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Oman
 
[Oman,
                                    1649-1868 and 1871-1970]
                    1649 - 1868;
               1871 - 17 Dec 1970

[Oman,
                                    1868-1871]
                       1868 - 1871


 
[Oman
                                    flag 1970-1995]
           17 Dec 1970 - 25 Apr 1995
 

 
[Oman]
                        Adopted 25 Apr 1995
 


Map of Oman
Hear National Anthem
"Nashid as-Salaam as-Sultani"
(The Sultan's Anthem)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 10 Dec 1932
 (lyrics 1970)
Constitution
(6 Nov 1996)
Capital: Muscat
(Salalah- summer capital:
c.1920-1970;
Zanzibar 1840-1856;
Rustaq- to 1711, 1719-1779;
Al Hazam 1711-1719;
Nizwa- 6th-7th cent. &
of Imamate 1913-1955)
Currency: Omani Rial
(OMR); 1970-1972 Omani Rial Saidi (OMR); 1959-1970
Persian Gulf Rupee (XPGR);
1891-1959 Indian Rupee (INR)
National Holiday: 18 Nov (1940)
Birthday of
Sultan Qaboos
Population: 3,154,134 (2013)
note: includes 577,293 non-nationals
GDP: $94.86 billion (2013)
Exports: $56.22 billion (2013)
Imports: $30.75 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Omani Arab 48.1%, Indo-Pakistani 31.7% (of which
Pakistani (mostly Balochi) 15%, Bengali 4.4%, Tamil 2.5%)
other Arab 7.2%, Persian 2.8%, Zanzibari (blacks originally
from Zanzibar) 2.5%, other 7.7% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 42,600 (2010)
Merchant marine: 5 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 87.4% (of which Ibadhi 75%,
Sunni 8% and Shi'a 6%), Hindu 5.7%, Christian 4.9%,
Buddhist 0.8%, other 1.2% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, AFESD, AIIB (signatory), AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, BTWC, CAEU, CTBT, CWC, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC (observer), UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Oman Index
Chronology

c.650                      Kings of the Azd clan convert to Islam. 
661 - 1811/1821            Oman (`Uman) ruled by the Ibadi community under 
                             a leader styled Imam al-Muslimin, a member 
                             of the Azd clan, with the following 
                             interruptions:
697 - 748                  Direct rule by the Caliph.
16 May 893 - 897           Direct rule by the Caliph.
931 - 932                  Rule by the Karmatian heretics (Qaramita).
933 - 934                  Rule by the Karmatian heretics (Qaramita).
943 - 951                  Direct rule by the Caliph
972 - 1050                 Rule by the Iranian Buyid dynasty.
1053 - 1154                Rule by the Saljuq Turks.
1154 - 1406                Ruled by Nabhani Kings (style Malik).
1443 - 1470                Ruled by Nabhani Kings.
 1 Apr 1515 - 26 Jan 1650  Muscat a Portuguese possession (Mascate).
1550 - 1551                Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire
                             (1552 under Piri Reis).
1581 - 1588                Muscat occupied by the Ottoman Empire
                             (1580-81 under Mir Ali Bey).
c.1600 - 1624              Ruled by Nabhani kings.
1624                       Imami rule restored, under Ya`ariba lineage.
1741 - 1749                Muscat occupied by Persia.
10 Jun 1749                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage accedes to the Imamate.
1800 - 1801                Bahrain occupied by Muscat and Oman.
1784                       While Imams rule continues, Muscat and Oman
                             becomes a de facto sovereign state under a 
                             secular Al ´Bu Sa`id ruler.
1792 -  8 Sep 1958         Gwadar (Gwadur), port enclave in Baluchistan, 
                             part of Muscat (ceded to Pakistan 8 Sep 1958).
20 Mar 1820                First treaty with Britain.
14 Jul 1854 - 30 Nov 1967  Kuria Muria (Khuryan Muryan) Islands ceded to U.K.
                             (from 1 Apr 1937 under Aden [see Yemen] to 1963;
                             from 1963 under the chief political resident 
                             of the Persian Gulf [see Bahrain] [included
                             the islands of Hasikiya, Sawda, Hallaniya,
                             and Qibliya]).
 4 May 1855                Second treaty with Britain.
 2 Apr 1861                Separation of Zanzibar from Oman and style Sultan
                             recognized (though not immediately in domestic
                             use) recognized by U.K. mediation (accepted by
                             the ruler of Muscat 15 May 1861 and by the ruler
                             of Zanzibar 25 Jun 1861).
 3 Oct 1868                Imams rule briefly restored.
30 Jan 1871                Sultanate of Muscat and Oman restored.
20 Mar 1891 -  2 Dec 1971  British protectorate over Muscat and Oman
                            (under the chief political resident of the 
                             Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain).
24 May 1913 - 11 Aug 1957  Imami government in the interior of Oman, usually
                             in opposition to the sultan's rule.
 9 Jun 1965 - 11 Dec 1975  Secessionist rebellion in Dhofar (Zufar).
 9 Aug 1970                Sultanate of Oman

