simplified from a flag in the Taiping
                Heavenly Kingdom Museum in Nanjing, China]

    11 Jan 1851                Taiping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Great Peace)
                                 inaugurated.
    25 Oct 1864                Extinguished by Qing empire.

    Heavenly Kings
    11 Jan 1851 -  1 Jun 1864  Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch'üan)   (b. 1813 - d. 1864)
     1 Jun 1864 - 25 Oct 1864  Hong Tianguifu (Hung Fu)          (b. 1849 - d. 1864)


    Shengping

     9 Oct 1854                Shengping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Ascending Peace) 
                                 inaugurated.
    24 Jul 1858                Extinguished by Qing empire.

    Heavenly Kings
     9 Oct 1854 - 24 Jul 1858  Hu Youlu (to Oct 1855)            (d. 1855)
                               + Zhu Hongying                    (d. 1874)


    Cheng

    27 Sep 1855                Great Cheng Realm inaugurated.
    21 Aug 1861                Extinguished by Qing empire.

    Kings
    27 Sep 1855 - 21 Aug 1861  Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang)   (b. 1822 - d. 1861)
                               + Li Wenmao (to 1858)             (d. 1858)


    Kashghar: see under  Sinkiang

    Pingnan Guo

    1856 - 26 Dec 1872         Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State") is a major
                                 Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province,
                                 also called the Panthay rebellion.

    Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims)
    (usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan)
    1856 - 26 Dec 1872         Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman       (b. 1823 - d. 1872)
                               (Du Wenxiu [orig. Yang Xiu])


    Warlord China

    [1912 Flag of
                          Republic of China]
            1 Jan 1912 - 22 Dec 1915; 
            22 Mar 1916 - 1 Jul 1917; 
            12 Jul 1917 -  8 Oct 1928 
    [Chinese
                          Imperial flag of Yuan Shi-kai 1915-1916]  
            22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916
     
    [Flag of
                          Imperial China, 1890]
             1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917

    Map of China
    Hear National Anthem
    "Zhong Guo Xiong Li Yu
    Zhou Jian"
    (China Heroically Stands

    in the Universe)
    (Jun 1915-5 Jun 1916)
    (5 Jun 1916 - 1921: No Anthem)

    Hear National Anthem
    "Qing Yun Ge" (The Song
    to the Auspicious Cloud)
     (Jul 1921-1928 and
    1937-1945 by pro-Japan govt.)
    Provisional Constitution
      (11 Mar 1912 - 1915,
    10 Sep 1917 - 10 Oct 1923;

    in German)

    Map of Warlord Control
    Capital: Beijing
    (1912-1928)
    Currency: Chinese Dollar/
    Yuan (CND)
    -------------------------------------
    National Holiday: National Day
    10 Oct (1911)

    Population: 485,598,900 (1925)

    10 Oct 1911                 Revolution begins.
     1 Jan 1912                 Republic of China proclaimed.
    22 Dec 1915                 Empire of China
    22 Mar 1916                 Republic of China
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917   Brief restoration of the Great Qing Empire (s.a.).

    Note: The following provincial military governments proclaimed their independence from the Qing Empire in the name of a Republic of China in gestation at the end of 1911, and combined in a Central Military Government at the end of November.

    Military governors
    - Hupe (Hubei) -
    11 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Li Yuanhong (Li Yuan-hung)         (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
    - Hunan -
    23 Oct 1911 - 31 Oct 1911  Jiao Dafeng                        (b. 1887 - d. 1911)
    31 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (b. 1879 - d. 1930)
    - Shensi (Shaanxi) -
    23 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Zhang Fenghui                      (b. 1881 - d. 1958)
    - Kiangsi (Jiangxi) -
    24 Oct 1911 -  2 Nov 1911  Ma Yubao                           (b. 1864 - d. 1933)
     2 Nov 1911 - 12 Nov 1911  Wu Jiezhang
    12 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Peng Chengwan                      (b. 1880 - d. 1978)
    - Shansi (Shanxi) -
    29 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Yan Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan)          (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
    - Yunnan -
    30 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Cai E                              (b. 1882 - d. 1916)
    - Shanghai (actually called itself Military Government of the Republic of China) -
     4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Chen Qimei (Ch'en Ch'i-mei)        (b. 1878 - d. 1916)
    - Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
     4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Tang Shouqian (T'ang Shou-ch'ien)  (b. 1856 - d. 1917)
    - Kweichow (Guizhou) -
     5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Yang Jincheng                      (b. 1880 - d. 1922)
    - Kiangsu (Jiangsu) -
     5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Cheng Dequan                       (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
    - Anhwei (Anhui) -
     8 Nov 1911 - 28 Nov 1911  Zhu Jiabao                         (b. 1880 - d. 1923)
    28 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Yuyun                          (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
    - Kwangsi (Guangxi) -
     9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Shen Bingkun                       (b. 1862 - d. 1913)
    - Fukien (Fujian -
     9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Daoren                         (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
    - Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
     9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Hu Hanmin                          (b. 1879 - d. 1936)
    - Shantung (Shandong) -
    13 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i)           (b. 1867 - d. 1931)
    - Szechwan (Sichuan) -
    22 Nov 1911 - 27 Nov 1911  Zhang Peijue                       (b. 1879 - d. 1915)
    27 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Pu Dianjun                         (b. 1875 - d. 1934)

    Military governor (Central Military Government of the Republic of China)
    30 Nov 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Li Yuanhong (Li Yuan-hung)         (s.a.)               Mil
    Presidents
     1 Jan 1912 - 10 Mar 1912  Sun Yat-sen (provisional)          (b. 1866 - d. 1925)  Tong
                                 (pinyin: Sun Yixian)
    10 Mar 1912 - 22 Dec 1915  Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai)       (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
                                (1st time)(provisional to 10 Oct 1913)
    Emperor
    22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  Yuan Shikai                        (s.a.)
                                 nianhao 1 Jan - 22 Mar 1916: Hongxian (Hung Hsien)
                                (note: This attempt at imperial installation of Yuan Shikai
                                 was not formally consummated by an enthronement, and
                                 there are questions about its actual significance)
    Presidents
    22 Mar 1916 -  6 Jun 1916  Yuan Shikai (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
     7 Jun 1916 -  1 Jul 1917  Li Yuanhong (1st time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Prog
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Restoration of Great Qing Empire    
    12 Jul 1917 - 14 Jul 1917  Li Yuanhong (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Prog
    14 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918  Feng Guozhang (Feng Kuo-chang)     (b. 1859 - d. 1919)  Mil/Zhili
    10 Oct 1918 -  2 Jun 1922  Xu Shichang (Hsü Shih-chang)       (b. 1855 - d. 1939)  Anhui
     2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Zhou Ziqi (Chao Tzu-ch'i)(acting)  (b. 1871 - d. 1923)  Comm  
    11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923  Li Yuanhong (3rd time)             (s.a.)               Mil/Res
    13 Jun 1923 -  9 Sep 1923  Zhang Shaozeng (Chang Shao-ts'eng) (b. 1879 - d. 1928)  Mil
                                 (acting)
     9 Sep 1923 - 10 Oct 1923  Gao Lingwei (Kao Ling-wei)(acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1943)  Non-party
    10 Oct 1923 -  2 Nov 1924  Cao Kun (T'sao K'un)               (b. 1862 - d. 1938)  Mil/Zhili
     2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Huang Fu (acting)                  (b. 1880 - d. 1936)  Mil
    24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926  Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui)         (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  Mil/Anhui
                                 (provisional chief executive)
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Hu Weide (Hu Wei-te) (acting)      (b. 1863 - d. 1933)  Non-party
    13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926  Yan Huiqing (Yen Hui-ching)(acting)(b. 1877 - d. 1950)  Non-party
                                 ("W.W. Yen")
    22 Jun 1926 -  1 Oct 1926  Du Xigui (Tu Hsi-Kuei) (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1933)  Mil/Zhili
     1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927  Gu Weijun (Ku Wei-chün)(acting)    (b. 1887 - d. 1985)  Non-party
                                 ("V.K. Wellington Koo")
    18 Jun 1927 -  4 Jun 1928  Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso-lin)       (b. 1873 - d. 1928) Mil/Fengtian
                                 (Generalissimo of the Military Government of China)

