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Pakistan

[Pakistan]
                 Adopted 14 Aug 1947
 
Map of Pakistan
Hear National Anthem
"Qaumi Tarana"
(National Anthem)
"
Adopted 13 Aug 1954
(de facto from 10 Aug 1950)

Former National Anthem
"Aye sar zameen-i-Pak"
(O, Land of the Pure)
(14 Aug 1947-13 Aug 1949)
(interim)
Constitution
(10 Aug 1973 [suspended
5 Jul 1977 - 30 Dec 1985,
15 Oct 1999 - 31 Dec 2002,
3 Nov 2007 - 15 Dec 2007])
--------------------------------------
Former Constitution
(23 Mar 1956 - 7 Oct 1958)
Capital: Islamabad
(Rawalpindi [provisional]
1 Aug 1960 - 14 Aug 1967;
Karachi 1947 - 1 Aug 1960;
Legislative Capital -
Dhakha
1966-1971)
Currency: Pakistani Rupee
(PKR) 
National Holiday: 23 Mar (1956)
Republic Day
Population: 193,238,868 (2013)
GDP: $574.1 billion (2013)
Exports: $25.05 billion (2013)
Imports: $39.27 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Punjabi 52.6%, Pashtun (Pathan) 13.2%, Sindhi 11.7%, Muhajir (Urdu-speaking immigrants from India at the
 time of partition
and their descendants) 7.5%, Balochi 4.3%,
 other 10.7% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 617,000 (2010)
Declared Nuclear Power (1998): est. 90-110 weapons (2012)
Merchant marine: 11 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010)
International Organizations/Treaties: ADB, ANT, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BTWC, C, CICA, CP, CWC, D-8, ECO, ESCR, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM, NTBT, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Pakistan Index
Chronology

14 Aug 1947                Independence (Dominion of Pakistan);
                             (previously part of British India).
23 Mar 1956                Islamic Republic of Pakistan
 8 Dec 1958                Gwadar enclave sold to Pakistan. 
 8 Jun 1962                Republic of Pakistan

14 Aug 1973                Islamic Republic of Pakistan
26 Mar 1971                East Pakistan secedes as Bangladesh.

Provinces
Princely States
Gwadar (Gwadur)
(1783-1958)
Azad Kashmir
 Ethnoliguistic map of Pakistan
 

King/Queen
15 Aug 1947 - 23 Mar 1956  the Kings/Queen of the United Kingdom
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
15 Aug 1947 - 11 Sep 1948  Mohammad Ali Jinnah                (b. 1876 - d. 1948)  ML
14 Sep 1948 - 17 Oct 1951  Khwaja Nazimuddin                  (b. 1894 - d. 1964)  ML
                             (acting to 11 Nov 1948)
17 Oct 1951 -  6 Oct 1955  Ghulam Mohammad                    (b. 1895 - d. 1956)  ML
 7 Aug 1955 - 23 Mar 1956  Iskandar Ali Mirza                 (b. 1899 - d. 1969)  Non-party
                             (acting for Mohammad to 6 Oct 1955)
Presidents
23 Mar 1956 - 27 Oct 1958  Iskandar Ali Mirza                 (s.a.)               RP
27 Oct 1958 - 25 Mar 1969  Mohammad Ayub Khan                 (b. 1907 - d. 1974)  Mil
25 Mar 1969 - 20 Dec 1971  Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan           (b. 1917 - d. 1980)  Mil
                             (chief martial law administrator to 31 Mar 1969)
20 Dec 1971 - 13 Aug 1973  Zulfikar Ali Bhutto                (b. 1928 - d. 1979)  PPP
14 Aug 1973 - 16 Sep 1978  Fazal Elahi Chaudhri               (b. 1904 - d. 1982)  PPP
16 Sep 1978 - 17 Aug 1988  Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq                (b. 1924 - d. 1988)  Mil
17 Aug 1988 - 18 Jul 1993  Ghulam Ishaq Khan                  (b. 1915 - d. 2006)  Non-party
                             (acting to 13 Dec 1988)
18 Jul 1993 - 14 Nov 1993  Wasim Sajjad (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1941)            PML-N
14 Nov 1993 -  2 Dec 1997  Farooq Ahmed Leghari               (b. 1940 - d. 2010)  PPP
 2 Dec 1997 -  1 Jan 1998  Wasim Sajjad (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)               PML-N
 1 Jan 1998 - 20 Jun 2001  Mohammad Rafiq Tarar               (b. 1929)            PML-N
20 Jun 2001 - 18 Aug 2008  Pervez Musharraf                   (b. 1943)      Mil;Nov 2007 None
18 Aug 2008 -  9 Sep 2008  Mohammadmian Soomro (acting)       (b. 1950)            PML-Q
 9 Sep 2008 -  9 Sep 2013  Asif Ali Zardari                   (b. 1955)            PPP
 9 Sep 2013 -              Mamnoon Hussain                    (b. 1940)            PML-N

