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Provinces of Congo (Kinshasa)

Provinces Équateur - Kasai Oriental - Kasai Occidental - Katanga - Kinshasa - Bas-Congo - Bandundu - Maniema - Nord-Kivu - Sud-Kivu - Oriental - Former Provinces Cuvette-Centrale - Moyen-Congo - Ubangi - Lomami - Luluabourg - Sankuru - Sud-Kasaï (South Kasai) - Mwene Ditu - Unitë-Kasaïenne - Kasaï  - Katanga Oriental - Lualaba - Nord-Katanga - Sud-Katanga - Union Minière de Haut Katanga - Léopoldville - Kwango - Kwilu - Mai-Ndombe - Kivu - Kivu Central - Kibali-Ituri - Uele - Haut-Congo -

Note: At its foundation in 1885, the Congo Free State was divided into 4 districts, headed by Chefs de Division. Several reorganizations followed and by 1912 their number had increased to 22 (including the four into which Katanga had been divided after its integration into Congo in 1910). From 1913 onwards the districts outside Katanga were regrouped into three provinces, which became headed by vice-governors general, enjoying a certain degree of self-government, by 1924. These four provinces were: Congo-Kasaï, Équateur, Katanga, and Orientale. A new reorganization followed in 1933 when the vice-governments general were broken up into 6 provinces directly dependent on the central government. The provinces were: Équateur, Kasaï, Katanga, Kivu, Léopoldville, and Orientale. 

   At independence in 1960 there were 6 provinces. In connection with the internal troubles of the country the number had risen to 21 in 1963. On 1 Aug 1964 a new "federal" constitution confirmed this fragmentation. After the military coup of Mobutu (25 Nov 1965) the power of the central government was restored and the number of provinces decreased to 12 in Apr 1966 and 8 in Dec 1966 (plus the city of Kinshasa respectively). A presidential decree of 31 Oct 1966 put an end to the last remnants of provincial autonomy. The present number of provinces is 10 (plus Kinshasa). They are grouped below according to the territories of the 6 provinces existing in 1960.  The constitution of 18 Feb 2006 declared a reorganization into 26 provinces which was to take effect in "36 months after the installation of political institutions", at most before 3 Feb 2010, however, a law passed on 20 Jan 2011 allows the parliament to set up the new provinces when conditions are ready leaving the new provinces unimplemented.



Équateur

20 Aug 1917                Équateur/Evenaar province created in Belgian Congo
                             (incorporating the former districts of Bangala, Équateur,
                             Lac Léopold II, Lulonga and Ubangi). 
1933                       Coquilhatville/Coquilhatstad province created in reorganization.
1947                       Renamed Équateur/Evenaar.
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of the Congo republic.
14 Aug 1962                Separation of the provinces of Cuvette Centrale and Ubangi;
                             the remaining part of the province comes under central 
                             administration.
 5 Feb 1963                Remaining part is reorganized as province of Moyen-Congo
                             (Middle Congo).
25 Apr 1966                Cuvette Centrale, Moyen-Congo, and Ubangi are reunited in
                             a new Équateur province.