    Premiers
    13 Mar 1912 - 29 Jun 1912  Tang Shaoyi (T'ang Shao-yi)        (b. 1860 - d. 1938)  Beiyang
    29 Jun 1912 - 25 Sep 1912  Lu Zhengxiang (Lu Cheng-hsiang)    (b. 1870 - d. 1949)  Beiyang
    25 Sep 1912 -  1 May 1913  Zhao Bingjun (Chao Ping-Chün)      (b. 1859 - d. 1914)  Beiyang
     1 May 1913 - 31 Jul 1913  Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui)(acting) (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
    31 Jul 1913 - 12 Feb 1914  Xiong Xiling (Hsiung Hsiling)      (b. 1870 - d. 1941)  Beiyang
    12 Feb 1914 -  1 May 1914  Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i)(acting)   (s.a.)               Beiyang
    Secretaries of state
     1 May 1914 - 21 Dec 1915  Xu Shichang (Hsü Shih-chang)       (s.a.)               Beiyang
                                 (1st time) 
    21 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  Lu Zhengxiang (Lu Cheng-hsiang)    (s.a.)               Non-party 
                                 (acting)
    22 Mar 1916 - 22 Apr 1916  Xu Shichang (2nd time)             (s.a.)               Beiyang
    22 Apr 1916 - 29 Jun 1916  Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui)         (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
    Premiers
    29 Jun 1916 - 23 May 1917  Duan Qirui (1st time)              (s.a.)               Mil/Prog
    23 May 1917 - 28 May 1917  Wu Tingfang (Wu Ting-fang)(acting) (b. 1842 - d. 1922)  Prog
    28 May 1917 -  2 Jun 1917  Li Jingxi (1st time)               (b. 1859 - d. 1925)  Prog
     2 Jun 1917 - 12 Jun 1917  Xu Shichang (Hsü Shih-ch'ang)      (s.a.)               Non-party
    12 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917  Jiang Zhaozong (Chang Shao-jong)   (b. 1861 - d. 1943)  Mil  
                                 (acting)
    25 Jun 1917 -  1 Jul 1917  Li Jingxi (2nd time)               (s.a.)               Prog
     1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Restoration of Great Qing Empire    
    12 Jul 1917 - 22 Nov 1917  Duan Qirui (2nd time)              (s.a.)               Mil/Zhili
    22 Nov 1917 - 30 Nov 1917  Wang Daxie (Wang Ta-hsieh)(acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1929)  Zhili
                                 (1st time)
    30 Nov 1917 - 20 Feb 1918  Weng Shizhen (acting)              (b. 1861 - d. 1930)  Mil/Zhili
    20 Feb 1918 - 23 Mar 1918  Qiang Nengxun (Ch'ien Neng-hsün)   (b. 1869 - d. 1924)  Zhili
                                 (1st time)
    23 Mar 1918 - 10 Oct 1918  Duan Qirui (3rd time)              (s.a.)               Mil
    10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919  Qiang Nengxun (Ch'ien Neng-hsün)   (s.a.)               Zhili
                                 (2nd time)
    13 Jun 1919 - 24 Sep 1919  Gong Xinzhan (Kung Hsin-chan)      (b. 1871 - d. 1943)  Anfu
                                 (acting)
    24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920  Jin Yunpeng (Chin Yün-P'eng)       (b. 1877 - d. 1925)  Mil/Anfu 
                                 (1st time)(acting to 5 Nov 1919)
    14 May 1920 -  9 Aug 1920  Sa Zhenbing (Sa Chen-ping)(acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1952)  Mil/Anfu
     9 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921  Jin Yunpeng (2nd time)(acting)     (s.a.)               Mil/Anfu
    18 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921  Yan Huiqing (Yen Hui-Ching)        (s.a.)               Anfu
                                 ("W.W. Yen")(acting)(1st time)
    24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922  Liang Shiyi (Liang Shi-i)          (b. 1869 - d. 1933)  Comm
    25 Jan 1922 -  8 Apr 1922  Yan Huiqing (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)               Anfu
     8 Apr 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Zhou Ziqi (Chao Tzu-Ch'i) (acting) (s.a.)               Anfu
    11 Jun 1922 -  5 Aug 1922  Yan Huiqing (3rd time)             (s.a.)               Anfu
     5 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1922  Wang Chonghui (Wang Ch'ung-hui)    (b. 1881 - d. 1958)  KMT
                                 (acting to 19 Sep 1922)
    29 Nov 1922 - 11 Dec 1922  Wang Daxie (2nd time)(acting)      (s.a.)               Zhili
    11 Dec 1922 -  4 Jan 1923  Wang Zhengting (Wang Cheng-t'ing)  (b. 1882 - d. 1961)  KMT
                                 (acting)
     4 Jan 1923 - 12 Oct 1923  Zhang Shaozeng (Cheng Shao-ts'eng) (s.a.)               Mil/Beiyang
    12 Oct 1923 - 12 Jan 1924  Gao Lingwei (Kao Ling-Wei)(acting) (s.a.)               Non-party
    12 Jan 1924 - 14 Sep 1924  Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i)           (s.a.)               Beiyang
    14 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1924  Yan Huiqing (4th time)             (s.a.)               Anfu
    31 Oct 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Huang Fu (acting)                  (s.a.)               KMT
    27 Nov 1924 - 26 Dec 1925  Duan Qirui (4th time)              (s.a.)               Mil
    26 Dec 1925 -  4 Mar 1926  Xu Shiying (Hsu Shih-ying)         (b. 1873 - d. 1964)  Non-party
     4 Mar 1926 - 20 Apr 1926  Jia Deyao (Chia The-yao)           (b. 1880 - d. 1940)  Mil
    20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Hu Weide (Hu Wei-te) (acting)      (s.a.)               Non-party
    13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926  Yan Huiqing (5th time)             (s.a.)               Non-party
    22 Jun 1926 -  1 Oct 1926  Du Xigui (Tu His-Kuei) (acting)    (s.a.)               Mil
     1 Oct 1926 - 20 Jun 1927  Gu Weijun (Ku Wei-chün) (acting)   (s.a.)               Non-party
                                 ("V.K. Wellington Koo")
    20 Jun 1927 -  8 Jun 1928  Pan Fu                             (b. 1883 - d. 1936)  Non-party

    "Independent" military governments in 1913

    Military governors
    - Kiangsu (Jiangsu) -
    15 Jul 1913 - 29 Jul 1913  Cheng Dequan                       (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
    - Anhwei (Anhui) -
    17 Jul 1913 -  7 Aug 1913  Bo Wenwei                          (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
    - Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
    18 Jul 1913 -  3 Aug 1913  Chen Jiongming (Chen Chiung-Ming)  (b. 1878 - d. 1933)
    - Hunan -
    25 Jul 1913 - 13 Aug 1913  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (s.a.)

    "Independent" military governments in 1916

    Military governors
    - Yunnan -
     1 Jan 1916 -  8 May 1916  Tang Jiyao (T'ang Chi-yao)         (b. 1881 - d. 1927)
    - Kweichow (Guizhou) -
    27 Jan 1916 -  8 May 1916  Liu Xianshi                        (b. 1870 - d. 1927)
    - Kwangsi (Guangxi) -
    15 Mar 1916 -  8 May 1916  Lu Rongting (Lu Jung-t'ing)        (b. 1856 - d. 1927)
    - Kwangtung (Guangdong) -
     6 Apr 1916 -  8 May 1916  Long Jiguang (Lung Chin-kuang)     (b. 1860 - d. 1921)
    - Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
    12 Apr 1916 -  8 May 1916  Lu Gongwang                        (b. 1879 - d. 1954)

    These came together under an umbrella government:

    Chairman of the Military Affairs Council
     8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916  Tang Jiyao                         (s.a.)

    "Independent" military governments in 1917

    Military governors
    - Anhwei (Anhui) -
    29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Ni Sichong (Ni Si-chong)           (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
    - Shensi (Shaanxi) -
    29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Chen Shufan                        (b. 1885 - d. 1949)
    - Fengtian -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso-lin)       (s.a.)
    - Shantung (Shandong) -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Zhang Huaizhi                      (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
    - Fukein (Fujian) -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Li Houji                           (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
    - Honan (Henan) -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Zhao Ti                            (b. 1871 - d. 1933)
    - Chekiang (Zhejiang) -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Yang Shande                        (b. 1873 - d. 1919)
    - Chihli (Zhili) -
    May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917     Cao Kun (T'sao K'un)               (s.a.)

    Party/Faction abbreviations: Anhui = Anhui clique (Wan Xi Jun Fa, 1919-1920, split from Beiyang clique); Anfu = Anfu Club (political wing of the Anhui clique, 1918-26, split from Beiyang clique); Beiyang = Beiyang clique (supported Beiyang army, conservative, 1911-1928); Comm = Communications Clique (Jiaotongxi, powerful interest group of politicians, bureaucrats, technocrats, businessmen, engineers, and labor unionists in Beiyang government 1912-1928, also called Cantonese clique); Fengtian = Fengtian clique (Feng Xi, 1919-1928, split from Beiyang led by Zhang Zuolin); KMT = Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang (Chinese National People's Party, "Kuomintang", Chinese nationalist, republican, conservative, 1912-Nov 1913, re-est.1919); Mil = Military; Prog = Chin-pu tang (Progressive Party, 1913-1916/17); Res = Constitution Research Clique (split from Prog, 1918-24); Tong = Tongmenghui (Chinese United League, 1905-Aug 1912, merged into Kuomintang); Zhili = Zhili clique (Zhi [Li] Xi Jun Fa, 1916-1926, clique's base of power Zhili province, split from Beiyang clique)


    Nationalist China

    Note: The name of the polity is still Republic of China, but it overlaps the preceding polity of that name, has a different flag and government system, and eventually a different capital (Nanjing; Beijing is in fact deprived of the name-part jing, meaning capital, and is renamed Beiping after the demise of the "warlord" regime). On 8 Dec 1949 the capital is moved to Taipei, Taiwan. Coverage of the Republic of China from that point continues under Taiwan.
     
