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Congo (Kinshasa)
 
[Flag of Congo
                            Free State, Belgian Congo, 1877-1960]
      21 Jun 1877 - 30 Jun 1960
[Republic of
                            the Congo 1960-63]
              1 Jul 1960 - 1 Jul 1963
[Democratic
                            Republic of the Congo 1963-1966]
              1 Jul 1963 - 1 Dec 1966
[Democratic
                            Republic of the Congo 1966-1971]
            1 Dec 1966 - 21 Nov 1971
[Republic of
                            Zaire flag 1971-1997]
          21 Nov 1971 - 17 May 1997
[Democratic
                            Republic of the Congo Flag 1997-2006]
           17 May 1997 - 18 Feb 2006
[Democratic Republic of Congo flag]
                Adopted 18 Feb 2006


Map of Congo (Kinshasa)
Hear National Anthem
"Debout Congolaise!"
(Arise Congolese!)
30 Jun 1960 - 27 Oct 1971;
re-adopted 17 May 1997
Former National Anthem
"La Zaïroise"
(Song of Zaire)
(27 Oct 1971 - 17 May 1997)
--------------------------------------
 Belgian Congo Anthem
"Naar Wijd en Zijd /Vers
 l'Avenir" (Towards the Future) (1905-1960)

Constitution
(18 Feb 2006; in French)
----------------------------------
Zaire Constitution
(19 Nov 1971 - 17 May 1997;
in French)
Capital: Kinshasa
(Léopoldville 1929-24 Dec 1966;
Boma 1886-20 Nov 1929)
Currency: Congolese Franc
(CDF); 1993-98 New Zaïre
(ZRN); 1967-93 Zaïre (ZRZ);
1960-67 Congolese Franc (CDG);
1885-1960 Belgian Congo
Franc (CBEF)
National Holiday: 30 Jun (1960)
Independence Day
Population: 75,507,308 (2013)
GDP: $29.39 billion (2013)
Exports: $9.93 billion (2013)
Imports: $8.92 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Luba 18%, Kongo (all Bantu) 16.1%,
Mongo 13.5%, and the Mangbetu-Azande
(Hamitic) 6.1%, Rwanda 10.3%, Bangi and Ngale 5.8%,
Rundi 3.8%, Teke 2.7%, Boa 2.3%, Chokwe 1.8%,
Lugbara 1.6%, Banda 1.4%, other 16.6% (1983)
Total Armed Forces: 151,251 (2010)
UN MONUSCO Force: 21,186 (2014)
Merchant marine: 1 ship (2010) 
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%,
Kimbanguist (indigenous Christian) 10%,
Muslim 10%,
other syncretic
sects and traditional beliefs 10% (2004)
International Organizations/Treaties: 1885 - 1908: ICRM, ITU, UPU; from 1960: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU, BTWC, CCM (signatory), CEEAC, CEPGL, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, EAC (applicant), ENMOD (signatory), ESCR, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (suspended), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA (signatory), ISA, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Congo Index
Chronology

12 Sep 1876                Congo colonization, funded by the King of Belgium,
                             begins.
22 Apr 1884                International Association of the Congo (as an
                             independent state)
23 Feb 1885                Sovereign status of the International Association
                             of the Congo recognized by Berlin Conference.
29 May 1885                Independent State of the Congo ("Congo Free
                             State")(with the King of Belgium Leopold II as
                             sovereign).
1892 - Dec 1894/Jan 1895   Ubangui-Bomu territory claimed by Congo
                             Free State.
15 Nov 1908                Annexation by Belgium (Belgian Congo).
25 May 1940 -  8 Sep 1944  Administration loyal to the Belgian government 
                             in exile.
 1 Jul 1960                Independence (Republic of the Congo).
11 Jul 1960 - 14 Jan 1963  Secession of Katanga.
 8 Aug 1960 - Jul 1962     South Kasai declares itself sovereign, 
                             styled État Minier.
 1 Aug 1964                Democratic Republic of the Congo
 7 Sep 1964 - Dec 1965     People's Republic of the Congo proclaimed 
                             in dissidence at Stanleyville.
29 Oct 1971                Republic of Zaire
17 May 1997                Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
2 Aug 1998 -  2 Apr 2003  Rebellion in eastern Congo led by RDC (see below).

