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Burundi
 
[Flag
                                    Royal flag Burundi 1959-1962?]
                     1959 - 1962? 
 
[Flag
                                    Burundi 1962-1966]
            1 Jul 1962 - 29 Nov 1966 
 
[Flag
                                    of Burundi in 1966-1967]
           29 Nov 1966 - 28 Jun 1967
 
[Flag of
                                    Burundi]
                  Adopted 28 Jun 1967 
 

 

Map of Burundi Hear National Anthem
"Burundi Bwâcu"
(Our Beloved Burundi)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Jun 1962
Constitution
(28 Feb 2005)
---------------------------
Former Constitution
(13 Mar 1992 - 6 Jun 1998)
Capital: Bujumbura
(Usumbura c.1680-1962)
Currency: Burundi Franc (BIF);
Rwanda and Burundi
 Franc (BRIF)(1960-1964)

National Holiday: 1 Jul (1962)
Independence Day
Population: 10,060,714 (2013)
GDP: $5.75 billion (2013)
Exports: $122.8 million (2013)
Imports: $867.2 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 80.9%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15.6%,
Lingala 1.6%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, other 0.9% (incl. Europeans
3,000 and  South Asians 2,000) (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 51,050 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes
 Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%,
 other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM, CEEAC, CEPGL, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAC,  ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Burundi Index
Chronology

14..                       Karemera dynasty begins rule.
....                       Baganwa dynasty replaces Karemera.
c.1680                     Burundi kingdom founded.
Aug 1884                   German protectorate.
 1 Jul 1890                Part of German East Africa (effective German
                             control only since 1896)(see under Tanzania).
24 May 1903                Forced to recognize German authority.
 6 Jul 1916                Belgian occupation.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Ruanda-Urundi) under
                             Belgium.
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory under Belgium.
21 Dec 1961                Autonomy
 1 Jul 1962                Independence from Belgium (Kingdom of Burundi).
28 Nov 1966                Republic of Burundi

Martyazo
(1972)
Ruanda-Urundi
(1892-1962)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kings (title Mwami)¹
c.1675 - c.1709            Ntare III Rushatsi                 (d. c.1709)
c.1709 - c.1739            Mwezi III Ndagushimiye             (d. c.1739)
c.1739 - c.1767            Mutaga III Senyamwiza              (d. c.1767)             
c.1767 - c.1796            Mwambutsa III Syarushambo Butama   (d. c.1796)
c.1796 - c.1850            Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba        (d. c.1850)
c.1850 - 21 Aug 1908       Mwezi IV Gisabo¹                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
c.1852 - 185.              Ndivarije -Regent
c.1860 -  9 May 1905       Macoonco (in rebellion)²           (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
c.1860 - Apr 1906          Cyilima (in rebellion)²
1908 - 30 Nov 1915         Mutaga IV Mbikije                  (b. 1903 - d. 1915)
1908 - 1915                Regency
                           - Ririkumutima (f)                 (d. 1917)      
                           - Ntarugera (1st time)             (d. 1921)
                           - Nduwumwe (1st time)              (d. 1958)
16 Dec 1915 -  8 Jul 1966  Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng           (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
1915 - 28 Aug 1929         Regency
                           - Ngezamayo (to 1915)
                           - Ndirikumutama (f)(2nd time)      (s.a.)     
                              (to 1917) 
                           - Ntarugera (2nd time)(to 1921)    (s.a.)
                           - Nduwumwe (2nd time)(to 19..)     (s.a.)
                           - Karabona                         (d. af.1929)
                           - Mbanzabugabo (from 1922)         (d. 1930)
                           - Pierre Baranyanka (from 1923)    (b. 1890 - d. 1973)
 8 Jul 1966 -  1 Sep 1966  Prince Charles Ndizeye (acting)    (b. 1947 - d. 1972)
                             (Head of State)
 1 Sep 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Ntare V Ndizeye (= Charles Ndizeye)(s.a.)
Presidents
28 Nov 1966 -  1 Nov 1976  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (b. 1940 - d. 1983)  Mil/UPRONA
 2 Nov 1976 -  3 Sep 1987  Jean-Baptiste Bagaza (Tutsi)       (b. 1946)            Mil;1980
                             (chairman Supreme Revolutionary Council to 10 Nov 1976)   UPRONA
 3 Sep 1987 - 10 Jul 1993  Pierre Buyoya (1st time) (Tutsi)   (b. 1949)            Mil/UPRONA
                             (chairman Committee of National Salvation to 9 Sep 1987)
10 Jul 1993 - 21 Oct 1993  Melchior Ndadaye (Hutu)            (b. 1953 - d. 1993)  FRODEBU 
21 Oct 1993 - 27 Oct 1993  François Ngeze (Hutu)                                   UPRONA
                             (chairman Committee of Public Salvation, in rebellion)
27 Oct 1993 -  5 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f) (acting) (Tutsi) (b. 1953)            UPRONA
 5 Feb 1994 -  6 Apr 1994  Cyprien Ntaryamira (Hutu)          (b. 1955 - d. 1994)  FRODEBU 
 6 Apr 1994 - 25 Jul 1996  Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Hutu)    (b. 1956)            FRODEBU 
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1994)
25 Jul 1996 - 30 Apr 2003  Pierre Buyoya (2nd time) (Tutsi)   (s.a.)               Mil/UPRONA
                             (provisional to 11 Jun 1998)
30 Apr 2003 - 26 Aug 2005  Domitien Ndayizeye (Hutu)          (b. 1953)            FRODEBU 
26 Aug 2005 -              Pierre Nkurunziza (Hutu)           (b. 1964)            CNDD-FDD


