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Japan
 

[Japan]
                  Adopted 3 Oct 1870
        (Merchant Flag from 5 Aug 1854)
     (use limited 1 Oct 1945 - 1 Jan 1949)
 
[Japan
                                    Naval and War Ensign 1889-1945]
                  Naval and War Flag
               7 Oct 1889 - 2 Sep 1945;
               Re-adopted 30 Jun 1954
 
[Japane Allied Occupation Flag
                                    (E-ensign) 1945-1952]
          2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952
         Allied Occupation Ensign
 
 Map of Japan
 Hear National Anthem
"Kimigayo"
(His Majesty’s Reign)
Text of National Anthem
in use from 3 Nov 1880,
adopted 13 Aug 1999
Constitution
 (3 May 1947)
Map of Japanese
Prefectures
Map of the Japanese
Empire in 1939
Charter Oath
(6 Apr 1868)
Meiji Constitution
 (11 Feb 1889 - 3 May 1947)
Capital: Tokyo
(Kyoto 794 - 3 Sep 1868)
Currency: Yen (JPY)
National Holiday: 23 Dec (1933)
Birthday of Emperor Akihito
Population: 127,253,075 (2013)
83,458,405 (1925)
GDP: $4.72 trillion (2013)
Exports: $697 billion (2013)
Imports: $766.6 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Japanese 98.5%, Korean 0.5%, Chinese 0.4%,
Brazilian 0.2%, others 0.4% (Ainu 50,000; Filipino 89,851;
and others 237,914) (2004) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 230,300 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 56,463 (2012)

Merchant marine: 684 ships (2010)
Religions: Shinto and related beliefs 83.9%,
Buddhist and related beliefs 71.4%, Christian 2%, other 7.8% (2005)
note: total adherents exceed 100% because many people
 belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism 
International Organizations/Treaties: AC (observer), ADB, AfDB (nonregional), AG, ANT, APEC, APM, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BTWC, CCM, CE (observer), CERN (observer), CICA (observer), CP, CWC, EAS, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partner), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MTCR, NEA, NPT, NSG, NTBT, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Japan Index
Chronology

11 Feb 660 BC              Legendary foundation of Japan (modern state
                             dates from 646 AD).
22 Jan 646                 Taika Reforms: state is named Nippon ([Land of
                             the] Rising Sun).
21 Aug 1192                Shogunate (Bakufu government) established
                             (suppressed 5 Jul 1333 - 2 Oct 1338).
23 Jan 1337 - 27 Nov 1392  Two rival imperial courts, one in Kyoto in the
                             north and the other at Yoshino in the south.
bf.1392                    State of Japan (Nippon Koku).
12 Feb 1603                Tokugawa clan assumes the Shogunate.
 4 Jan 1868                Shogunate abolished.
 7 May 1875 - 25 Aug 1945  Southern Kuril Islands annexed.
17 Oct 1876                Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands annexed.
27 Mar 1879                Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa) annexed.
29 Nov 1890                Great Japanese Empire (Dai Nippon Teikoku).
 2 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945  Formosa (Taiwan) annexed.
 5 Sep 1905 - 25 Aug 1945  Karafuto (Southern Sakhalin) and northern
                             Kuril Islands annexed.
29 Aug 1910 - 12 Sep 1945  Korea annexed.
 3 Apr 1945 - 15 May 1972  Okinawa occupied by U.S.
 2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952  Allied occupation of Japan.
 3 May 1947                State of Japan

Prefectures
(from 1947)

Domains
(to 1869)

Republic of Ezo
(1869)
Okinawa and
Ryukyu Islands
(1669-1879,
from 1945)

Bonin and
Volcano Islands

(1830-1880,
1945-1968)

Allied
Occupation

(1945-1952)
Hirado/Deshima
(1609-1860)
 

Shoguns¹
15 Sep 1680 - 19 Feb 1709  Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (Joken-in)     (b. 1646 - d. 1709)
 8 Jun 1709 - 12 Nov 1712  Tokugawa Ienobu (Bunsho-in)        (b. 1709 - d. 1716)
26 Apr 1713 - 19 Jun 1716  Tokugawa Ietsugu (Yusho-in)        (b. 1709 - d. 1716)
28 Sep 1716 - 20 Oct 1745  Tokugawa Yoshimune (Yutoku-un)     (b. 1677 - d. 1751)
24 Nov 1745 - 25 Jun 1760  Tokugawa Ieshige (Junshin-in)      (b. 1712 - d. 1761)
10 Oct 1760 - 29 Sep 1786  Tokugawa Ieharu (Shinmei-in)       (b. 1737 - d. 1786)
15 Apr 1787 -  6 May 1837  Tokugawa Ienari (Bunkyo-in)        (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 1 Oct 1837 - 26 Aug 1853  Tokugawa Ieyoshi (Shintoku-in)     (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
23 Nov 1853 - 14 Sep 1858  Tokugawa Iesada (Onkyo-in)         (b. 1824 - d. 1858)
 4 Jan 1859 - 29 Aug 1866  Tokugawa Iemochi (Shotoku-in)      (b. 1846 - d. 1866)
10 Jan 1867 -  4 Jan 1868  Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Hitotu-in)     (b. 1837 - d. 1913)
Emperors (Tenno
 2 May 1687 - 27 Jul 1709  Asahito (Higashiyama-tenno)        (b. 1675 - d. 1710)
27 Jul 1709 - 13 Apr 1735  Yashuhito (Nakamikado-tenno)       (b. 1701 - d. 1737)
13 Apr 1735 -  9 Jun 1747  Teruhito (Sakuramachi-tenno)       (b. 1720 - d. 1750)
 9 Jun 1747 - 31 Aug 1762  Toshito (Momozano-tenno)           (b. 1741 - d. 1762)
15 Sep 1762 -  9 Jan 1771  Toshi-ko -Empress                  (b. 1740 - d. 1813)
                             (Go-Sakuramachi-tenno)
 9 Jan 1771 -  6 Dec 1779  Hidehito (Go-Momozono-tenno)       (b. 1758 - d. 1780)
 1 Jan 1780 -  7 May 1817  Tomohito (Kokaku-tenno)            (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
 7 May 1817 - 21 Feb 1846  Ayahito (Ninko-tenno)              (b. 1800 - d. 1846)
10 Mar 1846 - 30 Jan 1867  Osahito (Komei-tenno)              (b. 1831 - d. 1866)
13 Feb 1867 - 30 Jul 1912  Mutsuhito (Meiji-tenno)            (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Yoshihito (Taisho-tenno)           (b. 1879 - d. 1926)
25 Nov 1921 - 25 Dec 1926  Prince Hirohito -Regent            (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
25 Dec 1926 -  7 Jan 1989  Hirohito (Showa-tenno)             (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1989 -              Akihito                            (b. 1933)