Provinces
Traditional States
 UN Operations
(1960-1964,
from 2000)
Rebel Government at
Stanleyville

(1964-1965)
Rebel
Governments

(1998-2003)
Arab Military
Territory

(1887-1894)
Historical Maps
of Congo
Map of Congo
Crisis 1960 - 1964
Map of Zaire (1997)
Map of 2006
Proposed Provinces
 


Secretaries-general of the International Association for Africa 
Oct 1876 - Nov 1878        Jules Xavier Charles Joseph        (b. 1835 - d. 1917)
                             Léonard, Baron Greindl 
15 Nov 1878 - Oct 1882     Maximilien Charles Ferdinand       (b. 1819 - d. 1911)
                             Strauch (from 1882, President of
                             Committee for the Studies of Upper Congo)
President of the International Association of the Congo [AIC])
Oct 1882 - 29 May 1885     Maximilien Charles Ferdinand       (s.a.)
                             Strauch
Sovereign¹
29 May 1885 - 15 Nov 1908  opold II                         (b. 1835 - d. 1909) 

Plenipotentiary of the Comité d'études du Haut-Congo (from 1882, AIC) in Africa
1879 - 1884                Henry Morton Stanley               (b. 1841 - d. 1904)
Commandants of the Station at Karema (leading station)
12 Aug 1879 - Dec 1880     Ernest François Cambier            (b. 1844 - d. 1909)
 5 Dec 1880 - 25 Feb 1882  Guillaume Jules Arthur Ramaeckers  (b. 1848 - d. 1882)
25 Feb 1882 - 19 Sep 1882  Jérôme Becker                      (b. 1850 - d. 1912)
19 Sep 1882 - Dec 1885     Émile Pierre Joseph Storms         (b. 1846 - d. 1918) 
23 Apr 1883 - Sep 1883     Richard Böhm (acting for Storms)   (b. 1854 - d. 1884)
Administrators-general
22 Apr 1884 - Mar 1886     Sir Francis Walter de Winton       (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
22 Apr 1884 - Jun 1884     Sir Frederic John Goldsmid         (b. 1818 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Winton)
30 Jul 1886 - 26 Mar 1887  Camille Janssen                    (b. 1837 - d. 1926)
Governors-general
26 Mar 1887 - 17 Apr 1891  Camille Janssen                    (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1888 - 1889         Herman Ledeganck                   (b. 1841 - d. 1908)
                             (acting for Janssen)
17 Apr 1891 -  8 May 1891  Henri Ernest Gondry (acting)       (b. 1845 - d. 1889)
 8 May 1891 - 26 Aug 1892  Camille Aimé Coquilhat (1st time)  (b. 1853 - d. 1891)
                             (acting)
26 Aug 1892 -  4 Sep 1896  Théophile Théodore Joseph Antoine, (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
                             Baron Wahis (1st time) 
 4 Sep 1896 - 21 Dec 1900  Émile Wangermée (acting)           (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
21 Dec 1900 - Dec 1900     Bartels (acting)
Dec 1900 - 20 May 1912     Théophile Théodore Joseph Antoine, (s.a.)
                             Baron Wahis (2nd time)
20 May 1912 -  5 Jan 1916  Félix Alexandre Fuchs              (b. 1858 - d. 1928)
 5 Jan 1916 - 30 Jan 1921  Eugène Joseph Marie Henry          (b. 1862 - d. 1930)
30 Jan 1921 - 24 Jan 1923  Maurice Eugène Auguste Lippens     (b. 1875 - d. 1956)
24 Jan 1923 - 27 Dec 1927  Martin Joseph Marie René Rutten    (b. 1876 - d. 1944)
27 Dec 1927 - 14 Sep 1934  Auguste Constant Tilkens           (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
1929 - 1930                Charles Duchesne                   (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
                             (acting for Tilkens)
14 Sep 1934 - 31 Dec 1946  Pierre Marie Joseph Ryckmans       (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
 1 Jan 1947 -  1 Jan 1952  Eugène Jacques Pierre              (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             Louis Jungers
 1 Jan 1952 - 12 Jul 1958  Léon Antoine Marie Pétillon        (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
12 Jul 1958 - 30 Jun 1960  Henri Arthur Adolf Marie           (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
                             Christopher Cornélis
Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 25 Nov 1965  Joseph Kasavubu                    (b. 1910? - d. 1969) ABAKO
                             (Head of State to 1 Aug 1964)
31 Mar 1961 -  5 Aug 1961  Antoine Gizenga                    (b. 1925)            MNC-L
                             (Head of State, in rebellion, at Stanleyville)
25 Nov 1965 - 16 May 1997  Mobutu Sese Seko                   (b. 1930 - d. 1997) Mil;1967 MRP
                             (until 10 Jan 1972 Joseph-Désiré Mobutu)
17 May 1997 - 16 Jan 2001  Laurent Désiré Kabila              (b. 1939 - d. 2001)  AFDL
                             (Head of State to 29 May 1997)
17 Jan 2001 -              Joseph Kabila Kabange              (b. 1971)         AFDL;2002 PPRD
                             (interim to 26 Jan 2001) 
 