Imamate
(1913-1957)
Tribal Polities
Bani Bu `Ali
(Ghafiri Arabs) 
Bani Hina
al-Hiri
(al-Harithi Tribe of al-Sharquiyyah)
Bani Riyam
(Ghafiri Arabs)
Bani Ruwaha
in Wadi
Zafar (Dhofar)
 
 

Portuguese commanders in Mascate (Muscat)
(subordinated to the captains-major in Hormuz)
c.1516 - 17 Mar 1517       Gaspar de Andrade Rego             (d. 1517)
15.. - 15..                Manuel Pinto
155. - c.1552              João de Lisboa
155.                       Fernão de Meneses
c.1582                     Martim Afonso de Melo 
1587 – 1589                Belchior Balaça
1589 - ....                Francisco Velho (1st time)
1595                       Antonio de Sousa Falcão
1597
                      Francisco Velho (2nd time)
.... - ....                Bertlomeo da Gama
1608                       Antonio Moreira de Fonseca

1614                       Andre Pacheco
161.                       Gaspar Ferreira
1616                       Gaspar de Andrade Rego           
1617                       Joao de Quadros
1619                       Paulo Castanho
1620 - 1622                Miguel de Lima Torres
1623                       Pascoal Henriques
1623 - 1625/26?            Martim Afonso de Melo
1626 - 1627                António Calado
1627 - 1630                Vacant
1630 - 1632?               Julio Moniz da Silva
163. - 163?                Luis Sequeira de Faria
1636                       Antonio Botelho de Azevedo
1636                       Miguel Feio de Melo
                             (did not take office)
1636 - 1638?               Gomes Lobo da Silva
1638? - 1641?              Cristovão Rodrigues de Castelo
                             Branco
1641 - 164.                ....
164. - c.1648              Lopo Gomes de Abreu
Captains-general of the Strait of Hormuz

1623 - 1633                Rui Freire de Andrade              (d. 1633)
1633 - 1634                Gaspar de Melo de Sampaio (1st time)
1634 - 1636                Francisco Moniz da Silva
1636                       Gaspar de Melo de Sampaio (2nd time)
1637 - 1639                Manuel Pereira
1639 - 1641                Francisco de Távora de Ataíde
                             (1st time)
1641 - 1643                Duarte Lobo
1643 - 1649                Gil Eanes de Noronha
1649 - 1650                Francisco de Távora de Ataíde
                             (2nd time)
Persian governors
Sep 1740 - Dec 1743        Mirza Mahmoud Taqi Khan
                           + Kalb Ali Khan Afshar

