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Mongolia
 
Mongolia
                                      (Bogd Haan State) 1912  
  1 Dec 1911 - 19 Feb 1920, 3 Feb - 13 Mar 1921

[1912
                                    Flag of Republic of China]
            19 Feb 1920 - 3 Feb 1921 

[Flag
                                    of Mongolian Provisional People's
                                    Government 1921-1924]
           13 Mar 1921 - 26 Nov 1924

[Monglian flag, 1924-40]
                    26 Nov 1924 - 30 Jun 1940 
 
[Flag
                                    of Mongolia, 1940-1992]
                     30 Jun 1940 - 12 Feb 1992 
 
[Flag of
                                    Mongolia]
                       Adopted 12 Feb 1992
 
Map of Mongolia Hear National Anthem
 "Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
Adopted 1950
Former National Anthem
"Mongol Intyörnatsional" (Mongol Internationale)
(1924-1950)
Constitution
 (12 Feb 1992)
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
(Niyslel Hüree 1911-26 Nov 1924;
Yihe Hüree 1706-1911;
Örgöö [Urga] 1639-1706;
Karakorum 1235-1380)
Currency: Togrog/Tugrik
(MNT) 
National Holiday: 11 Jul (1921)
Independence Day
(Revolution Day)
Population: 2,912,192 (2013)
GDP: $17.03 billion (2013)
Exports: $4.29 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.69 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Mongol 90.6% (of which Khalkha 81.9%,
Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%,
Dariganga 1%, Zakhchin 1.2%), Kazakh 3.8%,
Uriankhai (Tuvan) 1%, others  (including
Chinese and Russian) 4.6% (2010)
Total Active Armed Forces: 10,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 57 (2010)
Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist
2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, ARF, BTWC, CICA, CIS (observer), CP, CTBT, CWC, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, Intersputnik, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, OSCE, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNCLOS, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Mongolia
Index
Chronology

1203                       Genghis Khan (b. 1162 - d. 1227) unites the 
                             Mongolian tribes.
1368                       Mongols are expelled from China.
1411                       Mongolia disintegrates into feudal entities. 
1577                       Mongolia adopts Tibetan Buddhism.
1640                       Ikh Tsaaz (Grand Code) the ancient Mongolian
                             constitution is written.
1639                       The son of the Mongol Khan is named a Living
                             Buddha (Bogdo gegeen); an alliance of Buddhist
                             theocracy and secular aristocracy rule begins.
May 1691                   Khalkha Mongols subjected¹ to Chinese Empire
                             from this point also called Outer Mongolia.
23 Aug 1727                Treaty of Kyakhta between Russia and China
                             established the northern border of Mongolia.
16/29 Dec 1911             Mongolia declares independence from China
                             (Bogd Khaan State).
 3 Nov 1912                Mongolian-Russian agreement affirms Mongolian
                             autonomy and establishes a Russian protectorate.
 5 Nov 1913                Sino-Russian accord recognizes Chinese suzerainty
                             over Mongolia. China recognizes Outer Mongolia
                             internal autonomy.
25 May 1915                China, Russia and Mongolia sign the Treaty of
                             Kyakhta formally establishes Mongolian autonomy.
1918 - 1922                Nomunkhan Dambiyjantsan (b. 1863 - d. 1923) leads
                             rebellion around Khovd (Kobdo) province.
29 Oct 1919 -  4 Feb 1921  Chinese occupation (remainder exist 2 Apr 1921).
17 Nov 1919                Resumption of Chinese sovereignty recognized 
                             by the Bogd Khaan (effective 2 Jan 1920).
 2 Jan 1920 - 15 Feb 1921  Re-annexation by China.
 