Chief ministers (Administrators-general for Home Affairs to 1891,
then Secretaries of State for Home Affairs)(in Brussels)
1885 - 1888                Maximilien Charles Ferdinand       (s.a.)               Non-party
                             Strauch 
1888 - 1890                Camille Aimé Coquilhat             (s.a.)               Non-party
1890 - 1898                Edmond van Eetvelde (1st time)     (b. 1852 - d. 1925)  Non-party
1899 - 1900                Edmond van Eetvelde (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
Prime ministers
24 Jun 1960 -  5 Sep 1960² Patrice Emery Lumumba              (b. 1925 - d. 1961)  MNC-L
 5 Sep 1960 - 20 Sep 1960  Joseph Iléo (1st time)             (b. 1921 - d. 1994)  MNC-K 
Chairmen of the Board of Commissioners-general
20 Sep 1960 -  3 Oct 1960  Albert Ndele                       (b. 1930)            ABAKO
 4 Oct 1960 -  9 Feb 1961  Justin Marie Bomboko               (b. 1928)            UNIMO
Prime ministers
13 Dec 1960 -  5 Aug 1961  Antoine Gizenga                    (s.a.)               MNC-L
                             (in rebellion, at Stanleyville)
 9 Feb 1961 -  2 Aug 1961  Joseph Iléo (2nd time)             (s.a.)               MNC-K
 2 Aug 1961 - 30 Jun 1964  Cyrille Adoula                     (b. 1921 - d. 1978)  Non-party
10 Jul 1964 - 13 Oct 1965  Moïse Kapenda Tshombé              (b. 1919 - d. 1969)  CONAKAT
18 Oct 1965 - 14 Nov 1965  Évariste Kimba                     (b. 1926 - d. 1966)  BALUBAKAT
25 Nov 1965 - 26 Oct 1966  Léonard Mulumba                    (b. 1928 - d. 1986)  Mil
First state commissioners (prime ministers)
 6 Jul 1977 -  6 Mar 1979  Mpinga Kasenga                     (b. 1937 - d. 1994)  MPR
 6 Mar 1979 - 27 Aug 1980  Bo-Boliko Lokonga Monse Mihambo    (b. 1934)            MPR
27 Aug 1980 - 23 Apr 1981  Jean Nguza Karl-I-Bond (1st time)  (b. 1938 - d. 2003)  MPR
23 Apr 1981 -  5 Nov 1982  N'singa Udjuu Ongwabeki Untubu     (b. 1934)            MPR
 5 Nov 1982 - 31 Oct 1986  Kengo Wa Dondo (1st time)          (b. 1935)            MPR
                             (Joseph-Léon Lubicz)
22 Jan 1987 -  7 Mar 1988  Mabi Mulumba                       (b. 1941)            MPR
 7 Mar 1988 - 26 Nov 1988  Sambwa Pida Nbagui                 (b. 1940 - d. 1998)  MPR
26 Nov 1988 -  4 May 1990  Kengo Wa Dondo (2nd time)          (s.a.)               MPR
 4 May 1990 -  1 Apr 1991  Lunda Bululu                       (b. 1942)            MPR
 1 Apr 1991 - 29 Sep 1991  Mulumba Lukoji                     (b. 1943 - d. 1997)  MPR
29 Sep 1991 -  1 Nov 1991  Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba      (b. 1932)            UDPS
                             (1st time) 
 1 Nov 1991 - 25 Nov 1991  Bernardin Mungul Diaka             (b. 1933 - d. 1999)  RDR
25 Nov 1991 - 15 Aug 1992  Jean Nguza Karl-I-Bond (2nd time)  (s.a.)               UFERI
15 Aug 1992 - 18 Mar 1993  Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba      (s.a.)               UDPS
                             (2nd time) 
18 Mar 1993 - 14 Jan 1994  Faustin Birindwa                   (b. 1943 - d. 1999)  UDPS
 6 Jul 1994 -  2 Apr 1997  Kengo Wa Dondo (3rd time)          (s.a.)               UDI
 2 Apr 1997 -  9 Apr 1997³ Étienne Tshisekedi wa Mulumba      (s.a.)               UDPS
                             (3rd time) 
 9 Apr 1997 - 16 May 1997  Likulia Bolongo                    (b. 1939)            Non-party
16 May 1997 - 30 Dec 2006  Post abolished
Prime ministers
30 Dec 2006 - 10 Oct 2008  Antoine Gizenga                    (s.a.)               PALU
10 Oct 2008 -  6 Mar 2012  Adolphe Muzito                     (b. 1957)            PALU
 6 Mar 2012 - 18 Apr 2012  Louis Koyagialo (acting)           (b. 1947 - d. 2014)  PPRD
18 Apr 2012 -              Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon        (b. 1964)            PPRD     

