World Statesmen.org HOME >

 
 








 

Tanzania
 
[German East Africa Company
                                    flag 1885-1891
                                    (Deutsch-Ostafrikanische
                                    Gesellschaft)]
 17 Feb 1885 - 1 Jan 1891 German East Africa Company
 
[German
                                    Empire 1870-1919 (Germany)]
                1 Jan 1891 - 9 Oct 1916
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                      9 Oct 1916 - 9 Mar 1923
 
[Flag
                                    of Tanganyika, colonial 1923-1961]
                      9 Mar 1923 - 9 Dec 1961 
 
[Flag
                                    of Tanganyika, 1961-1964]
            9 Dec 1961 - 30 Jun 1964 
 
[Flag of
                                    Tanzania]
               Adopted 30 Jun 1964
 
Map of Tanzania
Hear National Anthem
"Mungu ibariki Afrika"
(God Bless Africa)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 9 Dec 1961
Constitution
(25 Apr 1977)
Capital: Dar es Salaam
(Bagamoyo 1885-1891)
Legislative Capital: Dodoma
(from Feb 1996)
Currency: Tanzanian
Shilling (TZS) 
National Holiday: 26 Apr (1964)
  Union Day (Tanganyika
and Zanzibar)
Population: 48,261,942 (2013)
GDP: $79.29 billion (2013)
Exports: $5.92 billion (2013)
Imports: $11.16 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: mainland- native African 95%
(of which Nyamwezi 3.6%, Sukuma 9.5%,
Hehet and Bena 4.5%, Haya 4.2%, Makonde 3.3%,
Gogo 4.4%, Nyakyusa 5.4%, Chagga 3%, Ha 2.9%),
other  (Asian, European, and Arab) 5% (2000)
Zanzibar- Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African 
Total Active Armed Forces: 27,000 (2010)
Merchant marine: 94 ships (2010)
Religions: mainland-  Christian 35%, Muslim 35% (of which
Sunni 30%, Shi'a 5%),
traditional beliefs 30% (2005)
 Zanzibar - Muslim 99%, other 1%
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC (signatory), C, CCM (signatory), CTBT, CWC, EAC, EADB, ESCR, FAO, G-6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Tanzania Index
Chronology

17 Feb 1885                Area acquired by Carl Peters for the 
                             Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft
                             (German East African Company). 
27 May 1885                German East Africa Protectorate
27 May 1885 -  1 Jul 1890  German protectorate over Witu in Kenya; 
                             contested by Britain.
28 Apr 1888                Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip 
                             from the Sultan of Zanzibar.
 1 Jan 1891                German East Africa colony (Deutsch Ostafrika); 
                             end of DOAG rule.
19 May 1916/18 Sep 1916    Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa;
                             Nyaza (19 May 1916), Ruanda (17 Jun 1916),
                             Urundi (6 Jul 1916), Usui (29 Jul 1916 - Mar 
                             1921), Ujiji and Kigoma (20 Jul 1916 [Ujiji to
                             22 Mar 1921]), and Tabora region (18 Sep 1916 
                             - Feb 1917)(see under Ruanda-Urundi).
 9 Oct 1916                British occupation of German East Africa begins 
                             (on Mafia island from Dec 1914); resisted by 
                             German forces on the move until 14 Nov 1918.
30 May 1919                Treaty with Britain: only Ruanda and Urundi 
                             remain under Belgian administration (effective
                             Mar 1921).
10 Jan 1920                Kionga triangle south of Rovuma River (under 
                             Portuguese occupation since 1918) is ceded to 
                             Portuguese Mozambique.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate under Britain
                             (Tanganyika).
11 Dec 1946                Tanganyika a United Nations trust territory 
                             under Britain.
 1 May 1961                Self-rule achieved.
 9 Dec 1961                Independence (Tanganyika).
 9 Dec 1962                Republic of Tanganyika
26 Apr 1964                United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
11 Dec 1964                United Republic of Tanzania

Zanzibar
Tanganyika
Traditional
States
Zanzibar
Traditional
States

Historical maps
of Tanzania
Map of German
East Africa 1912
 
 
 
 