Prime ministers
26 Jan 1961 - 28 Sep 1961  Joseph Cimpaye (Hutu)              (b. 1932 - d. 1972)  UPP
28 Sep 1961 - 13 Oct 1961  Prince Louis Rwagasore (Tutsi)     (b. 1932 - d. 1961)  UPRONA
20 Oct 1961 - 10 Jun 1963  André Muhirwa (Tutsi)              (b. 1920 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
18 Jun 1963 -  6 Apr 1964  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (b. 1930 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
                             (1st time)
 6 Apr 1964 -  7 Jan 1965  Albin Nyamoya (1st time)(Hutu)     (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  UPRONA
 7 Jan 1965 - 15 Jan 1965  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (s.a.)               UPRONA
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1965 - 26 Jan 1965  Pié Masumbuko (acting) (Tutsi)     (b. 1931)            UPRONA
26 Jan 1965 - 30 Sep 1965  Joseph Bamina (Hutu)               (b. 1925 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
13 Oct 1965 -  8 Jul 1966  Léopold Biha (Tutsi)               (b. 1919 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
11 Jul 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
28 Nov 1966 - 15 Jul 1972  Post abolished
15 Jul 1972 -  5 Jun 1973  Albin Nyamoya (2nd time) (Hutu)    (s.a.)               UPRONA
  5 Jun 1973 - 12 Nov 1976  Post abolished
12 Nov 1976 - 13 Oct 1978  Édouard Nzambimana (Tutsi)         (b. 1945)            UPRONA
13 Oct 1978 - 19 Oct 1988  Post abolished
19 Oct 1988 - 10 Jul 1993  Adrien Sibomana (Hutu)             (b. 1953)            UPRONA
10 Jul 1993 -  7 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f)(Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
 7 Feb 1994 - 22 Feb 1995  Anatole Kanyenkiko (Tutsi)         (b. 1952)            UPRONA 
22 Feb 1995 - 31 Jul 1996  Antoine Nduwayo (Tutsi)            (b. 1942)            UPRONA 
31 Jul 1996 - 12 Jun 1998  Pascal-Firmin Ndimira (Hutu)       (b. 1956)            UPRONA
12 Jun 1998                Post abolished
 