 

U.N. Operations in the Congo 

Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (from May 1961, Officers-in-charge)
Jul 1960 - Aug 1960        Ralph J. Bunche (U.S.)             (b. 1904 - d. 1971)
Aug 1960 - Sep 1960        Andrew W.Cordier (U.S.)            (b. 1901 - d. 1975)
Sep 1960 - May 1961        Rajeshwar Dayal (India)            (b. 1909 - d. 1999)
Mar 1961 - May 1961        Mekki Abbas (The Sudan)(acting)
May 1961 - 31 Jan 1962     Sture Linnér (Sweden)              (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
 1 Feb 1962 - May 1963     Robert K.A. Gardiner (Ghana)       (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
 1 May 1963 - Apr 1964     Max H. Dorsinville (Haiti)         (b. 1910 - d. 2005)
Apr 1964 - Jun 1964        Bibiano F. Osorio-Tafall (Mexico)  (b. 1902 - d. 1990)
Force Commanders of United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC)

Jul 1960 - Dec 1960        Carl Carlsson von Horn (Sweden)    (b. 1903 - d. 1989)
Jan 1961 - Mar 1962        Seán MacEoin (Ireland)            
(b. 1893 - d. 1973)
Apr 1962 - Jul 1963        Kebede Gebre (Ethiopia)            (d. 1974)
Aug 1963 - Dec 1963        Christian Roy Kaldager (Norway)    (b. 1908 - d. 2005)
Jan 1964 - Jun 1964        Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi (Nigeria)    (b. 1924 - d. 1966)
Force Commanders UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
(from 1 Jul 2010, UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [MONUSCO])

