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Taiwan (Republic of China)
 
[Princeflag]
           25 Aug 1642 - 1 Feb 1662 
 
[Flag of
                            China, 1872]
            10 Nov 1872 - 25 May 1895 
 
[Republic of
                            Taiwan, May - Oct 1895]
     25 May 1895 - 21 Oct 1895 
 
[Japan]
            2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945 
 
[Flag of Republic
                            of China]
               Adopted 8 Dec 1949
   (Republic of China flag from 8 Oct 1928)
 



Map of Taiwan
Hear National Anthem
"Chunghua Minkuo kuoke"
(National Anthem of the
 Republic of China)
or "San Min Chu-i"
(Three Principles of
the People)

Adopted 16 Jun 1937
Alternate National Anthem
(National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China)
(from 1937/1983)
Constitution
(25 Dec 1947)
Capital: Taipei
(Taihoku 1895-1945;
Taipei 1887-1895;
Tainan 1683-1887;
Dongdu 1661-1683)
Currency: New Taiwan
Dollar
(TWD); 1945-1949
Taiwan Nationalist Yuan
 (TWN); 1895-1945
Japanese Yen (JYP)
National Holiday: 10 Oct  (1911)
Republic Day (Anniversary
of the Chinese Revolution)
--------------------------------------
Local Holiday: 25 Oct (1945)
 Taiwan Retrocession Day
Population: 23,299,716 (2013)
GDP: $926.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $305.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $268.5 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Taiwanese (including Hakka) 84%,
mainland Chinese 14%, indigenous
tribal peoples
2% (of which Ami 0.6%) (2003)
Total Armed Forces: 290,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 112 ships (2010)
Religions: Buddhist 23.8%, Taoist 19.7%, I-kuan Tao
 (syncretistic religion) 3.7%,
Christian 4.5% (of which
Protestant 2.6%, Roman Catholic 1.3%)
, Muslim 0.6%, other 
(mostly Chinese folk
religionist or non-religious) 47.7% (2002)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, APEC, BCIE (nonregional), BTWC (de facto), CAP (observer), EBRD (special observer), ESCR (signatory), IADB (observer), ICC, ICRC (observer), IOC, ITUC, NPT (de facto), NTBT (de facto), OECD (observer), SICA (observer), UNPO, WHO (observer), WTO
Taiwan Index
Chronology
1544                       The island is sighted and named Ilha Formosa 
                             (Beautiful Island) by the Portuguese.
26 Aug 1624                Tainan (southern Formosa) a Dutch colony 
                             named Tayowan. 
 7 May 1626                Chlung, Tanshui (San Salvador), and Ilan 
                            (northwestern coast of Taiwan) a Spanish colony
                             named Isla Hermosa (subordinated the Philippines)
25 Aug 1642                Taiwan a Dutch colony, Spanish driven out.
 1 Feb 1662                Independent kingdom loyal to deposed Ming Dynasty,
                             island named Tung-tu (Dongdu)('Eastern Capital'),
                             kingdom called Kingdom of Tong-ning (sometimes
                             called Kingdom of Cheng [Zheng]).
1664                       Renamed Tong-ning (Tungning).
27 Sep 1683                Occupied by Chinese Empire.
27 May 1684                Annexed by Chinese Empire, part of Fujian 
                             province (named Taiwan).
26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721  Controlled by forces in rebellion against the
                             Ch'ing (Qing) Empire.
Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788     Controlled by forces in rebellion against the
                             Ch'ing Empire.
 1 Oct 1884 - Jul 1885     French occupation of Keelung (and from 29 Mar 1885 
                             the Pescadores).
Dec 1885                   Taiwan a separate province.
 8 May 1895                Treaty of Shimonoseki, handing Taiwan over to 
                             Japan, in force.
25 May 1895                Republic of Taiwan inaugurated, nien-hao (era 
                             name): Yung-ch'ing (Yongqing), in resistance to
                             the  hand-over.
 2 Jun 1895                Hand over of Taiwan to Japan formally executed,
                             while resistance continues, especially in 
                             Tainan city.
21 Oct 1895                Republic of Taiwan extinguished by Japan.
25 Oct 1945                Taiwan is restored to the Republic of China.
 8 Dec 1949                Taiwan becomes the seat of the Republic of China 
                             (which controls only Taiwan, the Pescadores,
                             and Quemoy [Kinmen] and Matsu islands of Fukien
                             (Fujian) province and Pratas islands; gradually
                             loses international recognition (for Republic
                             of China before 1949 see under China).
Apr 1950                   ROC withdraws from the Wan-shan and Chou-shan
                             Islands.
25 Feb 1955                ROC withdraws from the Dachen Islands.
15 Nov 1971                Republic of China expelled from the United Nations
                             and replaced by the People's Republic of China.
 1 Jan 1979                U.S. ends formal diplomatic relations with ROC.
Republic
of China
(since 1949)
Formosa
(1626-1642)
Tayowan
(1624-1662)
Taiwan
(1662-1945)
Taiwan
Province
(since 1945)
Chekiang Province
(1949-1955)
Fukien Province
(since 1949)
Taipei City
(since 1967)
Kaohsiung City
(since 1979)
Sinbei City
(since 2010)
Taichung City
(since 2010)

