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Burundi
 
[Possible Royal flag Burundi
                                    1959-1962?]
1959 - 1962? 
 
[Flag
                                    Burundi 1962-1966]
1 Jul 1962 - 29 Nov 1966 
 
[Flag
                                    of Burundi in 1966-1967]
29 Nov 1966 - 28 Jun 1967
 
[Flag of
                                    Burundi]
Adopted 28 Jun 1967 
 

 

Map of Burundi Hear National Anthem
"Burundi Bwâcu"
(Our Beloved Burundi)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted Jun 1962
Constitution
(7 Jun 2018)
---------------------------
Former Constitutions
(18 Mar 2005 - 7 Jun 2018;
13 Mar 1992 - 6 Jun 1998)
Capital: Bujumbura
(Usumbura c.1680-1962)
Currency: Burundi Franc (BIF);
1960-1964 Ruanda and Urundi
 Franc (BRIF); 1919-1960
Belgian Congo Franc (CEF)
National Holiday: 1 Jul (1962)
Fête de l'indépendence
(Independence Day)
Population: 11,466,756 (2017)
GDP: $7.98 billion (2017)
Exports: $100.3 million (2017)
Imports: $442.1 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 80.9%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15.6%,
Lingala 1.6%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, other 0.9% (incl. Europeans
3,000 and  South Asians 2,000) (2000)
Total Armed Forces: 51,050 (2010)
Merchant marine: None (2017)
Religions: Roman Catholic 62.1%, Protestant 23.9% (includes
 Adventist 2.3% and other Protestant 21.6%), Muslim 2.5%,
 other 3.6%, unspecified 7.9% (2008)
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM, CEEAC, CEPGL, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), CWC, EAC, EADB (applicant), ESCR, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT (signatory), OIF, OPCW, OST (signatory), UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-KP, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Burundi Index
Chronology

14..                       Karemera dynasty begins rule.
....                       Baganwa dynasty replaces Karemera.
c.1680                     Burundi kingdom founded.
Aug 1884                   German protectorate.
 1 Jul 1890                Part of German East Africa (effective German
                             control only since 1896)(see under Tanzania).
24 May 1903                Forced to recognize German authority.
 6 Jul 1916                Belgian occupation.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Ruanda-Urundi) under
                             Belgium.
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory under Belgium.
21 Dec 1961                Autonomy
 1 Jul 1962                Independence from Belgium (Kingdom of Burundi).
28 Nov 1966                Republic of Burundi

Martyazo
(1972)
Ruanda-Urundi
(1892-1962)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Kings (title Mwami)¹
c.1680 - c.1709            Ntare III Rushatsi                 (d. c.1709)
c.1709 - c.1739            Mwezi III Ndagushimiye             (d. c.1739)
c.1739 - c.1767            Mutaga III Senyamwiza              (d. c.1767)             
c.1767 - c.1796            Mwambutsa III Syarushambo Butama   (d. c.1796)
c.1796 - c.1850            Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba        (d. c.1850)
c.1850 - 21 Aug 1908       Mwezi IV Gisabo¹                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
c.1852 - 185.              Ndivarije -Regent
c.1860 -  9 May 1905       Macoonco (in rebellion)²           (b. 18.. - d. 1905)
c.1860 - Apr 1906          Cyilima (in rebellion)²
1908 - 30 Nov 1915         Mutaga IV Mbikije                  (b. 1903 - d. 1915)
1908 - 1915                Regency
                           - Ririkumutima (f)                 (d. 1917)      
                           - Ntarugera (1st time)             (d. 1921)
                           - Nduwumwe (1st time)              (d. 1958)
16 Dec 1915 -  8 Jul 1966  Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng           (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
1915 - 28 Aug 1929         Regency
                           - Ngezamayo (to 1915)
                           - Ndirikumutama (f)(2nd time)      (s.a.)     
                              (to 1917) 
                           - Ntarugera (2nd time)(to 1921)    (s.a.)
                           - Nduwumwe (2nd time)(to 19..)     (s.a.)
                           - Karabona                         (d. af.1929)
                           - Mbanzabugabo (from 1922)         (d. 1930)
                           - Pierre Baranyanka (from 1923)    (b. 1890 - d. 1973)
 8 Jul 1966 -  1 Sep 1966  Prince Charles Ndizeye (acting)    (b. 1947 - d. 1972)
                             (Head of State)
 1 Sep 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Ntare V Ndizeye (= Charles Ndizeye)(s.a.)
Presidents
28 Nov 1966 -  1 Nov 1976  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (b. 1940 - d. 1983)  Mil/UPRONA
 2 Nov 1976 -  3 Sep 1987  Jean-Baptiste Bagaza (Tutsi)       (b. 1946 - d. 2016)  Mil;1980
                             (chairman Supreme Revolutionary Council to 10 Nov 1976)   UPRONA
 3 Sep 1987 - 10 Jul 1993  Pierre Buyoya (1st time) (Tutsi)   (b. 1949)            Mil/UPRONA
                             (chairman Committee of National Salvation to 9 Sep 1987)
10 Jul 1993 - 21 Oct 1993  Melchior Ndadaye (Hutu)            (b. 1953 - d. 1993)  FRODEBU 
21 Oct 1993 - 27 Oct 1993  François Ngeze (Hutu)                                   UPRONA
                             (chairman Committee of Public Salvation, in rebellion)
27 Oct 1993 -  5 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f) (acting) (Tutsi) (b. 1953)            UPRONA
 5 Feb 1994 -  6 Apr 1994  Cyprien Ntaryamira (Hutu)          (b. 1955 - d. 1994)  FRODEBU 
 6 Apr 1994 - 25 Jul 1996  Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Hutu)    (b. 1956)            FRODEBU 
                             (acting to 1 Oct 1994)
25 Jul 1996 - 30 Apr 2003  Pierre Buyoya (2nd time) (Tutsi)   (s.a.)               Mil/UPRONA
                             (provisional to 11 Jun 1998)
30 Apr 2003 - 26 Aug 2005  Domitien Ndayizeye (Hutu)          (b. 1953)            FRODEBU 
26 Aug 2005 -              Pierre Nkurunziza (Hutu)           (b. 1964)            CNDD-FDD
13 May 2015 - 15 May 2015  Godefroid Niyombare (Hutu)         (b. 1969)            Mil
                             (head of transitional committee, in rebellion) 