Imams¹
1692 - 15 Oct 1711         Sayf I ibn Sultan "Qayd al-Ard"    (d. 1711)
15 Oct 1711 - 1718/19      Sultan II ibn Sayf                 (d. 1718/19)
1718/19 - Sep 1724         Sayf II ibn Sultan (1st time)      (b. 1706/07 - d. 1743)
1719 - 1720                al-Muhanna ibn Sultan ibn Majid    (d. 1720)
                             (in dissidence)
14 Jun 1722 - 16 Mar 1723  Ya`rub ibn Bal`arab                (d. 1723)
                             (in dissidence)
 2 Oct 1724 - Mar 1728     Muhammad ibn Nasir                 (d. 1728)
11 Apr 1728 - 1743         Sayf II ibn Sultan (2nd time)      (s.a.)
1732 - 1738                Bal`arab ibn Himyar ibn Sultan     (d. 1749)
                             (1st time)(in dissidence)
Feb 1742 - 20 Jun 1743     Sultan III ibn Murshid ibn `Adi    (d. 1743)
                           - together with Sayf II -
1744 - 1749                Bal`arab ibn Himyar ibn Sultan     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
10 Jun 1749 - 14 Dec 1783  Abu Hilal Ahmad ibn Sa`id          (b. 1710 - d. 1783)
14 Dec 1783 - 1811         Sa`id (I) ibn Ahmad                (b. 17.. - d. 1811)
                            (deposed from temporal power in 1786)
Hamis (informally, from 6 Apr 1861, Sultans)¹
1784 - 13 Mar 1792         Hamad ibn Sa`id                    (d. 1792)
13 Mar 1792 - 14 Nov 1804  Sultan (IV) ibn Ahmad              (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
20 Nov 1804 - 14 Sep 1806  Salim (I) ibn Sultan               (b. 1789 - d. 1821)
                           - jointly with following -
20 Nov 1804 - 19 Oct 1856  Sa`id (II) ibn Sultan              (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
20 Nov 1804 - 31 Jul 1806  Badr ibn Sayf -Regent              (d. 1806)
19 Oct 1856 - 11 Feb 1866  Thuwayni ibn Sa`id                 (b. c.1821 - d. 1866)
11 Feb 1866 - 12 Oct 1868  Salim (II) ibn Thuwayni            (b. 18.. - d. 1876)
Imam¹
 3 Oct 1868 - 30 Jan 1871  `Azzan ibn Qays                    (d. 1871)
Sultans¹
30 Jan 1871 -  4 Jun 1888  Turki ibn Sa`id                    (b. 1832 - d. 1888)
Aug 1875 - Dec 1875        Abdul-Aziz ibn Said -Regent        (b. 1850 - d. 1907)
 4 Jun 1888 -  4 Oct 1913  Faysal ibn Turki                   (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
 9 Oct 1913 - 10 Feb 1932  Taimur ibn Faysal                  (b. 1886 - d. 1965) 
10 Feb 1932 - 23 Jul 1970  Sa`id (III) ibn Taimur             (b. 1910 - d. 1972)
23 Jul 1970 -              Qabus ibn Sa`id                    (b. 1940)

Chief ministers (Wazir)
1832 - 1856                Sulayman bin Hamad al Busa`idi     (b. c.1785 - d. 1873)  
1868 - 1870                Sa`id bin Khalfan al Khalili       (b. 1811 - d. 1870)
1871 - 13 Aug 1873         Thuwayni bin Muhammad al Busa`idi  (b. 1838 - d. 1873)
1873 - 1888                Sa`id bin Muhammad al Busa`idi     (b. 1840 - d. 1901)
                             (1st time)

1888 - 1895                Muhammad bin `Azzan al Busa`idi
1896 - 1901                Sa`id bin Muhammad al Busa`idi     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

1900 - 1920                Muhammad bin Ahmad al Ghasham      (b. 18.. - d. 1929)
1920                       R.C. McCollum
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

Apr 1920 - 1926            Nadir bin Faysal al Busa`idi       (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
1926 - 1928                Muhammad bin Ahmad al Ghasham      (s.a.)
1929 - 1970                Sa`id ibn Taimur                   (s.a.) 
28 Jul 1970 - 17 Aug 1970  Barayq bin Hamad (acting)
Prime ministers

14 Aug 1970 -  2 Jan 1972  Tariq ibn Taimur al Sa`id          (b. 1921 - d. 1980)  Non-party
 2 Jan 1972 -              Qabus ibn Sa`id                    (s.a.)               Non-party