    [1912 Flag of
                            China]
            10 Sep 1917 - 5 May 1921
     
    [Flag of Republic
                            of China]
            5 May 1921 - 1 Oct 1949
     
    Map of China Hear National Anthem
    "Zhonghua Minguo guoge"
    (Chunghua Minkuo kuoke)
    (National Anthem of the Republic of China)
    or "San Min Chu-i"
    (The Three Principles of
     the People)
    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 16 Jun 1937
    (proposed 24 Mar 1930)
    Constitution
    (25 Dec 1947)
    --------------------------------
    Provisional Constitution
      (10 Sep 1917 - 1 Jun 1931;
    in German)

    Capital: Nanking
    1927-Dec 1937 and
    May 1946-Apr 1949

    (Canton 1918-1927;
    Hankow Dec 1937-Oct 1938,
    Chungking Oct 1938-May 1946,
    and 23 Apr - 1 Dec 1949)
    Hear Provisional Anthem
    "Revolution of the Citizens"
    (1928-16 Jun 1937)
    Currency: Chinese Dollar/
    Yuan
    (CND)
    ----------------------------------
    National Holiday: National Day
    10 Oct (1911)

    Population: 481,151,700 (1936)

    Generalissimo of the Military Government
    10 Sep 1917 -  5 Jul 1918  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)           
     5 Jul 1918 - 21 Aug 1918  Governing Committee of the Military Government
                               - Sun Yat-sen                      (s.a.)             
                               - Tang Shaoyi (T'ang Shao-i)       (s.a.)          
                               - Wu Tingfang (Wu Ting-fang)       (s.a.)            
                               - Cen Chunxuan                     (b. 1861 - d. 1933)  Non-party
                               - Lu Rongting (Lu Jung-t'ing)      (s.a.)               Mil
                               - Tang Jiyao (T'ang Chi-yao)       (s.a.)               Mil
                               - Lin Baoyi                        (b. 1862 - d. 1927)  Mil
    21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920  Cen Chunxuan                       (s.a.)               Mil
                               (chairman Governing Committee of the Military Government)
    24 Oct 1920 -  4 May 1921  Governing Committee of the Military Government
                               - Sun Yat-sen                      (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Tang Shaoyi                      (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Wu Tingfang                      (s.a.)               KMT
                               - Tang Jiyao                       (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
    Extraordinary President
     5 May 1921 - 29 Jun 1922  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)               KMT
    Generalissimos of the National Government
     2 Mar 1923 - 12 Mar 1925  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)               KMT
    12 Mar 1925 -  1 Jul 1925  Hu Hanmin (Hu Han-min)(acting)     (s.a.)               KMT
    Chairmen of the National Government
     1 Jul 1925 - 15 Apr 1926  Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei)      (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT
    16 Apr 1926 - 29 Mar 1927  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (s.a.)               KMT
    Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government
    20 Mar 1927 - 13 Sep 1927  Wang Jingwei                       (s.a.)               KMT
    17 Sep 1927 - 10 Oct 1928  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)               KMT
    Chairmen of the National Government
    10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931  Chiang Kai-shek (1st time)         (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  Mil/KMT
                                 (pinyin: Jiang Jieshi)
    15 Dec 1931 -  1 Aug 1943  Lin Sen (acting to 1 Jan 1932)     (b. 1867 - d. 1943)  KMT
     1 Aug 1943 - 20 May 1948  Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                 (acting to 10 Oct 1943) 
    Presidents
    20 May 1948 - 21 Jan 1949  Chiang Kai-shek                    (s.a.)               KMT
    21 Jan 1949 -  1 Mar 1950  Li Zongren (Li Tsung-jen)(acting¹) (b. 1890 - d. 1969)  KMT
                                 (from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan)

    Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers)
    25 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (s.a.)               KMT
    22 Sep 1930 - 24 Nov 1930  Song Ziwen (Soong Tzu-wen)(acting) (b. 1891 - d. 1971)  KMT
                                 ("T.V. Soong")(1st time) 
    24 Nov 1930 - 15 Dec 1931  Chiang Kai-shek (1st time)         (s.a.)               KMT
    15 Dec 1931 -  1 Jan 1932  Chen Mingshu (Ch'eng Ming-hsu)     (b. 1890 - d. 1965)  KMT
                                 (acting) 
     1 Jan 1932 - 29 Jan 1932  Sun Fo (Sun Ke)(1st time)          (b. 1895 - d. 1973)  KMT
    29 Jan 1932 - 12 Dec 1935  Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei)      (s.a.)               KMT
    30 Aug 1932 - 17 Mar 1933  Song Ziwen (Soong Tzu-wen)         (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (acting for Jingwei)
    12 Dec 1935 -  1 Jan 1938  Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time)         (s.a.)               KMT
                                 (under arrest by Zhang Xueliang 12-25 Dec 1936)
    13 Dec 1936 - 28 Dec 1936  Kong Xiangxi (K'ung Hsiang-hsi)    (b. 1880 - d. 1967)  KMT
                                 (acting for Chiang Kai-shek)
     1 Jan 1938 - 11 Dec 1939  Kong Xiangxi (K'ung Hsiang-hsi)    (s.a.)               KMT
                                 ("H.H. Kung")
    11 Dec 1939 - 25 Jun 1945  Chiang Kai-shek (3rd time)         (s.a.)               KMT
    25 Jun 1945 -  1 Mar 1947  Song Ziwen(2nd time)               (s.a.)               KMT
    27 Jun 1945 - 17 Jul 1945  Weng Wenhao (Wong Wen-hao)         (b. 1889 - d. 1971)  KMT
                                 ("W.H. Wong")(acting for Tzu-wen)          
     5 Aug 1945 -  6 Oct 1945  Weng Wenhao (acting for Tzu-wen)   (s.a.)               KMT
     1 Mar 1947 - 23 Apr 1947  Chiang Kai-shek (4th time)         (s.a.)               KMT
    23 Apr 1947 -  1 Jun 1948  Zhang Qun (Chang Ch'ün)            (b. 1889 - d. 1990)  KMT
     1 Jun 1948 - 23 Dec 1948  Weng Wenhao                        (s.a.)               KMT
    23 Dec 1948 - 24 Mar 1949  Sun Fo (2nd time)                  (s.a.)               KMT
    24 Mar 1949 - 13 Jun 1949  He Yingqin (Ho Ying-ch'in)         (b. 1889 - d. 1987)  KMT
    13 Jun 1949 - 15 Mar 1950  Yan Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan)          (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
                                (from 8 Dec 1949 on Taiwan)

     ¹The ambiguity of the Constitutional situation leaves it unclear whether this was a vacancy
    or a substitution for Chiang.

    Party Abbreviations: KMT = Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang (Chinese National People's Party, "Kuomintang", Chinese nationalist, republican, conservative, 1912-Nov 1913, re-est.1919); Mil = Military


    Alternative governments of the Republic of China:

    [Flag of Republic of China]

    Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government (at Nanjing)
    18 Apr 1927 - 15 Aug 1927  Chiang Kai-shek                    (s.a.)               KMT
    26 Aug 1927 - 15 Sep 1927  Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai)         (s.a.)               KMT



    [Flag of Republic of China]

    Chairman of the Committee of the National Government (at Beiping)
     1 Sep 1930 - 31 Oct 1930  Yan Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan)          (s.a.)               Mil/KMT


    [Flag of Republic of China]

    Chairman of the National Government (at Canton [Guangzhou])
     1 Jul 1931 -  1 Jan 1932  Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei)      (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT


    [Flag of People's
                Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China
                1933-34 , similar to later NLF flag in Vietnam]

    Chairman of the People's Government (at Fuzhou)
    21 Nov 1933 - 21 Jan 1934  Li Jishen                          (b. 1884 - d. 1959)  KMT


    [Flag used by East Hopei
                Autonomous Anti-Communist Council, 1935-1938]

    Chairman of the East Hebei Autonomous Anti-Communist Council
    (at Tongzhou)
    25 Nov 1935 – 14 Dec 1937  Yin Rugeng (Yin Ju-keng)           (b. 1885 - d. 1947)  KMT




    China under Japanese occupation:
     
    [1912 Flag of
                          China]
    14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940 National Govt.
    [China
                          Reformed National Government - Japanese
                          occupation flag 1940-41]
            11 Apr 1940 - 24 Feb 1941
    [National
                          Government, Japanese puppet outdoor state flag
                          1941-43]
         24 Feb 1941 - 3 Feb 1943
              Outdoor State Flag
    [Japanese KMT
                          National Government Flag 1941-45 (indoor only
                          to 1943)]
            24 Feb 1941 - 16 Aug 1945 
          (Indoor only until 3 Feb 1943)
    [Japanese KMT
                          National Government - outdoor State Flag
                          1943-45]
         3 Feb 1943 - 16 Aug 1945 
              Outdoor State Flag



    Acting Chairman of the Provisional National Government (at Beiping)
    14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940  Wang Kemin (Wang K'o-min)          (b. 1873 - d. 1945)  Non-party
    Acting Chairman of the Reformed National Government
    (at Nanjing)
    28 Mar 1938 - 30 Mar 1940  Liang Hongzhi (Liang Hung-chih)    (b. 1883 - d. 1946)  Non-party
    Chairmen of the National Government (at Nanjing)
    30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944  Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei)      (b. 1883 - d. 1944)  KMT-WC
                                 (acting to 29 Nov 1940)
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Aug 1945  Chen Gongbo (Ch'en Kung-po)(acting)(b. 1892 - d. 1946)  KMT-WC