 
Tairo (Chief advisers of the Shogun)
30 Jul 1697 - 20 Apr 1700  Naokane Ii                         (b. 1656 - d. 1717)
23 Feb 1706 -  9 Jul 1709  Yoshiyasu Yanagisawa               (b. 1658 - d. 1714)
31 Mar 1711 - 28 Mar 1714  Naokane Ii                         (b. 1656 - d. 1717)
 8 Jan 1785 - 21 Oct 1787  Naoyuki Ii                         (b. 1729 - d. 1789)
 9 Feb 1836 -  1 Jul 1841  Naoaki Ii                          (b. 1794 - d. 1850)
 4 Jun 1858 - 24 Mar 1860  Naosuke Ii                         (b. 1815 - d. 1860)
26 Feb 1865 - 29 Dec 1865  Tadashige Sakai                    (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
Roju (Senior Shogunal councillors [chairmanship rotated monthly])
13 May 1681 - 15 Oct 1704  Masatake Abe (1st time)            (b. 1649 - d. 1704)
24 Dec 1681 -  2 Oct 1699  Tadamasa Toda                      (b. 1632 - d. 1699)
11 Jul 1685 -  9 Sep 1686  Nobuyuki Matsudaira 
17 Nov 1687 -  3 Apr 1718  Masanao Tsuchiya                   (b. 1641 - d. 1722)
 7 Jun 1697 - 14 Oct 1705  Nagashige Ogasawara (1st time)     (b. 1650 - d. 1727)
26 Nov 1699 - 22 Sep 1714  Takatomo Akimoto                   (b. 1649 - d. 1714)
18 Feb 1701 - 28 Aug 1707  Masamichi Inaba                    (b. 1640 - d. 1716)
25 Oct 1704 - 31 Dec 1704  Masanaga Honda (1st time)          (b. 1645 - d. 1711)
 7 Nov 1705 - 14 Sep 1713  Tadamasu Okubo                     (b. 1656 - d. 1713)
 7 Nov 1705 - 30 Jun 1722  Masamine Inoue                     (b. 1653 - d. 1722)
19 Feb 1709 - 18 May 1711  Masanaga Honda (2nd time)          (s.a.)
19 Feb 1709 - 14 Jun 1710  Nagashige Ogasawara (2nd time)     (s.a.)
27 May 1711 - 23 Oct 1717  Masataka Abe (2nd time)            (b. 1672 - d. 1750)
22 Sep 1713 - 31 Jun 1720  Shigeyuki Kuze                     (b. 1660 - d. 1720)
10 Oct 1714 - 19 Dec 1729  Tadazane Toda                      (b. 1651 - d. 1729)
13 Oct 1714 - 26 Apr 1716  Nobutsune Matsudaira               (b. 1666 - d. 1717?)
31 Oct 1717 - 26 Jun 1730  Tadayuki Mizuno                    (b. 1669 - d. 1731)
 4 Jul 1722 - 13 Sep 1732  Shigeyuki Ando                     (b. 1670 - d. 17..) 
25 May 1723 -  2 Nov 1745  Norimura Matsudaira                (b. 1686 - d. 1746)
28 Jan 1725 -  8 Jun 1728  Tadachika Matsudaira               (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
22 Jun 1728 - 12 Oct 1728  Tsuneharu Okubo                    (b. 1675 - d. 1728)
 8 Nov 1728 -  8 Jul 1735  Tadashige Sakai                    (b. 1690 - d. 1735)
24 Aug 1730 - 29 May 1744  Nobutoki Matsudaira                (b. 1683 - d. 1744)
24 Aug 1730 -  2 Jan 1746  Terusada Matsudaira (acting)       (b. 1665 - d. 1747)
 6 Jul 1734 - 23 Apr 1735  Tadayoshi Honda (1st time)         (b. 1690 - d. 1751)
13 Jul 1735 - 18 Jul 1746  Tadayoshi Honda (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1742 - 17 Oct 1744  Yoritoshi Toki                     (b. 1695 - d. 1744)
23 Oct 1744 -  3 Mar 1749  Tadazumi Sakai                     (b. 1710 - d. 1772)
26 Sep 1745 - 26 Jun 1746  Norikata Matsudaira                (b. 1693 - d. 1746)
 5 Dec 1745 - 14 Mar 1761  Masasuke Hotta                     (b. 1712 - d. 1761)
 3 Jul 1746 - 10 Apr 1747  Tadanao Nishio                     (b. 1689 - d. 1760)
 7 Dec 1746 -  3 Oct 1758  Masayoshi Honda                    (b. 1710 - d. 1786)
 6 Oct 1747 -  5 Sep 1779  Takechika Matsudaira               (b. 1713 - d. 1779)
 7 Nov 1749 - 15 Jun 1764  Tadayori Sakai                     (b. 1704 - d. 1766)
18 May 1751 - 25 Apr 1760  Tadanao Nishio                     (b. 1689 - d. 1760)
18 Nov 1758 - 18 Jun 1760  Terutaka Matsudaira (1st time)     (b. 1725 - d. 1781)
15 May 1760 - 24 Apr 1764  Suketomo Akimoto                   (b. 1717 - d. 1775)
 8 Jan 1761 - 25 Apr 1763  Masatsune Inoue                    (b. 1726? - d. 17..) 
31 Aug 1761 - 11 Nov 1781  Terutaka Matsudaira (2nd time)     (s.a.)
13 Jan 1764 -  8 May 1788  Yasuyoshi Matsudaira               (b. 1719 - d. 1789)
 1 Feb 1766 - 13 Aug 1769  Masasuke Abe                       (b. 1724 - d. 1769)
14 Sep 1769 - 18 Feb 1772  Okitsugu Tanuma (acting)(1st time) (b. 1719 - d. 1788)
17 Sep 1769 - 29 Jul 1780  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1706 - d. 1780)
18 Feb 1772 - 19 Sep 1786  Okitsugu Tanuma (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 May 1779 - 19 Nov 1780  Masachika Abe                      (b. 1716 - d. 1780)
 3 Nov 1781 -  4 Mar 1785  Hiroakira Kuze                     (b. 1731 - d. 1785)
 3 Nov 1781 -  9 Mar 1785  Tadatomo Mizuno (acting)(1st time) (b. 1731 - d. 1801)
 2 Jul 1784 - 17 Mar 1790  Sadanaga Makino                    (b. 1733 - d. 1796) 
 9 Mar 1785 -  3 May 1788  Tadatomo Mizuno (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1786 -  9 Apr 1793  Tadaoki Torii                      (b. 1717? - d. 1793?) 
24 Apr 1787 -  4 Apr 1788  Masatomo Abe                       (b. 1746 - d. 1805)
 2 Aug 1787 - 29 Aug 1793  Sadanobu Matsudaira                (b. 1758 - d. 1829)
 9 May 1788 -  3 Feb 1804  Nobuakira Matsudaira               (b. 1763 - d. 1817)
 5 May 1789 - 23 Sep 1793  Norisada Matsudaira                (b. 1752 - d. 1793)
29 May 1790 -  3 Dec 1798  Tadakazu Honda (acting)            (b. 1737 - d. 1812)
21 Dec 1790 - 12 Jun 1806  Ujinori Toda                       (b. 1754? - d. 18..)
11 Apr 1793 - 17 Jul 1801  Ota Sukeyoshi
28 Sep 1793 - 24 Oct 1802  Nobunari Ando                      (b. 1743 - d. 18..) 
19 Aug 1801 -  1 Dec 1816  Tadakiyo Makino                    (b. 1760 - d. 1828)
14 Nov 1802 - 24 Aug 1822  Toshikazu Doi                      (b. 1759 - d. 1822)
 4 Mar 1804 - 30 Jun 1835  Tadayasu Aoyama                    (b. 1758 - d. 1835)
14 Jul 1806 -  9 Oct 1817  Nobuakira Matsudaira               (b. 1763 - d. 1817)
23 May 1815 - 24 Aug 1818  Tadayuki Sakai                     (b. 1770 - d. 1828)
13 Sep 1817 -  2 Sep 1818  Tadaakira Mizuno (acting)(1st time)(b. 1762 - d. 1834)
 5 Oct 1817 - 13 Nov 1823  Masakiyo Abe                       (b. 1774 - d. 1826)
 2 Sep 1818 - 23 Apr 1837  Tadazane Okubo                     (b. 1781 - d. 1837)
 2 Sep 1818 -  6 Apr 1834  Tadaakira Mizuno (2nd time)        (s.a.)
17 Oct 1822 -  6 Jan 1840  Norihiro Matsudaira                (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
14 Dec 1823 -  5 Apr 1825  Terunobu Matsudaira                (b. 1775? - d. 18..) 
 4 Jun 1825 - 21 Dec 1826  Iemasa Uemura (acting)             (b. 1785 - d. 1826)
21 Dec 1826 - 19 Nov 1835  Yasuto Matsudaira                  (b. 1779 - d. 1841)
 9 Apr 1834 -  4 Nov 1843  Tadakuni Mizuno                    (b. 1794 - d. 1851)
 1 Jul 1835 - 13 Oct 1836  Munetaka Honjo? 
 6 May 1837 - 20 Jul 1841  Suketomo Ota                       (b. 1799 - d. 1867)
18 Jun 1837 -  8 Sep 1837  Nobuyori Matsudaira                (b. 1793 - d. 1844)
 9 Aug 1837 -  5 Apr 1841  Yasatada Wakisaka                  (b. 1781 - d. 1841)
10 Jan 1840 - 21 Nov 1844  Toshitsura Doi                     (b. 1789 - d. 1848)
14 Apr 1841 - 30 Oct 1843  Masahiro Hotta                     (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
30 Jul 1841 - 28 Jun 1844  Yukitsura Sanada                   (b. 1791 - d. 1852)
13 Jan 1840 - 12 Nov 1843  Akikatsu Manabe                    (b. 1802 - d. 1884)
 2 Nov 1843 -  6 Aug 1857  Masahiro Abe                       (b. 1819 - d. 1857)
23 Dec 1843 - 27 Oct 1857  Tadamasa Makino                    (b. 1799 - d. 1858)
14 Feb 1844 -  3 Jun 1845  Yamato (acting)
 4 Aug 1844 - 29 Mar 1845  Tadakuni Mizuno                    (b. 1794 - d. 1851)
 4 Feb 1845 -  3 Jun 1848  Tadanaga Aoyama                    (b. 1807 - d. 1864)
24 Apr 1845 - 22 Aug 1851  Tadaharu Toda                      (b. 1804? - d. 18..) 
13 Nov 1848 - 14 Sep 1855  Noriyasu Matsudaira (1st time)     (b. 1794 - d. 1870)
13 Nov 1848 - 14 Sep 1855  Tadamasu Matsudaira                (b. 1812 - d. 1859)
10 Feb 1852 -  2 Dec 1858  Hirochika Kuze                     (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
17 Oct 1853 - 22 Jun 1862  Nobuchika Naito                    (b. 1813 - d. 1874) 
18 Sep 1855 -  2 Aug 1858  Mosayoshi Hotta                    (b. 1810 - d. 1864)
 2 Aug 1858 - 21 Aug 1859  Suketomo Ota (1st time)            (b. 1799 - d. 1867)
 2 Aug 1858 - 16 Jan 1860  Akikatsu Manabe                    (b. 1802 - d. 1884)
 2 Aug 1858 - 17 Jun 1860  Noriyasu Matsudaira (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 6 Feb 1860 -  9 May 1862  Nobumasa Ando                      (b. 1819 - d. 1871)
21 Apr 1860 - 28 Jun 1862  Hirochika Kuze                     (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
11 Aug 1860 - 13 Apr 1862  Tadamoto Honda                     (b. 1817 - d. 1883)
 7 Feb 1861 - 17 Oct 1863  Nobuyoshi Matsudaira               (d. 1866) 
13 Apr 1862 - 30 Jul 1866  Tadakiyo Mizuno                    (b. 1832 - d. 1884)
13 Apr 1862 - 21 Jul 1864  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
19 Jun 1862 - 28 Oct 1862  Yasuyori Wakisaka                  (b. 1809 - d. 1874)
 2 Nov 1862 - 24 Jul 1863  Nagamichi Ogasawara                (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
30 Nov 1862 - 13 Aug 1864  Masanao Inoue                      (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
13 Jun 1863 - 29 Jun 1863  Suketomo Ota (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1863 - 21 Jul 1864  Tadatsugu Sakai                    (b. 1827 - d. 1895)
18 Aug 1863 - 17 May 1864  Michizumi Arima                    (b. 1837 - d. 1903)
25 Oct 1863 - 13 May 1865  Tadayasu Makino                    (b. 1824 - d. 1878)
16 May 1864 -  5 May 1865  Masakuni Inaba                     (b. 1834 - d. 1898)
27 Jul 1864 - 18 Nov 1865  Masato Abe                         (b. 1828 - d. 1887)
 1 Aug 1864 - 13 May 1865  Tadamasa Suwa (acting)             (b. 1821 - d. 1898)
                             (acting to 24 Aug 1864)
18 Sep 1864 -  3 Sep 1866  Munehide Matsudaira                (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
11 Nov 1864 -  4 Feb 1866  Tadamoto Honda                     (b. 1830 - d. 1883)
 8 Aug 1864 - 18 Nov 1865  Takahiro Matsumae (acting)         (b. 1829 - d. 1866)
                             (acting to 8 Dec 1864)
 6 May 1865 -  3 Dec 1865  Yasunao Matsudaira (1st time)      (b. 1830 - d. 1904)
23 Oct 1865 - 12 Nov 1866  Nagamichi Ogasawara (acting)       (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
                             (acting to 26 Nov 1865)
 9 Dec 1865 - 22 Feb 1868  Katsukiyo Itakura                  (b. 1823 - d. 1889)
27 Dec 1865 - 27 Feb 1868  Yasunao Matsudaira (2nd time)      (s.a.)
12 Jan 1866 - 18 Jul 1867  Masanao Inoue                      (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
26 May 1866 - 14 Mar 1868  Masakuni Inaba                     (b. 1834 - d. 1898)