4 Feb 1921 -  6 Jun 1921  "White" Russian forces under Baron Roman von
                             Ungern-Sternberg (b. 1885 - d. 1921), commander
                             of the asiatic cavalry force Chinese forces out
                             of Mongolia and restore the
Bogd Khaan.
15 Feb 1921                Mongolia (Bogd Khaan State) restored.
13 Mar 1921 - 11 Jul 1921  Mongolian Provisional People's Government formed
                             in opposition to occupation.
14 Aug 1921                Independence declared by Tannu Tuva.
25 Nov 1924                Mongolian People's Republic
 5 Jan 1946                Independence formally recognized by China.
12 Feb 1992                Mongolian State

Exile
Government

(1921)
Tibetan Buddhist
Mongolia
(Bogdo gegeen)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Chairmen of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party (MAN)(from Aug 1924,
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party [
MAKN])
 3 Mar 1921 - Sep 1921     Soliyn Danzan                      (b. 1884 - d. 1924)
Sep 1921 -  7 Jan 1922     Dogsomyn Bodoo                     (b. 1885 - d. 1922)
15 Mar 1922 -  2 Jan 1923  Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj (1st time)(b. 1899 - d. 1934)
 2 Jan 1923 - 31 Aug 1924  Ajvaagiyn Danzan                   (b. 1895 - d. 1932)
31 Aug 1924 - Oct 1928     Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj (2nd time)(s.a.)
Secretaries of the Central Committee of the MAKN (jointly)
11 Dec 1928 - 30 Jun 1932  Ölziytiyn Badrah                   (b. 1895 - d. 1941)
11 Dec 1928 - 13 Mar 1930  Bat-Ochiryn Eldev-Ochir (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 1937)
11 Dec 1928 - 30 Jun 1932  Peljidiyn Genden                   (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
13 Mar 1930 - 30 Jun 1932  Zolbingiyn Shijee                  (b. 1901 - d. 1941)
30 Jun 1932 - 1937         Bat-Ochiryn Eldev-Ochir (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Jun 1932 - 1933         Jambyn Lhümbe                      (b. 1902 - d. 1934)
30 Jun 1932 - 1937         Dorgijavyn Luvsansharav            (b. 1900 - d. 1941)
 5 Oct 1934 - 15 Aug 1936  Has-Ochiryn Luvsandorj             (b. 1910 - d. 1937)
 7 Oct 1936 - 22 Feb 1940  Banzarjavyn Baasanjav              (b. 1906 - d. 1940)
 4 Jul 1939 -  8 Apr 1940  Dashiyn Damba                      (b. 1908 - d. 1989)
General Secretaries of the Central Committee of the MAKN
 8 Apr 1940 -  4 Apr 1954  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (1st time)    (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 4 Apr 1954 - 22 Nov 1958  Dashiyn Damba (first secretary)    (s.a.)
22 Nov 1958 - 24 Aug 1984  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                            (first secretary to 30 May 1981)
24 Aug 1984 - 14 Mar 1990  Jambyn Batmönh                     (b. 1926 - d. 1997)
14 Mar 1990 - 13 Apr 1990  Gombojavyn Ochirbat                (b. 1929)
                            ("leading role" of the party abolished 23 Mar 1990)

Spiritual Leaders (title Bogdo gegeen
(Mongolian and ceremonial Tibetan-language names)
1635 - 1723                Zanabazar Öndur gegeen             (d. 1723)
                             Luvsadambiyjaltsan
                            (Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-rgyal-mtshan)
1724 - 1757                Luvsandambiydonmi                  (d. 1757)
                            (Blo-bzang-bstan-pa'i-srgon-me)
1758 - 1773                Ishdambiynyam                      (d. 1773)
                            (Ye-shes-bstan-pa'i-nyi-ma)
1775 - 1813                Luvsantüvdenvanchug                (d. 1813)
                            (Blo-bzang-thub-bstan-dbang-phyug)
1815 - 1841                Luvsanchültimjigmed                (d. 1841)
                            (Blo-bzang-tshul-khrim-'jigs-med)
1843 - 1848                Luvsantüvdenchoyjijaltsan          (d. 1848)
                            (Blo-bzang-dpal-ldan-bstan-pa)
1850 - 1868                Agvaanchoyjivanchugperenlaijamts   (b. 1849 - d. 1868)
                            (Ngag-dbang-chos-kyi-dbang-phyug-
                            'phrin-las-rgya-mtsho)
1870 -  1 Dec 1911         Agvaanluvsanchoyjindanzanvaanchigbalsambuu
                            (Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-chos-rje-
                             nyi-ma-bstan-'dzin-dbang-phyug
                             rJe-btsun-dam-pa Bla-ma)         (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
                            (from 1 Dec 1911, Bogd Khaan)
Bogd Khaan (reincarnated lama ruler)2
16/29 Dec 1911- 2 Jan 1920 Jabzandamba Khutagt Bogd Gegeen    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Ezen Khaan (1st time) 
                          