Prime ministers
26 Jan 1961 - 28 Sep 1961  Joseph Cimpaye (Hutu)              (b. 1932 - d. 1972)  UPP
28 Sep 1961 - 13 Oct 1961  Prince Louis Rwagasore (Tutsi)     (b. 1932 - d. 1961)  UPRONA
20 Oct 1961 - 10 Jun 1963  André Muhirwa (Tutsi)              (b. 1920 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
18 Jun 1963 -  6 Apr 1964  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (b. 1930 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
                             (1st time)
 6 Apr 1964 -  7 Jan 1965  Albin Nyamoya (1st time)(Hutu)     (b. 1924 - d. 2001)  UPRONA
 7 Jan 1965 - 15 Jan 1965  Pierre Ngendandumwe (Hutu)         (s.a.)               UPRONA
                             (2nd time)
15 Jan 1965 - 26 Jan 1965  Pié Masumbuko (acting) (Tutsi)     (b. 1931)            UPRONA
26 Jan 1965 - 30 Sep 1965  Joseph Bamina (Hutu)               (b. 1925 - d. 1965)  UPRONA
13 Oct 1965 -  8 Jul 1966  Léopold Biha (Tutsi)               (b. 1919 - d. 2003)  UPRONA
11 Jul 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Michel Micombero (Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
28 Nov 1966 - 15 Jul 1972  Post abolished
15 Jul 1972 -  5 Jun 1973  Albin Nyamoya (2nd time) (Hutu)    (s.a.)               UPRONA
  5 Jun 1973 - 12 Nov 1976  Post abolished
12 Nov 1976 - 13 Oct 1978  Édouard Nzambimana (Tutsi)         (b. 1945)            UPRONA
13 Oct 1978 - 19 Oct 1988  Post abolished
19 Oct 1988 - 10 Jul 1993  Adrien Sibomana (Hutu)             (b. 1953)            UPRONA
10 Jul 1993 -  7 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f)(Tutsi)           (s.a.)               UPRONA
 7 Feb 1994 - 22 Feb 1995  Anatole Kanyenkiko (Tutsi)         (b. 1952)            UPRONA 
22 Feb 1995 - 31 Jul 1996  Antoine Nduwayo (Tutsi)            (b. 1942)            UPRONA 
31 Jul 1996 - 12 Jun 1998  Pascal-Firmin Ndimira (Hutu)       (b. 1956)            UPRONA
12 Jun 1998                Post abolished
 