30 Jul 1866 - 27 Feb 1868  Norikata Matsudaira (acting)       (b. 1839 - d. 1910)
22 Aug 1866 -  4 Dec 1866  Tadanobu Mizuno                    (b. 1834? - d. ....) 
15 Dec 1866 -  2 Mar 1868  Nagamichi Ogasawara                (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
21 Jan 1867 - 25 Feb 1868  Masami Inaba (acting)              (b. 1815 - d. 1879)
20 Oct 1867 - 14 Nov 1867  Sadaaki Matsudaira                 (b. 1847 - d. 1908)
 9 Jan 1868 -  2 Mar 1868  Masatada Okouchi                   (b. 1844 - d. 1901)
24 Jan 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Tadatoshi Sakai                    (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
 3 Feb 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Taneyuki Tachibana (acting)        (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
Kampaku (Imperial Chief Advisers)
16 May 1689 - 21 Feb 1690  Kaneteru Ichijo                    (b. 1652 - d. 1705)
21 Feb 1690 -  1 Mar 1703  Motohiro Konoe                     (b. 1648 - d. 1722)
 1 Mar 1703 - 20 Dec 1707  Kanehiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1660 - d. 1725)
20 Dec 1707 - 28 Sep 1712  Iehiro Konoe                       (b. 1667 - d. 1736)
28 Sep 1712 - 28 Feb 1722  Sukezane Kujo                      (b. 1669 - d. 1730)
28 Feb 1722 - 30 Jun 1726  Tsunahira Nijo                     (b. 1672 - d. 1732)
30 Jun 1726 -  1 Oct 1736  Iehisa Konoe                       (b. 1687 - d. 1737)
 1 Oct 1736 - 28 Aug 1737  Yoshitada Nijo                     (b. 1689 - d. 1737)
23 Sep 1737 - 25 Jan 1747  Kaneyoshi Ichijo                   (b. 1693 - d. 1751)
25 Jan 1747 -  3 May 1757  Michiyoshi Ichijo                  (b. 1722 - d. 1769)
 3 May 1757 -  6 Mar 1778  Uchisaki Konoe                     (b. 1728 - d. 1785)
 6 Mar 1778 - 18 Apr 1787  Naozane Kujo                       (b. 1717 - d. 1787)
18 Apr 1787 - 17 Sep 1791  Sukehira Takatsukasa               (b. 1739 - d. 1813)
17 Sep 1791 - 25 Nov 1795  Teruyoshi Ichijo                   (b. 1756 - d. 1795)
26 Dec 1795 - 28 Oct 1814  Masahiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
28 Oct 1814 - 29 Apr 1823  Tadayoshi Ichijo                   (b. 1774 - d. 1832)
29 Apr 1823 –  6 Sep 1856  Masamichi Takatsukasa              (b. 1789 – d. 1868)
 6 Sep 1856 – 19 Jul 1862  Hisatada Kujo                      (b. 1798 – d. 1871)
19 Jul 1862 – 12 Mar 1863  Tadahiro Konoe                     (b. 1808 – d. 1898)
12 Mar 1863 – 31 Jan 1864  Sukehiro Takatsukasa               (b. 1807 – d. 1878)
31 Jan 1864 –  3 Jan 1868  Nariyuki Nijo                      (b. 1816 – d. 1878)
Sosai (president of government)
 1 Jan 1868 - 11 Jun 1868  Prince Taruhito                    (b. 1835 - d. 1895)
U Daijin (Ministers to the Right [acting chief ministers])
11 Jun 1868 - 15 Aug 1871  Sanetomi Sanjo                     (b. 1849 - d. 1891)
11 Jun 1868 - 13 Jun 1868  Tomomi Iwakura (1st time)          (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
15 Jun 1868 - 27 Feb 1868  Tomomi Iwakura (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Chief minister (Daijin)
15 Aug 1871 - 22 Dec 1885  Sanetomi Sanjo                     (s.a.)               Non-party
                            (from 7 Jul 1884, Duke Sanetomi Sanjo)
                            (minister to 13 Sep 1871)
Prime ministers²
22 Dec 1885 - 30 Apr 1888  Marquess Hirobumi Ito (1st time)   (b. 1841 - d. 1909)  Non-party
30 Apr 1888 - 24 Dec 1889  Count Kiyotaka Kuroda              (b. 1840 - d. 1900)  Non-party
24 Dec 1889 -  6 May 1891  Duke Aritomo Yamagata (1st time)   (b. 1838 - d. 1922)  Non-party
 6 May 1891 -  8 Aug 1892  Duke Masayoshi Matsukata (1st time)(b. 1835 - d. 1924)  Non-party
 8 Aug 1892 - 18 Sep 1896  Marquess Hirobumi Ito (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jan 1898  Duke Masayoshi Matsukata (2nd time)(s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jan 1898 - 30 Jun 1898  Marquess Hirobumi Ito (3rd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Jun 1898 -  8 Nov 1898  Marquess Shigenobu Okuma (1st time)(b. 1838 - d. 1922)  Non-party 
 8 Nov 1898 - 10 Oct 1900  Duke Aritomo Yamagata (2nd time)   (s.a.)               Non-party
10 Oct 1900 -  2 Jun 1901  Marquess Hirobumi Ito (4th time)   (s.a.)               FC
 2 Jun 1901 -  7 Jan 1906  Duke Taro Katsura (1st time)       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)  Non-party
 7 Jan 1906 - 14 Jul 1908  Duke Kimmochi Saionji (1st time)   (b. 1849 - d. 1940)  FC
14 Jul 1908 - 30 Aug 1911  Duke Taro Katsura (2nd time)       (s.a.)               Non-party
30 Aug 1911 - 19 Dec 1912  Duke Kimmochi Saionji (2nd time)   (s.a.)               FC
19 Dec 1912 - 12 Feb 1913  Duke Taro Katsura (3rd time)       (s.a.)               CA
12 Feb 1913 - 15 Apr 1914  Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (1st time)(b. 1852 - d. 1933)  Mil
15 Apr 1914 -  9 Oct 1916  Marquess Shigenobu Okuma (2nd time)(s.a.)               CN
 9 Oct 1916 - 29 Sep 1918  Count Masatake Terauchi            (b. 1852 - d. 1919)  Mil
29 Sep 1918 -  4 Nov 1921  Takashi Hara                       (b. 1856 - d. 1921)  FC
 4 Nov 1921 - 13 Nov 1921  Count Yasuya Uchida (1st time)     (b. 1865 - d. 1936)  Non-party
                             (acting)
13 Nov 1921 - 12 Jun 1922  Korekiyo Takahashi (1st time)      (b. 1854 - d. 1936)  FC
12 Jun 1922 - 24 Aug 1923  Tomosaburo Kato                    (b. 1859 - d. 1923)  Mil
26 Aug 1923 - 12 Sep 1923  Count Yasuya Uchida (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
                             (acting)
12 Sep 1923 -  5 Jan 1924  Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil
 5 Jan 1924 - 11 Jun 1924  Viscount Keigo Kiyoura             (b. 1850 - d. 1942)  Non-party
11 Jun 1924 - 27 Jan 1926  Baron Takaaki Kato                 (b. 1860 - d. 1926)  CP
                             (from 1925, Count Takaaki Kato) 
30 Jan 1926 - 19 Apr 1927  Reijiro Wakatsuki (1st time)       (b. 1866 - d. 1949)  CP
19 Apr 1927 -  2 Jul 1929  Baron Giichi Tanaka                (b. 1863 - d. 1929)  FC
 2 Jul 1929 - 14 Apr 1931  Osachi Hamaguchi                   (b. 1870 - d. 1931)  CD
14 Apr 1931 - 13 Dec 1931  Reijiro Wakatsuki (2nd time)       (s.a.)               CD
13 Dec 1931 - 16 May 1932  Tsuyoshi Inukai                    (b. 1855 - d. 1932)  FC
16 May 1932 - 26 May 1932  Korekiyo Takahashi (2nd time)      (s.a.)               FC
                             (acting) 
26 May 1932 -  8 Jul 1934  Viscount Makoto Saito              (b. 1858 - d. 1936)  Mil
 8 Jul 1934 -  9 Mar 1936  Keisuke Okada                      (b. 1862 - d. 1952)  Mil
 9 Mar 1936 -  2 Feb 1937  Koki Hirota                        (b. 1878 - d. 1948)  Non-party
 2 Feb 1937 -  2 Jun 1937  Senjuro Hayashi                    (b. 1876 - d. 1943)  Mil
 2 Jun 1937 -  4 Jan 1939  Duke Fumimaro Konoe (1st time)     (b. 1891 - d. 1945)  Non-party
 4 Jan 1939 - 29 Aug 1939  Baron Kiichiro Hiranuma            (b. 1867 - d. 1952)  Non-party
29 Aug 1939 - 15 Jan 1940  Nobuyuki Abe                       (b. 1875 - d. 1953)  Mil
15 Jan 1940 - 21 Jul 1940  Mitsumasa Yonai                    (b. 1880 - d. 1948)  Mil
21 Jul 1940 - 18 Oct 1941  Duke Fumimaro Konoe (2nd time)     (s.a.)               IRAA
18 Oct 1941 - 22 Jul 1944  Hideki Tojo                        (b. 1884 - d. 1948)  Mil/IRAA 
22 Jul 1944 -  7 Apr 1945  Kuniaki Koiso                      (b. 1880 - d. 1950)  Mil 
 7 Apr 1945 - 16 Aug 1945  Baron Kantaro Suzuki               (b. 1867 - d. 1948)  Mil/IRAA 
16 Aug 1945 -  8 Oct 1945  Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni        (b. 1887 - d. 1990)  Mil 
 8 Oct 1945 - 20 May 1946  Baron Kijuro Shidehara             (b. 1872 - d. 1951)  Non-party
20 May 1946 - 21 May 1947  Shigeru Yoshida (1st time)         (b. 1878 - d. 1967)  Lib
21 May 1947 - 23 Feb 1948  Tetsu Katayama                     (b. 1887 - d. 1978)  DSP
23 Feb 1948 - 15 Oct 1948  Hitoshi Ashida                     (b. 1887 - d. 1959)  Dem
15 Oct 1948 - 10 Dec 1954  Shigeru Yoshida (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Lib
10 Dec 1954 - 23 Dec 1956  Ichiro Hatoyama                    (b. 1883 - d. 1959)  JD;1955 LDP
23 Dec 1956 - 24 Feb 1957  Tanzan Ishibashi                   (b. 1885 - d. 1973)  LDP
24 Feb 1957 - 18 Jul 1960  Nobusuke Kishi                     (b. 1896 - d. 1987)  LDP
18 Jul 1960 -  9 Nov 1964  Hayato Ikeda                       (b. 1899 - d. 1965)  LDP
 9 Nov 1964 -  6 Jul 1972  Eisaku Sato                        (b. 1901 - d. 1975)  LDP
 6 Jul 1972 -  9 Dec 1974  Kakuei Tanaka                      (b. 1918 - d. 1993)  LDP
 9 Dec 1974 - 24 Dec 1976  Takeo Miki                         (b. 1907 - d. 1988)  LDP
24 Dec 1976 -  7 Dec 1978  Takeo Fukuda                       (b. 1905 - d. 1995)  LDP
 7 Dec 1978 - 12 Jun 1980  Masayoshi Ohira                    (b. 1910 - d. 1980)  LDP
12 Jun 1980 - 17 Jul 1980  Masayoshi Ito (acting)             (b. 1913 - d. 1994)  LDP
17 Jul 1980 - 26 Nov 1982  Zenko Suzuki                       (b. 1911 - d. 2004)  LDP
26 Nov 1982 -  6 Nov 1987  Yasuhiro Nakasone                  (b. 1918)            LDP
 6 Nov 1987 -  2 Jun 1989  Noboru Takeshita                   (b. 1924 - d. 2000)  LDP
 2 Jun 1989 -  9 Aug 1989  Sosuke Uno                         (b. 1922 - d. 1998)  LDP
 9 Aug 1989 -  6 Nov 1991  Toshiki Kaifu                      (b. 1931)            LDP
 6 Nov 1991 -  9 Aug 1993  Kiichi Miyazawa                    (b. 1919 - d. 2007)  LDP
 9 Aug 1993 - 25 Apr 1994  Morihiro Hosokawa                  (b. 1938)            JNP
25 Apr 1994 - 29 Jun 1994  Tsutomu Hata                       (b. 1935)            JRP
29 Jun 1994 - 11 Jan 1996  Tomiichi Murayama                  (b. 1924)            JSP
11 Jan 1996 - 30 Jul 1998  Ryutaro Hashimoto                  (b. 1937 - d. 2006)  LDP
30 Jul 1998 -  5 Apr 2000  Keizo Obuchi                       (b. 1937 - d. 2000)  LDP
 3 Apr 2000 -  5 Apr 2000  Mikio Aoki                         (b. 1934)            LDP
                             (acting for incapacitated Obuchi)
 5 Apr 2000 - 26 Apr 2001  Yoshiro Mori                       (b. 1937)            LDP
26 Apr 2001 - 26 Sep 2006  Junichiro Koizumi                  (b. 1942)            LDP
26 Sep 2006 - 26 Sep 2007  Shinzo Abe (1st time)              (b. 1954)            LDP
26 Sep 2007 - 24 Sep 2008  Yasuo Fukuda                       (b. 1936)            LDP
24 Sep 2008 - 16 Sep 2009  Taro Aso                           (b. 1940)            LDP
16 Sep 2009 -  8 Jun 2010  Yukio Hatoyama                     (b. 1947)            DPJ
 8 Jun 2010 -  2 Sep 2011  Naoto Kan                          (b. 1946)            DPJ
 2 Sep 2011 - 26 Dec 2012  Yoshihiko Noda                     (b. 1957)            DPJ
26 Dec 2012 -              Shinzo Abe (2nd time)              (s.a.)               LDP