era name (nianhao): Olnoo örgögdsön
Chinese Governors-general

 1 Dec 1919 - 1920         Xu Shuzheng (Hsü Shu-cheng)        (b. 1880 - d. 1925)
14 Aug 1920 -  4 Feb 1921  Chen Yi (Ch'en Yi)                 (d. 1925)
Bogd Khaan (reincarnated lama ruler)2
15 Feb 1921 - 20 May 1924  Jabzandamba Khutagt Bogd Gegeen    (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Ezen Khaan (2nd time)
                           era name: Olnoo örgögdsön
Acting head of state

20 May 1924 - 28 Nov 1924  Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse         (b. 1868 - d. 1928)  MAKN
Chairman of the State Great Hural
28 Nov 1924 - 29 Nov 1924  Navaandorjiyn Jadambaa             (b. 1900 - d. 1939)  MAKN
Chairmen of the Presidium of the State Little Hural
29 Nov 1924 - 15 Nov 1927  Peljidiyn Genden                   (s.a.)               MAKN
16 Nov 1927 - 23 Jan 1929  Jamtsangiyn Damdinsüren            (b. 1898 - d. 1938)  MAKN
24 Jan 1929 - 27 Apr 1930  Horloogiyn Choybalsan              (b. 1895 - d. 1952)  MAKN
27 Apr 1930 -  2 Jul 1932  Losolyn Laagan                     (b. 1887 - d. 1940)  MAKN
 2 Jul 1932 - 22 Mar 1936  Agdanbuugiyn Amar (Anandyn Amar)   (b. 1886 - d. 1941)  MAKN
22 Mar 1936 -  9 Jul 1939  Dansrabilegiyn Dogsom              (b. 1884 - d. 1941)  MAKN
 9 Jul 1939 -  6 Jul 1940  Vacant
 6 Jul 1940 -  6 Jul 1951  Gonchigiyn Bumtsend                (b. 1881 - d. 1953)  MAKN
Chairmen of the Presidium of the State Great Hural 
(from 7 Jul 1960, People's Great Hural)
 6 Jul 1951 - 23 Sep 1953  Gonchigiyn Bumtsend                (s.a.)               MAKN
23 Sep 1953 -  7 Jul 1954  Sühbaataryn Yanjmaa (f)(acting)    (b. 1893 - d. 1962)  MAKN
                             (Damdiny Sühbaatar)
 7 Jul 1954 - 20 May 1972  Jamtsarangiyn Sambuu               (b. 1895 - d. 1972)  MAKN
20 May 1972 - 29 Jun 1972  Tsagaanlamyn Dügersüren (acting)   (b. 1914 - d. 1986)  MAKN
29 Jun 1972 - 11 Jun 1974  Sonomyn Luvsan (acting)            (b. 1912 - d. 1994)  MAKN
11 Jun 1974 - 23 Aug 1984  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal               (s.a.)               MAKN
23 Aug 1984 - 12 Dec 1984  Nyamyn Jagvaral (acting)           (b. 1919 - d. 1987)  MAKN
12 Dec 1984 - 21 Mar 1990  Jambyn Batmönh                     (s.a.)               MAKN
21 Mar 1990 -  3 Sep 1990  Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat             (b. 1942)            MAKN
Presidents
 3 Sep 1990 - 20 Jun 1997  Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat             (s.a.)               MUAN
20 Jun 1997 - 24 Jun 2005  Natsagiyn Bagabandi                (b. 1950)            MAKN
24 Jun 2005 - 18 Jun 2009  Nambaryn Enkhbayar                 (b. 1958)            MAKN
18 Jun 2009 -              Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj              (b. 1963)            AN
 