German Commanders of the station of Kajaga
1896                       Ullman
1896 - 1897                Muller                             (d. 1897)
German Commanders of the station of Usumbura
1897 - 1898                Konstantin Cramer
1898 - 1902                Werner von Grawert (1st time)      (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
1902 - 1904                Robert von Beringe                 (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
1904 - 15 Nov 1907         Werner von Grawert (2nd time)      (s.a.)
German Residents
15 Nov 1907 - 1908         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Sep 1908 - Jan 1909        Heinrich Fonck (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
Jan 1909 - Apr 1909        Eberhard Gudowius                  (b. 1878 - d. 1945)
Apr 1909 - Sep 1909        Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (b. 1872 - d. 1917)
                             (1st time)
Sep 1909 - Jan 1910        Otto Brentzel
Jan 1910 - Jan 1911        Wilhelm Göring
Jan 1911 - May 1911        Kurt von Stegmann und Stein
May 1911 -  6 Jun 1916    
Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1913                       Karl von Boch
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
May 1913 - Aug 1914        Karl Schimmer                      (b. 1877 - d. 1915)
                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Aug 1914 - 1916            Wolff

                             (acting for 
Langenn-Steinkeller)
Belgian Residents
1916 - Dec 1918            Édouard van den Eede               (b. 1888 - d. 1947) 
                             (military resident)
Jan 1919 - 1928            Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
1928 - 12 May 1929         Oscar Defawe (acting)              (b. 1892 - d. 1952)
 1 Feb 1930 - 24 Dec 1930  Charles, baron de l'Épine          (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
                             (interim)
24 Dec 1930 - 17 Jul 1933  Léon Borgers                       (b. 1897 - d. 19..)
17 Jul 1933 - 1935         Oger Coubeau                       (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
1935 - 1937                R. Hombert
12 Jan 1938 - 1940         René Verstappen (acting)           (b. 1895 - d. 19..)
Mar 1941 - 1944            George Victor Sandrart             (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
 2 Feb 1944 - Jul 1953     Robert Schmidt                     (b. 1908)
Jul 1953 - 1956            Fernand Siroux                     (b. 1908)
1956 - 28 Oct 1959         Robert Scheyven                    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
28 Oct 1959 - 28 Jul 1961  Ivan Reisdorff                     (b. 1913 - d. 1981)
28 Jul 1961 - Jan 1962     Roberto Régnier
High Representatives
Jan 1962 - 1962            Roberto Régnier
1962 -  1 Jul 1962         Édouard Henniquiau                 (b. 1911 - d. 199.)

 ¹The names of the kings followed a fixed cycle: Ntare, Mwezi, Mutaga, Mwambutsa. Traditionally it was thought that there were four full cycles, but today it is believed there were only two.

 ²On 6 Jun 1903 the German authorities imposed on Mwezi Gisabo the independence of the two chiefs Macoonco and Cyilima. On 8 Oct 1905 the Germans recognized Mwezi Gisabo as "Sultan" of Burundi and its only supreme authority. 

Note: Ethnic groups, which play a preeminent role in politics, are listed in parentheses following names i.e. (Hutu) or (Tutsi). All the kings (mwami) were ethnic Tutsi.

Territorial Disputes: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region.

Party abbreviations: CNDD-FDD = Conseil National pour la Défense de la Démocratie-Forces pour la Défense de la Démocratie (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy, multi-ethnic Hutu dominated, legalized 2005, est.1994); FRODEBU = Front Démocratique Burundi (Burundi Democratic Front, Hutu moderate, legalized 1992, est.1986); UPRONA = Parti de l'Union et du Progrès National (Party of National Union and Progress, authoritarian, multi-ethnic Tutsi dominated, only legal party 1966-76, 1980-91, dissolved Nov 1976-1980, est.1957); Mil = Military;
- Former partiesUPP = Union des Partis Populaires (Union of People's Parties)


Martyazo
 
[Flag Martyazo
                1972]
                   1 - 9 May 1972

                       
 1 May 1972                Hutu rebels proclaim secessionist state Republic of Martyazo
                             inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba
                             and Lake Nyanza.
 9 May 1972                Rebellion ended by Tusti dominated national government.

President
 1 May 1972 -  9 May 1972  Antoine Serukwavu? (Hutu)          (d. 19..)            Mil



Ruanda-Urundi
 
[German Empire
                          1870-1919 (Germany)]
1896 - May/Sep 1916
[Flag of Belgium]
May/Sep 1916 - 1 Jun 1962
Map of Ruanda-Urundi
Hear National Anthem
"La Brabançonne"
(The Song of Brabant)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1830/1921
(Lyrics 1860)

Constitution
Capital: Bujumbura
(Boma, Belgian Congo
 1916-23; Léopoldville 1923-24)

Currency: Ruanda and
Urundi
Franc (BRIF)
 2 Sep 1960-1964;
Belgian Congo Franc
(CBEF) 1919-1960

National Holiday:
21 Jul (1831)