Era names (nengo)

23 Oct 1688 - 16 Apr 1704  Genroku
16 Apr 1704 - 11 Jun 1711  Hoei
11 Jun 1711 -  9 Aug 1716  Shotoku
 9 Aug 1716 -  7 Jun 1736  Kyoho
 7 Jun 1736 - 12 Apr 1741  Genbun
12 Apr 1741 -  3 Apr 1744  Kanpo
 3 Apr 1744 -  5 Aug 1748  Enkyo
 5 Aug 1748 - 14 Dec 1751  Kan-en
14 Dec 1751 - 30 Jun 1764  Horeki (or Horyaku)
30 Jun 1764 - 10 Dec 1772  Meiwa
10 Dec 1772 - 25 Apr 1781  An-ei
25 Apr 1781 - 19 Feb 1789  Tenmei
10 Feb 1789 - 19 Mar 1801  Kansei
19 Mar 1801 - 22 Mar 1804  Kyowa
22 Mar 1804 - 26 May 1818  Bunka
26 May 1818 - 23 Jan 1831  Bunsei
23 Jan 1831 -  9 Jan 1845  Tenpo
 9 Jan 1845 -  1 Apr 1848  Koka
 1 Apr 1848 - 15 Jan 1855  Kaei
15 Jan 1855 -  8 Apr 1860  Ansei
 8 Apr 1860 - 29 Mar 1861  Man-en
29 Mar 1861 - 27 Mar 1864  Bunkyu
27 Mar 1864 -  1 May 1865  Genji (or Ganji)
 1 May 1865 - 23 Oct 1868  Keio
23 Oct 1868 - 30 Jul 1912  Meiji
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Taisho
25 Dec 1926 -  8 Jan 1989  Showa
 8 Jan 1989 -              Heisei

[Flag of Ainu People]
 Flag of Ainu People Adopted 1973

 ¹Personal name followed by posthumous style (okurina) in parentheses;
Full style of the Emperor: 
(a) c.672 - 29 Nov 1890: Tenno ("Heavenly Sovereign");
(b) 29 Nov 1890 - 3 May 1947: Dai Nippon Teikoku Tenno ("Sovereign of the Great Japan Empire");
(c) from 3 May 1947: Nippon Koku Tenno ("Sovereign of State of Japan").
(d) the full title of Shoguns was: Seii Taishogun ("Great General of the Army Against
the Barbarians"). 

 ²The Japanese titles of nobility are sometimes translated differently. Translations used here are "prince" for shinno, "duke" for koshaku, "marquess" for koshaku (written with a different character), "count" for hakushaku, "viscount" for shishaku, "baron" for danshaku.

Territorial Disputes: The sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan, and the Habomai group, known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities; Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; China and Taiwan dispute both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and in 23 Nov 2013 China's declaration of an "air defense identification zone" in an area that includes islands and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting. 

Party abbreviations: DPJ = Minshuto (Democratic Party of Japan, center-left, est.1998); LDP = Jiyu-Minshuto (Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, est.1955); SDP = Shakai Minshuto (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, est.1996, former JSP); Mil = Military;
- Former parties - (from May 1932-Aug 1945 the military suspended party government):
CA = Rikken Doshikai (Constitutional Alliance, FC opposition, 1913-1916, merged into CP); 
CP = Kenseikai (Constitutional Party, FC opposition, 1916-1927, merged into CD); CD = Rikken Minseito (Constitutional Democratic Party, liberal, 1927-15 Aug 1940; formerly CP); CN = Rikken Kokuminto (Constitutional Nationalist Party, liberal, FC opposition, 1910-1922); Dem = Minshuto (Democratic Party, right-wing, 1947-1950, merged into People's Democratic Party [Kokumin Minshuto]); DSP = Minshu Shakaito (Democratic Socialist Party, social democratic, split from JSP, 1960-1994, merged into New Frontier Party); FC = Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government, pro-government alliance of bureaucrats and former members of Kenseito, 15 Sep 1900-30 Jun 1940); IRAA = Taisei Yokusankai (Imperial Rule Assistance Association, para-fascist, shintaisei, 12 Oct 1940-13 Jun 1945, state party 1942-1945); JD = Nihon Minshuto (Japan Democratic Party, right-wing, 24 Nov 1954-15 Nov 1955, merged into LDP); JNP = Nihon Shinto (Japan New Party, liberal, split from LDP, 22 May 1992-9 Dec 1994, merged into New Frontier Party); Lib = Jiyuto (Liberal Party, conservative, 1880-1884, 1891-1896, merged into FC; re-est.1945-1955, right-wing, 1945-48 as Japan Liberal Party [Nihon Jiyuto], 1948-50 as Democratic Liberal Party [Minshu Jiyuto], merged into LDP); JRP = Shinseito (Japanese Renewal Party, social liberal, centrist, split from LDP, 23 Jun 1993-10 Dec 1994, merged into New Frontier Party); JSP = Nihon Shakaito (Japan Socialist Party, social democratic, center-left, official English name Social Democratic Party of Japan; 1945-1996, renamed SDP)


Allied Occupation
[Japane Allied
                  Occupation Ensign 1945-1952]
       2 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952
Supreme Commanders and Military governors
 2 Sep 1945 - 11 Apr 1951  Douglas MacArthur (U.S.)           (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
11 Apr 1951 - 28 Apr 1952  Matthew Bunker Ridgway (U.S.)      (b. 1895 - d. 1993)

Commanders-in-chief of the British and Commonwealth Occupation Zone
(subordinated to the Supreme Commanders)
13 Feb 1946 - 24 Jun 1946  John Northcott (Australia)         (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
24 Jun 1946 - Nov 1951     Horace Clement Hugh Robertson      (b. 1894 - d. 1960)
                             (Australia)
Nov 1951 - 28 Apr 1952     William Bridgeford (Australia)     (b. 1894 - d. 1971)



Republic of Ezo

[Japan]

27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  Independent Republic of Ezo in ambiguous secession
                             during war of restoration.
Aug 1869                   Island renamed Hokkaido.

President (sosai)
27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  Takeaki Enomoto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1908)  Mil



Ryukyu Islands 
 
[Ryukyu kingdom
                          flag c.1854-1875 (Japan)]
                    c.1854 - 1875 
 
[Ryukyu Kingdom
                          1875-1879 (Japan)]
              1875 - 11 Mar 1879
 
[US flag]
                   3 Apr 1945 - 15 May 1972 
 

[Okinawa Allied
                          Occupation Civil Ensign (D-ensign) 1950-1967]
          Jun 1950 - 1 Jul 1967
    Allied Occupation Civil Ensign
 
[Okinawa
                          Merchant flag 1967-1972]
     1 Jul 1967 - 22 May 1972
        Okinawa Merchant flag 
 
[Okinawa
                          Prefecture (Japan)]
                Adopted 13 Oct 1972
               Okinawa Prefecture flag 

Map of Okinawa
Capital: Naha
(Shuri 1429-1879;
Urashii/Urasoe
12th cent. - 1406/29)
Hear Local Anthem
Currency: Yen (JPY)
(B-Yen 1948-1958;
and U.S. Dollar [USD] 
1958-1972)
Population: 1,418,698 
(2013)

Note: Since the Kingdom was in ambiguous relations with China and also with Japan, the names are given in their Japanese and their Chinese forms.

....                       Legendary establishment of Kingdom under Tenson/Tiansun dynasty.
605 AD                     Under nominal suzerainty of China, formally from 1372.
1187                       Tenson/Tiansun dynasty deposed.
1296                       Mongol invasion repulsed.
1322 - 1429                Divided into three kingdoms (Nanzan [1337-1429], Hokuzan
                             [1322-1416], and Chuzan).
1429                       Kingdom of Chuzan/Zhongshan (Ryukyu/Liuqiu Islands) under Sho
                             dynasty.
1470                       Second Sho dynasty established by Kanemaru (Sho En).
 5 Apr 1609                Ryukyu islands conquered by Shimazu dynasty daimyo (lord) of
                             Satsuma, Japan; made a vassal of Satsuma (Japan).
1611                       Satsuma annexes the Amami Islands.
14 Oct 1872                Ryukyu han, an autonomous polity associated with Japan.
11 Mar 1879                Annexed by Japan (Okinawa Ken [prefecture]).
 3 Apr 1945                Okinawa occupied by U.S.
 3 Sep 1945                Remaining Japanese forces surrender.
 1 Jul 1946                Four units (Okinawa gun, Amami gun, Miyako gun, Yaeyama gun),
                             under U.S. administration (United States Military Government of
                             the Ryukyu Islands).