Deputy Governors-general
1917 - 1919                Georges Brunon Joseph Marie        (b. 1875 - d. 1958)
                             Moulaert 
1919 - 25 Oct 1921         Alphonse Engels                    (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
                             (interim to 19...)
1921 -  4 Oct 1924         Charles Marie Nestor Duchesne      (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
                             (interim to 1922)
Jan 1922 - Sep 1922        Georges Van Der Kercken            (b. 1888 - d. 1953)
                             (acting for Duchesne)
 4 Oct 1924 - 1925         W.E. Parker (interim)
Governors and Deputy Governors-general
1925 - 24 Mar 1933         Charles Marie Nestor Duchesne      (s.a.)
1927 - 1928                J. Jorissen
                             (acting for Duchesne)
1929 - 1930                J. Jorissen
                             (acting for Duchesne)
Commissioners
1933 - 1934                J. Jorissen
11 Jul 1934 - 1935         E. Van de Cappelle                 (b. 1881 - d. 1937)
1935 - 1941                Eugène J.F. Henry 
                             (interim to 193.)
Governors
1941 - 1945                Eugène J.F. Henry
1945 - 1947                Van Hoeck (interim)
1947 - 1950                F. Wenner
1950                       Luc Breuls de Tiecken (1st time)   (b. 1900 - d. ....)
1950                       A. Gille
1950                       Luc Breuls de Tiecken (2nd time)   (s.a.)
1950 - 1951                Pierre Nauwelaert                  (b. 1903 - d. 1969)
1951 - 1953                Luc Breuls de Tiecken (3rd time)   (s.a.)
1953                       Comout -Commissioner
1953                       Desmet -Commissioner
1953                       Nicolas Muller -Commissioner       (b. 1903 - d. ....)
                             (1st time)
1953 - Jul 1954            Maurice De Ryck                    (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
1954 - 1955                Nicolas Muller -Commissioner       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
1955 - 1956                Georges Schmit                     (b. 1908)
1956                       Nicolas Muller (3rd time)
1956 - 1958                Odon Spitaels                      (b. 1912)
1957                       Alphonse De Valkeneer              (b. 1898 - d. 1973)
                             (acting for Spitaels)
1958 - 30 Jun 1960         Alphonse De Valkeneer              (s.a.)
President
30 Jun 1960 - 14 Aug 1962  Laurent Eketebi                    (b. 1936)
Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
25 Apr 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  Léon Engulu                        (b. 1934)
 3 Jan 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  Jonas Mukamba (1st time)           (b. 1931)
 9 Aug 1968 - 12 Mar 1969  Denis Paluku
12 Mar 1969 -  5 Aug 1969  Édouard Bulundwe                   (b. 1932)
 5 Aug 1969 - 23 Dec 1970  Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)
23 Dec 1970 - 19 Mar 1974  Oscar Ngoma 
                             (from 1972, Ngoma Ntoto Bwangi)
19 Mar 1974 - 23 Jun 1975  Mbala Mbabu
23 Jun 1975 - 21 Feb 1978  Loposo Nzela Balombe
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Namwisi Ma Nkoy
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Mpambia Musanga Bekaja (1st time)  (b. 1935)
27 Aug 1980 - 19 Mar 1983  Mukamba Kadiata Nzemba             (s.a.)
                             (= Jonas Mukamba)(2nd time) 
19 Mar 1983 - 21 Mar 1984  Kititwa Tumansi Benga Tundu        (b. 1929 - d. 2000)
21 Mar 1984 -  1 Jan 1985  Sabi Ngampoub Mubiem (interim)
 1 Jan 1985 - 26 Apr 1986  Mpambia Musanga Bekaja (2nd time)  (s.a.)
26 Apr 1986 - 20 Jul 1988  Mokolo Matamba Moful               (d. 1989)
20 Jul 1988 - 11 Jan 1990  Kisanga Kabongelo
12 Jan 1990 - Jun 1990     Fundu Nkota                        (b. 1943)
1990 - 199.                Lwabanji Ngabo Lwasi (interim)
199. - 199.                Basembe Emina
199. - 199.                Mpambia Musanga Bekaja (3rd time)  (s.a.)
199. - 199.                Tshala Muana
1992 - 1997                Njoku Ey'Obabe (Eugène Nzoko Eobaba)

