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Kenyan Traditional States


Note: This record deals with the two major coastal polities (Pate island, with its successor Witu, and Mombasa) and three major polities of the interior (Masai, Nandi, Wanga). Other known
polities are very minor and the information is very incomplete.


Pate

1203                       Pate sultanate independent from Kilwa Kisiwani
1858                       Former ruler founds Witu sultanate on mainland after
                             several abortive moves.
1870                       Pate state extinguished.

Sultans (styled mfalume in Kiswahili)
1779 - 1809                Fumo Madi ibn Abi Bakr
1809 - 1813                Ahmad ibn Shaykh
1813 - 1818                Fumo Luti "Kipunga" ibn Fumo Madi
1818 - 18..                Fumo Luti ibn Ahmad
18.. - 1823                Bwana Shaykh ibn Fumo Madi (1st time)
1823 - 18..                Bwana Waziri ibn Bwana Tamu (1st time)
18.. - 18..                Bwana Shaykh ibn Fumo Madi (2nd time)
18.. - 1830                Bwana Waziri ibn Bwana Tamu (2nd time)
1830 - 1840                Fumo Bakari ibn Shaykh
1840 - 1856                Ahmad ibn Fumo Bakari
1856 - 1858                Ahmad Simba Balla ibn Fumo Luti
1858 - 1870                Shaykh Muhammad


Witu
 
[German Empire
                          1870-1919 (Germany)]
              27 May 1885 - 1 Jul  1890 
 
Map of Wituland
Capital: Witu

1858                       Former ruler of Pate founds Witu sultanate on mainland
                             after several abortive moves.
 8 Apr 1885                25 sq. mile area purchased from the Sultan by German Denhardt
                             brothers.
27 May 1885 -  1 Jul 1890  German protectorate declared (Wituland).
18 Jun 1890                British protectorate declared. 

Sultans (styled mfalume in Kiswahili)
1858 - 1888                Ahmad ibn Fumo Bakari
1888 - 1890                Fumo Bakari ibn Ahmad
1890 - 1891                Bwana Shaykh ibn Ahmad
1891 - 1893                Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad (1st time)
1893 -  7 Jul 1895         Vacant
 7 Jul 1895 - ....         Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad (2nd time)

German Residents
 8 Apr 1885 -  1 Jul 1890  Gustav Denhardt                    (b. 1856 - d. 1917)
                           + Clemens Andreas Denhardt         (b. 1852 - d. 1928)



Mombasa
[Mombassa British
                  protectorate 1893-1920]
              31 Jul 1893 - 23 Jul 1920
1502                       Mvita (Kiswahili) or Manbasa (Arabic) sultanate
                             independent from Kilwa Kisiwani.
11 Apr 1593                Portuguese occupation (Fortaleza de Jesus de Mombaça).
11 Apr 1593 -  1 Dec 1640  Mombaça along with Portugal a Spanish possession.
13 Aug 1631 - May? 1632    Swahili occupation.
 5 Aug 1632  
              Portuguese re-occupation.
1638 - 12 Dec 1698         Portuguese colony (subordinated to Goa).
12 Dec 1698                Under Omani sovereignty.
16 Mar 1728 - 26 Nov 1729  Portuguese rule restored.
26 Nov 1729                Under Omani (from 1784 Muscat and Oman) sovereignty.
1746                       Independent (disputed by Oman).
 9 Feb 1824 - 25 Jul 1826  British protectorate declared (not recognized by U.K.).
25 Jul 1826                Omani rule restored.
24 Jun 1837                Annexed by Zanzibar.
25 May 1887                Administration relinquished to the British East Africa
                             Association (see under Kenya).
 1 Jul 1895                Kenya protectorate (i.e., the coastal strip nominally under
                             Zanzibari sovereignty).
12 Dec 1963                Incorporated into independent Kenya.


Sultans
1593 - 1609                Muhammad
1609 - 1614                Hasan
1626 - 1632                Yusuf
Captains-major

1593 - 1596                Mateus Mendes de Vasconcellos
1596 - 1598                António Godinho de Andrade
1598 - 1606                Rui Soares de Melo
1606 - 1609                Gaspar Pereira
1609 - 1610                Pedro Gomes de Abreu 
1610 - 1614                Manuel de Melo Pereira
1614 - 1620                Simão de Melo Pereira
1620 - 1625                Francisco de Sousa Pereira
1625 - 1629                Marçal de Macedo
1629 - 13 Aug 1631         Pedro Leitao de Gamboa              (d. 1631)
13 Aug 1631 - May? 1632    Yusuf bin Hasan -Sultan             (d. 1638?)
                             (Jeromino Chingulia)
1632 - 1635                Pedro Rodriuges Botelho

1635 - 1639                Francisco de Seixas Cabreira
                             (1st time)
1639 - 1642                Martim Afonso Manuel
1643 - 1646                Manuel de Sousa Coutinho
1646 - 1648                Diogo de Barros da Silva
1648 - 1651                António da Silva de Meneses