 1 Mar 2000 -  1 Jan 2004  Mountaga Diallo (Senegal)
 1 Jan 2004 - 28 Feb 2005  Samaila Iliya (Nigeria)            (b. 1952)
 4 Apr 2005 -  Oct 2008    Babacar Gaye (1st time)(Senegal)   (b. 1951)
Oct 2008 - Nov 2008        Vicente Diaz de Villegas (Spain)   (b. 1948)
Nov 2008 -  9 Jul 2010     Babacar Gaye (2nd time)(Senegal)   (s.a.)
 9 Jul 2010 - 31 Mar 2013  Chander Prakash Wadhwa (India)     (b. 1953)
 4 Jun 2013 -              Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz     (b. 1952)
                             (Brazil)

 ¹Full style of the ruler 29 May 1885 - 15 Nov 1908: Roi de Belges, Souverain de l'État Indépendant du Congo ("King of the Belgians, Sovereign of the Independent State of the Congo"). Normally as part of the executive formula: Léopold II Roi de Belges, Souverain de l'État Indépendant du Congo; also in official use as a term of reference to the holder of the office: Roi-Souverain.

 ²President Kasavubu dismissed Prime Minister Lumumba on 5 Sep 1960 and appointed Iléo in his place, but this was not recognized by parliament and Lumumba continued as prime minister of a rival government until 14 Sep 1960.

 3Regarding the appointment of Birindwa as illegal, Tshisekedi continued as prime minister of a rival government into 1994. Tshisekedi had already been effectively suspended on 11 Dec 1992, when President Mobutu named Nicolas Zushi Mupiemina as chairman of a Board of Secretaries-General to take over coordination of the government.

Territorial Disputes: Heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Party abbreviations: PALU = Parti Lumumbiste Unifié (Unified Lumumbist Party, left-wing, nationalist, est.1964); PPRD = Parti du Peuple pour la Reconstruction et la Démocratie (People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy, center-left, pro-Joseph Kabila, est.2002); UDPS = Union pour la Démocratie et le Progrès Social (Democratic Union for the Social Progress, social-democratic, est.1982); UFERI = Union des Fédéralistes et des Républicains Indépendants (Union of Independent Federalists and Republicans, liberal, populist, est.1990); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ABAKO = Alliance des Bakongo (Alliance of the Bakongo, conservative, federalist, Bakongo dominated, 1950-1965); AFDL = Alliance des Forces Démocratiques pour la Libération du Congo (Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo -only legal party from 1997, L. Kablia personalist, 1996-2002); BALUBAKAT = Association des Baluba du Katanga (Association of the Baluba of Katanga, Baluba dominated, 1957-1965); CONAKATConfédération des Associations Tribales du Katanga (Confederation of Tribal Associations of Katanga, Katangan secessionist, Lunda dominated, 1958-1963); MNC-L = Mouvement National Congolais-Lumumba (Congolese National Movement-Lumumba faction, left-wing, nationalist, 1959-1965); MNC-K = Mouvement National Congolais-Kalonji (Congolese National Movement-Kalonji faction, Albert Kalonji personalist, moderate, split from MNC, 1959-1962); MPR = Mouvement Populaire Révolutionnaire (Popular Revolutionary Movement, nationalist, Mobuto personalist, est.1966, only legal party 23 Dec 1970 - Jan 1991); RDR = Rassemblement Démocratique pour la République (Democratic Rally for the Republic); UNIMO = Union des Mongo (Union of Mongo, Mongo ethnic, 1960-1965)


Rebel government (People's Republic of Congo) (at Stanleyville; from Nov 1964 in exile)

[People's Republic of Congo
                flag, 1964-65]
            7 Sep 1964 - Dec 1965


Map of People's Republic
of Congo
Capital: Stanleyville

 7 Sep 1964 - Dec 1965     People's Republic of the Congo proclaimed at
                             at Stanleyvile in eastern provinces.