Tainan City
(since 2010)

Taoyuan City
(since 2014)
 

Formosa/Isla Hermosa

Governors at Fort San Salvador
 7 May 1626 - 1629         Antonio Carreo de Valds
1629 - 1632                Juan de Alcarazo
1632 - 1634                Bartolom Daz Barrera
1634 - 1635                Alonso Garca Romero
1635 - 1637                Francisco Hernndez
1637 - 1639                Pedro Palomino
1639 - 1640                Cristbal Mrquez
1640 - 25 Aug 1642         Gonzalo Portillo

Tayowan

Governors at Fort Zeelandia (of the Dutch East India Co.)
25 Aug
1624 - Aug 1625     Maarten Sonck                      (b. c.1590 - d. 1625)
1625 - 1627                Gerard Frederikszoon de With 
1627 - 1629                Pieter Nuyts (Nuijts)              (b. 1598 - d. 1655)
1629 - 1636                Hans Putmans                       (d. 1656)  
1636 - 11 Mar 1640         Johan van der Burg                 (d. 1640)
1640 - 1643                Paulus Traudenius                  (d. 1643)
1643 - 1644                Maximiliaan le Maire               (b. 1606 - d. 1654)
1644 - 1646                Franois Caron                     (b. 1600 - d. 1673)
1646 - 1649                Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater     (b. c.1610 - d. 1682)
1649 - 24 May 1653         Nicolas Verburg  
24 May 1653 - 30 Jun 1656  Cornelis Caesar                    (b. c.1610 - d. 1657)
30 Jun 1656 -  1 Feb 1662  Frederik Coyett                    (b. 1620 - d. 1689)
1662 
                      Hermanus Klenck van Odessa
                             (did not take office)


Taiwan

Note: Chinese names pre-1949 are given in Wei Tuoma or Weishi Pinyin (Wade-Giles) romanization
with Hanyu Pinyin
romanization in parentheses, i.e. Liu Yung-fu (Liu Yongfu).

Kings
 1 Feb 1662 - 23 Jun 1662  Cheng Ch'eng-kung "Koxinga"        (b. 1624 - d. 1662)
                             (Zheng Chenggong)
                             (from Apr 1662, king) 
23 Jun 1662 - 30 Jun 1662  Cheng Shih-hsi (Zheng Shixi)
30 Jun 1662 - 17 Mar 1681  Cheng Ching (Zheng Jing)           (b. 1642 - d. 1681)
17 Mar 1681 - 19 Mar 1681  Cheng K'o-tsang (Zheng Kezang)     (b. 1664 - d. 1681)
                             (acting)
19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683  Cheng K'o-shuan (Zheng Keshuang)   (b. 1670 - d. 1717)
19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683  Cheng-tsung (Chengzong) -Regent
19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683  Feng Hsi-fan (Feng Xifan)
                            
(de facto Regent)

Circuit Prefects
(subordinated to the governors of Fukien [Fujian])
1684 - 1687                Chou Ch'ang (Zhou Chang)
1687 - 1691                Wang Hsiao-tsung (Wang Xiaozong)
1691 - 1696                Kao Kung-kan (Gao Gonggan)
1696 - 1699                Ch'ang Kuang-y (Chang Guangyu)
1699 - 1704                Wang Chih-lin (Wang Zhilin)
1704 - 1710                Wang Min-cheng (Wang Minzheng)
1710                       Chou Yan-wen (Zhou Yuanwen)
1710 - 1715                Ch'en Pin (Chen Bin)               (b. 1656 - d. 1718)
1715 - 1717                Liang Wen-k'e (Liang Wenke)
1717 - 1718                Wang Chen (Wang Zhen)              (d. 1721)
1718 - 1721                Liang Wen-hsan (Liang Wenxuan)
Emperor

26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721  Chu I-kuei (Zhu Yigui)             (b. 1689/90 - d. 1721)
                            (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                             nianhao 26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721: Yung-ho (Yonghe)
Circuit Prefects
(subordinated to the governors of Fukien)
1721 - 1722                T'ao Fan (Tao Fan)
1722 - 1724                Ch'en Ta-nien (Chen Danian)        (d. 1724)
1724 - 1728                Wu Ch'ang-tso (Wu Changzuo)
1728                       Y Ts'un-jen (Yu Cunren) (acting)
1728                       Chu Hung-hs (Zhu Hongxu)
                            