Fête Nationale
(National Day)

Population: 4,700,000
(1958 est.)
3,754,000 (1939)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: 60.2 million
 (BEF) (1939)

Imports: 84.3 million
 (BEF) (1939)

Ethnic Groups: Hutu, Tutsi, Pygmy, European (1,227)
(1939)

Total Armed Forces: N/A
Merchant marine: N/A
Religions: Roman Catholic, others
International Organizations: ITU (associate), UNESCO (associate), UPU, WHO (associate), WMO

1892                       German expedition reaches Ruanda.
1896                       Military station was established at Kajaga in Urundi
                             (in 1897, relocated to Usumbura); part of the military
                             district of Ujiji (or Tangnyika-Kivu).
1899                       Military district of Usumbura (Ruanda-Urundi) formed within
                             German East Africa (see Tanzania).
1906                       Becomes a military residency.
15 Nov 1907                Divided into two civil residencies: Ruanda and Urundi.
19 May 1916/18 Sep 1916    Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa; Nyaza (19 May
                             1916), Ruanda (17 Jun 1916), Urundi (6 Jul 1916), Usui (29 Jul
                             1916 - Mar 1921), Ujiji and Kigoma (20 Jul 1916 [Ujiji to 22 Mar
                             1921]), and Tabora region (18 Sep 1916 - Feb 1917).
30 May 1919                Orts-Milner Convention with Britain; only Ruanda and Urundi
                             remain under Belgian administration.
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations Mandate of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Mar 1926 - 30 Jun 1960  Administrative union with Belgian Congo.
13 Dec 1946                United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi.
 1 Jul 1962                Independence of both territories.

German Commanders of the Military District of Udjidji (Ujiji)
1896 - 189.                Hans von Ramsay                    (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
1898 - 1901                Heinrich Bethe
German Commanders of the Military District of Usumbura (Bujumbura)
1899 - 1902                Heinrich Bethe 
1902 - 1904                Robert "Oskar" von Beringe         (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
1904 - 1906                Werner von Grawert                 (b. 1867 - d. 1918)
German Resident of Urundi and Ruanda
1906 - 15 Nov 1907         Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
Belgian Military Commanders
- Commanders of the Northern brigade -
(operating in territories south of lake Victoria, including Northern Ruanda)
1916                       Philippe François Joseph Molitor   (b. 1869 - d. 1952)
1916 -  1917               Armand Christophe Huyghé           (b. 1871 - d. 1944) 
- Commander of the Southern Brigade -
(operating in territories east of the Kivu and Tanganyika lakes,
including Southern Ruanda and Urundi) 
1916 - 1917                Frederik Voldemar Olsen            (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
Military Governor of the Occupied East African Territories
1916 - 22 Nov 1916         Charles Henry Marie Ernest         (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
                             Tombeur, baron Tombeur de Tabora 
Royal Commissioners for Occupied East Africa
22 Nov 1916 - May 1919     Justin Prudent François Marie      (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
                             Malfeyt
May 1919 - 20 Oct 1924     Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
Nov 1921 - Jul 1922        Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
                             (acting for Marzorati)
Royal Commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi
20 Oct 1924 - 28 Aug 1926  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
15 Nov 1925 - 13 Dec 1926  Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (s.a.)
                             (acting [for Marzorati to 28 Aug 1926]) 
Governors (also deputy governors-general of the Belgian Congo)
28 Aug 1926 -  5 Feb 1929  Alfred Frédéric Gérard Marzorati   (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1929 -  4 Jul 1930  Louis Joseph Postiaux (acting)     (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
 4 Jul 1930 - 18 Aug 1932  Charles Henri Joseph Voisin        (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
18 Aug 1932 -  5 Jul 1946  Eugène Jacques Pierre Louis        (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             Jungers
 5 Jul 1946 - Aug 1949     Maurice Simon (acting to 1947)     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
Aug 1949 -  1 Jan 1952     Léon Antoine Marie Pétillon        (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
 1 Jan 1952 -  1 Mar 1955  Alfred Maria Josephus Ghislencus   (b. 1906 - d. 1993)
                             Claeys-Boúúaert 
 1 Mar 1955 - 1960         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
Resident-general 
1960 - 11 Jan 1962         Jean-Paul Harroy                   (s.a.)

Commander of the Allied Occupation Force
1916 - 1917                Gustave Eugène Henri Stevens       (b. 1866 - d. 1928)
                             (Belgium)
Chief Political Affairs Officer
191. - 19..                Nigel Edward Frank Corbett (U.K.)  (b. 1876 - d. 19..)




© Ben Cahoon