German Commanders of the station of Kajaga
1896                       Ullman
1896 - 1897                Muller                             (d. 1897)
German Commanders of the station of Usumbura
1897 - 1898                Konstantin Cramer
1898 - 1902                Werner von Grawert (1st time)      (b. 18.. - d. 1918)
1902 - 1904                Robert von Beringe                 (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
1904 - 15 Nov 1907         Werner von Grawert (2nd time)      (s.a.)
German Residents
15 Nov 1907 - 1908         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Sep 1908 - Jan 1909        Heinrich Fonck (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
Jan 1909 - Apr 1909        Eberhard Gudowius                  (b. 1878 - d. 19..)
Apr 1909 - Sep 1909        Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (b. 1872 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1909 - Jan 1910        Otto Brentzel
Jan 1910 - Jan 1911        Wilhelm Göring
Jan 1911 - May 1911        Kurt von Stegmann und Stein
May 1911 -  6 Jun 1916    
Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1913                       Karl von Boch
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
May 1913 - Aug 1914        Karl Schimmer                      (b. 1877 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Aug 1914 - 1916            Wolff

                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Belgian Residents
1916 - Dec 1918            Edouard van den Eede               (b. 1888 - d. 1947) 
                             (military resident)
Jan 1919 - 1928            Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
1928 - 12 May 1929         Oscar Defawe (acting)              (b. 1892 - d. 1952)
 1 Feb 1930 - 24 Dec 1930  Charles, baron de l'Epine          (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
                             (interim)
24 Dec 1930 - 17 Jul 1933  Léon Borgers                       (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
17 Jul 1933 - 1935         Oger Coubeau                       (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
1935 - 1937                R. Hombert
12 Jan 1938 - 1940         René Verstappen (acting)           (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
Mar 1941 - 1944            George Victor Sandrart             (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
 2 Feb 1944 - Jul 1953     Robert Schmidt                     (b. 1908)
Jul 1953 - 1956            Fernand Siroux                     (b. 1908)
1956 - 28 Oct 1959         Robert Scheyven                    (b. 1906)
28 Oct 1959 - 28 Jul 1961  Ivan Reisdorff                     (b. 1913 - d. 1981)
28 Jul 1961 - Jan 1962     Roberto Régnier
High Representatives
Jan 1962 - 1962            Roberto Régnier
1962 -  1 Jul 1962         Edouard Henniquiau                 (b. 1911 - d. 199.)

 ¹The names of the kings followed a fixed cycle: Ntare, Mwezi, Mutaga, Mwambutsa. Traditionally it was thought that there were four full cycles, but today it is believed there were only two.

 ²On 6 Jun 1903 the German authorities imposed on Mwezi Gisabo the independence of the two chiefs Macoonco and Cyilima. On 8 Oct 1905 the Germans recognized Mwezi Gisabo as "Sultan" of Burundi and its only supreme authority. 

Note: Ethnic groups, which play a preeminent role in politics, are listed in parentheses following names i.e. (Hutu) or (Tutsi). All the kings (mwami) were ethnic Tutsi.

Territorial Disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region.

Party abbreviations: CNDD-FDD = Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy, multi-ethnic Hutu dominated, legalized 2005, est.1994); FRODEBU = Front Démocratique Burundi (Burundi Democratic Front, Hutu moderate, legalized 1992, est.1986); UPRONA = Parti de l'Union et du Progrès National (Party of National Union and Progress, authoritarian, multi-ethnic Tutsi dominated, only legal party 1966-76, 1980-91, dissolved Nov 1976-1980, est.1957); Mil = Military;
- Former partiesUPP = Union des Partis Populaires (Union of People's Parties)


Martyazo
 
[Flag Martyazo
                1972]
                1 - 9 May 1972

                       
 1 May 1972                Hutu rebels proclaim secessionist state Republic of Martyazo
                             inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba
                             and Lake Nyanza.
 9 May 1972                Rebellion ended by Tusti dominated national government.

President
 1 May 1972 -  9 May 1972  Antoine Serukwavu? (Hutu)          (d. 19..)            Mil



Ruanda-Urundi
 
[German Empire
                          1870-1919 (Germany)]
              1896 - May/Sep 1916
[Flag of Belgium]
          May/Sep 1916 - 1 Jun 1962
Map of Ruanda-Urundi
Hear National Anthem
"La Brabançonne"
(The Song of Brabant)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1830/1921
(Lyrics 1860)

Constitution
Capital: Bujumbura
(Boma, Belgian Congo
 1916-23; Léopoldville 1923-24)

Currency: Rwanda and Burundi Franc (BRIF)
(2 Sep 1960-1964);
Belgian Congo Franc
(CBEF)(1916-1960)