    Japanese Commanders of Shanghai Expeditionary Army

    15 Aug 1937 -  2 Dec 1937  Iwane Matsui                       (b. 1878 - d. 1948) 
     2 Dec 1937 - 14 Feb 1938  Prince Asaka Yasuhiko              (b. 1887 - d. 1981)
    Commanders of China Expeditionary Army
    22 Sep 1939 -  1 Mar 1941  Nishio Toshizou (Nishio Juzo)      (b. 1881 - d. 1960)
     1 Mar 1941 - 23 Nov 1944  Shunroku Hata                      (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
    23 Nov 1944 -  9 Sep 1945  Yasuji Okamura                     (b. 1884 - d. 1964)
    Commander of Central China Area Army
    30 Oct 1937 - 14 Feb 1938  Iwane Matsui                       (s.a.) 
    Commanders of Central China Expeditionary Army
    14 Feb 1938 - 14 Dec 1938  Shunroku Hata                      (b. 1879 - d. 1962) 
    15 Sep 1938 - 23 Dec 1939  Otozo Yamada                       (b. 1881 - d. 1965) 
    Commanders of Central Army
     2 Aug 1937 - 26 Aug 1937  Kesago Nakajima                    (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
    26 Aug 1937 - 28 Dec 1937  Shigeru Hasunama                   (b. 1883 – d. 1954)
    28 Dec 1937 -  1 Aug 1939  Hisao Tani                         (b. 1882 - d. 1947)
     1 Aug 1939 -  9 Mar 1940  Waichiro Sonobe (Ichiro Sonobe)    (b. 1883 – d. 1963)
     9 Mar 1940 - 20 Jun 1941  Yoshio Iwamatsu                    (b. 1886 – d. 1958)
    20 Jun 1941 - 17 Aug 1942  Yoji Fujii                         (b. 1887 – d. 1945)
    17 Aug 1942 - 21 Feb 1944  Jun Ushiroku                       (b. 1884 - d. 1973)  
    21 Feb 1944 -  1 Dec 1944  Shojiro Iida                       (b. 1888 - d. 1980) 
     1 Dec 1944 -  7 Apr 1945  Masakazu Kawabe                    (b. 1886 - d. 1965) 
     7 Apr 1945 - Sep 1945     Eitaro Uchiyama                    (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
    Commanders of Northern China Area Army 
    26 Aug 1937 -  9 Dec 1938  Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (b. 1879 - d. 1946) 
     9 Dec 1938 - 12 Sep 1939  Hagime Sugiyama                    (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
    12 Sep 1939 -  7 Jul 1941  Hayao Tada                         (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
     7 Jul 1941 - 25 Aug 1944  Yasuji Okamura                     (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
    25 Aug 1944 - 22 Nov 1944  Noasaburo Okabe                    (b. 1886 - d. 1946) 
    22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945  Sadamu Shimomura                   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
    19 Aug 1945 - Sep 1945     Hiroshi Nemoto                     (b. 1891 - d. 1961) 
    Commanders of Southern Area Army
    10 Feb 1940 -  5 Oct 1940  Rikichi Ando                       (b. 1884 - d. 1946) 
     5 Oct 1940 - 26 Jun 1941  Jun Ushiroku                       (s.a.) 
     6 Nov 1941 - 12 Sep 1945  Count Hisaichi Terauchi            (s.a.)

    Party Abbreviations: KMT = Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang (Chinese National People's Party, "Kuomintang", Chinese nationalist, republican, conservative, 1912-Nov 1913, re-est.1919); KMT-WC = Kuomintang - Wang Ching-wei (Chinese National People's Party - Wang Ching-wei personalist faction, pro-Japanese puppet government party, 1940-1945); Mil = Military



    People's Republic of China
     
    [Soviet Republic
                          of China state flag 1931-1934]
              1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934
    [Flag of People's
                          Republic of China]
                   Adopted 1 Oct 1949

    Note about PinyinWade-Giles (Weituoma Pinyin) romanizations are listed for names prior to 1979. Hanyu Pinyin superseded older romanization systems in mainland China on 1 Jan 1979, it was adopted by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982.

     1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934  Soviet Republic of China (in Jiangxi, capital at Ruijin;
                                 sometimes called Jiangxi Soviet Republic).
    19 Aug 1948                People's Government of North China
     1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China
     8 Dec 1949                Final remnants of Nationalist government flee to Taiwan.

    Note: Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-ping)(b. 1904 - d. 1997) was de facto leader from the late 1970's to the early 1990's. He did not take over the chairmanship of the State, the Government or the General Secretary of the Party, but from 1978 to his death in 1997 he was the unquestionable Paramount Leader. From Jun 1981 he was Chairman of the Military Affairs Committee. It is impossible to provide exact dates; he rose to power after being rehabilitated in Jul 1977 and became more and more frail in the 1990's (he last appeared in public 9 Feb 1994).

    General Secretaries of the Communist Party of China (CPC)
    18 Jun 1928 - 24 Jun 1931  Xiang Zhongfa (Hsiang Chung-fa)    (b. 1880 - d. 1931)
    1931 - Sep 1932            Wang Ming (acting de faco)         (b. 1904 - d. 1974)
    Sep 1932 - Jan 1935        Bo Gu (Qin Bangxian)(acting)       (b. 1907 - d. 1946)
    Jan 1935 - 20 Mar 1943     Zhang Wentian (Chang Wen-t'ien)    (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
                                 (acting)  
    Chairmen of the Communist Party of China (CPC)
    20 Mar 1943 -  9 Sep 1976  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
     9 Sep 1976 - 29 Jun 1981  Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng)         (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
                                 (acting to 9 Oct 1976)
    29 Jun 1981 - 12 Sep 1982  Hu Yaobang (Hu Yao-pang)           (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
    General Secretaries (top party post from 12 Sep 1982)
    29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987  Hu Yaobang                         (s.a.)
    16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989  Zhao Ziyang (acting to 2 Nov 1987) (b. 1919 - d. 2005) 
    24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002  Jiang Zemin                        (b. 1926)
    15 Nov 2002 - 15 Nov 2012  Hu Jintao                          (b. 1942)
    15 Nov 2012 -              Xi Jinping                         (b. 1953)

    Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of China
     1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934  Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)          (s.a.)               CPC 
    Chairman of the People's Government of North China
    19 Aug 1948 -  1 Oct 1949  Dong Biwu (Tung Pi-wu)             (b. 1886 - d. 1975)  CPC
    Chairman of the People's Government of the North-East
    27 Aug 1949 -  1 Oct 1949  Gao Gang (Kao Kang)                (b. 1895 - d. 1954)  CPC
    Chairman of the Central People's Government
     1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954  Mao Zedong                         (s.a.)               CPC
    Chairmen²
    27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959  Mao Zedong                         (s.a.)               CPC
    27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968  Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch'i)         (b. 1898 - d. 1969)  CPC
    31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972  Dong Biwu                          (s.a.)               CPC
                               + Song Qingling (f)                (b. 1893 - d. 1981)  CPC
                                 (Sung Ch'ing-ling)
                               (acting)
    24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jan 1975  Dong Biwu (acting)                 (s.a.)               CPC
    Chairmen of the Permanent Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
    17 Jan 1975 -  6 Jul 1976  Zhu De (Chu Teh)                   (b. 1886 - d. 1976)  CPC
     6 Jul 1976 -  5 Mar 1978  Vacant³
     5 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983  Ye Jianying (Yeh Chien-ying)       (b. 1897 - d. 1986)  CPC
    Presidents²
    18 Jun 1983 -  8 Apr 1988  Li Xiannian                        (b. 1909 - d. 1992)  CPC
     8 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993  Yang Shangkun                      (b. 1907 - d. 1998)  CPC
    27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003  Jiang Zemin                        (s.a.)               CPC
    15 Mar 2003 - 14 Mar 2013  Hu Jintao                          (s.a.)               CPC
    14 Mar 2013 -              Xi Jinping                         (s.a.)               CPC

    Chairman of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government
     1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954  Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai)           (b. 1898 - d. 1976)  CPC  
    Premiers
    27 Sep 1954 -  8 Jan 1976  Zhou Enlai                         (s.a.)               CPC
     8 Jan 1976 -  2 Feb 1976  Vacant4
     2 Feb 1976 - 10 Sep 1980  Hua Guofeng (acting to 7 Apr 1976) (s.a.)               CPC
    10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987  Zhao Ziyang                        (s.a.)               CPC
    24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998  Li Peng (acting to 9 Apr 1988)     (b. 1928)            CPC
    17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003  Zhu Rongji                         (b. 1928)            CPC
    16 Mar 2003 - 15 Mar 2013  Wen Jiabao                         (b. 1942)            CPC
    15 Mar 2013 -              Li Keqiang                         (b. 1955)            CPC

     ²The title "chairman" for the heads of state in 1954-1975 represents the same Chinese term (zhuxi) that is commonly translated "president" for the heads of state after 1983.