Imamate of Oman

[Imamate of Oman 1913-1957]

Imams¹
24 May 1913 - 23 Jul 1920  Salim ibn Rashid al-Kharusi         (d. 1920)
30 Jul 1920 - May 1954     Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn `Abd    (b. 1885? - d. 1954)
                             Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi
 3 May 1954 - 17 Dec 1955  Ghalib ibn `Ali al-Hinawi           (b. 1919? - d. 2009)
                             (1st time)
Jul 1957 - 11 Aug 1957     Ghalib ibn `Ali al-Hinawi           (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 

British Agents at Muscat
1800 -  6 Sep 1800         Archibald Hamilton Bogle            (b. c.1770 - d. 1800)
1801 - 1802                David Seton (1st time)              (b. 17.. - d. 1809) 
1802 - 1804                David Seton (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Nov 1804 - May 1805        Vacant
May 1805 -  2 Aug 1809     David Seton (3rd time)              (s.a.)
1808                       W. Watts (acting for Seton)         (d. 1808) 
Sep 1809 - 17 Dec 1809     William Chicheley Bunce             (b. 178. - d. 1809) 
1809 - 1810                Nicholas Hankey Smith               (b. 1771 - d. 1837)
1810 - 1840                Vacant

May 1840 - 1841            Atkins Hamerton (consul from 1841)  (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
1841 - May 1861            residency located in Zanzibar
British Political Agents
May 1861 - Feb 1862        William M. Pengelley                (b. 1812 - d. 1894)
Feb 1862 - Oct 1862        M. Green
Oct 1862 - Jan 1863        .... (acting)
Jan 1863 - Feb 1867        Herbert Frederick Disbrowe          (b. 1826 - d. ....)
                             (1st time)

Mar 1867 - Feb 1869        G.A. Atkinson (acting)
Feb 1869 -  8 Jan 1870     Herbert Frederick Disbrowe          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)

 8 Jan 1870 -  1 May 1871  Alfred Cotton Way                   (d. 1871)
 8 May 1871 - 14 Dec 1872  Edward Charles Ross                 (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
30 Dec 1872 -  7 Jun 1877  Samuel Barrett Miles (1st time)     (b. 1838 - d. 1913)
 7 Jun 1877 -  4 Jan 1878  P.J.C. Robertson (acting)
 4 Jan 1878 - 14 Jun 1879  Samuel Barrett Miles (2nd time)     (s.a.)
14 Jun 1879 - 16 Jul 1879  .... (acting)
16 Jul 1879 -  2 Jan 1880  Charles Bean Euan-Smith             (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
28 Feb 1880 - 28 Oct 1880  Charles Grant (1st time)            (b. 1836 - d. 1903)
28 Oct 1880 - 15 Aug 1881  Samuel Barrett Miles (3rd time)     (s.a.)
16 Aug 1881 - 22 Mar 1883  Charles Grant (2nd time)            (s.a.)
22 Mar 1883 - 20 Apr 1883  .... (acting)

20 Apr 1883 - 17 Sep 1883  Edward Mockler (1st time)           (b. 1849 - d. 1893)
20 Sep 1883 -  2 Apr 1886  Samuel Barrett Miles (4th time)     (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1886 - 25 Oct 1886  Edward Mockler (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1886 - 16 Apr 1887  Edward Barrett Miles (5th time)     (s.a.)
16 Apr 1887 -  2 Mar 1889  Edward Mockler (3rd time)           (s.a.)
 2 Mar 1889 - 30 Mar 1889  Atmaram Sadarhiva Grovindin Jayakar (b. 1845 - d. 1911)
                             (1st time) (acting)

31 Mar 1889 - 15 Dec 1889  Wallace Christopher Ramsay          (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
                             Stratton (acting)
16 Dec 1889 - 29 Mar 1890  Charles Edward Yate                 (b. 1849 - d. 1940)
29 Mar 1890 - 30 Nov 1890  Atmaram Sadarhiva Grovindin Jayakar (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)