Prime ministers
16 Dec 1911 - Jul 1912     Da Lam Tserenchimed                (b. 1869 - d. 1914)  Non-party
Jul 1912 -  9 Jun 1915     Sain Noyon Khan Namnansüren        (b. 1878 - d. 1919)  Non-party
                             (cabinet chief to 20 Apr 1919)
 9 Jun 1915 - 1919         Post abolished
Jan 1919 - 1920            Chin Van Badamdorj                 (b. 18.. - d. 1920)  Non-party
10 Jan 1920 - 15 Feb 1921  Vacant
15 Feb 1921 - 13 Mar 1921  Khatanbaatar Magsarjav (acting)    (b. 1877 - d. 1927)  Non-party
13 Mar 1921 - 11 Jul 1921  Sodnomyn Damdinbazar (1st time)    (b. 1874 - d. 1923)  Non-party  
11 Jul 1921 -  7 Jan 1922  Dogsomyn Bodoo                     (s.a.)               MAKN
 3 Mar 1922 - 23 Jun 1923  Sodnomyn Damdinbazar (2nd time)    (s.a.)               MAKN
28 Sep 1923 - 28 Nov 1924  Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse         (s.a.)               MAKN
Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars
28 Nov 1924 - 13 Feb 1928  Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse         (s.a.)               MAKN
21 Feb 1928 - 27 Apr 1930  Agdanbuugiyn Amar (1st time)       (s.a.)               MAKN
27 Apr 1930 -  2 Jul 1932  Tsengeltiyn Jigjidav (acting)      (b. 1894 - d. 1933)  MAKN
 2 Jul 1932 - 22 Mar 1936  Peljidiyn Genden                   (s.a.)               MAKN
22 Mar 1936 -  7 Mar 1939  Agdanbuugiyn Amar (2nd time)       (s.a.)               MAKN
24 Mar 1939 - 1946         Horloogiyn Choybalsan              (s.a.)               MAKN
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 
1946 - 26 Jan 1952         Horloogiyn Choybalsan              (s.a.)               MAKN
28 May 1952 - 11 Jun 1974  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal               (s.a.)               MAKN
11 Jun 1974 - 12 Dec 1984  Jambyn Batmönh                     (s.a.)               MAKN
12 Dec 1984 - 21 Mar 1990  Dumaagiyn Sodnom                   (b. 1933)            MAKN
21 Mar 1990 - 11 Sep 1990  Sharavyn Gungaadorj                (b. 1935)            MAKN
Prime ministers
11 Sep 1990 - 21 Jul 1992  Dashiyn Byambasüren                (b. 1942)            MAKN
21 Jul 1992 - 19 Jul 1996  Puntsagiyn Jasray                  (b. 1933 - d. 2007)  MAKN
19 Jul 1996 - 23 Apr 1998  Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan           (b. 1955)            MUAN/DU
23 Apr 1998 -  9 Dec 1998  Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (1st time)   (s.a.)               MUAN
 9 Dec 1998 - 22 Jul 1999  Janlavyn Narantsatsralt            (b. 1957 - d. 2007)  MUAN
22 Jul 1999 - 30 Jul 1999  Nyam-Osoryn Tuyaa (f) (acting)     (b. 1958)            MUAN
30 Jul 1999 - 26 Jul 2000  Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal           (b. 1961)            MUAN
26 Jul 2000 - 13 Aug 2004  Nambaryn Enkhbayar                 (s.a.)               MAKN
13 Aug 2004 - 20 Aug 2004  Chultem Ulaan (acting)             (b. 1954)            MAKN
20 Aug 2004 - 25 Jan 2006  Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (2nd time)   (s.a.)               AN/EOA
25 Jan 2006 - 22 Nov 2007  Miyeegombo Enkhbold                (b. 1964)            MAKN
22 Nov 2007 - 28 Oct 2009  Sanj Bayar                         (b. 1956)            MAKN
28 Oct 2009 - 29 Oct 2009  Norov Altankhuyag (1st time)       (b. 1958)            AN
                             (acting)
29 Oct 2009 - 10 Aug 2012  Sükhbaataryn Batbold               (b. 1963)          MAKN;2010 MAN
10 Aug 2012 -              Norov Altankhuyag (2nd time)       (s.a.)               AN