Administrator
27 May 1885 -  8 Feb 1888  Karl Peters                        (b. 1856 - d. 1918)
Reichskommissar (Imperial commissioner)
 8 Feb 1888 - 21 Feb 1891  Hermann von Wissmann               (b. 1853 - d. 1905)
Governors
14 Feb 1891 - 15 Sep 1893  Julius Freiherr von Soden          (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
1891                       Rüdiger (acting for Soden)
15 Sep 1893 - 25 Apr 1895  Friedrich Radbod Freiherr von      (b. 1847 - d. 1904)
                             Schele
25 Apr 1895 -  3 Dec 1896  Herrmann von Wissmann              (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1896 - 12 Mar 1901  Eduard Liebert                     (b. 1850 - d. 1934)
                             (from 1 Jan 1900,
Eduard von Liebert)
12 Mar 1901 - 15 Apr 1906  Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen       (b. 1866 - d. 1910)
15 Apr 1906 - 22 Apr 1912  Georg Albrecht Freiherr von        (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
                             Rechenberg 
22 Apr 1912 - 14 Nov 1918  Albert Heinrich Schnee             (b. 1871 - d. 1949)
                             (from 9 Oct 1916, on the move in 
                             opposition to British forces)
Administrator
 9 Oct 1916 - 22 Jul 1920  Horace Archer Byatt                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
                             (from 1 Jan 1918, Sir Horace Archer Byatt) 
Governors
22 Jul 1920 -  5 Mar 1925  Sir Horace Archer Byatt            (s.a.)
1924 -  5 Mar 1925         John Scott (acting for Byatt)      (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
 5 Mar 1925 - Jan 1931     Donald Charles Cameron             (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
1929                       Sir Douglas James Jardine          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
                             (acting for Cameron)
Jan 1931 - Feb 1934        George Stewart Symes               (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Feb 1934 -  8 Jul 1938  Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael       (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
 8 Jul 1938 - 19 Jun 1941  Sir Mark Aitchinson Young          (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
19 Jun 1941 - 28 Apr 1945  Sir Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson (b. 1883 - d. 1971)
28 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1949  Sir William Denis Battershill      (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
18 Jun 1949 - Jun 1958     Sir Edward Francis Twining         (b. 1899 - d. 1967)
Jun 1958 - 15 Jul 1958     Sir Ernest Rex Edward Surridge     (b. 1899 - d. 1990)
                             (acting)
15 Jul 1958 -  9 Dec 1961  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (b. 1909 - d. 1998)
Queen¹
 9 Dec 1961 -  9 Dec 1962  the Queen of the United Kingdom
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 9 Dec 1961 -  9 Dec 1962  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (s.a.)
Presidents
 9 Dec 1962 -  5 Nov 1985  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (b. 1922 - d. 1999)TANU;1977 CCM
 5 Nov 1985 - 23 Nov 1995  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                  (b. 1925)            CCM
23 Nov 1995 - 21 Dec 2005  Benjamin William Mkapa             (b. 1938)            CCM
21 Dec 2005 -              Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete              (b. 1950)            CCM

Chief minister
 2 Sep 1960 -  1 May 1961  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (s.a.)               TANU
Prime ministers
 1 May 1961 - 22 Jan 1962  Julius Kambarage Nyerere           (s.a.)               TANU
22 Jan 1962 -  9 Dec 1962  Rashidi Mfaume Kawawa (1st time)   (b. 1926 - d. 2009)  TANU
 9 Dec 1962 - 17 Feb 1977  Post abolished
17 Feb 1972 - 13 Feb 1977  Rashidi Mfaume Kawawa (2nd time)   (s.a.)               TANU
13 Feb 1977 -  7 Nov 1980  Edward Moringe Sokoine (1st time)  (b. 1938 - d. 1984)  CCM
 7 Nov 1980 - 24 Feb 1983  Cleopa David Msuya (1st time)      (b. 1931)            CCM
24 Feb 1983 - 12 Apr 1984  Edward Moringe Sokoine (2nd time)  (s.a.)               CCM
24 Apr 1984 -  5 Nov 1985  Salim Ahmed Salim                  (b. 1942)            CCM
 5 Nov 1985 -  9 Nov 1990  Joseph Sinde Warioba               (b. 1940)            CCM
 9 Nov 1990 -  7 Dec 1994  John Samuel Malecela               (b. 1934)            CCM
 7 Dec 1994 - 28 Nov 1995  Cleopa David Msuya (2nd time)      (s.a.)               CCM
28 Nov 1995 - 30 Dec 2005  Frederick Tluway Sumaye            (b. 1950)            CCM
30 Dec 2005 -  9 Feb 2008  Edward Ngoyai Lowassa              (b. 1953)            CCM
 9 Feb 2008 -              Mizengo Kayanza Peter
Pinda        (b. 1948)            CCM

  ¹Full style:
(a) 9 Dec 1961 - 12 Jan 1962: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
";
(b) 12 Jan 1962 - 9 Dec 1962: "Queen of Tanganyika and of Her other Realms and
Territories, Head of the Commonwealth."