 1 Dec 1890 - 20 Mar 1891  Edward Mockler (4th time)           (s.a.)
Consuls
20 Mar 1891 - 14 Oct 1891  Edward Mockler                      (s.a.)
14 Oct 1891 - 27 Nov 1892  Atmaram Sadarhiva Grovindin Jayakar (s.a.)
                             (1st time) (acting)

27 Nov 1892 - 19 Apr 1895  James Hayes Sadler (1st time)       (b. 1851 - d. 1922) 
19 Apr 1895 - 22 May 1895  Atmaram Sadarhiva Grovindin Jayakar (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)

23 May 1895 - 23 Nov 1895  John Frederick Whyte
24 Nov 1895 - 17 Apr 1896  James Hayes Sadler (2nd time)       (s.a.)
17 Apr 1896 - 12 Jun 1897  F.A. Beville 
12 Jun 1897 - 15 Sep 1897  Atmaram Sadarhiva Grovindin Jayakar (s.a.)
                             (3rd time) (acting)

16 Sep 1897 -  1 Oct 1899  Christopher George Forbes Fagan     (b. 1856 - d. 1943)
 1 Oct 1899 -  2 Jan 1904  Percy Zachariah Cox                 (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
 2 Jan 1904 - Jul 1906     William George Grey (1st time)      (b. 1866 - d. 1953)
Jul 1906 - Nov 1906        William Henry Irvine Shakespear     (b. 1878 - d. 1915)
                             (acting)
Nov 1906 - Apr 1908        William George Grey (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Apr 1908 - Jul 1908        N. Scott (acting)
Jul 1908 - Nov 1908        Frank McConaghy
Nov 1908 - Apr 1910        Robert Erskine Holland              (b. 1873 - d. 1965)
Apr 1910 - Apr 1911        Arthur Prescott Trevor              (b. 1872 - d. 1930)
Apr 1911 - Mar 1914        Stuart George Knox                  (b. 1869 - d. 1956)
Mar 1914 - Oct 1915        Robert Arthur Edward Benn           (b. 1867 - d. 1940)
Oct 1915 - 16 Jan 1916     Hugh Stewart (1st time)             (b. 1872 - d. 1931)
16 Jan 1916 - 16 Feb 1916  Claude Tulloch Ducat (1st time)     (b. 1864 - d. 1921) 
17 Feb 1916 -  8 Mar 1916  Hugh Stewart (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1916 - 14 Jun 1916  Claude Tulloch Ducat (2nd time)     (s.a.)
15 Jun 1916 - 22 Jun 1916  A.R. Burton (acting)
23 Jun 1916 -  9 Oct 1916  Evelyn Berkeley Howell              (b. 1877 - d. 1971)
10 Oct 1916 -  7 Nov 1916  A. King-Mason (acting)
 8 Nov 1916 - 12 Oct 1917  Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth        (b. 1873 - d. 1951)
                             (1st time) 
12 Oct 1917 - 30 Nov 1917  J.M. Brickman (acting)
 1 Dec 1917 - 17 Oct 1919  Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
17 Oct 1919 -  3 Mar 1920  Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (b. 1889 - d. 1978) 
                             (1st time)
 3 Mar 1920 - 10 Apr 1920  M.J. Gazdar (acting)
11 Apr 1920 - Oct 1921     Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Oct 1921 - Feb 1923        Maitland Easton Rae                 (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
Feb 1923 - Sep 1923        Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate        (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
Sep 1923 - 31 Oct 1924     Reginald Graham Hinde               (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
31 Oct 1924 - 24 May 1925  Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite         (b. 1878 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)