Chinese Ministers in Mongolia
1758 - 1770?               Sanjai Dorji
1761 - 17..                Nomohon
1780 - 1785                Feimo Lebao                        (b. c.1740 - d. 1819)
1785 - 1828                Yunden Dorji
1791                       Pufu (1st time)
1795 - 1798                Tekechen (1st time)                (d. 1810)
1796 - 1799                Pufu (2nd time)
1799 - 1803                Fo'erging'e
1803 - 1806                Delekezhabu                        (d. 1809)
1804 - 1810                Yunen
1805                       Fuhai
1808                       Benwubu
1808 - 1821                Bayantu
1810                       Tekechen (2nd time)
1810 - 1813                Teifeiying                         (d. 1817)
1812 - 1817                Suchong'a                          (d. 1829)
1815 - 1822                Changqing
c.1833                     Dorji Rabdan
1839 - 1863                Delegdorji
1842 - 1843                Wenqing (Wen ch'ing)               (b. 1796 - d. 1856)
1845 - 15 Sep 1846         Linqing                            (b. 1791 - d. 1846)
1846 - c.1881              Setsen Han Artased (Arthasiddha)
1881 - 1883                Xichang
1883 - 1886                Guixiang                           (d. 1896)
1886 - 1887                Seleng'e
1887 - 1895                Ande
1897 - 1910                Darhan Jin Wan Puntsagtseren
10 Mar 1910 -  5 Dec 1911  Sanduo (San-to)                    (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
Chinese military governors in Uliastai
1729 - 1733                Xibao Shucheng
1733 - 1750                Tsereng Chaoyang                   (d. 1750)
1750 - 1754                Cenggu Jabu Chaoyang (1st time)    (d. 1771) 
1754                       Bandi                              (d. 1755)
1754                       Amarsanaa                          (b. 1723 - d. 1757)
1754 - 1756                Monadzab
1756 - 1771                Cenggu Jabu Chaoyang (2nd time)    (s.a.)
1771 - 1780                Lavan Dorji Chaoyang               (d. 1816)
1780 - 1781                Qinggui (1st time)                 (b. 1737 - d. 1816)
1781 - 1785                Jingyi Xuan                        (d. 1792)
1785 - 1789                ....                               (d. 1789)
1789 - 1791                Qinggui (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
1791 - 1795                Aixinjueluo                        (d. 1801)
1795 - 1799                Yongkun                            (d. 1802)
1799 - 1801                Tusang'a
1801 - 1803                Zuo
1803 - 1807                Chengkuan                          (d. 1807)
1807 - 1809                Jinchang                           (b. 1759 - d. 1828)
1809 - 1810                Dalu  
1810 - 1811                Changling
1812 - 1814                Yuning
1814 - 1817                ....
1817 - 1818                Ximing                             (d. 1818)
1818 - 1822                Teyishunbao                        (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
1822 - 1823                Yi Hao                             (b. 1784 - d. 1844)
1823 - 1824                Guole Fenge
1824 - 1825                Qinbao
1825                       Song Yun (acting)                  (b. 1752 - d. 1835)
1825 - 1827                ....
1827 - 1830                Yantak
1830 - 1833                Leshan
1833 - 1834                Qingshan
1835 - 1839                Changqing                          (d. 1850)
14 Sep 1839 - 1840         Lianjing               
21 Sep 1840 - 22 Nov 1840  Delenge
22 Nov 1840 - 10 Dec 1840  Lupu (1st time)
10 Dec 1840 - 1843         Yixiang (1st time)                 (b. 1796 - d. 1881)
26 Mar 1843 - 28 Mar 1843  Lupu (2nd time)
28 Mar 1843 - 21 Apr 1843  Yixing (1st time)  
21 Apr 1843 - 1846         Guilun
21 Dec 1846 -  6 Feb 1849  Teyishun                           (d. 1849)
 6 Feb 1849 - 1852         Yige                               (b. 1805 - d. 1858)
12 Aug 1852 - 1854         Zhalafentai
12 Dec 1854 - 1855         Yixing (2nd time)
15 Oct 1855 - 1856         Yixiang (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
23 Jan 1856 - 1859         Qingru
20 Nov 1859 - 1866         Mingyi
 2 Aug 1866 - 1867         Delekeduorji
26 May 1867 - 1869         Linxing
14 May 1869 - 1871         Fuji                               (d. 1875)
13 Jun 1871 - 1872         Jinshun
1872                       Kui Chang (acting)
23 Sep 1872 - 1874         Changshun                          (b. 1839 - d. 1904)
 4 Jun 1874 - 1877         Olohubu                            (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
20 Aug 1877 - 14 Sep 1877  Hengxun
Sep 1877 - 1879            Chunfu
23 Dec 1879 - 1880         Jihe
16 Jul 1880 - 1889         Dukar (Dugaer)                     (d. 1889)
 3 May 1889 - 1891         Tuoketuan
27 Aug 1891 - 1894         Yongde
 4 Dec 1894 - 1897         Chonghuan
 6 Dec 1897 - 1898         Guiheng
27 Oct 1898 - 1905         Lianshun
10 Jan 1905 - 10 Jul 1905  Kuishun
10 Jul 1905 - 1908         Maliang                            (b. 1845 - d. 1909)
24 May 1908 - 1910         Kunxiu
 8 Oct 1910 - Dec 1911     Kuifang
Governors in
Khovd (Kobdo)
1881 - 1886                Qing'an
1886 - 1892                Shakodulinzhabu
1893 - 1895                Guifu                              (b. 1859 - d. ....)
1895                       Deming (in Kalgan)
Chinese High Commissioners
1917 - 1919                Chen Yi (Ch'en Yi)                 (s.a.)
Jun 1919 -  1 Dec 1919     Xu Shuzheng (Hsü Shu-cheng)        (s.a.)