(did not arrive)
1728                       Sun Kuo-hsi (Sun Guoxi)
1728 - 1731                Liu Fan-chang (Liu Fanzhang)       (b. 1684 - d. 17..)
1731 - 1732                Ni Hsiang-k'ai (Ni Xiangkai)
1732 - 1735                Chang Szu-ch'ang (Zhang Sichang)
1735                       Shen Ch'i-yan (Shen Qiyuan)       (b. 1685 - d. 1763)
                            
(acting) 
1735 - 1739                Yin Shih-lang (Yin Shilang
)
1739                       Liu Liang-pi (Liu Liangbi)
                             (1st time) (acting)

1739 - 1740                O Shan (E Shan)
1740 - 1743                Liu Liang-pi (2nd time)
1743 - 1746                Chuang Nien (Zhuang Nian)          (b. 1703 - d. 17..)
1746 - 1749                Shu Ch'eng (Shu Cheng)
1749 - 1750                Fang Pang-chi (Fang Bangji)        (d. 1750)
                            
(acting)
1750 - 1752                Chin Jung (Jin Rong)               (b. 1706 - d. 1778)

1752 - 1755                T'o-mu Ch'i-t'u (Tuomu Qitu)
1755 - 1758                Te Wen (De Wen)
1758 - 1761                Yang Ching-su (Yang Jingsu)        (b. 1711 - d. 1779)
1761 - 1764                Cheh-luo Szu-ming (Jueluo Siming)
1764                       Y Wen-i (Yu Wenyi) (1st time)     (d. 1782)
1764 - 1765                Chiang Yn-hsn (Jiang Yunxun)
                             (1st time)

1766 - 1766                Ch'i Ch'ung-ke (Qi Chongge)
                             (1st time)
1766                       Y Wen-i (2nd time)                (s.a.)
1766 - 1768                Chang T'ing (Zhang Ting)
1768                       Sun Hsiao-y (Sun Xiaoyu)
1768 - 1769                Y Wen-i (3rd time)                (s.a.)
1769 - 1771                Chiang Yn-hsn (2nd time)
1771 - 1774                Ch'i Ch'ung-ke (2nd time)
1774 - 1775                Shuo Shan
1775                       Ch'eng Ch'eng (Cheng Cheng)
1775                       Feng T'ing-ch'eng (Feng Tingcheng) (b. 1728 - d. 1784)
1775 - 1776                Chiang Yan-shu (Jiang Yuanshu)    (b. 1738 - d. 1781)
1777 - 1780                Chang Tung (Zhang Dong)
1780 - 1780                Y Ch'eng (Yu Cheng)
1781 - 1782                Su T'ai (Su Tai)
1782 - 1782                Mu Ho-lin (Mu Helin)               (d. 1796)
1782 - 1783                Yang T'ing-hua (Yang Tinghua)      (d. 1787)
1783                       Li Chn-yan (Li Junyuan)
1783 - 1783                Yung Fu (Yong Fu)
1784 1786                Sun Ching-sui (Sun Jingsui)        (d. 1786)
Emperor
Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788     Lin Shuang-wen (Lin Shuangwen)     (b. 1756 - d. 1788)
                            (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                             nianhao Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788: Shun-t'ien (Shuntian)
Circuit Prefects

(subordinated to the governors of Fukien)
1787 1788                Yang T'ing-li (Yang Tingli)        (b. 1747 - d. 1813)
                            
(1st time) 
1788                       Wang Yu-pi (Wang
Youbi)
1788 - 1791                Wan Chun-chieh (Wan Zhongjie)
1791                       Wang Qingchang (did not arrive)
1791 - 1795                Yang Tingli (2nd time)             (s.a.)
1795 - 1797                Liu Ta-i (Liu Dayi)
1797 - 1798                Chi Hseh-chin (Ji Xuejin
)         (d. 1798)
1798 - 1801                Y Ch'ang (Yu Chang) (1st time)
1801 - 1802                Ch'ing Pao (Qing Bao) (1st time)
1802 - 1805               
Y Ch'ang (2nd time)
1805 - 1806               
Ch'ing Pao (2nd time)
1806 - 1808                Ch'ing Hua (Qing Hua)
1808 - 1811                Chang Chih-hs (Zhang Zhixu)
1811 - 1812                Wang Nan (1st time)
1812 - 1817                Luo Ch'i-y (Luo Qiyu)
1817 - 1818                Wang Nan (2nd time)
1818 - 1819                Kai Fang-mi (Gai Fangmi)
                             (1st time) (acting)

1819                       Wang Nan (3rd time)
1819 - 1820               
K'ai Fang-mi (2nd time) (acting)
1820 - 1821                Yeh Shih-cho (Ye Shizhuo)
1821                       Mao Ting-hen (Mao Dingheng)
                             (did not arrive)

1821                       Shih P'u (Shi Pu)
1821                       Chou I (Zhou Yi)
1821                       Ch'en Chung-fu (Chen Zhongfu)
     (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
1821 - 1824               
Hu Ch'eng-kung (Hu Chenggong)      (b. 1776 - d. 1832)
1824                       Fang Ch'uan-sui (Fang Chuansui)    (b. 1775 - d. 18..)
                            