Territorial Disputes: Tanzania still hosts more than a half million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant

Party abbreviations: CCM = Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Party of the Revolution, democratic socialist,
merger of TANU and Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar, 1977 - 1 Jul 1992 only legal party, est.5 Feb 1977);
- Former parties: TANU = Tanganyika African National Union (African socialist and nationalist, Ujamaa [familyhood], 1965-1977 only legal party in Tanganyika, 1954-1977, merged into CCM)



Zanzibar
 
[Flag of
                                  Zanzibar 1861-1963]
            2 Apr 1861 - 10 Dec 1963 
 
[Zanzibar British Resident's Flag
                                  c.1918-1955]
               c.1918 - 1955 British Resident's flag
 
[Zanzibar British Resident's Flag
                                  1955-1963]
          1955 - 10 Dec 1963 British Resident's flag 
 
[Zanzibar flag, Dec 1963 - Jan.
                                  1964]
           10 Dec 1963 - 12 Jan 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag, 12-29 Janary
                                  1964]
            12 Jan 1964 - 29 Jan 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag, January - June
                                  1964]
             29 Jan 1964 - 30 Jun 1964
 
[Zanzibar flag, 2005]
                 Adopted 9 Jan 2005
 

 

Map of Zanzibar
Hear Local Anthem
Adopted 9 Jan 2005
Former Anthem (1911-1964)
"National March for the Sultan
of Zanzibar" (no lyrics)
-------------------------------
Former Anthem (to 1890)
Constitution
Adopted 12 Jan 1985
-------------------
Former Constitutions

(5 Dec 1963-19 Jan 1964;
5 Oct 1979-12 Jan 1985)

Capital: Zanzibar
(Great Zanzibar to c.1653)
Currency: Tanzanian Shilling (TZS); East Africa Schilling (XEAS) (1936-27 Apr 1964);
Zanzibari Rupee (ZZR)(1908-31 Dec 1935); Zanzibari Riyal  (1883-1908)
National Holiday: 12 Jan (1964)
Revolution Day
Population: 1,303,569 (2012)
325,801 (1963)

GDP: $N/A
Exports: £3.18 million (1962)
Imports: £5.28 million (1962)
Ethnic groups: black African, Comorian, Arab (279,935),
Indian (18,334), European (507)
Total Armed Forces: N/A (1964)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (1907)
Religions: Muslim 99% (mainly Sunni, some Ibadhi),
1% other
International Organizations/Treaties 1963 - 27 Apr 1964: AfDB (signatory), C, FAO (associate), GATT (associate), OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Zanzibar
Index
Chronology

Aug 1505 - 1508            Conquered by Portugal.
1528 - Dec 1698            Under Portuguese suzerainty.
Dec 1698                   Zanzibar part of Oman (from 1784 Muscat and Oman)
14 Sep 1806                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage from Oman begins to rule 
                             Zanzibar.
1840                       British consuls to Muscat and Oman resident 
                             in Zanzibar.
 2 Nov 1856                Proclamation of independent ruler in Zanzibar
                            (Zanzibar).
 2 Apr 1861                Zanzibar separated from Oman and style Sultan 
                             recognized by U.K. mediation (accepted by the
                             ruler of Muscat 15 May 1861 and by the ruler of
                             Zanzibar 25 Jun 1861).
17 Feb 1885                German protectorate declared.
 7 Nov 1890                British protectorate; accepted by Germany in
                             exchange for Helgoland in the North Sea.
 1 Jul 1895                Coastal domains of Zanzibar become Kenya 
                             Protectorate under U.K. (and are relinquished
                             to Kenya upon its independence 12 Dec 1963).
24 Jun 1963                Self-rule granted.
10 Dec 1963                British protectorate terminated (Sultanate 
                             of Zanzibar).
12 Jan 1964                People's Republic of Zanzibar
26 Apr 1964                United with Tanganyika (Revolutionary
                             Government of Zanzibar).