15 Dec 1950                Ryukyu under U.S. civil administration (United States Civil
                             Administration of the Ryukyu Islands)(USCAR).
 1 Apr 1951                Ryukyu, nominally part of Japan, under U.S. administration.
25 Dec 1953                Amami Oshima Island group restored to Japan.
21 Nov 1967                Ryukyu Islands (except Okinawa) restored to Japan.
26 Jun 1968                Bonin Islands resotred to Japan.
15 May 1972                Okinawa reverts to Japanese sovereignty as a prefecture.

Kings of Chuzan¹
1187 - 1237                Shunten                            (b. 1166 - d. 1237)
1238 - 1248                Shun Bajunki                       (b. 1185 - d. 1248)
1249 - 1259                Gihon                              (b. c.1206 - d. 1260?)  
1260 - 1299                Eiso (Yingzu) (regent c.1254-1260) (b. 1229 - d. 1299)
1300 - 1308                Taisei                             (b. 1246/66 - d. 1308?)
1309 - 1313                Eiji                               (b. 1268? - d. 1313?)
1314 - 1336                Tamagusuku                         (b. 1296 - d. 1336)
1337 - 1349                Seii                               (b. c.1326 - d. 1449)
1350 - 1395                Satto (Chadu)                      (b. c.1320 - d. 1395)
1396 - 1406                Bunei (Wuning)                     (b. 1356 - d. 1406)
1406 - 1421                Sho Shisho/Shang Sishao            (b. 1354 - d. 1421)
1422 - 1429                Sho Hashi/Shang Bazhi              (b. 1371 - d. 1439)
Kings of Ryukyu¹
1429 -  1 Jun 1439         Sho Hashi/Shang Bazhi              (s.a.)
1440 - 1444                Sho Chu                            (b. 1391 - d. 1444)
1445 - 29 Oct 1449         Sho Shitatsu                       (b. 1408 - d. 1449)
1450 - 1453                Sho Kinpuku                        (b. 1398 - d. 1453)
1454 - 1460                Sho Taikyu                         (b. 1415 - d. 1460)
1461 - 1469                Sho Toku                           (b. 1411 - d. 1469)
1469 - 1476                Sho En/Shang Yen                   (b. 1415 - d. 1476)
1477                       Sho Sen'i/Shang Wei Sun            (b. 1430 - d. 1477)
1477 - 1527                Sho Shin                           (b. 1465 - d. 1527) 
1527 - 1555                Sho Sei/Shang Qing                 (b. 1497 - d. 1555)
1556 -  1 Apr 1572         Sho Gen/Shang Yuan                 (b. 1528 - d. 1572)
1573 - 25 Nov 1588         Sho Ei/Shang Yong                  (b. 1559 - d. 1588)
1589 - 19 Sep 1620         Sho Nei/Shang Ning                 (b. 1564 - d. 1620)
1621 - 22 Jun 1640         Sho Ho/Shang Feng                  (b. 1590 - d. 1640)
1641 - 19 Oct 1647         Sho Ken/Shang Xian                 (b. 1625 - d. 1647)
1648 - 20 Dec 1668         Sho Shitsu                         (b. 1629 - d. 1688)
1669 - 18 Aug 1709         Sho Tei/Shan Jing                  (b. 1645 - d. 1709)
1669 - 1675                Ko Shoken -Regent                  (b. 1617 - d. 1676)
1710 - 16 Aug 1712         Sho Eki/Shang Ben                  (b. 1678 - d. 1712)
1713 - 14 Mar 1752         Sho Kei/Shang Jing                 (b. 1700 - d. 1752) 
1751 - 1752                Sai On -Regent                     (b. 1682 - d. 1761)
1752 - 19 Feb 1794         Sho Boku/Shang Mu                  (b. 1739 - d. 1794)
1795 -  8 Aug 1802         Sho On/Shang Wen                   (b. 1784 - d. 1802)
1803 -  7 Feb 1803         Sho Sei/Shang Cheng                (b. 1800 - d. 1803)
1804 - 1828                Sho Ko/Shang Hao                   (b. 1787 - d. 1839)
1828 - 25 Oct 1847         Sho Iku/Shang Yu                   (b. 1813 - d. 1847)
 8 Jun 1848 - 11 Mar 1879  Sho Tai/Shang Tai                  (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
                             (from 14 Oct 1872 "han-chief") 
Magistrates
27 Mar 1879 - 19 May 1879  Kinashi Seiichiro (acting)         (b. 1845 - d. 1910)
19 May 1879 - 18 May 1881  Nabeshima Naoyoshi                 (b. 1843 - d. 1915) 
18 May 1881 - 22 Apr 1883  Uesugi Mochinori                   (b. 1844 - d. 1919) 
22 Apr 1883 - 21 Dec 1883  Iwamura Michitoshi                 (b. 1840 - d. 1915) 
21 Dec 1883 - 27 Apr 1886  Nishimura Sutezo                   (b. 1843 - d. 1908) 
Governors
27 Apr 1886 - 14 Apr 1887  Osako Sadakiyo                     (b. 1825 - d. 1896) 
14 Apr 1887 - 18 Sep 1888  Fukuhara Minoru                    (b. 1844 - d. 1900) 
18 Sep 1888 - 20 Jul 1892  Maruoka Kanji                      (b. 1836 - d. 1898)
20 Jul 1892 -  6 Apr 1908  Narahara Shigeru                   (b. 1834 - d. 1918)
 6 Apr 1908 -  1 Jun 1913  Hibi Shigeaki                      (b. 1848 - d. 1926) 
 1 Jun 1913 -  9 Jun 1914  Takahasschi Takuya                 (b. 1848 - d. 1935)
 9 Jun 1914 - 28 Apr 1916  Omi Kugoro                         (b. 1874 - d. 19..) 
28 Apr 1916 -  4 May 1916  Otagiri Iwataro                    (b. 1869 - d. 1945) 
                             (did not take office)
 4 May 1916 - 18 Apr 1919  Suzuki Kuniyoshi                   (b. 1871 - d. 1945) 
18 Apr 1919 - 27 May 1921  Kawagoe Sosuke                     (b. 1876 - d. 1954) 
27 May 1921 - 25 Oct 1923  Wada Jun                           (b. 1872 - d. 1947)
25 Oct 1923 - 24 Jun 1924  Iwamoto Ki                         (b. 1879 - d. 1944) 
24 Jun 1924 - 28 Sep 1926  Kamei Mitsumasa                    (b. 1882 - d. 19..)   
28 Sep 1926 -  7 May 1927  Imashuku Tsuguo                    (b. 1884 - d. 1971)
 7 May 1927 - 26 Dec 1928  IIo Tojiro                         (b. 1875 - d. 19..)
26 Dec 1928 -  5 Jul 1929  Hosokawa Chohei                    (b. 1884 - d. 1967)
 5 Jul 1929 - 26 Aug 1930  Moriya Masao                       (b. 1889 - d. 19..) 
26 Aug 1930 - 28 Jun 1935  Ino Jiro                           (b. 1877 - d. 1952) 
28 Jun 1935 - 24 Jun 1938  Kurashige Hisashi                  (b. 1890 - d. 1962) 
24 Jun 1938 -  7 Jan 1941  Fuchigami Fusataro                 (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
 7 Jan 1941 -  1 Jul 1943  Hayakawa Hajime                    (b. 1895 - d. 1970) 
 1 Jul 1943 - 12 Jan 1945  Izumi Shuki                        (b. 1898 - d. 1984)
12 Jan 1945 - 27 Jun 1945  Shimada Akira                      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)
Military governors
 1 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1945  Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.         (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
18 Jun 1945 - 23 Jun 1945  Roy Stanley Geiger (acting)        (b. 1885 - d. 1947) 
23 Jun 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  Joseph Warren Stilwell             (b. 1883 - d. 1946) 
                             (acting to 31 Jul 1945)
Jun 1945 - 23 Apr 1946     Fred Clute Wallace                 (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
                             (Commanding General, Island Command Okinawa)
17 Oct 1945 - 29 Dec 1945  Lawrence A. Lawson                 (b. 1897 - d. 1951)
30 Dec 1945 - 26 Feb 1946  Fremont Byron Hodson               (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
27 Feb 1946 - 21 May 1946  Leo Donovan                        (b. 1895 - d. 1950)
24 May 1946 - 11 May 1948  Frederic Lord Hayden               (b. 1901 - d. 1969) 
12 May 1948 - 30 Sep 1949  William W. Eagles                  (b. 1895 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1949 - 21 Jul 1950  Josef R. Sheetz                    (b. 1895 - d. 1992) 
28 Jul 1950 -  6 Dec 1950  Robert Battey McClure              (b. 1896 - d. 1973) 
 6 Dec 1950 -  9 Dec 1950  Harry B. Sherman (acting)          (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
 9 Dec 1950 - 15 Dec 1950  Robert Sprague Beightler           (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
Governors and Commanders-in-Chief, U.S. Forces Far East (in Tokyo)
15 Dec 1950 - 11 Apr 1951  Douglas MacAuthur                  (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
11 Apr 1951 - 12 May 1952  Matthew Bunker Ridgway             (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
12 May 1952 -  7 Oct 1953  Mark Wayne Clark                   (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
 7 Oct 1953 -  1 Apr 1955  John E. Hull                       (b. 1895 - d. 1975) 
 1 Apr 1955 -  5 Jun 1955  Maxwell Davenport Taylor           (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
 5 Jun 1955 - 30 Jun 1957  Lyman Louis Lemnitzer              (b. 1899 - d. 1988) 
Deputy governors and Commanding Generals Ryukyu Islands Command
15 Dec 1950 - 10 May 1951  Robert Sprague Beightler (1st time)(s.a.)
10 May 1951 -  7 Aug 1951  Harry B. Sherman (acting)          (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1951 - 16 Dec 1952  Robert Sprague Beightler (2nd time)(s.a.)
18 Dec 1952 -  2 Jan 1953  James Malcolm Lewis                (b. 1898 - d. 1954)
 3 Jan 1953 -  4 Mar 1955  David Ayers DePue Ogden            (b. 1897 - d. 1969)
 5 Mar 1955 -  3 Jul 1957  James Edward Moore                 (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
High Commissioners
 4 Jul 1957 - 30 Apr 1958  James Edward Moore                 (s.a.) 
 1 May 1958 - 12 Feb 1961  Donald Prentice Booth              (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
16 Feb 1961 - 31 Jul 1964  Paul Wyatt Caraway                 (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
 1 Aug 1964 - 31 Oct 1966  Albert Watson II                   (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 2 Nov 1966 - 28 Jan 1968  Ferdinand Thomas Unger             (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
28 Jan 1968 - 14 May 1972  James Benjamin Lampert             (b. 1914 - d. 1978)
Civil Administrators
Jun 1955 - 20 Jun 1959     Vonna F. Burger                    (b. 1902 - d. 1999)
 1 Jun 1959 - May 1962     John G. Ondrick                    (b. 1906 - d. 1974)
18 Jul 1962 -  8 Feb 1964  Shannon McCune                     (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
11 Feb 1964 - 10 Jul 1967  Gerald Warner                      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
15 Jul 1967 - 15 Aug 1969  Stanley Sherman Carpenter          (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
21 Aug 1969 - 12 May 1972  Robert A. Fearey                   (b. 1918 - d. 2004)
 