(acting)
1824 - 1827                Kung Chao-ch'ien (Kong
Zhaoqian)
  (b. 1775 - d. 1835)
1827                       Ch'en Luan (Chen Luan
)             (b. 1786 - d. 1839)
                            
(did not arrive)
1827 - 1830                Liu Chung-lin (Liu
Zhonglin)       (d. 1845)
1830                       Teng Ch'uan-an (Deng Chuanan)
                             (acting)

1830 - 1832                P'ing Ch'uing (Ping Qing)
1832 - 1833                Chou K'ai (Zhou Kai) (1st time)    (b. 1779 - d. 1738)
1833 - 1836                Liu Hung-kao (Liu Hongao)
1836 - 1837               
Chou K'ai (2nd time)               (s.a.)
1837                       Hsiung I-pen (Xiong Yiben)
                             (1st time)

1837 - 1838                Shen Ju-han (Shen Ruhan)
1838 - 1843                Yao Ying                           (b. 1785 - d. 1753)
1843 - 1847               
Hsiung I-pen (2nd time)
1847                       T'ung Pu-nien (Tong Bunian)
1847 - 1847               
Hsiung I-pen (3rd time)
1848 - 1854                Hsu Tsung-kan (Xu Zonggan)         (b. 1796 - d. 1866)
1854                       Jui Pin (Rui Bin) (did not arrive)
1854 - 1858                Y To (Yu Duo)
1858 - 1861                Kung Chao-tz'u (Kong Zhaoci
)       (d. 1862)
1861 - 1863                Hung Y-ch'en (Hong Yuchen
)        (b. 1813 - d. 1863)
1863 - 1864                Ch'en Mao-lieh (Chen Maolie)
1864 - 1866                Ting Yeh-chien (Ding Yuejian)
1866 - 1868                Wu Ta-t'ing (Wu Dating
)            (b. 1824 - d. 1877)
1868 - 1869                Liang Yan-kuei (Liang Yuangui)
                             (acting)

1869 - 1871                Li Chao-t'ang (Li Zhaotang)
1871 - 1872                Ting Pao (Ding Bao)
1872                       Chou Mao-ch'i (Zhou Maoqi)
                             (1st time)(acting)

1872 - 1873                P'an Chn-chang (Pan Junzhang)
1873 - 1879                Hsia Hsien-lun (Xia Xianlun)       (d. 1879)
1879                      
Chou Mao-ch'i (2nd time)(acting)
1879 - 1881                Chang Meng-yan (Zhang Mengyuan)
1881 - 1885                Liu Ao                             (d. 1889)
1885 - 1887                Ch'en Ming-chih (Chen Mingzhi)
French Military Governor at Keelung

 1 Oct 1884 - Jun 1885     Andr Amde-Anatole-Prosper       (b. 1827 - d. 1885)
                             Courbet 
Governors
12 Oct 1885 -  4 Jun 1891  Liu Ming-ch'uan (Liu Mingchuan)    (b. 1836 - d. 1896)
 4 Jun 1891 - 25 Nov 1891  Ch'en Ying-k'uei (Chen Yingkui)
                             (acting)
25 Nov 1891 - 13 Oct 1894  Shao Yu-lien (Shao Youlian)        (b. 1840 - d. 1901)
13 Oct 1894 - 25 May 1895  T'ang Ching-sung (Tang Jingsong)   (b. 1841 - d. 1903)
                             (acting)
Presidents
25 May 1895 -  5 Jun 1895  T'ang Ching-sung (Tang Jingsong  (s.a.)
 5 Jun 1895 - 21 Oct 1895  Liu Yung-fu (Liu Yongfu)           (b. 1837 - d. 1917)
Governors-general