National Holiday: 21 Jul (1831)
Ascension to Throne of
King Leopold I

Population: 4,700,000
 (1958 est)

GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic Groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Pygmy, European
Total Armed Forces: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, others
International Organizations: ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WHO (associate), WMO

1892                       German expedition reaches Ruanda.
1896                       Military station was established at Kajaga in Urundi
                             (in 1897, relocated to Usumbura); part of the military
                             district of Ujiji (or Tangnyika-Kivu).
1899                       Military district of Usumbura (Ruanda-Urundi) formed within
                             German East Africa (see Tanzania).
1906                       Becomes a military residency.
15 Nov 1907                Divided into two civil residencies: Ruanda and Urundi.
19 May 1916/18 Sep 1916    Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa; Nyaza (19 May
                             1916), Ruanda (17 Jun 1916), Urundi (6 Jul 1916), Usui (29 Jul
                             1916 - Mar 1921), Ujiji and Kigoma (20 Jul 1916 [Ujiji to 22 Mar
                             1921]), and Tabora region (18 Sep 1916 - Feb 1917).
30 May 1919                Orts-Milner Convention with Britain; only Ruanda and Urundi
                             remain under Belgian administration.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Mar 1926 - 30 Jun 1960  Administrative union with Belgian Congo.
13 Dec 1946                United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Jul 1962                Independence of both territories.

German Commanders of the Military District of Ujiji
1896 - 189.                Hans von Ramsay                    (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
189. - 1901                Heinrich von Bethe
German Commanders of the Military District of Usumbura
1899 - 1902                Heinrich von Bethe 
1902 - 1904                Robert "Oskar" von Beringe         (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
1904 - 1906                Werner von Grawert                 (b. 18.. - d. 1918)
German Resident of Urundi and Ruanda
1906 - 15 Nov 1907         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Belgian Military Commanders
- Commanders of the Northern brigade -
(operating in territories south of lake Victoria, including Northern Ruanda)
1916                       Philippe François Joseph Molitor   (b. 1869 - d. 1952)
1916 -  1917               Armand Christophe Huyghé           (b. 1871 - d. 1944) 
- Commander of the Southern Brigade -
(operating in territories east of the Kivu and Tanganyika lakes,
including Southern Ruanda and Urundi) 
1916 - 1917                Frederik Voldemar Olsen            (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
Military Governor of the Occupied East African Territories
1916 - 22 Nov 1916         Charles Henry Marie Ernest         (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
                             Tombeur, baron Tombeur de Tabora 
Royal Commissioners for Occupied East Africa
22 Nov 1916 - May 1919     Justin Prudent François Marie      (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
                             Malfeyt
May 1919 - 20 Oct 1924     Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
Nov 1921 - Jul 1922        Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
                             (actingfor Marzorati)
Royal Commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi
20 Oct 1924 - 28 Aug 1926  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
15 Nov 1925 - 13 Dec 1926  Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (s.a.)
                             (acting [for Marzorati to 28 Aug 1926]) 
Governors (also deputy governors-general of the Belgian Congo)
28 Aug 1926 -  5 Feb 1929  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1929 -  4 Jul 1930  Louis Joseph Postiaux (acting)     (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
 4 Jul 1930 - 18 Aug 1932  Charles Henri Joseph Voisin        (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
18 Aug 1932 -  5 Jul 1946  Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis        (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             Jungers
 5 Jul 1946 - Aug 1949     Maurice Simon (acting to 1947)     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
Aug 1949 -  1 Jan 1952     Léon Antoine Marie Pétillon        (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
 1 Jan 1952 -  1 Mar 1955  Alfred Maria Josephus Ghislencus   (b. 1906 - d. 1993)
                             Claeys-Boùùaert 
 1 Mar 1955 - 1960         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
Resident-general 
1960 - 11 Jan 1962         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (s.a.)

Commander of the Occupation Force
1916 - 1917                Gustave Eugène Henri Stevens       (b. 1866 - d. 1928)
Chief Political Affairs Officer
191. - 19..                Nigel Edward Frank Corbett         (b. 1876 - d. 19..)




© Ben Cahoon