24 May 1925 -  7 Oct 1925  Reginald George Evelyn William      (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
                             Alban (1st time) (acting)
 8 Oct 1925 - 12 Feb 1926  Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
12 Feb 1926 -  9 Sep 1926  Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett       (b. 1884 - d. 1933)
10 Sep 1926 - 22 Sep 1926  G.A. Richardson (acting)
23 Sep 1926 - 15 Jun 1930  George Patterson Murphy             (b. 1883 - d. 1938)
15 Jun 1930 - 30 May 1931  Trenchard Craven William Fowle      (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
                             (1st time)
30 May 1931 - 31 Oct 1931  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (2nd time)(acting)     
 1 Nov 1931 - 25 Jul 1932  Trenchard Craven William Fowle      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jul 1932 - 13 Nov 1932  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (3rd time)(acting)     
14 Nov 1932 - 23 Mar 1933  Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner      (b. 1891 - d. 1965)
                             (1st time)
23 Mar 1933 - 16 Jun 1933  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.) 
                             Alban (4th time)(acting) 
17 Jun 1933 -  6 Jun 1935  Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
 6 Jun 1935 - 26 Apr 1939  Ralph Ponsonby Watts                (b. 1892 - d. 1991)
26 Apr 1939 -  3 Apr 1940  Tom Hickinbotham (1st time)         (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
 3 Apr 1940 - 26 Jul 1940  John Baron Howes (1st time)(acting) (b. 1907) 
27 Jul 1940 - 14 Aug 1941  Tom Hickinbotham (2nd time)         (s.a.)
14 Aug 1941 - 22 Jan 1942  John Baron Howes (2nd time)(acting) (s.a.)
22 Jan 1942 - 22 May 1942  Reginald George Evelyn William      (s.a.)
                             Alban (5th time) (acting)
23 May 1942 - 21 Sep 1943  Cornelius James Pelly               (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
21 Sep 1943 - 31 Oct 1943  Richard Ernest Rowland Bird         (b. 1912 - d. 1986)
 1 Nov 1943 -  1 Nov 1944  Roy Douglas Metcalfe                (b. 1909)
 1 Nov 1944 - 22 Apr 1945  Arnold Crenshaw Galloway            (b. 1901 - d. 1988)
22 Apr 1945 - 29 Nov 1945  Ralph Ingram Hallows                (b. 1915)
 1 Dec 1945 - 13 Jun 1947  Andrew Charles Stewart (1st time)   (b. 1907 - d. 1979)
13 Jun 1947 - Aug 1947     J.E.H. Hudson
Aug 1947 - Aug 1948        Andrew Charles Stewart (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Aug 1948 - Sep 1949        Randall Erskine Ellison             (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
Consuls-general
Sep 1949 - Oct 1958        Frederick Charles Leslie Chauncy    (b. 1904 - d. 1986)
Oct 1958 - May 1960        William Neve Monteith               (b. 1915 - d. 2004)
May 1960 - May 1963        John Fleetwood Stewart Phillips     (b. 1917 - d. 1998)
May 1963 - Oct 1965        John Spenser Ritchie Duncan         (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
Oct 1965 - Sep 1969        Derrick Charles Carden              (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
Sep 1969 - 1971            David Gordon Crawford               (b. 1928 - d. 1981)