Rival Government: Mongolian Provisional People's Government  

[Flag of Mongolian
                Provisional People's Government 1921-1924]

Prime ministers
13 Mar 1921 - 16 Apr 1921  Dambyn Chagdarjav                  (b. 1880 - d. 1922)  MAKN
                             (in Altanbulag, Mongolia)
16 Apr 1921 - 11 Jul 1921  Dogsomyn Bodoo (in Altanbulag)     (s.a.)               MAKN 

 ¹under Chinese imperial administration Mongolia was not a unified province. The Mongols were organized into a complicated system of "banners." 

 2Full title: Jabzandamba Khutagt in Khalkha Mongolian (also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning literally "the Enlightened One") is the spiritual head of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. Also holding the title of Bogdo Gegeen, the top-ranked Lama in Mongolia and the third highest re-incarnation in Lamaist Buddhism after the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama. In 1911 the eighth Jebtsundamba (s.a.) assumed the title of Bogd Khaan, which was often translated as 'High King' or 'Emperor.'

Party abbreviations: AN = Ardcilsan Nam (Democratic Party, center-right, reformist party, est.2000); MAN = Mongol Ardiin Nam (Mongolian People's Party, socialist, former MAKN, est.2010); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: DU = Democratic Union (democratic coalition, including the MNDP and MSDN, 1996-2000); EOA = Ekh Oron-Ardchilan (Motherland-Democracy Coalition, electoral alliance incl. Republican Party, AN, MAKN, 2004-2006); MAKNMongol Ardyn Khuvisgalt Nam (Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, communist, 1921-1990 only legal party, 1921-1924 named MAN, 1921-2010); MSDN = Mongol Sotsial-Demokrat Nam (Mongolian Social Democratic Party, social-democratic, 1990-2000, merged into AN); MUAN = Mongoliin Undesii Ardcilsan Nam (Mongolian National Democratic Party, center-right, reformist, 1996-2000)







©  Ben Cahoon