Regents (Shisshii)
1253 - 1259                Ei So
.... - 1406                Aran Po
1411 - 14..                Tei Fuku
1411 - 14..                O Mo
1428 - ....                Kai Ki
1589 - 1610                Sho Ko                             (b. 1578 - d. 1610)
1611 - 1617                Kiku In
1617 - 1621                Sho Ho                             (s.a.)
                            (from 1621, King Sho Ho/Shang Feng)
1629 - 1654                Sho Sei
1654 - 1666                Sho Jun
1666 - 1675                Ko Shoken                          (s.a.)
1676 - 1686                Sho Koki
1686 - 1688                Sho Ki
1689 – 1705                Sho Kosai
1705 – 1712                Sho Ko                             (b. 1676 - d. 1721)
1712 – 1722                Sho Yu
1722 – 1739                Sho Tetsu
1755 – 1770                Sho Senbo                          (b. 1702 - d. 1787)
1770 – 1785                Sho Wa
1794 – 1797                Sho Zu
1798 – 1802                Sho Shu
1803 – 1816                Sho Tairetsu
 1 Dec 1817 – 1820         Sho Yo                             (b. 1765 - d. 1827)
1822 – 1831                Sho Teihan
1831 – 1832                Sho Kai
1835 – 1852                Sho Genro
1852 – 1861                Sho Ton
1861 – 1872                Sho Kokun
1872 – 1875                Sho Ken
Chief ministers (Sanshikan
)(three ministers serving jointly)
- first line -
1601 - 1605                O Kisho
1606 - 1611                Tei Shu                            (b. 1649 - d. 1611)
1611 - 1623                Mo Hocho
1622 - 1629                Mo Kijin
1629 - 1643                Ba Shoren
1643 - 1652                Ba Kami
1652 - 1666                Ko Kokuyo
1666 - 1675                Mo Kokuto
1675 - 1683                Ko Bizai
1683 - 1696                O Jigi
1696 - 1702                Ko Seishun
1702 - 1712                Mo Kiryu
1712 - 1721                O Jido
1722 - 1723                Ko Ryuyoku
1723 - 1725                Mo Shosho
1725 - 1735                Mo Jojin
1735 - 1745                Ko Joson
1745 - 1750                Ko Tokuko
1750 - 1752                Mo Kyoken
1752 - 1754                Ba Genretsu
1755 - 1782                Ba Sentetsu
1782 - 1801                Ko Tenyu
1801 - 1805                Ko Bunryu
1805 - 1820                Ba Isai
1821 - 1828                O Koretsu
1828 - 1848                Ba Tokusui
1848 - 1862                Mo Zoko
1862 - 1875                Ko Yuko                            (b. 1823 - d. 1876)
1875 - 1879                Mo Horai
- second line -
.... - 1611                Ko Ritan
1611 - 1624                Mo Hogi
1624 - 1627                Kin Osho
1627 - 1642                Mo Taiun
1643 - 1654                Ko Kokuki
1654 - 1665                Ba Hoki
1665 - 1688                Mo Taiei
1688 - 1693                Mo Kokuzui
1693 - 1694                Ba Teishun
1694 - 1699                Mo Kokusei
1700 - 1710                Ba Teiki
1710 - 1716                Ko Genryo
1716 - 1719                Mo Oho
1720 - 1745                Ko Wasei
1745 - 1755                Ko Kentoku
1755 - 1759                Mo Bunwa
1760 - 1769                Mo Genyoku
1769 - 1796                Ba Kokuki                          (b. 1718 - d. 1797)
1796 - 1798                Ba Kokugi
1798 - 1811                Mo Kokuto
1811 - 1818                Ba Osho
1818 - 1823                O Teito
1823 - 1829                Mo Teikin
1829 - 1835                Ko Teikai
1836 - 1839                Mo Ishin
1839 - 1847                Ba Juchu
1847 - 1858                Mo Kotoku
1858 - 1860                Ko Josui
1869 - 1873                Ko Rinshi
1873 - 1877                Mo Yuhi
1877 - 1879                Ba Kensai
- third line -
.... - ....                Mo Ryukin
.... - 1566                Ba Ryosen
1566 - 1592                Ba Seiei
1592 - 1614                Ba Ryosui                          (b. 1551 - d. 1617)
1614 - 1622                Mo Keiso
1622 - 1635                Ko Kakurei
1636 - 1638                Ko Kakuho
1641 - 1652                Sho Hohiko
1654 - 1670                Ko Seibun
1670 - 1690                Mo Kokuchin
1690 - 1697                Mo Kenryu
1699 - 1710                Mo Tenso
1710 - 1728                Ba Kouzu
1728 - 1752                Sai On                             (s.a.)
1752 - 1765                Ko Ketsu                           (b. 1701 - d. 1766)
1765 - 1778                Ko Hotei
1778 - 1798                Ko Koki
1798 - 1803                Ba Buntan
1803 - 1815                Mo Kokoku
1815 - 1826                Ko Shokun
1826 - 1836                Mo Shitsuko
1836 - 1839                Ko Kan
1840 - 1851                Ko Ryojaku
1852 - 1854                Sho Kokun
1854 - 1857                Ko Toseki
1857 - 1859                Ba Kokusho
1859 - 1871                Ba Choto
1871 - 1872                Mo Juryo
1872 - 1879                Ko Kyoken
Chairman of the Okinawa Advisory Council

20 Aug 1945 - 24 Apr 1946  Koshin Shikiya                     (b. 1884 - d. 1955)  Non-party
Chiefs of the Okinawa Civilian Administration
24 Apr 1946 -  4 Nov 1950  Koshin Shikiya                     (s.a.)               Non-party
 4 Nov 1950 - 31 Mar 1951  Tatsuo Taira                       (b. 1892 - d. 1969)  OST
Chief Executives of the Government
 1 Apr 1951 - 25 Oct 1956  Shuhei Higa                        (b. 1902 - d. 1956)  RDP
                             (provisional to 1 Apr 1952)
25 Oct 1956 - 10 Nov 1959  Jugo Toma (acting to 1 Nov 1956)   (b. 1895 - d. 1971)  Non-party
10 Nov 1959 - 31 Oct 1964  Seisaku Ota                        (b. 1904 - d. 1999)  OLDP
31 Oct 1964 -  1 Dec 1968  Seiho Matsuoka                     (b. 1897 - d. 1989)  OLDP
 1 Dec 1968 - 14 May 1972  Chobyo Yara                        (b. 1902 - d. 1997)  OST
Governors
15 May 1972 - 24 Jun 1976  Chobyo Yara                        (s.a.)               OST
25 Jun 1976 - 23 Nov 1978  Koichi Taira                       (b. 1909 - d. 1982)  OST
21 Jul 1978 - 13 Dec 1978  Takemori Nojima                    (b. 1923)            OST
                             (acting [for Taira to 23 Nov 1978])
13 Dec 1978 -  9 Dec 1990  Junji Nishime                      (b. 1921 - d. 2001)  LDP
10 Dec 1990 -  9 Dec 1998  Masahide Ota                       (b. 1925)            Non-party;
                                                                                   1996 SDP
10 Dec 1998 -  9 Dec 2006  Keiichi Inamine                    (b. 1933)            Non-party
10 Dec 2006 -              Hirokazu Nakaima                   (b. 1939)            Non-party
 

 ¹Full style from 1374: Ryukyu koku Chuzan/Liuqiu guo Zhongshan Wang ("King of Chuzan, Country of Liuqiu [Ryukyu]"). 

Party abbreviations: LDP = Jiyu-Minshuto (Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, est.1955); OST = Okinawa Shakai Taishuto (Okinawa Socialist Masses Party, left-wing, anti-Japan-U.S. security, est.1950); SDP = Shakai Minshuto (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, est.1996, former JSP);
- Former parties: OLDP = Okinawa Jiyu Mishuto Kenren (Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party, conservative, Oct 1959-8 Mar 1970, merged into LDP); RDP = Ryukyu Mishu-to (Ryukyu Democratic Party, conservative, Aug 1952-Oct 1959, then OLDP)



Bonin and Volcano Islands (Ogasawara and Kazan Islands)
 
[US flag]              
              3 Sep 1945 - 29 Jun 1968 
 
Map of Bonin Islands
Capital: Omura
(Port Lloyd 1830-1876)
Population: 2,879 (2013)
71 (1875)

Oct 1543                   Spanish Capt. Rui López de Villalobos discovers the Bonin 
                             Islands.
13 Feb 1670                Japanese merchant seamen shipwrecked on the islands.
 1 May 1675                Japanese survey team arrives.
1727                       According to Ogasawara Sadatou his fictitious ancestor Ogasawara 
                             Sadayori discovers the Bonin Islands in 1593, which he named
                             the Ogasawara Islands (in 1735 Sadatou is convicted for
                             this hoax).
14 Jun 1827                Bonin Islands claimed for Britain by Frederick Beechey
                             which are named Archbishop Islands, Chichi-jima named 
                             Peel Island.
26 Jun 1830                Nathaniel Savory and 24 others settle (under British auspices).
15 Jun 1853                Claimed for U.S. by Commodore Matthew Perry (Colony of Peel Island)
                             claim is repudiated by U.S.
1861 - May 1863            Attempted Japanese colonization.
 3 Dec 1875                British Naval Cmdr. Edmund Church invalidates U.K. annexation.
17 Oct 1876                Bonin Islands annexed by Japan (Ogasawara-gunto).
28 Oct 1880                Bonin Islands incorporated into Tokyo prefecture.
1891                       Iwo Jima and Volcano Islands annexed by Japan (Kazan-retto),
                             part of Tokyo prefecture. 
24 Jul 1898                Japan annexes Marcus Island (Minamitori-shima).
Jun 1944                   Islanders are forced to evacuate to mainland Japan.
23 Feb/26 Mar 1945         Iwo Jima occupied by U.S.
Mar 1945 - 14 Aug 1946     U.S. Naval Advance Air Base Iwo Jima
 3 Sep 1945 - 26 Jun 1968  Bonin Islands occupied by U.S. (Chichi-jima from 10 Oct 1945).
17 Oct 1946                U.S. occupation forces allow islanders of Euro-American descent
                             to return to Chichi-jima.
 1 Mar 1952 - 26 Jun 1968  U.S. Naval Facility Chichi-jima
26 Jun 1968                Bonin and Volcano Islands revert to Japanese sovereignty,
                             part of Tokyo prefecture.
 