Prime ministers
19 Jul 1947 - 16 Oct 1951  Liaquat Ali Khan                   (b. 1895 - d. 1951)  ML
17 Oct 1951 - 17 Apr 1953  Khwaja Nazimuddin                  (s.a.)               ML
17 Apr 1953 - 11 Aug 1955  Mohammad Ali Bogra                 (b. 1909 - d. 1963)  ML
11 Aug 1955 - 12 Sep 1956  Chaudhry Mohammad Ali              (b. 1905 - d. 1980)  ML
12 Sep 1956 - 17 Oct 1957  Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy          (b. 1893 - d. 1963)  AL
17 Oct 1957 - 16 Dec 1957  Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar          (b. 1897 - d. 1960)  ML
16 Dec 1957 -  7 Oct 1958  Malik Firoz Khan Nun               (b. 1893 - d. 1970)  RP
 7 Oct 1958 - 28 Oct 1958  Mohammad Ayub Khan                 (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chief martial law administrator to 24 Oct 1958)
 7 Dec 1971 - 20 Dec 1971  Nurul Amin                         (b. 1893 - d. 1974)  PPP
14 Aug 1973 -  5 Jul 1977  Zulfikar Ali Bhutto                (s.a.)               PPP
 5 Jul 1977 - 24 Mar 1985  Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq                (s.a.)               Mil
                             (chief martial law administrator)
24 Mar 1985 - 29 May 1988  Mohammad Khan Junejo               (b. 1932 - d. 1993)  PML
 9 Jun 1988 - 17 Aug 1988  Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq (1st time)     (s.a.)               Mil
 2 Dec 1988 -  6 Aug 1990  Benazir Bhutto (f) (1st time)      (b. 1953 - d. 2007)  PPP
 6 Aug 1990 -  6 Nov 1990  Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (interim)     (b. 1931 - d. 2009)  NPP
 6 Nov 1990 - 18 Apr 1993  Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (1st time)   (b. 1949)            PML-N
18 Apr 1993 - 26 May 1993  Balakh Sher Mazari (interim)       (b. 1928)            PML-N
26 May 1993 - 18 Jul 1993  Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (2nd time)   (s.a.)               PML-N
18 Jul 1993 - 19 Oct 1993  Moeen Qureshi (interim)            (b. 1930)            Non-party
19 Oct 1993 -  5 Nov 1996  Benazir Bhutto (f) (2nd time)      (s.a.)               PPP
 5 Nov 1996 - 17 Feb 1997  Malik Miraj Khalid (interim)       (b. 1916 - d. 2003)  Non-party
17 Feb 1997 - 12 Oct 1999  Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (3rd time)   (s.a.)               PML-N
12 Oct 1999 - 23 Nov 2002  Pervez Musharraf                   (s.a.)               Mil
                             (de facto to 14 Oct 1999; from 14 Oct 1999 chief executive)
23 Nov 2002 - 30 Jun 2004  Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali         (b. 1944)            PML-Q
30 Jun 2004 - 28 Aug 2004  Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain           (b. 1945)            PML-Q
28 Aug 2004 - 16 Nov 2007  Shaukat Aziz                       (b. 1949)            PML-Q
16 Nov 2007 - 25 Mar 2008  Mohammadmian Soomro (interim)      (s.a.)               PML-Q
25 Mar 2008 - 19 Jun 2012  Yousaf Raza Gillani                (b. 1952)            PPP
22 Jun 2012 - 25 Mar 2013  Raja Pervez Ashraf                 (b. 1950)            PPP
25 Mar 2013 -  5 Jun 2013  Mir Hazar Khan Khoso (interim)     (b. 1929)            Non-party
 5 Jun 2013 -              Mohammad Nawaz Sharif (4th time)   (s.a.)               PML-N


 
The style of the ruler was:
(a) 15 Aug 1947 - 6 Feb 1952: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India"; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947 by retroactive proclamation dated 22 Jun 1948;
(b) 6 Feb 1952 - 29 May 1953: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas Queen, Defender of the Faith";
(c) 29 May 1953 - 23 Mar 1956: "Queen of the United Kingdom and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign terrorists and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps.