      ³Vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee during the vacancy: Wu De (b. 1914 - d. 1995), Song Qingling (f) (s.a.), Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d. 1989), Saifuding Aizezi (Seypidin)(b. 1915 - d. 2003), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d. 1983), Li Jingquan (b. 1909 - d. 1989), Ulanhu (b. 1906 - d. 1988), Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d. 1978), Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), Zhang Dingcheng (b. 1898 - d. 1981), Cai Chang (f) (b. 1900 - d. 1990), Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910 - d. 2009), Zhou Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), Xu Deheng (b. 1890 - d. 1990), Hu Juewen (b. 1895 - d. 1989), Li Suwen (f) (b. 1933), Yao Lianwei (b. 1935), and, from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f) (b. 1904 - d. 1992). 

     4Vice-premiers of the State Council acting during the vacancy: Deng Xiaoping (s.a.), Li Xiannian (s.a.), Chen Xilian (b. 1915 - d. 1999), Ji Dengkui (b. 1923 - d. 1988), Hua Guofeng (s.a.), Chen Yonggui (b. 1915 - d. 1986), Wu Guixian (f)(b. 1938), Wang Zhen (b. 1908 - d. 1993), Yu Qiuli (b. 1914 - d. 1999), Gu Mu (b. 1914 - d. 2009), and Sun Jian (b. 1936 - d. 1997).

    Party Abbreviations: CPC = Zhongguó Gòngchan Dang (Communist Party of China, communist, authoritarian, est.1921, state party since 1 Oct 1949); Mil = Military

    Territorial Disputes: Continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in Mar 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; China and Taiwan continue to reject both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and in 23 Nov 2013 China's declaration of an "air defense identification zone" in an area that includes islands and Japan's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests; Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in Mar 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop; Hong Kong developing plans to reduce 2,000 out of 2,800 hectares of its restricted Closed Area by 2010.



    Manchukuo
     
    [Flag of
                          Manchukuo, 1932-1945]
                9 Mar 1932 - 15 Aug 1945
     
    Map of Manchukuo
    Hear National Anthem
    "Manzhou dìguo guoge"
    (National Anthem of the
    Manchukuo Empire)

    (5 Sep 1942 - 15 Aug 1945)
    Hear Former Anthem
    "Jian guoge"
    (
    Nation's Founding Song)

     (24 Feb 1933 - 5 Sep 1942)

    Constitution
    (1 Mar 1934; in German)
    CapitalHsinking
    (Changchun)
    (1916-1931: Mukden
    [Shenyang])

    Currency (1932-1945):
    Manchukuo Yuan (CNMY)
    National Holidays: 1 Mar (1934)
    State Foundation
    Celebration Day
    ----------------------------------
    7 Feb (1906)
    Emperor's Birthday
    Population: 43,233,954 (1940)
    30,880,00 (1934)

    GNP: 4.73 billion Yen (1944)
    Exports: $148.9 million (1937)
    Imports: $221.7 million (1937)
    note: excluding trade with
    the rest of China
    Ethnic groups: Chinese and Manchu 94.65%, Japanese
    (and Korean)
    5.18%, other (Russian, Mongolian, etc.)
     0.16% (1940)

    Total Armed Forces: 111,044 (1934)
    Japanese Troops: est. 1,000,000 (1945)
    Merchant marine: N/A
    Religions: Buddhist, Taoist, Roman
    Catholic, Shinto, Russian Orthodox, Jewish
    International Organizations/Treaties: None

    18 Sep 1931                Japanese invasion and occupation of Manchuria (Heilongjiang,
                                 Jilin, and Liaoning provinces) begins.
     9 Mar 1932                Great Manchu State (Manchukuo [Manzhouguo])(not recognized¹).
    21 Jan 1933                Jehol (Rhehe) annexed.
     1 Mar 1934                Great Manchu Empire
     1 Dec 1937                Japan renounces extraterritoriality in Manchukuo.
     9 Aug 1945                Soviet forces begin invasion.
    15 Aug 1945 - May 1946     Occupied by the Soviet Union.

    Japanese Military Governor

    18 Sep 1931 -  9 Mar 1932  Jiro Minami                         (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
    Chief Executive
     9 Mar 1932 -  1 Mar 1934  Puyi ("Henry" Pu-yi)                (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                                 nianhao: Datong (Hsüan-T'ung
    Emperor
     1 Mar 1934 - 15 Aug 1945  Puyi                                (s.a.)
                                 nianhao: Kangde (Kang Teh)
    Soviet Military Governor
    15 Aug 1945 - May 1946     Aleksandr Mikhailovich Vasilevsky   (b. 1895 - d. 1977)

    Premiers
     9 Mar 1932 - 21 May 1935  Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsü)      (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
    21 May 1935 - 15 Aug 1945  Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui)     (b. 1871 - d. 1959)

    Japanese Ambassadors (and Commanders of the Kwantung Army)
     1 Aug 1931 -  8 Aug 1932  Baron Shigeru Honjo                 (b. 1876 - d. 1945) 
     8 Aug 1932 - 27 Jul 1933  Baron Nobuyoshi Muto                (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
    29 Jul 1933 - 10 Dec 1934  Takashi Hishikari                   (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
    10 Dec 1934 -  6 Mar 1936  Jiro Minami                         (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
     6 Mar 1936 -  7 Sep 1939  Kenkichi Ueda                       (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
     7 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944  Yoshijiro Umezu                     (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
    18 Jul 1944 - 11 Aug 1945  Otozo Yamada                        (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
     

     ¹only the following countries recognized Manchukuo: Japan (14 Sep 1932), El Salvador (3 Mar 1934), Italy (20 Nov 1937), Spain (2 Dec 1937), Germany (12 May 1938), Hungary (14 Jan 1939), Slovakia (1 Jun 1939), Poland (19 Oct 1939), Rumania (3 Dec 1940), Bulgaria (14 May 1941), Finland (19 Jul 1941), Denmark (Aug 1941), Thailand (1 Aug 1941) and Croatia (2 Aug 1941); along with the Japanese sponsored Wang Jingwei China government at Nanjing (30 Nov 1940), the  Philippine Republic of José Laurel (1943) and the Chandra Bose led Free India (1944). The Holy See sent a representative ad tempus (18 Apr 1934), but did not formally recognize Manchukuo



    Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang)
     
    [Flag of
                          InnerMongolia (Mengjiang), 1936-37]
                         1936 - 1937
    [Inner Mongolian
                          League flag, 1936-37]
                             1937 - 1939
    [Inner Mongolian Autonomous
                          Government, 1939-45]
                     1939 - 10 Sep 1945
    Capital: Kalgan (Zhangjiakou) 1939-1945
    (Hohhot 1937-1939)
    Currency (1938-1945):
    Meng-chiang Yuan (CNPM) 
    Articles of Corporation
    (1 Sep 1939)

    Population: 7,174,200 (1936)

    1935 - 1945                Chahar, Suiyuan and northern Shanxi provinces under Japanese
                                 occupation.
    12 May 1936                Mongolian Military Government established in Jabsar (Huade) by
                                 pro-Japanese elements.
    28 Jun 1936                Japanese form Mengjiang (Meng-chiang) Joint Committee in
                                 Chahar and Suiyuan provinces.
    22 Nov 1937                United Mongolian Autonomous Committee formed (in Mongol: Mongol
                                 Obesbeen Jasaha Uls; in Chinese Menggu zizhi bang [Meng-ku
                                 Tzu-chih Pang], called "Menggu/Mengkukuo").
     1 Sep 1939                Mongolian Border Region Unified Autonomous Government
                                 (also called Inner Mongolia Autonomous Government; referred
                                 to internally as "Autonomous Nation of Mongolia").
     4 Aug 1941 - 19 Aug 1945  Mongolian Autonomous Federation, as an autonomous part of the
                                 Japanese sponsored National Government China at Nanjing.


    Chairman of the Mongolian Military Government
    12 May 1936 - 28 Oct 1937  Yun Wang (Yondonwangchug)          (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
    Chairmen of the Mongol United Autonomous Government
    28 Oct 1937 - Jul 1938     Yun Wang                           (s.a.)          
    Jul 1938 -  1 Sep 1939     Dewang (Demcuk Dongrup)            (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
    Chairman of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Government
     1 Sep 1939 - 29 Dec 1949  Dewang                             (s.a.)

                                 (Chinese prisoner Oct 1945 - Aug 1949)

    Vice Chairman of the Executive Council
     8 Jan 1936 - 28 Oct 1937  Dewang                             (s.a.)

    Vice President of the Mongol United Autonomous Government

    28 Oct 1937 - Jul 1938     Dewang                             (s.a.)

    Japanese Supreme Advisers
    1937 - 27 Nov 1941         Shoji Kanai (= Altan Khudagh)     (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
    27 Nov 1941 -  3 Sep 1942  Tadakazu Ohashi                   (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
    26 Feb 1945 - Aug 1945     Shoichi Kanki                     (b. 1897 - d. 19..)