Presidents
21 Jul 1964 -  7 Sep 1964  Gaston Émile Soumialot Ete Tambwe  (b. 1922 - d. 2007)  CNL
                             (head of the Provisional Government)
 7 Sep 1964 - 27 May 1965  Christophe Gbenye                  (b. 1927)            CNL
President of the Supreme Council of the Congolese Revolution
27 May 1965 -  6 Aug 1965  Gaston Émile Soumialot Ete Tambwe  (s.a.)               CNL

Chairman of the Revolutionary Government
27 May 1965 -  5 Aug 1965  Christophe Gbenye                  (s.a.)               CNL
Chairmen of the Executive Council
 6 Aug 1965 -  8 Dec 1965  Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi         (b. 1933)            CNL
                             (Singama Luvila)

Party abbreviation: CNL = Conseil National de Libération (National Liberation Council, leftist, nationalist, 1963-1965)


Rebel governments: 1998-2003
[Congo-Léopoldville
                  flag of 1963 used by RCD 1998-2003]
          Aug 1998 - 8 Apr 2003
 
Map of Rebel Held Congo
Territory 2001
Capitals: Kisangani (RCD-K) to 1999 then Bunia; Goma
 (RCD-G); Gbadolite (MLC)

 2 Aug 1998                Second Congo War begins in Goma as a rebellion against the Congo
                             government of Laurent Kabila, aided by Rwanda and Uganda.
23 Aug 1998                Rebels and Rwandans seize Kisangani.
Sep 1998                   Rebels and Rwandans seize Kitona, and move on Kinshasa. Zimbabwe
                             and Angola intervene to save Kabila from being overthrown, and
                             beat back the rebels and their allies from the capital city.
18 Apr 1999                Cease-fire accord in Sirte, Libya by Uganda and Congo. RCD and
                             Rwanda refuse to be bound by the agreement.
16 May 1999                RCD rebel movement is split into two factions RCD-Kisangani and
                             RCD-Goma.

10 Jul 1999                Lusaka Agreement signed by Angola, Congo (Kinshasa), Namibia,
                             Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe and later MLC (1 Aug 1999)
                             and RCD-G (31 Aug 1999), it fails to stop the war.
 5 Nov 1999                Security Council established the United Nations Mission in the
                             Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC)(deployed in 2000).
16 Jan 2001                Congo President Laurent Kabila assassinated, his son Joseph
                             Kabila succeeds him
17 Jan 2002                Mount Nyiragongo volcano erupts devastating large swathes of Goma.
25 Apr 2002                RCD-ML signs peace agreement with Congo government which is 
                             not supported by RCD-G.
10 Jun 2000                RCD-G takes control of Kisangani, supported by Ugandan and
                             Rwandan troops.
 6 Sep 2002                Luanda Agreement signed by Uganda and Congo.
Oct 2002                   Rwanda forces withdraw from eastern Congo.
12 Dec 2002                Pretoria Accord is signed by the Congo government, RCD, MLC,
                             RCD-K-ML and RCD-N confirming a transitional government and
                             demobilization. By the end of 2002, Zimbabwe, Namibia, and
                             Angola withdraw from the Congo.
31 Dec 2002                Gbadolite Agreement signed by MLC, RCD-ML and RCD-N.
 2 Apr 2003                Final Act of Pretoria Accord signed in Sun City formally ending
                             the civil war. Ugandan forces withdraw in May 2003.