Chief Islanders
1830 - 1848                Matteo Mazarro                     (d. 1848)
1848 - 1854                Nathaniel Savory (1st time)(acting)(b. 1794 - d. 1874) 
Magistrate
1854 - 1859                Nathaniel Savory                   (s.a.)
Chief Islander
1859 - 1861                Nathaniel Savory (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Governor
1861 - May 1863            Obana Sakusuke                     (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
Chief Islander
1863 - 10 Apr 1874         Nathaniel Savory (3rd time)        (s.a.)
Chief commissioner

Dec 1876 - Nov 1880        Obana Sakusuke                     (s.a.)
Deputy Military Governors for Bonin and Volcano Islands (on Saipan, then Guam) 
(the Commanders of U.S. Naval Forces Marianas)
1944 - 1945                Chester W. Nimitz                  (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
1945 - Aug 1945            John Howard Hoover                 (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
Aug 1945 - 1946            George Dominic Murray              (b. 1889 - d. 1956)
1946 - Aug 1949            Charles A. Pownall                 (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
Aug 1949 - 1950            Edward C. Ewen                     (b. 1897 - d. 1959)
1950 - 1951                Osborne Bennett Hardison           (b. 1892 - d. 1959)
Jul 1951 - 1954            Ernest W. Litch, Jr.               (b. 1897 - d. 1967)
Feb 1954 - 27 Oct 1955     Marlon E. Murphy
Oct 1955? - 1957           William B. Ammon                   (b. 1902 - d. 1959)
1957                       John M. Mahaffey
1957 - 1960                William L. Erdmann                 (b. 1902 - d. 1961)
17 Jan 1960 - 1961         Waldemar F.A. Wendt                (b. 1912 – d. 1997)
Sep 1961 - Jan 1963        John Starr Coye, Jr.               (b. 1911 - d. 2002)
Jan 1963 - 1964            Thomas A. Christopher              (b. 1911 - d. 1987)
1964 - 1967                Horace Virgil Bird                 (b. 1912 - d. 1984)
1967 - 1968                Carlton B. Jones                   (b. 1909)
1968 - 26 Jul 1968         Richard G. Colbert                 (b. 1915 - d. 1973)
Military Government Representatives for Bonin and Volcano Islands 
(Officer-in-Charge of the Bonins; from 1952, Officers-in-Charge of U.S. Naval 
Facility Chichi-jima) 

10 Oct 1945 - 1946?        Presley M. Rixey                   (b. 1904 - d. 1989)
1947 - 19..                V.B. Hagenbuckle
19.. - 1951                ....  
Apr 1951 - 1952            Frederick A. Pobst                 (b. 1918 - d. 1986)
1952 - 1953                John Kelsey
Jul 1953 - 1955            Clayton E. Frost                   (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
1955 - 1958                Earl Dean Bronson                  (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
1958 - 1965                ....
Dec 1965 - 25 Jul 1968     Dale W. Johnson




Presidents of the Island Council
(incomplete)
1946 - 1948                Frank Gonzales                     (b. 1885? - d. 19..)
May 1948 - 19..            Clark Gonzales
1953                       Jerry Savory
1956                       Richard Washington
1958                       Jerry Savory
1968                       Kazuo Kamata


Deshima
[National flag of the Netherlands]
29 Apr 1600                First Dutch traders arrive in Japan.
20 Sep 1609                Dutch factory (trading post) established at Hirado
                             by the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
24 Jun 1641                Dutch factory is moved to Deshima (Dejima) Island
                             in Nagasaki Bay by order of the Shogun.
31 Dec 1795                End of VOC administration.
28 Feb 1860                Deshima abandoned.

Opperhoofden (Chief factors) at Hirado
20 Sep 1609 - 28 Aug 1612  Jacques Specx (1st time)           (b. 1585 - d. 1652)
28 Aug 1612 -  6 Aug 1614  Hendrick Brouwer                   (b. 1581 - d. 1643)
 6 Aug 1614 - 29 Oct 1621  Jacques Specx (2nd time)           (s.a.)
29 Oct 1621 - 21 Nov 1623  Leonard Camps
21 Nov 1623 - 31 Jan 1633  Cornelis van Nijenrode             (d. 1633)
31 Jan 1633 -  6 Sep 1633  Pieter van Santen
 6 Sep 1633 -  3 Feb 1639  Nicolaes Coeckebacker 
 3 Feb 1639 - 13 Feb 1641  François Caron                     (b. 1600 - d. 1673)
14 Feb 1641 - 24 Jun 1641  Maximiliaan le Maire               (b. 1606 - d. 1654?)
Opperhoofden (Chief factors) at Deshima
24 Jun 1641 - 30 Oct 1641  Maximiliaan le Maire               (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1641 - 29 Oct 1642  Jan van Elserack (1st time)
29 Oct 1642 -  1 Aug 1643  Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater     (b. c.1610 - d. 1682) 
                             (1st time)
 1 Aug 1643 - 24 Nov 1644  Jan van Elserack (2nd time)
24 Nov 1644 - 30 Nov 1645  Pieter Anthoniszoon Overtwater     (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
30 Nov 1645 - 27 Oct 1646  Reinier van't Zum (Tzum)           (b. c.1600 - d. 1670)
28 Oct 1646 - 10 Oct 1647  Willem Verstegen (Versteijen)      (b. 1612 - d. 1659)
 3 Nov 1647 -  9 Dec 1648  Frederick Coyett (1st time)        (b. 1620 - d. 1689)
 9 Dec 1648 -  5 Nov 1649  Dirck Snouck (Snoecq)
 5 Nov 1649 - 25 Oct 1650  Anthony van Brouckhorst
25 Oct 1650 -  1 Nov 1651  Pieter Sterthemius                 (b. 1618? - d. 1676) 
 1 Nov 1651 -  3 Nov 1652  Adriaen van der Burgh              (d. 1668?)
 4 Nov 1652 -  4 Nov 1653  Frederick Coyett (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1563 - 31 Oct 1654  Gabriel Happart                    (d. 1657) 
31 Oct 1654 - 23 Oct 1655  Leonard Winninx                    (b. 1616? - d. 1691)
23 Oct 1655 -  1 Nov 1656  Joan Bouchelion (1st time)
 1 Nov 1656 - 27 Oct 1657  Zacharias Wagenaar (1st time)      (b. 1614 - d. 1688)
27 Oct 1657 - 23 Oct 1568  Joan Bouchelion (2nd time)   
22 Oct 1658 -  4 Nov 1659  Zacharias Wagenaar (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1659 - 26 Oct 1660  Joan Bouchelion (3rd time)   
26 Oct 1660 - 11 Nov 1661  Hendrick Indijck (1st time)        (b. 1615? - d 1664)
11 Nov 1661 -  6 Nov 1662  Dirck van Lier 
 6 Nov 1662 - 20 Oct 1663  Hendrick Indijck (2nd time)        (s.a.)
20 Oct 1663 -  7 Nov 1664  Willem Volger (1st time)           (b. 1602 - d. 1679)
 7 Nov 1664 - 27 Oct 1665  Jacob Gruijs
28 Oct 1665 - 18 Oct 1666  Willem Volger (2nd time)           (s.a.)
18 Oct 1666 -  6 Nov 1667  Daniël Six (1st time)              (b. 1620 - d. 1674)
 6 Nov 1667 - 25 Oct 1668  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (b. 1635 - d. 1714)
25 Oct 1668 - 14 Oct 1669  Daniël Six (2nd time)              (s.a.)
14 Oct 1669 -  2 Nov 1670  François de Haze                   (d. 1676)
 2 Nov 1670 - 12 Nov 1671  Martinus Caesar (1st time)
22 Oct 1671 - 12 Nov 1672  Johannes Camphuys (1st time)       (b. 1634 - d. 1695)
13 Nov 1672 - 29 Oct 1673  Martinus Caesar (2nd time)
29 Oct 1673 - 19 Oct 1674  Johannes Camphuys (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Oct 1674 -  7 Nov 1675  Martinus Caesar (3rd time)
 7 Nov 1675 - 27 Oct 1676  Johannes Camphuys (3rd time)       (s.a.)
27 Oct 1676 - 16 Oct 1677  Dirck de Haas (1st time) 
16 Oct 1677 -  4 Nov 1678  Albert Brevinck (1st time)
 4 Nov 1678 - 24 Oct 1679  Dirck de Haas (2nd time)
24 Oct 1679 - 11 Nov 1680  Albert Brevinck (2nd time)
11 Nov 1680 - 31 Oct 1681  Isaac van Schinne                  (b. 1640 - d. 1686)
31 Oct 1681 - 20 Oct 1682  Hendrick Canzius 
20 Oct 1682 -  8 Nov 1683  Andreas Clyer (Cleijer)(1st time)  (b. 1634 - d. 1698)
 8 Nov 1683 - 25 Oct 1684  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (b. 1635 - d. 1714) 
                             (1st time)
25 Oct 1684 -  7 Oct 1685  Hendrick van Buytenhem (1st time)
17 Oct 1685 -  5 Nov 1686  Andreas Clyer (Cleijer)(2nd time)  (s.a.)
 5 Nov 1686 - 25 Oct 1687  Constantin Ranst de Jonge          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
25 Oct 1687 - 13 Oct 1688  Hendrick van Buytenhem (2nd time)
13 Oct 1688 -  1 Nov 1689  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (b. 1635 - d. 1708)
                             (1st time)
 1 Nov 1689 - 21 Oct 1690  Balthasar Sweers
21 Oct 1690 -  9 Nov 1691  Hendrick van Buytenhem (3rd time)
 9 Nov 1691 - 29 Oct 1692  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

29 Oct 1692 - 19 Oct 1693  Hendrick van Buytenhem (4th time)
19 Oct 1693 -  7 Nov 1694  Gerrit de Heere
 7 Nov 1694 - 27 Oct 1695  Hendrik Dijkman (1st time)
27 Oct 1695 - 15 Oct 1696  Cornelis Corneliszoon van Outhoorn (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)