    Commanders of the Japanese Mongolia Garrison Army

    28 Dec 1937 - 31 Aug 1939  Shigeru Hasunuma                  (b. 1883 - d. 1954)

    31 Aug 1939 - 12 Sep 1939  Hajime Sugiyama                   (b. 1880 - d. 1945)
    12 Sep 1939 - 29 Sep 1940  Noasaburo Okabe                   (b. 1886 - d. 1946) 
    29 Sep 1940 - 20 Jan 1941  Masataka Yamawaki                 (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
    20 Jan 1941 -  2 Mar 1942  Shigetaro Amakasu                 (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
     2 Mar 1942 - 28 May 1943  Ichiro Shichida                   (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
    28 May 1943 - 22 Nov 1944  Yoshio Kozuki                     (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
    22 Nov 1944 - 19 Aug 1945  Hiroshi Nemoto                    (b. 1891 - d. 1961)



    Kashgaria/East Turkestan
     
    [Kingdom of
                          Kashgaria (Xinjiang) 1864/66-1877]
                   1864/66 - 28 Dec 1877
                    Kashgaria Kingdom
     
    [Islamic Republic
                          of Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) 1933-34]
              12 Dec 1933 - 6 Feb 1934 
        Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan
    [Republic of
                          Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) 1944-1946]
               12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946
                  East Turkestan Republic

    Capital: Ghulja 1762-1888, 1944-1946;
    Kashgar 1865-1877, 1933-1934)

    National Anthem
    "Qozghal, Birlesh" (March, Unite)
    (1933-1934) 
    Population: 4,360,000 (1943)

    1514                       Khanate of Kashgaria founded part of Djagataide Khanate.
    17th cent.                 Divided into several minor khanates without importance, real 
                                 power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic Islamic religious
                                 leaders.
    c.1678                     Hidayat Allah Hazrat Apaq of the Aqtaghlik, with the help of the
                                 Dzungars, deposed the last Djagataide Khan and ousted the rival 
                                 Qartaghlik, becoming the real ruler of Kashgaria under Dzungar
                                 (Dörben Oyirad) protection.
    1694 - 1720                Occupied by Dörben Oyirad.
    Jul 1759 - May 1826        Occupied by Qing Empire.
    1820 - 1828                Aqtaghliq rebellion.
    1864                       Detached from the Qing Empire Kingdom of Qäshqäriyä (Kashgaria).
    1870                       Polity renamed Jiti Shahar.
     4 Jul 1871 - Feb 1881     Ghulja (Ili) basin occupied by Russia under Gerasim Alexeyevich
                                 Kolpakovsky (b. 1819 - d. 1896)(Ili subordinated to Russian
                                 Turkestan).
    28 Dec 1877                Re-incorporated into Qing empire.
    1888                       Eastern Turkestan formally annexed to Qing Empire,
                                 renamed Sinkiang (Xinjiang).
    1928 - 16 Jun 1946         De facto autonomous from central Chinese government.
    12 Dec 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (in rebellion)
                                (also known as Uighuristan or Turkish Islamic Republic of 
                                 East Turkestan).
     6 Feb 1934                Re-incorporation into China declared.
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  East Turkestan Republic (in rebellion)
    16 Jun 1946                Re-incorporated into China.
     1 Oct 1955                Creation of Xinjiang Ughur Autonomous Region.

    Khans
    c.1693 - 1720              Ahmed Khan                         (d. af.1720)
    1720 - 1754                Daniyal Khwaja (2nd time)
    1754 - 1757                Yusuf ibn Daniyal
    1757                       `Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf
    1757 - Jul 1759            Burhan ad-Din ibn Ahmad            (d. 1760)
    1820 - 1828                Jahangir Hodja (in rebellion)      (b. 1783? - d. 1828)
    Sep 1830 - Dec 1830        Muhammad Yusuf Hodja (in rebellion)
    May 1857 - Aug 1857        Wali Khan (in rebellion)
    1864 - Feb 1865            Qutlugh Beg
    Feb 1865 - 1866            Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan 
                                 (1st time)
    1866                       Muhammad Amin ibn Jahangir Khan
    1866 - 1867                Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan
                                 (2nd time)
    1867 -  6 Dec 1873         Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir        (b. c.1820 - d. 1877)
                                 Muhammad Mirza 
    Amir Khans
     6 Dec 1873 - 29 May 1877  Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir        (s.a.)
                                 Muhammad Mirza 
    29 May 1877 - 28 Dec 1877  Quli Beg ibn Muhammad Ya`qub Beg   (b. 1821 - d. 1877)
    President of the Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan
    12 Dec 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Xoca Niyaz Haci                    (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
    President of East Turkestan Republic
    12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  Alikhan Tore                       (b. 1884 - d. 1976)

    Prime minister
    12 Dec 1933 -  5 Feb 1934  Abdul Bakr Sha Biti                (b. 1883 - d. 1934)
                                (Sabit Damolla Abdulbakr)


    Dörben Oyriad (Dzungar Khanate)

    162.                       Dörben Oyriad ("Four Confederates") or Dzungar Kalmyk Khanate.
                                 covering Xinjiang region of China, Kyrgyzstan, eastern
                                 Kazakhstan, and western Mongolia.
    1755 - 1755                Chinese occupation.
     4 Oct 1755 -  4 Oct 1757  In rebellion against Chinese suzerainty.
    Mar 1756                   Annexed by China

    Khans (from 1679, Boshugtu Khan)
    162. - 1653                Erdeni Batur                        (d. 1653)
    1653 - 1671                Sengge                              (d. 1671)
    1671 - 1676                Tseten Khan
    1676 -  3 May 1697         Choros Erdeniin Galdan              (b. 1644 - d. 1697)
    1697 - 1727                Tsewang Rabdan (Arabtan)            (b. 1663 - d. 1727)
    1727 - Aug/Sep 1745        Galdan Tseren                       (b. 1695 - d. 1745)
    1745 - 1750                Tsewang Dorji Namrgyal (Bayan Khan) (d. 1750)
    1750 - 1753                Lamdarjaa (Lama Dardjaa)            (d. 1753)
    1753 - 1755                Dawaachi (Dawa Qi)                  (d. 1759)
    1755                       Chinese rule
    1755 -  4 Oct 1757         Amursana                            (b. 1722 - d. 1757) 

    Chinese Commissioner
    1755 -  4 Oct 1755         Pan Ti                              (d. 1755)


    Kumul Khanate

    1757 - 1912                Vassal of the Qing dynasty; called Hami by the Chinese.
    1912 - Mar 1930            Vassal of the Republic of China.
    Mar 1930                   Abolished by Xinjiang provinical government.

    Khans (with the title Qinwang)
    .... - 1908                Muhammmad Shah
    1908 - Mar 1930            Maqsud Shah                         (b. 1864 - d. 1930)

    Chancellor
    1922 - Mar 1930            Yulbars Khan                        (b. 1888 - d. 1971)



    Tibet
     
    [1920 Tibetan
                          flag]
                  1920 - c.1925
     
    [Tibetan flag]
                    c.1925  - 7 Oct 1950
     
    Map of Tibet 1904-1950
    Hear National Anthem
    "bod rgyal khab chen po'i rgyal
    glu" (Tibetan Government
     National Anthem)

    Text of National Anthem
    Adopted 1949 (or 1960)
    Constitution
    Charter of the Tibetans in Exile
     (14 Jun 1991)
    Capital: Lhasa
    Currency (1912-1951):
    Tibetan Silver Rupee (TBR) 
    National Holiday
     (1939-1950):
    7 Jul (1935)
    Dalai Lama's Birthday
    Population: 1,200,000 (1950 est.)
    463,200 (1911 official)
    Total Armed Forces: 10,000 (1949)
    4,000 (1914)

    Religions: Buddhist, Lamanist
    International Organizations/Treaties: 1912-1950 None;  Govt. in Exile: UNPO (from 1991)
    Tibetan Buddhism

    c.600                      Kingdom of Tibet
    842 - 1244                 State fragmented.
    1244                       Under Mongol rule.
    c.1642 -  2 Dec 1717       Under suzerainty of the Qoshot (Khoshut) Khanate.
     2 Dec 1717 - 24 Sep 1720  Under suzerainty of the Dörben Oyriad.
    24 Sep 1720                Under suzerainty of the Qing (Chinese) Empire.
    24 Mar 1856 -  7 Sep 1904  Makes tributary payments to Nepal.
     3 Aug 1904 - 23 Sep 1904  British occupation of Lhasa under Francis E. Younghusband
                                 (b. 1863 - d. 1942).
     7 Sep 1904                Convention of Lhasa accords Britain commercial agents 
                                 in the Tibetan cities of Gyantse, Gartok and Yatung.
     7 Sep 1904 - 15 Aug 1947  Under British influence.
    24 Apr 1906                Britain recognizes Chinese suzerainty by Treaty of Peking.
    28 Oct 1912                Dalai Lama rejects inclusion in the Republic of China.
    13 Feb 1913                Nominally independent (Kingdom of Tibet), de jure still part
                                 of China (officially from 8 Mar 1913).
     3 Jul 1914                By Convention of Simla, all of Tibet, Inner and Outer,
                                 recognized by Britain as "state under the suzerainty, but
                                 not the sovereignty of China." 
     7 Oct 1950                Chinese intervention.
    23 May 1951                Re-incorporation into China (see Tibetan region).

    Note: Although the dates are firm in the Tibetan calendar, the correspondence between the Tibetan and the Gregorian calendars is only approximate, as are, consequently, the dates
    given here.