Zanzibar
Traditional
States
Map of  Zanzibar
1841-1885
 
 
 
 
 


Leader of the Revolutionary Government
(De facto ruler)
12 Jan 1964 - Feb 1964     John G. Okello                    (b. 1937 - d. 1971?)  Mil

Rulers (title Mwyinyi Mkuu)
15.. - 16..                ....
c.1653                     Mwana Mwema (f)
16.. - 16..                Yusuf             
c.1694 - c.1711            Fatima bin Yusuf
(f) (in north)
                           + Bakari bin Yusuf (in south)
c.1711 - c.1728            Hasan I bin Abdullah
17.. - 17..                Sultan bin Hassan
c.1744                     Ahmad bin Sultan
Governors
1698 - c.1710              ....
c.1710 - 17..              Sa`id 
c.1728                     Sheikh Fashani 
17.. - 1746                ....
1746 - 1765                Abdallah ibn Gad (Jaad el Busaidi)
c.1784                     Khalfan ibn Ahmad
1784                       Seif bin Ahmed (in opposition)
1803 - 14 Sep 1806         Yakut ibn Amar al Habshi          (b. 17.. - d. 1819)
Hamis (informally, Sultans)
14 Sep 1806 - 19 Oct 1856  Sayyid Sa`id ibn Sultan           (b. 1791? - d. 1856)
19 Oct 1856 -  2 Apr 1861  Sayyid Majid ibn Sa`id            (b. 1834 - d. 1870)
Sultans¹
 2 Apr 1861 -  7 Oct 1870  Sayyid Majid ibn Sa`id            (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1870 - 26 Mar 1888  Sayyid Barghash ibn Sa`id         (b. 1837 - d. 1888)
27 Mar 1888 - 13 Feb 1890  Sayyid Khalifa I ibn Sa`id        (b. 1852 - d. 1890)
13 Feb 1890 -  5 Mar 1893  Sayyid `Ali ibn Sa`id             (b. 1854 - d. 1893)
                             (from 8 Nov 1890, Sayyid Sir `Ali ibn Sa`id)
 5 Mar 1893 - 25 Aug 1896  Sayyid Hamid ibn Thuwayni         (b. 1857 - d. 1896)

                             (from 23 Feb 1894, Sayyid Sir Hamid ibn Thuwayni)
25 Aug 1896 - 27 Aug 1896  Sayyid Khalid ibn Barghash        (b. 1874 - d. 1927)

27 Aug 1896 - 18 Jul 1902  Sayyid Hamud ibn Muhammad         (b. 1853 - d. 1902)
                             (from 20 Apr 1898, Sayyid Sir Hamud ibn Muhammad)
18 Jul 1902 -  8 Dec 1911  Sayyid `Ali ibn Hamud             (b. 1884 - d. 1918)

18 Jun 1902 - Jun 1905     Alexander Stuart Rogers -Regent   (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
 9 Dec 1911 -  9 Oct 1960  Sayyid Khalifa II ibn Kharub      (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
                             (from 1 Jan 1914, Sayyid Sir Khalifa II ibn Kharub)
 9 Oct 1960 -  1 Jul 1963  Sayyid Sir `Abd Allah ibn Khalifa (b. 1910 - d. 1963)

 1 Jul 1963 - 12 Jan 1964  Sayyid Jamshid ibn `Abd Allah     (b. 1929)
Presidents

12 Jan 1964 -  7 Apr 1972  Sheikh Abeid Amami Karume         (b. 1905 - d. 1972)  ASP
                             (from 20 Dec 1971, President of the Revolutionary Council)
11 Apr 1972 - 30 Jan 1984  Skeikh Mwinyi Aboud Jumbe         (b. 1920)            ASP;1977 CCM
30 Jan 1984 - 24 Oct 1985  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                 (b. 1925)            CCM
                             (acting to 19 Apr 1984)
24 Oct 1985 - 25 Oct 1990  Idris Abdul Wakil                 (b. 1925 - d. 2000)  CCM
25 Oct 1990 -  8 Nov 2000  Salmin Amour                      (b. 1948)            CCM
 8 Nov 2000 -  3 Nov 2010  Amani Abeid Karume                (b. 1948)            CCM
 3 Nov 2010 -              Ali Mohamed Shein                 (b. 1948)            CCM


Chief minister
1828 - 10 Dec 1873         Suleiman ibn Hamad al Busaidi     (d. 1873)
Viziers (first ministers)
1890 - 14 Oct 1901         Sir Lloyd Williams Matthews       (b. 1851 - d. 1901)
14 Oct 1901 -  3 Nov 1901  Vacant
 3 Nov 1901 - 1906         Alexander Stuart Rogers           (s.a.)
1906 - 1908                Arthur E.H. Raikes                (b. 1867 - d. 1915)
1908 -  1 Jul 1913         Francis Barton                    (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
 1 Jul 1913 - 23 Feb 1961  the British Residents 
Chief ministers
23 Feb 1961 -  5 Jun 1961  Geoffrey Charles Lawrence (acting)(b. 1915 - d. 1994)  Non-party
 5 Jun 1961 - 24 Jun 1963  Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi     (b. 1907 - d.af.1964)ZPPP+ZNP
Prime ministers
24 Jun 1963 - 12 Jan 1964  Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi                          ZPPP+ZNP
12 Jan 1964 - 27 Apr 1964  Abdullah Kassim Hanga             (b. 1932 - d. 1969)  ASP
27 Apr 1964 - 21 Feb 1983  Post abolished
Chief ministers
21 Feb 1983 -  6 Feb 1984  Ramadhani Haji Faki               (b. 1943)            CCM
 6 Feb 1984 - 22 Jan 1988  Seif Shariff Hamad                (b. 1943)            CCM
25 Jan 1988 -  1 Nov 1995  Omar Ali Juma                     (b. 1941 - d. 2001)  CCM
 1 Nov 1995 - 15 Nov 2000  Mohamed Gharib Bilal              (b. 1945)            CCM
15 Nov 2000 -  9 Nov 2010  Shamsi Vuai Nahodha               (b. 1962)            CCM
 9 Nov 2010
               Post abolished