15 Oct 1696 -  3 Nov 1697  Hendrik Dijkman (3rd time)
 3 Nov 1697 - 23 Oct 1698  Pieter de Vos (1st time)
23 Oct 1698 - 12 Oct 1699  Hendrik Dijkman (3rd time)
21 Oct 1699 - 31 Oct 1700  Pieter de Vos (2nd time)
31 Oct 1700 - 21 Oct 1701  Hendrik Dijkman (4th time)
21 Oct 1701 - 30 Oct 1702  Abraham Douglas
 9 Nov 1702 - 30 Oct 1703  Ferdinand de Groot (1st time)
30 Oct 1703 - 18 Oct 1704  Gideon Tant
18 Oct 1704 -  6 Nov 1705  Ferdinand de Groot (2nd time)
 6 Nov 1705 - 26 Oct 1706  Hermanus Menssingh (1st time)
26 Oct 1706 - 15 Oct 1707  Ferdinand de Groot (3rd time)
15 Oct 1702 -  2 Nov 1708  Hermanus Menssingh (2nd time)
 2 Nov 1708 - 22 Oct 1709  Jasper van Mansdale
22 Oct 1709 - 10 Nov 1710  Hermanus Menssingh (3rd time)
10 Nov 1710 - 31 Oct 1711  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (1st time)
31 Oct 1711 - 20 Oct 1712  Cornelis Lardijn (1st time)
20 Oct 1712 -  7 Nov 1713  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1713 - 27 Oct 1714  Cornelis Lardijn (2nd time)
27 Oct 1714 - 19 Oct 1715  Nicolaas Joan van Hoorn (3rd time)
19 Oct 1715 -  3 Nov 1716  Gideon Boudaen
 3 Nov 1716 - 24 Oct 1717  Joan Aouwer (1st time)
24 Oct 1717 - 13 Oct 1718  Christiaen van Vrijbergen
13 Oct 1718 - 21 Oct 1720  Joan Aouwer (2nd time)
21 Oct 1720 -  9 Nov 1721  Roeloff Diodati                    (b. 1658 - d. 1723)
 9 Nov 1721 - 18 Oct 1723  Hendrik Durven
18 Oct 1723 - 25 Oct 1725  Johannes Thedens                   (b. 1680 - d. 1748)
25 Oct 1725 - 15 Oct 1726  Joan de Hartogh
15 Oct 1726 -  3 Nov 1727  Pieter Boeckestijn (1st time)
 3 Nov 1727 - 20 Oct 1728  Abraham Minnedonk (1st time)
22 Oct 1728 - 12 Oct 1729  Pieter Boockestijn (2nd time)
12 Oct 1729 - 31 Oct 1730  Abraham Minnedonk (2nd time)
31 Oct 1730 -  7 Nov 1732  Pieter Boeckestijn (2nd time)
 7 Nov 1732 - 27 Oct 1733  Hendrik van de Bel
27 Oct 1733 - 16 Oct 1734  Rogier de Laver                    (b. 1701 - d. 1755)
16 Oct 1734 -  4 Nov 1735  David Drinckman
 4 Nov 1735 - 24 Oct 1736  Bernardus Coop à Groen
24 Oct 1736 - 13 Oct 1737  Jan van der Cruijsse
13 Oct 1737 - 21 Oct 1739  Gerardus Bernardus Visscher
22 Oct 1739 -  8 Nov 1740  Thomas van Rhee (1st time)
 9 Nov 1740 - 28 Oct 1741  Jacob van der Waeijen (1st time)
29 Oct 1741 - 17 Oct 1742  Thomas van Rhee (2nd time)
17 Oct 1742 -  5 Nov 1743  Jacob van der Waeijen (2nd time)
 5 Nov 1743 -  1 Nov 1744  David Brouwer
 2 Nov 1744 - 28 Dec 1745  Jacob van der Waeijen (3rd time)
30 Dec 1745 -  2 Nov 1746  Jan Louis de Win (1st time)
 3 Nov 1746 - 25 Oct 1747  Jacob Balde (1st time)
28 Oct 1747 - 11 Nov 1748  Jan Louis de Win (2nd time)
12 Nov 1748 -  8 Dec 1749  Jacob Balde (2nd time)
 8 Dec 1749 - 24 Dec 1750  Hendrik van Homoet (1st time)
25 Dec 1750 - 18 Nov 1751  Abraham van Suchtelen              (b. 1710 - d. 1760) 
19 Nov 1751 -  5 Dec 1752  Hendrik van Homoet (2nd time)
 6 Dec 1752 - 15 Oct 1753  David Boelen (1st time)            (d. 1775)
16 Oct 1753 -  3 Nov 1754  Hendrik van Homoet (3rd time)
 4 Nov 1754 - 25 Oct 1755  David Boelen (2nd time)            (s.a.)
25 Oct 1755 - 12 Oct 1756  Herbert Vermeulen (1st time)       (b. 1738 - d. 1783)
13 Oct 1756 - 31 Oct 1757  David Boelen (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1757 - 11 Nov 1758  Herbert Vermeulen (2nd time)       (s.a.)
12 Nov 1758 - 11 Nov 1760  Johannes Reijnouts (1st time)
12 Nov 1760 - 30 Oct 1761  Marten Huijshoorn
31 Oct 1761 -  2 Dec 1762  Johannes Reijnouts (2nd time)
 2 Dec 1762 -  6 Nov 1763  Frederik Willem Wineke (1st time)
 7 Nov 1763 - 24 Oct 1764  Jan Crans (1st time)
25 Oct 1764 -  7 Nov 1765  Frederik Willem Wineke (2nd time)
 8 Nov 1765 - 31 Oct 1766  Jan Crans (2nd time)
 1 Nov 1766 - 20 Oct 1767  Herman Christiaan Kastens
21 Oct 1767 -  8 Nov 1769  Jan Crans (3rd time)
 9 Nov 1769 - 16 Nov 1770  Olphert Elias
17 Nov 1770 -  9 Nov 1771  Daniel Armenault (1st time)
10 Nov 1771 -  3 Nov 1772  Arend Willem Feith (1st time)      (b. 1745 - d. 1782)
 4 Nov 1772 - 22 Nov 1773  Daniel Armenault (2nd time)
23 Nov 1773 - 10 Nov 1774  Arend Willem Feith (2nd time)      (s.a.)
11 Nov 1774 - 28 Oct 1775  Daniel Armenault (3rd time)
28 Oct 1775 - 22 Nov 1776  Arend Willem Feith (3rd time)      (s.a.)
23 Nov 1776 - 11 Nov 1777  Hendrik Godfried Duurkoop          (b. 1736 - d. 1778)
12 Nov 1777 - 28 Nov 1779  Arend Willem Feith (4th time)      (s.a.)
29 Nov 1779 -  5 Nov 1780  Isaac Titsingh (1st time)          (b. 1745 - d. 1812)
 6 Nov 1780 - 23 Nov 1781  Arend Willem Feith (5th time)
24 Nov 1781 - 26 Oct 1783  Isaac Titsingh (2nd time)          (s.a.)
27 Oct 1783 - Aug 1784     Hendrik Caspar Romberg (1st time)  (b. 1741 - d. ....)
Aug 1784 - 30 Nov 1784     Isaac Titsingh (3rd time)          (s.a.)
30 Nov 1784 - 22 Nov 1785
 Hendrik Caspar Romberg (2nd time)  (s.a.)
22 Nov 1785 - 20 Nov 1786  Johan Frederik, baron van Rheede   (b. 1757 - d. 1802) 
                             tot de Parkelaar (1st time)
21 Nov 1786 - 30 Nov 1787  Hendrik Caspar Romberg (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1787 -  1 Aug 1789  Johan Frederik, baron van Rheede   (s.a.) 
                             tot de Parkelaar (2nd time)
 1 Aug 1789 - 13 Nov 1790  Hendrik Caspar Romberg (4th time)  (s.a.)
13 Nov 1790 - 13 Nov 1792  Petrus Theodorus Chasszoon
13 Nov 1792 -  8 Jul 1798  Gijsbert Hemmy                     (b. 1746 - d. 1798)
 8 Jul 1798 - 16 Jul 1800  Leopold Willem Ras (acting)        (d. 1847)
16 Jul 1800 - 14 Nov 1803  Willem Wardenaar                   (b. 1764 - d. 1818)
14 Nov 1803 -  6 Dec 1817  Hendrik Doeff                      (b. 1764 - d. 1837)
 6 Dec 1817 - 20 Nov 1823  Jan Cock Blomhoff                  (b. 1779 - d. 1853)
20 Nov 1823 -  4 Aug 1826  Johan Willem de Sturler            (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
 4 Aug 1826 -  1 Nov 1830  Germain Felix Meijlan              (b. 1785 - d. 1831)
 1 Nov 1830 - 30 Nov 1834  Jan Willem Frederik van Citters    (b. 1785 - d. 1836)
 1 Dec 1834 - 17 Nov 1838  Johannes Erdewin Niemann
18 Nov 1838 - Nov 1842     Eduard Grandisson
Nov 1842 - 31 Oct 1845     Pieter Albert Bik                  (b. 1798 - d. 1855)
 1 Nov 1845 - 31 Oct 1850  Joseph Henri Levyssohn             (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
 1 Nov 1850 - 31 Oct 1852  Frederik Cornelis Rose             (b. 1808 - d. 1880)
 2 Nov 1852 - 28 Feb 1860  Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius         (b. 1813 - d. 1879)
                             (from 1858, Government Commissioner)


Hirado English Post

1613 - 1623                English trading post at Hirado. 

Director
1613 - 1623                Richard Cocks                      (b. 1566 - d. 1624)


Nagasaki Portuguese Post

1571 - May 1639            Portuguese trading post at Nagasaki (from 1636 only Deshima).
 9 Jun 1580 - 24 Jul 1587  Nagasaki ceded to the Portuguese Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
                             by local
daimyo Omura Sumitada (b. 1533 - d. 1587).

Vice-Provincials of Nagasaki
 9 Jun 1580 - 1581         Francisco Cabral                   (b. 1529 - d. 1609)
1581 - 24 Jul 1587         Gaspar Coelho                      (b. c.1529 - d. 1590)
Captains-major
(captains of the annual Macau to Japan voyages)
1571 - 1624                the captains-major of Macau
1624 - 1625                Agostinho Lobo
1626                       Lu
ís Paes Pacheco
1627                       no voyage
1628                       Ant
ónio Monteiro
1629                       Ant
ónio de Oliveira Aranha
1630                       no voyage
1631                       L
ourenço de Lis Velho
1632 - 1634                Lopo Sarmento de Carvalho          (d. 1645)
1635                       no voyage
1636                       Gon
çalo da Silveira
1637                       Francisco de Castelo Branco
1638                       Jo
ão Pereira
1639                       Vasco Palha de Almeida







© Ben Cahoon