29 May 1895 -  2 Jun 1896  Motonori Kabayama                  (b. 1837 - d. 1922) 
 2 Jun 1896 - 14 Oct 1896  Viscount Taro Katsura              (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
14 Oct 1896 - 26 Feb 1898  Maresuke Nogi                      (b. 1849 - d. 1912)
26 Feb 1898 - 11 Apr 1906  Baron Gentaro Kodama               (b. 1852 - d. 1906)
11 Apr 1906 -  1 May 1915  Viscount (from 1907, Count) Samata
                             Sakuma
                          (b. 1844 - d. 1915)
 1 May 1915 -  6 Jun 1918  Baron Sadayoshi Ando               (b. 1853 - d. 1932)
 6 Jun 1918 - 24 Oct 1919  Motojiro Akashi                    (b. 1864 - d. 1919)
24 Oct 1919 - 29 Oct 1919  Hiroshi Shimomura (acting)         (b. 1875 - d. 1957)
29 Oct 1919 -  2 Sep 1923  Baron Kenjiro Den                  (b. 1853 - d. 1930)
 2 Sep 1923 -  6 Sep 1923  Sagataro Kaku (acting)             (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
 6 Sep 1923 -  1 Sep 1924  Kakichi Uchida                     (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
 1 Sep 1924 - 16 Jul 1926  Takio Izawa                        (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
16 Jul 1926 - 16 Jun 1928  Mitsunoshin Ueyama                 (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
16 Jun 1928 - 30 Jul 1929  Takeji Kawamura                    (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
30 Jul 1929 - 16 Jan 1931  Eizo Ishizuka                      (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
16 Jan 1931 -  2 Mar 1932  Masahiro Ota                       (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
 2 Mar 1932 - 26 May 1932  Hiroshi Minami                     (b. 1869 - d. 1946)
27 May 1932 -  2 Sep 1936  Kenzo Nakagawa                     (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
 2 Sep 1936 - 27 Nov 1940  Seizo Kobayashi                    (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
27 Nov 1940 - 30 Dec 1944  Kiyoshi Hasegawa                   (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
30 Dec 1944 - 25 Oct 1945  Rikichi Ando                       (b. 1884 - d. 1946)


Republic of China


Presidents

21 Jan 1949 -  1 Mar 1950  Li Tsung-jen (acting)              (b. 1890 - d. 1969)  Mil/KMT
20 Nov 1949 -  1 Mar 1950 
Yen Hsi-shan                       (b. 1883 - d. 1960)  Mil/KMT
                             (acting for Tsung-jen)
 1 Mar 1950 -  5 Apr 1975  Chiang Kai-shek                    (b. 1887 - d. 1975)  Mil/KMT
 
5 Apr 1975 - 20 May 1978  Yen Chia-kan                       (b. 1905 - d. 1993)  KMT
20 May 1978 - 13 Jan 1988  Chiang Ching-kuo                   (b. 1910 - d. 1988)  KMT
13 Jan 1988 - 20 May 2000  Lee Teng-hui                       (b. 1923)            KMT
20 May 2000 - 20 May 2008  Chen Shui-bian                     (b. 1950)            MCT
20 May 2008 -              Ma Ying-jeou                       (b. 1950)            KMT

Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers)
13 Jun 1949 - 15 Mar 1950  Yen Hsi-shan                       (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
15 Mar 1950 -  7 Jun 1954  Ch'en Ch'eng (1st time)            (b. 1898 - d. 1965)  Mil/KMT
 7 Jun 1954 - 30 Jun 1958  Yu Hung-chn                       (b. 1897 - d. 1960)  KMT
30 Jun 1958 - 15 Dec 1963  Ch'en Ch'eng (2nd time)            (s.a.)               Mil/KMT
16 Dec 1963 -  1 Jun 1972  Yen Chia-kan ("C.K. Yen")          (s.a.)               KMT
 1 Jul 1963 - 16 Sep 1963  Wang Yunwu ("Y.W. Wong")(acting)   (b. 1888 - d. 1979)  KMT

 1 Jun 1972 - 20 May 1978  Chiang Ching-kuo                   (s.a.)               KMT
20 May 1978 -  1 Jun 1978  Hsu Ching-chung
(acting)           (b. 1907 - d. 1996)  KMT
 1 Jun 1978 -  1 Jun 1984  Sun Yun-suan                       (b. 1913 - d. 2006)  KMT
 1 Jun 1984 -  1 Jun 1989  Yu Kuo-hwa                         (b. 1914 - d. 2000)  KMT
 1 Jun 1989 -  1 Jun 1990  Lee Huan                           (b. 1917 - d. 2010)  KMT
 1 Jun 1990 - 27 Feb 1993  Hau Pei-tsun                       (b. 1919)            KMT
27 Feb 1993 -  1 Sep 1997  Lien Chan                          (b. 1936)            KMT
 1 Sep 1997 - 20 May 2000  Vincent Siew (Siew Wan-chang)      (b. 1939)            KMT
20 May 2000 -  6 Oct 2000  Tang Fei                           (b. 1932)            KMT
 6 Oct 2000 -  1 Feb 2002  Chang Chun-hsiung (1st time)       (b. 1938)            MCT
 1 Feb 2002 -  1 Feb 2005  Yu Shyi-kun                        (b. 1948)            MCT
 1 Feb 2005 - 25 Jan 2006  Frank Hsieh (Hsieh Chang-ting)     (b. 1946)            MCT
25 Jan 2006 - 21 May 2007  Su Tseng-chang                     (b. 1947)            MCT
21 May 2007 - 20 May 2008  Chang Chun-hsiung (2nd time)       (s.a.)               MCT
20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009  Liu Chao-shiuan                    (b. 1943)            KMT
10 Sep 2009 - 
 6 Feb 2012  Wu Den-yih                         (b. 1948)            KMT
 6 Feb 2012 - 18 Feb 2013  Sean Chen (Chen Chun)              (b. 1949)            KMT
18 Feb 2013 -  8 Dec 2014  Jiang Yi-huah                      (b. 1960)            KMT
 8 Dec 2014 -              Mao Chi-kuo                        (b. 1948)            KMT