No Political Parties Allowed.

  ¹The full style of the ruler:
(a) 1624 - 1811/21, 3 Oct 1868 - 30 Jan 1871, in rebellion 24 May 1913 - 11 Aug 1957: Imam al Muslimin ("Imam of the Muslims");
(b) 1792 - 2 Apr 1861: Hami, Sayyid ("Protector Sayyid")(in international relations the style Sultan Masqat begins to be used);
(c) 2 Apr 1861 - 12 Oct 1868:
Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Masqat ("Protector, Sayyid, Sultan of Muscat"). Style Sultan Masqat is used only in interantional relations, interchageably with Imam Masqat ("Imam of Muscat")
(d) 30 Jan 1871 - 9 Aug 1970: Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Masqat wa `Uman ("Protector, Sayyid, Sultan of Muscat and Oman");
(e) from 9 Aug 1970: Sultan `Uman ("Sultan of Oman").

Territorial Dispute: Boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public.


 

Zufar (Dhofar, Dhufar)
 
[PFLOAG flag
                          1965-68, 1971-72]
            9 Jun 1965 - Sep 1968; 1971 - 1972
[PFLOAG flag
                          1968-1971]
                           Sep 1968 - 1971 
[PFLOAG flag
                          1972-1975]
                 1972 - 1 Dec 1975

c.1096                     Zafar founded with capital at Mirbat.
1265 - 1271                Persian occupation.
1325 - 1429?               Ruled by Kathiri Sultanate (Hadramaut). 
1421                       Sultanate of Zafar
1462/63 - 1804             Ruled by Kathiri Sultanate (Hadramaut). 
1539                       Ottoman occupation. 
1829                       Annexed by Oman.
1876                       Katiri and Qara` tribes recognize suzerainty of Oman.
1879                       Annexed by Oman.
1885 - 1886                Independent during revolt.
 9 Jun 1965                Dhofari revolt directed by the Dhofar Liberation Front (DLF).
Sep 1968                   Renamed Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied
                             Arabian Gulf (PFLOAG).
1971                       PFLOAG merged with the National Democratic Front Liberation of
                             Oman and Arabian Gulf (armed activity in central and northern 
                             Oman from June 1970) to form the Popular Front for the 
                             Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf.
Late 1971                  A revolutionary government established in Dhofar.
19 Jan 1972                Failed attack on port of Mirbat.
Mar 1975                   Peace agreement signed.
 1 Dec 1975                Last PFLOAG occupied village, Dulkut, is liberated.
11 Dec 1975                Sultan of Oman declares the rebellion terminated.

Sultans
1462/63 - 1804             the Kathiri Sultans
1804 - 1829                Saiyid Muhammad `Aqil `Adjaybi     (d. 1829)
1829 - 1876                ....
1885 - 1886                Saiyid Fadl ibn `Alawi Moplah      (d. 1900)
                             (in rebellion)
Secretaries-general of the DLF (from 1968, PFLOAG)(in rebellion)
 9 Jun 1965 - 1968         Musalim bin Nufl
 1 Sep 1968 - 1975         Mohammad Ahmad Saïd al Ghassani 


Omani Tribal Polities

Bani Bu `Ali (Ghafiri Arabs)

[Suhar Sultanate
                  1920-1932 (Oman)]
         Sultanate of Suhar 1920-1932

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. -  ....               Salim
.... - 1913                `Abd Allah                         (d. 1913)
1913 - 1932                 `Ali
                             (in rebellion at Suhar as Sultan 1920-1932)

af.1932 - 1971?            Muhammad ibn Nasir



Bani Hina
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
.... - ....                Sa`id ibn Muhammad
.... - 1894                Hilal ibn Zahir                    (d. 1894)
1894 - 189.                Badr
189. - 192.                `Abd Allah
193. - 19..                Zahir ibn Ghusn al-Hini'a
195. - 1971                `Abd Allah



al-Hiri (al-Harith tribe of al-Sharquiyyah)
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 185.                `Ali ibn Nasir
185. - 1896                Salih I ibn `Ali al-Harithi        (d. 1896)
1896 - 1946                `Isa ibn Salih al-Harithi          (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
1946 - 1947                Muhammad ibn `Isa al-Hirithi       (d. 1947)
1947 - Dec 1955            Salih II ibn `Isa al-Hirithi
1956 - 1971                Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Hirithi



Bani Riyam (Ghafiri Arabs)

1920                       Emirate of Bani Riyam
1959 - 1971                Omani administration.

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 18..                Nasir ibn Sayf an-Nabhani
18.. - 18..                Sulayman ibn Sayf
186. - 1871                Sayf
bf.1895 - 1920             Himyar ibn Nasir
Emir
1920 - 1959                Sulayman ibn Himyar al-Nabhani    (b. 1904)



Bani Ruwaha 
 

Paramount chiefs (tamimah)
18.. - 1871                Sa`id ibn Khalifah al-Khalili
1871 - ....                `Abd Allah
c.1920 - 1954              Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn `Abd   (b. 1885? - d. 1954)
                             Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi
1954 - 1971                `Abd Allah ibn `Ali







 © Ben Cahoon