British Consuls
1840 - 1856                Atkins Hamerton                   (b. 1804 - d. 1856) 
1858 - 1860                Christopher Palmer Rigby          (b. 1820 – d. 1885)
1861 - 1862                Lewis Pelly                       (b. 1825 - d. 1892) 
1862 - 1865                Robert Lambert Playfair           (b. 1828 - d. 1899)
1865 - 1870                Henry Adrian Churchill            (b. 1828 - d. 1886)
1870 - 1873                John Kirk                         (b. 1832 - d. 1922)
Consuls-General 
1873 - 1886                John Kirk                         (s.a.)
1887 - 1888                Claude Maxwell Macdonald          (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
1888 -  5 Mar 1891         Sir Charles Bean Euan-Smith       (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
                             (acting from 7 Nov 1890)
 6 Mar 1891 - 12 Dec 1892  Gerald Herbert Portal             (b. 1858 - d. 1894)
                             (from 4 Aug 1892, Sir Gerald Herbert Portal) 
12 Dec 1892 - Feb 1894     James Rennell Rodd                (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
Feb 1894 - 1900            Arthur Henry Hardinge             (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
                             (from 22 Jun 1897, Sir Arthur Henry Hardinge)
1900 - 1904                Sir Charles Norton Edgecumbe Eliot(b. 1862 - d. 1931)
1904 - 20 Jun 1908         Basil Shillito Cave               (b. 1865 - d. 1931)
1908 - 13 Feb 1913         Edward Clarke                     (b. 1860 - d. 1913)
Residents
 1 Jul 1913 - 1922         Francis Barrow Pearce             (b. 1866 - d. 1926)
1922 - Dec 1923            John Houston Sinclair             (b. 1871 - d. 1961)
Jan 1924 - 1929            Alfred Claud Hollis               (b. 1874 - d. 1961)
                             (from 1 Jan 1927, Sir Alfred Claud Hollis)
Dec 1929 - 1937            Richard Sims Donkin Rankine       (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
                             (from 3 Jun 1932, Sir Richard Sims Donkin Rankine)
1937                       Samuel Burnside Boyd McElderry    (b. 1885 - d. 1984)
                             (acting)
Oct 1937 - 1940            John Hathorn Hall                 (b. 1894 - d. 1979)

1941 - 1946                Henry Guy Pilling                 (b. 1886 - d. 1953)
1946 - 1951                Vincent Goncalves Glenday         (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
1952 - 1954                John Dalzell Rankine              (b. 1907 - d. 1987)
 2 Nov 1954 - 1959         Henry Steven Potter               (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
                             (from 31 May 1956, Sir Henry Steven Potter)
1959 - 1963                Arthur George Rixson Mooring      (b. 1908 - d. 1969)

 ¹Full style of the ruler: Hami, Sayyid, Sultan Zanjabar ("Protector and Sultan of Zanzibar [and its dependencies]"), the style Sultan is initially used only in international relations.

Party abbreviations: CCM = Chama Cha Mapinduzi (Party of the Revolution, democratic socialist, merger of TANU and Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar, Feb 1977 - 1 Jul 1992 only legal party, est.5 Feb 1977);
- Former parties: ASP = Afro-Shirazi Party (ethnic African or "Shirazi", marxist communist, African nationalist, 30 Jan 1964-Feb 1977 only legal party in Zanzibar, 1957-1977, merged into CCM); ZNP = Zanzibar Nationalist Party (Zanzibar nationalist, mostly Arab, 1955-1964); ZPPP = Zanzibar and Pemba People's Party (mostly African, nationalist, Pemba regionalist, from 1961 in coalition with ZNP, 1959-1964)







 © Ben Cahoon