 Since 1949, Taipei has been the "provisional" capital of the Republic of China, formally Nanjing on the mainland remains the official capital. Taipei was also the capital of the province of Taiwan until 1 Jul 1957 when is was moved to Chunghsing (Jhongsing) Village.

  The Republic of China (ROC) signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1968, and deposited the instrument of ratification on 27 Jan 1970 and was considered a member of the IAEA. After 25 Oct 1971 the ROC was expelled from the UN and the IAEA; The People's Republic of China acceded to the NPT on 9 Mar 1992. The ROC signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) on 23 Aug 1963 and deposited the instrument of ratification on 18 May 1964. The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was signed the ROC in 1972, before it entered into force, but it's signature on this treaty is not officially recognized because Taiwan has not been considered to be a sovereign state. For the same reason, the ROC was not allowed to sign the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) that entered into force in 1997 and has not been permitted to join the Australia Group (AG), Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) or other non-proliferation organizations. In spite of its non-state status, Taiwan's government has repeatedly stated that it will abide by the terms of the BTWC, CWC, NPT, NTBT, and MTCR. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Covenant (ESCR) was signed by the ROC on 5 Oct 1967 but not ratified; on 31 Mar 2009 the ROC finally ratified it, but the deposit was rejected by the UN.
 

  The People's Republic of China replaced Taiwan in the UN on 15 Nov 1971; the U.S. switched recognition from Taiwan to the People's Republic on 1 Jan 1979. Currently, Taiwan has diplomatic relations with 22 countries: Belize (1989), Burkina Faso (1994), Dominican Republic (1957), El Salvador (1961), Guatemala (1960), Haiti (1956), Honduras (1965), Kiribati (2003), Marshall Islands (1998), Nauru (1980-2002, 2005), Nicaragua (1962-1985, 1990), Palau (1999), Panama (1954), Paraguay (1957), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983), Saint Lucia (1984-1997, 2007), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1981), So Tom and Prncipe (1997), Solomon Islands (1983), Swaziland (1968), Tuvalu (1979), and Vatican City (1942);
--- recent former diplomatic recognitions: Bahamas (1989-1997), Central African Republic (1968-1976, 1991-1998), Chad (1962-72, 1997-2006), Costa Rica (1959-2007), Dominica (1983-2004), The Gambia (1968-1974, 1995-2013), Grenada (1989-2005), Guinea-Bissau (1990-1998), Lesotho (1966-1983, 1990-1994), Liberia (1957-1977, 1989-2003), Macedonia (1999-2001), Malawi (1966-2008), Niger (1963-1974, 1992-1996), Saudi Arabia (1946-1990), Senegal (1969-1972, 1996-2005), South Africa (1976-1997), South Korea (1949-1992), Tonga (1972-1998), Uruguay (1966-1988) and Vanuatu (2004).

Territorial Disputes: Taiwan is claimed by People's Republic of China; involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei, and with China and the Philippines over Scarborough Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam; in 2003, China and Taiwan became more vocal in rejecting both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting; Pratas Islands (Dong Sha/Dongsha Qundao) are claimed by the People's Republic of China; the ROC claimed jurisdiction over Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure the ROC recognized Mongolian independence in 1947, however, in 1953 the ROC repudiated this recognition and reasserted its to claim jurisdiction over Mongolia. In 2002 Taiwan announced that it would now require Mongolian citizens to produce passports, in effect recognizing them as foreigners. 

Party abbreviations: KMT = Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang (Chinese National People's Party, "Kuomintang", Chinese nationalist, republican, conservative, 1949-1986 only legal party, est.1912-Nov 1913, re-est.1919); MCT = Min-chu chin-pu-tang (Democratic Progressive Party, liberal, Taiwanese nationalist, center-left, est.1986); Mil = Military