    Secular rulers
    (title Junwang, usually translated king)

    1642 - 14 Jan 1655         Güshi (Gushri) Khan                (b. 1582 - d. 1655)
    1656 - 12 Mar 1668         Dayan Khan                         (d. 1668)

    1668 - 1671                Dali Khung Taiji Dashi             (d. 1714)
                                 Batur -Regent
    1671 - 1700                Gonchug Dalai Khan                 (d. 1700) 

    1701 - 1703                sDe-srid Sangs rgyas-rgya-mtsho    (b. 1653 - d. 1705)
                                (Sanggye Gyatso)
    -Regent
    1703 -  2 Dec 1717         'Lha-bzang Khan                    (d. 1717)
     2 Dec 1717 - 24 Sep 1720  sTag-rtse-pa lha-rgyal-rab-brtan   (d. 1720)
                                 (regent)(
    Tagtsepa Lhagyel Raben)
    1728 - 12 Mar 1747         Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams-stobs-rgyas  (b. c.1689 - d. 1747)
                                 "Mi-dbang Pho-lha"
                                 (Miwang Pholhanas Sönam Tobgye)

                                 (administrator to
    11 Jan 1740)
    1747 - 11 Nov 1750         Pho-lha-nas 'Gyur-med-rnam-rgyal   (d. 1750)
                                 "Ta-la'i-ba-dur" (Gyurme Namgyel)
    Dalai Lamas
    14 Jul 1679 - 1703         sDe-srid Sangs rgyas-rgya-mtsho    (s.a.)
                                (Sanggye Gyatso)
                                (adminstrator to 1683, then regent)
     8 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706  Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-
                                 tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho
                                 (6th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
    1703 - 1706                sDe-srid Ngag-dbang Rin-chen -Regent
                                (Ngawang Rinchen)
    27 Jun 1706 - 1707         Vacant
    1707 - 1717                Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-rgya-mtsho      (b. 1681/5 - d. 1723)
                                 (usurping Dalai Lama)
    1717 - 24 Sep 1720         sTag-rtse-zhabs-drung -Regent   
                                 (Taktse Shabdrung)
    24 Sep 1720 - 1721         Yanxin -Chinese military commander
    16 Oct 1720 - 22 Mar 1757  rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-
                                bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama) (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
                                (ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708)
    22 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1757  Council of Ministers
    29 Apr 1757 - 28 Aug 1762  De-mo sprul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-   (d. 1770)
                                 dpal-bde-legs-rgya-mtsho -Regent
    28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804  Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho
                                 (8th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
    1804 -  5 Mar 1808         Kun-bde-gling rTa-tshag-rje-drung- (d. 1810)
                                 sprul-sku Ye-shes-blo-bzang-
                                 bstan-pa'i-mgon-po -Regent
     5 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815  Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho
                                 (9th Dalai Lama)                 (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
    1815 - 28 Mar 1819         De-mo sPrul-sku Blo-bzang-thub-
                                 bstan-'jigs-med-rgya-            (d. 1819)
                                 mtsho -Regent 
    30 Mar 1819 -  6 Feb 1822  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku         (d. 1844)
                                 Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                                 (1st time) -Regent
     6 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837  Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho
                                 (10th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
    30 Sep 1837 - 29 Sep 1841  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku         (s.a.)
                                 Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                                 (2nd time) -Regent
    29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856  Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho
                                 (11th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
    31 Jan 1856 - 1856         Council of Ministers
    1856 - 26 Feb 1858         Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-   (d. 1888)
                                 ye-shes-tshul-khrims-rgyal-
                                 mtshan -Regent
    26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-
                                 rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama)     (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
    25 Apr 1875 - 1875         Council of Ministers
    1875 - 12 Feb 1878         Kun-bde-gling sPrul-sku rTa-tshag- (d. 1886)
                                 rje-drung-ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan-
                                 chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
    12 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-
                                 rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-
                                 phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal
                                 (13th Dalai Lama)                (b. 1876 - d. 1933)
                               (30 Jul 1904 - Dec 1909 in Mongolia, later China exile;
                                25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in India exile)
    30 Jul 1904 - 1910         Ganden Tripa Rinpoche Lobsang      (b. 1840 - d. 19..)
                                 Gyaltsen -Administrator
                                 (for exiled Dalai Lama) 
    23 Feb 1910 - 1913         Gaden Tripa Ngawang Lobsang        (b. 1844 - d. 1919?)
                                 Gyaltsen Tenpey
    -Administrator
                                 (for exiled Dalai Lama) 
    17 Dec 1933 - Jan 1934     Council of Ministers
    Jan 1934 - 25 Aug 1939     Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Thub-bstan-   (b. 1911 - d. 1947)
                                'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan -Regent
                                (regent [for the Dalai Lama to 16 Jan 1941])
    25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
                                 blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                                 rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama)     (b. 1935)
                                (Head of state Mar 1951 - Mar 1959)
                                (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India])
    16 Jan 1941 - 1950         Stag-brag ngag-dbang gsung-rab -Regent
                                (Taktra Rimpoche Sungrab Ngawang) (b. 1874 - d. 1952) 
    31 Mar 1959 - Dec 1964     Bskal-bzang Tshe-brtan -Head of state
                                (10th Panchen Lama)               (b. 1938 - d. 1989)
    Chinese Military Commander-in-chief
    Jan 1951 - Feb 1967        Zhang Guohua (Chang Kuo-hua)       (b. 1914 - d. 1972)
     


    Presidents of the council of ministers (style Lonchen)
    1907 - 1920                Changkhyim                         (d. 1920)
                                (Ngawang Khyenrab Palsang)
                                (ngag-dbang mkhyen-rab dpal-bzang
    )
    1907 - 1919               
    Shatra (Paljor Dorje Shatra)       (b. 1860? - d. 1919)
                                (bshad-Sgra dpal 'byor-rdo-rje)

    1907 - 1925                Sholkhang (Dhondup Phuntsog)       (b. 1862? - d. 1925)
                                (Sho-kang Lzhol-khang)
    1926 - Apr 1939            Langdun
    (Yapshi Langdun Kung)      (b. 1906? - d. 1980)
                                (yab-gzhis glang-mdun gung)

    Prime ministers
    Dec 1950 - May 1952        Losang Tashi (blo-bzang bkra-shis) (b. 1897 - d. 1966)
                               + Lukhangwa (Tsewang Rabden)       (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
                                  (klu-khang-ba tshe-dbang rab-brtan)
     

    Chinese ambans
    (representatives of the emperors at the court of the Dalai Lama)
    1709 - 1711                Ho Shou -Envoy                     (d. 1719)
    1711 - 1720                Vacant
    24 Sep 1720 - 1721         Yanxin (Yen-hsin) -Military commandant
    1721 - 1723                Ts'eban Norbu -Military commandant
                                (Cewang Norbu)
    1723 - 1724                Orai (O-lai)
    1724 - 1726                Vacant
    1726                       Oci
                               + Bandi (1st time)                 (d. 1755)
    1726 - 1727                Vacant
    1727 - 1733                Sengge (Sengko)
                               + Mala (to 1728)
                               + Mailu (from 1728)
    1727 - 1728                Chalanga -Military commandant      (d. 1747)
                                (Jalangga)
    1733 - 1734                Qingbao
                               + Miaoshou (Miyuser)
    1734                       A'erxun (Arxun)
                               + Nasutai (1st time)
    1734 - 1737                Nasutai (2nd time)
    1737 - 1739                Hangyilu (Hanggilu)
    1739 - 1742                Jishan (1st time)
    1742 - 1745                Suobai (Sopai)(1st time)
    1745 - 1747                Fuqing (Fujing)(1st time)          (d. 1750)
    1747 - 1748                Suobai (2nd time)
                               + Fuqing (2nd time)                (s.a.)
    1748                       Suobai (3rd time)
    1748 - 1749                Labdon (La-bu-dun)                 (b. 1703 - d. 1750)
    1749 - 1750                Jishan (2nd time)
    1750                       Fuqing (3rd time)                  (s.a.)
    1750                       Jishan (3rd time) 
    1750 - 1751                Vacant
    1751                       Bandi (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
    1751                       Ts'ebin -Commissioner
    1751 - 1752                Bandi (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
                               + rNamrgyal (Namuzhale)
    1752 - 1754                Duo'erji  (Zhaohui)                (b. 1708 - d. 1764)
    1754 - 1757                Salashan 
    1757 - 1761                Guanbao (1st time)
    1761 - 1764                Funai 
    1764 - 1766                Aminertu (Amiletu)
    1766 - 1767                Guanbao (2nd time)
    1767 - 1773                Manggulai 
    1773 - 1775                Wumitai (Wu Mi-thai)               (b. 1713 - d. 1786)
    1775 - 1779                Liubaozhu (1st time)
    1779 - 1780                Suolin                             (d. 1780)
    1780 - 1785                Boqing'e (Boqing)                  (b. 1721 - d. 1785) 
    1785 - 1786                Liubaozhu (2nd time)
    1786 - 1788                Yamantai 
    1788 - 1789                Fozhi
    1788 - 1790                Shulian 
                               + Bazhong (to 1789) 
    1790                       Pufu 
    1790 - 1791                Baotai 
    1791 - 1792                Ehui 
    1792                       Eledengbao                         (b. 1748 - d. 1805)
    1792 - 1794                Chengde 
                               + Helin (Heliyen)                  (b. 1753 - d. 1796) 
    1794 - 1799                Songyun (Song Yun)                 (b. 1752 - d. 1835) 
    1799 - 1803                Yingshan 
    1803 - 1804                Funing 
    1804 - 1805                Ts'e-pa-k'e (Cebake) 
    1805 - 1808                Yuning 
    1808 - 1810                Wenbi
    1810 - 1812                Yangchun (Yangchun-bao)
    1812 - 1814                Hutuli                             (d. 1814) 
    1814 - 1817                Ximing 
    1817 - 1820                Yulin                              (d. 1833) 
    1820 - 1823                Wen'gan (Wenning)
    1823 - 1827                Songting 
    1827 - 1830                Huixian 
    1830 - 1833                Xingke 
    1833 - 1834                Longwen 
    1834 - 1835                Wenwei 
    1835 - 1836                Qinglu
    1836 - 1839                Guanshengbao 
    1839 - 1842                Meng Bao
    1842 - 1843                Haipu
    1843 - 1847                Borzigit Qishan                    (b. c.1790 - d. 1854)
    1847 - 1848                Binliang
    1848 - 1852                Muteng'e 
    1852 – 1853                Baoqing                            (d. 1853)
    1853 - 1855                Zhunling 
    1855 - 1857                Hetehe                             (d. 1857) 
    1857 - 1861                Manqing
    1861 - 1869                Jingwen 
    1869 - 1872                Enlin 
    1872 - 1874                Chengji 
    1874 - 1879                Songgui                            (b. 1833 - d. 1907) 
    1879 - 1885                Seleng'e 
    1885 - 1888                Wenshi 
    1888 - 1890                Changgeng
    1890 - 1892                Shengtai
    1893 - 1897                Kuihuan
    23 Mar 1896 - 1900         Wenhai                             (b. 1832? - d. 1900)
    28 Oct 1900 - 1902         Yugang 
     2 Dec 1902 -  5 Dec 1906  Youtai                             (b. 1846? - d. 1910)
     5 Dec 1906 - 1912         Wang Lianyu                        (b. 1858? - d. 19..)
                               + Zhao Erfeng                      (b. 1845 - d. 1911)
                                  (6 Mar 1908 - 20 Apr 1911)
    Chinese Special Envoys to Tibet