Party abbreviations: NPP = National Peoples Party (social-democratic, split from PPP, merged into PML-Q 2004-08, est.1986); PML-N = Pakistani Muslim League-Nawaz (center-right, Nawaz Sharif personalist, split from PML, est.1988); PML-Q = Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid e Azam (PML dissident, nationalist, centrist, pro-Musharraf to 2010, as Pakistan Muslim League 2004-08, split from PML-N, est.2001); PPP = Pakistan Peoples Party (social-democratic, populist, center-left, est.1967); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: AL = Awami League (People's Muslim League, pro-East Pakistan autonomy, Bangala nationalist, 1949-1975); ML = Muslim League (Pakistan nationalist, former All India Muslim League, Aug 1947-Oct 1958); MMA = Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (United Council of Action, islamist, coalition of religious parties, incl. JUI-F, Jamaat-e-Islami and JUP, 2002-2008); PML = Pakistan Muslim League (successor to ML, divided into many factions, 1962-1988); RP = Republican Party (supported creation of West Pakistan province, split from ML, Oct 1955-1958)



Gwadar (Gwadur)

  [Oman pre-1970]
               1792 - 8 Sep 1958
 
Map of Gwadar
Capital: Gwadar
Population: 40,630 (1951)

1783                       Port city of Gwadar and coastal area granted to Sultan 
                             ibn Ahmad (in exile from Muscat) by Nasir Khan, ruler of Kalat.
1792                       Part of Muscat and Oman (Gwadur).
18.. - 18..                Occupied by Mir Dosten, chief of Sarbaz.
 8 Sep 1958                Gwadar enclave sold to Pakistan (effective 8 Dec 1958).
 1 Jul 1977                Made a district within Balochistan province.

Muscat and Oman Governors (Wali-e-Muscat)
1783 - 1804                Sultan ibn Ahmad                   (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
1807 - 1807                Mir Dosten
1807 - 18..                ....
18.. - 1859                Sayid Saif
1859 - 1871                Nasir ibn Thuwaini al Said         (d. 19..)
Jun 1871 - Mar 1872        Abdul-Aziz ibn Said al Said        (b. 1851 - d. 1907)
c.1875                     Said ibn Khamis
.... - 1902                Sayf ibn Said (1st time)
1902                       ....
1902 - 1903                Sayf ibn Said (1st time)
1903 - 1907?               Sayf ibn Yaarab
19.. - 1915                Sayf ibn Badr al Said al Ghasham   (b. 1861 - d. c.1932)
                             (1st time)
1915 - 1918                Salim ibn Faisal al Said           (b. 1897 - d. 19..) 
1918 - 1927                Sayf ibn Badr al Said al Ghasham   (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1927 -  9 Aug 1931         `Ali ibn Hamud al Said             (d. 1931)
19.. - 19..                Hamud ibn Hamad al Said
1941 - 1945                Hamad ibn Hilal al Said            (d. 1947)
1945 - 1947                Badr ibn Saud al Said
1947                       Hilal ibn Saud al Said
1947 - Sep 1958            ....

British Assistant Political Agents (subordinated to the Political Agents
[from 1891 Consuls] in Muscat and to the Chief Political Residents in the Gulf)
1863 - 1871                Edward Charles Ross                (b. 1836 - d. 1913)
1872 - 1873                Samuel Barrett Miles               (b. 1838 - d. 1913)
1873 - 1879                Edward Mockler                     (b. 1849 - d. 1893)
Indian Native Agent
1879 - 1952                ....
Indian Consular Agent
1952 - 1958                Khan Bahadur 'Abd al-Qaiyum


Azad Kashmir
 
[Azad Kashmir]
               Adopted 24 Sep 1975
 
[Azad Kashmir
                            prime minister]
     Azad-Kashmir Prime minister's flag
 
Map of Azad Kashmir Hear National Anthem
"Watan Hamara Azad Kashmir"
(Our State is Free Kashmir)

Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1965

Constitution
(24 Aug 1974; interim)
Capital: Muzaffarabad
Currency: Pakistani Rupee
(PKR) 

National Holiday: 24 Oct (1947)
Azad Kashmir Day

Population: 3,631,224 (2011)

 4 Oct 1947                Azad ("Free") Kashmir established; 
                             officially: State of Jammu and Kashmir.