Taiwan Province

Chairmen of the Province
25 Oct 1945 - 16 May 1947  Ch'en Yi (chief executive)         (b. 1883 - d. 1950)  Mil/KMT
16 May 1947 -  5 Jan 1949  Wei Tao-ming                       (b. 1901 - d. 1978)  KMT
 5 Jan 1949 - 21 Dec 1949  Ch'en Ch'eng                       (b. 1898 - d. 1965)  KMT
21 Dec 1949 - 16 Apr 1953  Wu Gwo-jen ("K.C. Wu")             (b. 1903 - d. 1984)  KMT
16 Apr 1953 -  7 Jun 1954  Yu Horng-jiun ("O.K. Yui")         (b. 1897 - d. 1960)  KMT
 7 Jun 1954 - 16 Aug 1957  Yen Chia-kan ("C.K. Yen")          (b. 1905 - d. 1993)  KMT
16 Aug 1957 -  1 Dec 1962  Chow Chih-jou                      (b. 1899 - d. 1986)  KMT
 1 Dec 1962 -  5 Jul 1969  Huang Chieh                        (b. 1902 - d. 1994)  KMT
 5 Jul 1969 -  6 Jun 1972  Chen Ta-ching                      (b. 1905 - d. 1973)  KMT
 6 Jun 1972 - 20 May 1978  Shien Tung-min                     (b. 1907 - d. 2001)  KMT
12 Jun 1978 -  5 Dec 1981  Lin Yang-kang                      (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  KMT
 5 Dec 1981 - 20 May 1984  Lee Teng-hui                       (b. 1923)            KMT
 9 Jun 1984 - 16 Jun 1990  Chiu Chuang-huan                   (b. 1925)            KMT
16 Jun 1990 - 25 Feb 1993  Lien Chan                          (b. 1936)            KMT
20 Mar 1993 - 20 Dec 1994  James Soong (Song Chu-yu)          (b. 1942)            KMT
Governors 
20 Dec 1994 - 21 Dec 1998  James Soong                        (s.a.)               KMT
21 Dec 1998 - 20 May 2000  Chao Shou-po                       (b. 1941)            KMT
20 May 2000 -  4 Feb 2002  Chang Po-ya (f)                    (b. 1942)            MCT
 
4 Feb 2002 - 10 Oct 2003  Fan Kuang-chun                     (b. 1939)            MCT
10 Oct 2003 - 25 Jan 2006  Lin Kuang-hua                      (b. 1945)            MCT
25 Jan 2006 - 21 Dec 2007  Vacant
21 Dec 2007 - 20 May 2008  Lin Si-yao                         (b. 1961)            MCT
20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009  Tsai Hsun-hsiung                   (b. 1941)            KMT
10 Sep 2009 - 24 Feb 2010  Chang Jin-Fu                       (b. 1948)            KMT
24 Feb 2010 -              Lin Junq-tzer                      (b. 1944
)            KMT

Chekiang province (1949-1955): see Zhejiang under China Provinces

Fukien

1949 -                    Fragment of Fukien (Fujian) province retained by Republic of China
                            (Kinmen [Quemoy], Matsu, Wuciou, and other small islands).
 
Nationalist Governors (in Kinmen to Jul 1956 and from 15 Jan 1996; 
in Sindian, Taiwan Jul 1956 - 15 Jan 1996)(pinyin transliteration in parentheses)
23 Nov 1949 -  1 Feb 1955  Hu Lien (Hu Lian)                  (b. 1907 - d. 1977)   Mil
 1 Feb 1955 - 21 May 1986  Tai Chung-yu (Dai Zhongyu)         (b. 1910 - d. 1986)   Mil
20 Jun 1986 -  9 Feb 1998  Wu Chin-tzan (Wu Jinzan)           (b. 1936)           Mil:1992 KMT
10 Feb 1998 - 20 May 2007  Yen Chung-cheng (Yan Zhongcheng)   (b. 1938)             KMT
21 May 2007 - 28 Nov 2007  Yang Cheng-hsi (Yang Chengxi)      (b. 1945)             KMT
                             (acting)    
28 Nov 2007 - 20 May 2008  Chen Chin-jun (Chen Jingjun)       (b. 1956)             MCT
20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009  Hsueh Hsiang-chuan (Xue Xiangchuan)(b. 1944)             KMT
10 Sep 2009 - 18 Feb 2013  James Cherng-tay Hsueh             (b. 1956)             KMT
                             (Xue Chengtai)
18 Feb 2013 -  1 Aug 2013  Chen Shyh-kwei "Steven S.K. Chen"  (b. 1952)             KMT
                             (Chen Shikui) 
 1 Aug 2013 - 30 Sep 2013  Luo Ying-shay (f)(Lou Yingxue)     (b. 1951)             KMT
 1 Oct 2013 - 25 Mar 2014  Schive Chi "Steve Chi" (Xue Qi)    (b. 1947)             KMT
25 Mar 2014   8 Dec 2014  Deng Chen-Chung "John Deng"        (b. 1952)             KMT
                             (Deng Zhenzhong)
 8 Dec 2014               Duh Tyzz-jiun "Woody Duh"          (b. 1959)             KMT
                             (Du Zijun)