     9 May 1912 -  2 Apr 1914  Zhong Ying                         (b. 1887 - d. 1915)
     2 Apr 1914 - 16 May 1924  Lu Xingqi (Lu Hsing-ch'i)
     2 Mar 1916 - 16 May 1924  Li Jiazhe (acting for Lu)
    Chinese Ambassadors
    Nov 1934 - Jan 1935        Liu Puchen (Liu Pa-chen)           (d. 1935)
    Jan 1935 - Jan 1938        Jiang Zhiyu (Chiang Chih-yu)
    Directors of the Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa
    May 1938                   Gao Changzhu (acting)
    Aug 1938 - Mar 1940        Zhang Weibai (acting)
     1 Apr 1940 -  8 Oct 1943  Kong Qingzong                      (b. 1895 - d. 1981)
     8 Oct 1943 - Jul 1947     Shen Zonglian                      (b. 1898 - d. 1978)
    Jul 1947 - 20 Jul 1949     Chen Xizhang (acting)              (b. 1919)
    British Trade Agents in Gyantse
    (subordinated to the British Residents in Sikkim)
     1 Oct 1904 - 23 Dec 1905  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
                                 (1st time)
    23 Dec 1905 - 15 Dec 1906  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (b. 1882 - d. 1967)
                                 (1st time) (acting)
    15 Dec 1906 - 18 Jul 1907  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)
    18 Jul 1907 - 27 Jul 1907  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (s.a.)
                                 (2nd time)(acting)
    27 Jul 1907 -  1 Aug 1907  William Frederick Travers O'Connor (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
     1 Aug 1907 -  5 Jun 1909  Frederick Marshman Bailey          (s.a.)
                                 (3rd time)
     5 Jun 1909 - 13 Dec 1909  Robert S. Kennedy (acting)
    13 Dec 1909 - 23 Jan 1911  Leslie Weir (1st time)             (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
    23 Jan 1911 -  1 Apr 1911  David Macdonald (1st time)(acting) (b. 1870 - d. 1962)
     1 Apr 1911 - 10 Aug 1911  Leslie Weir (2nd time)             (s.a.)     
    10 Aug 1911 - 30 Dec 1911  David Macdonald (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
    30 Dec 1911 - 15 Feb 1912  Leslie Weir (3rd time)             (s.a.)
    15 Feb 1912 -  4 May 1912  David Macdonald (3rd time)(acting) (s.a.)
     4 May 1912 - 31 Mar 1913  Basil J. Gould (1st time)          (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
    31 Mar 1913 - 24 Feb 1916  David Macdonald (4th time)(acting) (s.a.)
    24 Feb 1916 - 31 Mar 1918  William L. Campbell
    31 Mar 1918 - 20 Jun 1924  David Macdonald (5th time)         (s.a.)
    20 Jun 1924 - 31 May 1926  Frederick Williamson               (b. 1891 - d. 1935)
    31 May 1926 -  3 Jan 1927  R.L. Vance (acting)
     3 Jan 1927 - 30 Apr 1928  Arthur John Hopkinson              (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
    30 Apr 1928 -  1 Mar 1929  H.G. Rivett-Carnac (1st time)
     1 Mar 1929 - 18 May 1929  W.J.L. Neal (acting) 
    18 May 1929 - 18 Sep 1929  H.G. Rivett-Carnac (2nd time)
    18 Sep 1929 - 19 Nov 1929  D.R. Smith
    19 Nov 1929 - 19 Nov 1931  E.W. Fletcher
    19 Nov 1931 - 18 Apr 1933  Alexander Alfred Russell           (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
    18 Apr 1933 -  1 Dec 1933  M. Worth
     1 Dec 1933 - 20 Jun 1935  Philip Coates Hailey               (b. 1903 - d. 1980)
    20 Jun 1935 - 20 Jul 1936  R.K.M. Battye                      (b. 1905 - d. 1958)
    20 Jul 1936 - Feb 1937     Hugh Edward Richardson             (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
    British
    Heads of Mission in Lhasa

    Feb 1937 - Jul 1937        Hugh Edward Richardson (1st time)  (s.a.)
    Jul 1937 - Oct 1938        Norbu Dhondup (1st time)           (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
    Oct 1938 - Oct 1939        Hugh Edward Richardson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
    Oct 1939 - Apr 1942        Norbu Dhondup (2nd time)           (s.a.)
    Apr 1942 - Apr 1943        Frank Ludlow                       (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
    Apr 1943 - Jun 1944        George Sheriff (1st time)          (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
    Jun 1944 - Sep 1944        Hugh Edward Richardson (3rd time)  (s.a.)
    Sep 1944 - Apr 1945        George Sheriff (2nd time)          (s.a.)
    Apr 1945 - Apr 1946        Pemba Tsering (1st time)           (b. 1905 - d. 1954)
    Apr 1946 - Sep 1947        Hugh Edward Richardson (4th time)  (s.a.)       
    Sep 1947 - Dec 1947        Pemba Tsering (2nd time)           (s.a.)
    Dec 1947 - 1950            Hugh Edward Richardson (5th time)  (s.a.)
    Indian Trade Agents
    1950                       Surendra Mohan Krishnatry          (b. 1921)
    Aug 1950 - Sep 1952        Sumal Sinha                        (d. 1983)
     

    Tibet Government in Exile: Tibetan Administration

    [Tibetan flag]

    1959                       Central Tibetan Administration
    31 May 2011                Renamed Tibetan Administration.

    Dalai Lama
    25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
                                 blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                                 rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama)     (s.a.)
                              (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India];
                               political role ended 31 May 2011)

    Chairmen of the Cabinet (Kalon Tripa)(in exile)
    1959 - 1960                Jangsa Tsang                                            Non-party
    1960 - 1965                Surkhang Wangchen Gelek            (b. 1910 - d. 1977)  Non-party
    1965 - 1970                Shenkha Gurmey Topgyal                                  Non-party
    1970 - 1975                Garang Lobsang Rigzin                                   Non-party
    1975 - 1980                Kunling Woeser Gyaltsen            (b. 1915 - d. 2001)  Non-party
    1980 - 1985                Wangdue Dorjee                                          Non-party
    1985 - May 1990            Juchen Thupten Namgyal             (b. 1929 - d. 2011)  Non-party
    May 1990 - Aug 1991        Kelsang Yeshi (1st time)           (b. 1941)            Non-party
    Aug 1991 - Feb 1993        Gyalo Thondup                      (b. 1928)            Non-party
    Feb 1993 -  4 Jun 1996     Tenzin Namgyal Tethong             (b. 1947?)           Non-party
     4 Jun 1996 - Apr 1997     Kelsang Yeshi (2nd time)           (s.a.)               Non-party
    Apr 1997 -  5 Sep 2001     Sonam Topgyal                      (b. 1934 - d. 2012)  Non-party
     5 Sep 2001 -  8 Aug 2011  Lobsang Tenzin (Samdhong Rinpoche) (b. 1939)            Non-party
     8 Aug 2011 -              Lobsang Sangay                     (b. 1968)            Non-party

    Note: No political parties existed prior to the 7 Oct 1950 Chinese invasion.







    © Ben Cahoon