Presidents
 4 Oct 1947 - 24 Oct 1947  Anwar (provisional)                                     Non-party
                             (= Ghulam Nabi Gilkar)
24 Oct 1947 - 12 May 1950  Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim Khan       (b. 1915 - d. 2003)  AJKMC
                             (1st time)(provisional to 15 Mar 1949)
30 May 1950 -  2 Dec 1951  Sayyed Ali Ahmad Shah                                   Non-party
 8 Jan 1951 - 1951         Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas              (b. 1904 - d. 1967)  Non-party
                            ("Supreme Head of the State of Jammu and Kashmir")
 2 Dec 1951 - 18 May 1952  Mir Waiz Maulana Mohammad Yousuf   (b. 1896 - d. 1968)  Non-party
                             Shah -Administrator
                             (1st time)(acting)
18 May 1952 - 21 Jun 1952  Raja Mohammad Haydar Khan                               Non-party
21 Jun 1952 - 30 May 1956  Shir Ahmad Khan                                         Mil
30 May 1956 -  8 Sep 1956  Mir Waiz Maulana Mohammad Yousuf   (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Shah -Administrator
                             (2nd time)(acting)
 8 Sep 1956 - 13 Apr 1957  Sardar Muhammad Abdul Qayyum Khan  (b. 1924)            AJKMC
                             (1st time)
13 Apr 1957 - 30 Apr 1959  Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim Khan       (s.a.)               AJKMC
                             (2nd time)
 1 May 1959 -  7 Aug 1964  Khurshid Hasan Khurshid            (b. 1924 - d. 1988)  1962: JKLL
 7 Aug 1964 -  7 Oct 1969  Khan Abdul Hamid Khan                                   Non-party
 7 Oct 1969 - 30 Oct 1970  Abdul Rahman Khan (1st time)                            Mil
                             (interim)
30 Oct 1970 - 16 Apr 1975  Sardar Muhammad Abdul Qayyum Khan  (s.a.)               AJKMC
                             (2nd time)
16 Apr 1975 -  5 Jun 1975  Sheikh Mansur Masood (interim)                          Non-party
 5 Jun 1975 - 30 Oct 1978  Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim Khan       (s.a.)               AJKMC
                             (3rd time)
30 Oct 1978 -  1 Feb 1983  Muhammad Hayat Khan                (b. 19.. - d. 2010)  Mil
 1 Feb 1983 -  1 Oct 1985  Abdul Rahman Khan (2nd time)                            Mil
 1 Oct 1985 - 20 Jul 1991  Sardar Muhammad Abdul Qayyum Khan  (s.a.)               AJKMC
                             (3rd time)
20 Jul 1991 - 29 Jul 1991  Sahibzada Ishaq Zafar (acting)     (b. 1943? - d. 2006) JKPP
29 Jul 1991 - 12 Aug 1991  Abdul Rashid Abbasi (1st time)                          Non-party
12 Aug 1991 - 12 May 1996  Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan         (b. 1934)            AJKMC
12 May 1996 - 25 Aug 1996  Abdul Rashid Abbasi (2nd time)                          Non-party
25 Aug 1996 - 25 Aug 2001  Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim Khan       (s.a.)               AJKMC
                             (4th time)
25 Aug 2001 - 25 Aug 2006  Sardar Mohammad Anwar Khan         (b. 1945)            Mil
25 Aug 2006 - 25 Aug 2011  Raja Zulqarnain Khan               (b. 1936)            AJKMC
25 Aug 2011 -              Sardar Mohammad Yaqoob Khan        (b. 1953)            AJKMC 




Prime Ministers
Jun 1975 - Aug 1977        Abdul Hamid Khan                                        Non-party
Aug 1977 - Oct 1978        Abdul Rahman Khan (acting)                              Mil
Oct 1978 - 17 Jun 1985     Martial law
17 Jun 1985 - 29 Jun 1990  Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan         (s.a.)               AJKMC 
                             (1st time)
29 Jun 1990 -  5 Jul 1991  Mumtaz Hussain Rathore             (d. 1999)            JKPP
 5 Jul 1991 - 29 Jul 1991  Sardar Muhammad Ashraf (acting)                         Non-party
29 Jul 1991 - 31 Jul 1996  Sardar Muhammad Abdul Qayyum Khan  (s.a.)               AJKMC
31 Jul 1996 - 25 Jul 2001  Sultan Mehmood Chaudhry                                 JKPP
25 Jul 2001 - 24 Jul 2006  Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan         (s.a.)               AJKMC 
                             (2nd time)
24 Jul 2006 -  6 Jan 2009  Sardar Attique Ahmed Khan          (b. 1955)            AJKMC                                    (1st time)
 6 Jan 2009 - 22 Oct 2009  Sardar Mohammad Yaqoob Khan        (s.a.)               JKPP
22 Oct 2009 - 29 Jul 2010  Raja Farooq Haider Khan            (b. 1955)            AJKMC
29 Jul 2010 - 26 Jul 2011  Sardar Attique Ahmed Khan          (s.a.)               AJKMC                              (2nd time)
26 Jul 2011 -              Chaudhry Abdul Majeed              (b. 1948)            AJKMC   


Party abbreviations: AJKMC = All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference (Kashmir nationalist, Muslim, est.1932); JKLL = Jammu and Kashmir Liberation League (est.1962); JKPP = Jammu Kashmir People's Party (Kashmir branch of the Pakistan Peoples Party [PPP], est.19 Jul 1990); Mil = Military




  Ben Cahoon