Presidents (Coordinators) of the Congolese Rally for Democracy
- in Goma to 5 Apr 1999; in Kisangani 5 Apr - 1 Oct 1999; then Bunia, later Isiro) 
12 Aug 1998 -  2 Apr 2003  Ernest Wamba dia Wamba             (b. 1942)           RCD;May 1999
                             (in dissidence to RCD-G from 16 May 1999)       RCD-K;1999 RCD-ML
 3 Nov 2000 -  2 Apr 2003  Antipas Mbusa Nyamwisi             (b. 1959)            RCD-K-ML
                             (in dissidence to RCD-ML, in Beni)
- in Goma -

16 May 1999 - 28 Oct 2000  Émile Ilunga Kalambo               (b. 1941)            RCD-G
28 Oct 2000 -  2 Apr 2003  Adolphe Onusumba Yemba             (b. 1965)            RCD-G
President and Commander-in-chief of the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo
-
in Kisangani to Jun 2000, then in Gbadolite - 
16 May 1999 -  2 Apr 2003  Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo            (b. 1962)            MLC 

Party abbreviations: MLC = Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo (Movement for the Liberation of Congo, anti-Kabila, Jean-Pierre Bemba faction, Ugandan backed, est.Nov 1998); RCD = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie (Congolese Rally for Democracy, Rwandan backed, split into RCD-G and RCD-K, 12 Aug 1998-May 1999); RCD-G = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie - Goma (Congolese Rally for Democracy-Goma, anti-Kabila, backed by Rwanda; est.May 1999); RCD-K = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie - Kisangani (Congolese Rally for Democracy - Kisangani, anti-Kabila, est. by Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, est.May 1999); RCD-K-ML = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie - Kisangani - Mouvement de Libération (Congolese Rally for Democracy-Kisangani- Movement of Liberation, split from RCD-K by Mbusa Nyamwisi, controlling Beni area, 1999-2003, renamed Forces du Renouveau); RCD-ML = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie-Mouvement de Libération (Congolese Rally for Democracy-Liberation Movement, Ugandan backed, est.Sep 1999); RDC-N = Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie - National (Congolese Rally for Democracy - RCD-ML splinter faction under Roger Lumbala, supported MLC, controlling Isrio area, est.Oct 2000)



Arab Military Territory

[Arab Military Territory Tippo
                Tib]

c.1870                     Arab traders establish their trading posts (in the course
                             of the following years - through a network of fortified 
                             trading posts and alliances with local leaders - they succeed
                             in imposing their power in large parts of eastern Congo).
1884                       Agreement dividing the region between the two powers reached.
1887                       Tippo Tip recognized as wali (governor) of the eastern region
                             of the Congo Free State.
Mar 1892                   Belgian authorities begin conquest of the region, temporary 
                             creation of the Arab Military Territory.
Jul 1894                   Belgian conquest completed, area is fully incorporated into
                             the Belgian Congo.

Wali¹
1887 - 1890                Hamed bin Mohammed "Tippo-Tip"     (b. 1837 - d. 1905)
                            (overlord² of the Arab community from 1874) 
1890 - 1893                Rashid bin Mohammed                (b. 1855 - d. ....)

Belgian Residents at Stanley Falls 
1888 - 1889                Louis Albert Marie Joseph Haneuse  (b. 1853 - d. 1938)
1889 - 1893                Nicholas Isidore Tobback           (b. 1859 - d. 1905)
Commander of the Arab Military Territory
1892 - 1894                Francis Ernest Joseph Marie,       (b. 1862 - d. 1909)
                             Baron Dhanis

  ¹the term "Arab" was used by Belgian colonial historiography to designate these eastern communities, but this is not fully correct, although there were some Arabs among their members -and even some Indians -most were of East African Swahili origin. 
  The most important vassals of Rashid bin Mohammed in c.1892 were: Bwana N'Zige ("brother" of Tippo-Tip) in Kabambare, Gongo Lutete in Ngandu (b. 1860 - d. 1892), Kibonga-Longo ain Mawambe, Kibonge in Kirundu, Mohammed bin Hassan "Rumaliza" in Ujiji (b. 1850 - d. ....), Mserera in Riba-Riba, Munia Muhara in Nyangwe, Sefu ("son" of Tippo-Tip) in Kasongo (b. 1860 - d. 1893).

 ²although Tippo-Tip sometimes recognized the authority of Zanzibar - using the flag of 
the Sultanate - he acted mostly independently.





© Ben Cahoon