Taipei 

[Taipei city flag
                        (Taiwan) 1981-2010]
        19 Oct 1981 - 20 Sep 2010

[Taipei City flag
                        (Taiwan)]
            Adopted 20 Sep 2010

 1 Jul 1967                Taipei (Taibei) special municipality (split from Taiwan province). 

Mayors
 2 Jun 1964 - 10 Jun 1972  Henry Y.S. Kao (2nd time)          (b. 1913 - d. 2005)  KMT
10 Jun 1972 - 11 Jun 1976  Chang Feng-hsu                     (b. 1928)            KMT
11 Jun 1976 -  9 Jun 1978  Lin Yang-kang                      (b. 1927 - d. 2013)  KMT 
 9 Jun 1978 -  4 Dec 1981  Lee Teng-hui                       (b. 1923)            KMT
 4 Dec 1981 - 19 Apr 1982  Shao En-hsin                       (b. 1934)            KMT
19 Apr 1982 - 30 May 1985  Jackson Chin-tsung Yang            (b. 1923 - d. 1990)  KMT
30 May 1985 - 25 Jul 1988  Hsu Shui-teh                       (b. 1931)            KMT
25 Jul 1988 -  2 Jun 1990  Wu Poh-hsiung                      (b. 1939)            KMT 
 2 Jun 1990 - 25 Dec 1994  Huang Ta-chou                      (b. 1936)            KMT
25 Dec 1994 - 25 Dec 1998  Chen Shui-bian                     (b. 1950)            MCT
25 Dec 1998 - 25 Dec 2006  Ma Ying-jeou                       (b. 1950)            KMT
25 Dec 2006 - 25 Dec 2014  Hau Lung-pin                       (b. 1952)            KMT
25 Dec 2014 -              Ko Wen-je                          (b. 1959)            Ind


Kaohsiung 

[Kaoshiung City flag,
                        1974-2010 (Taiwan)]
               1974 - 1 Jan 2010

[Kaoshiung City flag
                        (Taiwan)]
             Adopted 1 Jan 2010

 1 Jul 1979                Kaohsiung (Gaoxiong) special municipality (split from Taiwan
                             province).

Mayors
1973 - 1981                Wang Yu-yuin                       (b. 1925 - d. 2009)  KMT
1981 - 1982                Jackson Chin-tsung Yang            (s.a.)               KMT
19 Apr 1982 - 1985         Hsu Shuei-teh                      (b. 1931)            KMT
22 May 1985 - Jun 1990     Su Nan-cheng                       (b. 1936)            KMT
15 Jun 1990 - 20 Dec 1998  Wu Den-yi                          (b. 1948)            KMT
Dec 1998 -  1 Feb 2005     Frank Hsieh                        (b. 1946)            MCT
 1 Feb 2005 - 26 Sep 2005  Chen Chi-mai (acting)              (b. 1964)            MCT
26 Sep 2005 - 25 Dec 2006  Yeh Chu-lan (f)(acting)            (b. 1949)            MCT
25 Dec 2006 -              Chen Chu (f)                       (b. 1950)            MCT


Sinbei (New Taipei)

[Sinbei Special Municipality
              (Taiwan)]
            Adopted 25 Dec 2010

25 Dec 2010                Sinbei (Xinbei) special municipality (split from Taiwan province).

Mayor
25 Dec 2010 -              Chu Li-luan "Eric Chu"             (b. 1961)            KMT


Taichung (Central Taiwan)
  

[Taichung city
                        official flag (Taiwan)]
                 Adopted 1974

[Taichung city
                        unofficial flag (Taiwan)]
    From Sep 2007 Unofficial Variant


25 Dec 2010                Taichung (Taizhong) special municipality (split from Taiwan
                             province).

Mayors
25 Dec 2010 - 25 Dec 2014  Hu Chih-chiang "Jason Hu"         (b. 1948)            KMT
25 Dec 2014 -              Lin Chia-lung                     (b. 1964)            MCT


Tainan

[Tainan city flag (Taiwan)]

25 Dec 2010                Tainan special municipality (split from Taiwan province).

Mayor
25 Dec 2010 -              Lai Ching-te "William Lai"         (b. 1959)            MCT


T
aoyuan City

25 Dec 2014               Taoyuan City special municipality (split from Taiwan province).

Mayor
25 Dec 2014 -             Cheng Wen-tsan              (b. 1967)           MCT


Party abbreviations:
Ind = Independent; KMT = Chung-kuo kuo-min-tang (Chinese National People's Party, "Kuomintang", Chinese nationalist, republican, conservative, 1949-1986 only legal party, est.1912-Nov 1913, re-est.1919); MCT = Min-chu chin-pu-tang (Democratic Progressive Party, liberal, Taiwanese nationalist, center-left, est.1986); Mil = Military






  Ben Cahoon