1651 - 1653                Francisco de Seixas Cabreira
                             (2nd time)
1653 - 1658                ....
1658 - 1663                José Botelho da Silva
1663 - 1667                Manuel de Campos
1667 - 1670                João Santos? Cota
1671 - 1673                João Homem da Costa
1673 - 1676                Manuel de Campos Mergulhão
1676 - 1679                Francisco Morais de Faria
1679 - 168.                Manuel Teixeira Franco
168. - 1682                Pedro Taveira Henriques
1682 - 1686                Leandro da Costa
1686 - 1688                João Antunes Portugal

1688 - 1693                Duarte Figueiredo de Melo
1693 - 1694                Pascoal de Abreu Sarmento
1694 - 1696                João Rodrigues Leão
1696 - 1697                Antonio Mogo de Melo 
1697 - Jan 1698            Dau, príncipe de Faza
Dec 1697 - Jan 1698        Jo Pereira de Brito
                             (did not take office)
1698 - 13 Dec 1698         Leandro Barbosa Souto-maior        (d. 1698)

Rulers/Governors (Wali [Liwali in Kiswahili])
12 Dec 1698 - Dec 1698     Imam Sa`if ibn Sultan
Dec 1698 - 1728            Nasr ibn Abdallah al-Mazru`i 
1728 - 12 Mar 1728         Shaykh Rumba 
Captain-major
16 Mar 1728 - 26 Nov 1729  Álvaro Caetano de Castro e Melo
Rulers/Governors (Wali [Liwali in Kiswahili])
1730 - 1734                Muhammad ibn Said al-Ma'amri 
1735 - 1739                Salih ibn Uthman al-Hadermi
1739 - 1745                Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Mazru`i
1746                       `Ali ibn Uthman al-Mazru`i
Sultans
1746 - 1755                `Ali ibn Uthman al-Mazru`i
1755 - 1773                Masud ibn Naisr al-Mazru`i
1773 - 1782                Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mazru`i
1782 - 1811                Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazru`i      (b. 17.. - d. 1814)
1812 - 1823                `Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Mazru`i    (d. 1823)
1823 - 1826                Sulayman ibn `Ali al-Mazru`i
1826 - Mar 1835            Salim ibn Ahmad al-Mazru`i         (d. 1835)
Mar 1835 - 1836            Nasur ibn Ahmad al-Mazru`i
1836 - 1837                Rashid ibn Salim al-Mazru`i        (d. 1839)
1837 - 24 Jun 1837         Khamis ibn Rashid al-Mazru`i       (d. af.1861)
Rulers/Governors (Wali [Liwali in Kiswahili])
1837 - 1860                Abdallah ibn Hamish al-Mazru`i

1860 - 1873                Mubarrak ibn Rashid al-Mazru`i
1873 -  1 Jul 1895         Rashid ibn Hamish al-Mazru`i

British Commandants
 9 Feb 1824 - 13 Feb 1824  William Fitzwilliam Wentworth      (b. 1774 - d. 1857)
                             Owen
13 Feb 1824 - 29 May 1824  John James Reitz                   (d. 1824)
29 May 1824 - Sep 1824     Phillips (acting)
Sep 1824 - 25 Jul 1826     James B. Emery (acting)            (b. 1791 - d. 1889)



Masai

187.                       Masai clans united.
1888                       Included in British East Africa.
1918                       Chiefdom abolished by the British authorities.

Laibons¹ (after 1904 paramount chiefs)
187. - 1890                Mbatian                            (b. c.1820 - d. 1890)
1890 - 1911                Lenana
1911 - 1918                Segi

 ¹Both the Laibon and the Orkoiyoi were in origin only chief ritual leaders. Later they also became political and military leaders.



Nandi

184.                       Nandi clans united.
1888                       Included in British East Africa (final submission in 1905).
1922                       C
hiefdom abolished by the British authorities.

Orkoiyois¹
.... - ....                Kipsegun
.... - ....                arap Kipsegun (to ....)
                           + Kopokoii
.... - ....                Torokut
1885 - c.1890              Kimnyole                         (d. c.1890)
c.1890 - 19 Oct 1905       Koitalel arap Samoei             (b. 1860 - d. 1905)
1905 - 1919                Kipeles (or Tamasun) 
1919 - 1922                Barsirian arap Manyei            (b. 1882 - d. 19..) 

 ¹Both the Laibon and the Orkoiyoi were in origin only chief ritual leaders. Later they also became political and military leaders.



Wanga

15..                       Kingdom of Wanga founded.
1888                       Included in British East Africa.

Kings (title Nabongo)
.... - ....                Chitechi II
.... - ....                Osundwa
.... - ....                Wamukoya   
c.1850 - c.1882            Shiundu                            (d. c.1882)
1888 - 1949                Mumia I                            (b. c.1850 - d. 1949)
1949 - 1971                Shitawa                            (d. 1971)
1974 -                     Peter Mumia  II                    (b. 1952)








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