Mar 1997 - 12 May 1997     Mukobo Mundende Popol
Oct? 1997 - Nov 1998?      Gabriel Mola Motia                
(b. 1957)
Dec 1998 - Dec 1999        Edouard Modombo Kanzo (interim)
1999 - 2002?               Christian Eleko Botuna             (b. 1950 - d. 2007)
Jan 2002 - 26 May 2004     Jean-Bertrand Ewanga               (b. 1952)
26 May 2004 - 24 Feb 2007  Yves Mobando Yogo                  (b. 1955)
24 Feb 2007 - Feb 2009     José Makila Sumanda                (b. 1959)
Feb 2009 - Apr 2013        Jean-Claude Baende                 (b. 1963)
                             (interim to Nov 2009)
Apr 2013 - 22 Jul 2013     René Bofaya (interim)
22 Jul 2013 -              Louis Koyagialo                    (b. 1947)


Cuvette Centrale

14 Aug 1962                Creation of the province of Cuvette Centrale.
25 Apr 1966                Part of restored Équateur province.

President (from Oct 1965, governor)
Sep 1962 - 25 Apr 1966     Léon Engulu                        (b. 1934)


Moyen-Congo (Middle Congo)

 5 Feb 1963                Creation of the province of Moyen-Congo (Middle Congo).
Apr 1963 - 30 Jul 1963     Secessionist province of Bumba in part of province.
25 Apr 1966                Part of restored Équateur province.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
 6 Apr 1963 - Jun 1964     Laurent Eketebi                    (b. 1936) 
                            (de facto from 15 Sep 1962)
Apr 1963 - 30 Jul 1963     Denis Akundji 
                            (president of secessionist province of Bumba)
23 Jun 1964 - 10 Aug 1965  Augustin Engwanda
10 Aug 1965 - 25 Apr 1966  Denis Sakombi                      (b. 1929 - d. 1985)


Ubangi

14 Aug 1962                Creation of the province of Ubangi.
25 Apr 1966                Part of restored Équateur province.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
Sep 1962 - 20 Jul 1965     Alfred Nzondomyo                   (d. ....)
20 Jul 1965 - 25 Apr 1966  Michel Denge



Kasaï

1918                       Congo-Kasaï/Kongo-Kasaï province created as part of Belgian Congo 
                             by incorporating the districts Bas-Congo, Moyen-Congo, Kasaï, 
                             Kwango and Sankuru.
 1 Oct 1933                Lusambo province created in reorganization (from Kasaï
                             and Sankuru [the two eastern districts of the former
                             vice-government general of Congo-Kasaï] and parts of the 
                             districts of Léopold II [in Équateur] and Lomami [in Katanga]).
1947                       Renamed Kasaï.
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of the Congo republic.
14 Aug 1962                Division of Kasaï into five new provinces:
                             Lomami, Luluabourg, Sankuru, Sud-Kasaï (South Kasai),
                             Unité Kasaïenne.
25 Apr 1966                Lomami, Sankuru, and Sud-Kasaï are united in the new
                             province of Kasaï Oriental (East Kasai); Luluabourg and Unité
                             Kasaïenne united to form Kasaï Occidental (West Kasai).
 

Deputy Governors-general
18 Oct 1918 - 1922         Léon Guilain Bureau                (b. 1869 - d. 1944)
1922 - 1925                Alphonse Engels                    (b. 1880 - d. 1962)
Governors and Deputy Governors-general
1925 - 19 Jun 1929         Alphonse Engels                    (s.a.)
19 Jun 1929 -  5 Jan 1932 
17 Aug 1932 - 30 Sep 1933  Paul Charles Ermens                (b. 1884 - d. 1957)
Commissioners
 1 Oct 1933 - 17 Aug 1940  Constant Wauters
11 Sep 1940 - 1941         R. Wenner
Governors
1941 -  9 Jun 1944         R. Wenner
 7 Feb 1945 - 21 Sep 1945  R.P. Preys
21 Sep 1945 - 19 Jul 1948  Léon Hofkens                       (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
19 Jul 1948 - 11 Apr 1952  Firmin Peigneux                    (b. 1904 - d. ....)
11 Apr 1952 - 27 Mar 1955  Roger Le Bussy
20 Apr 1955 - 27 Sep 1955  Jean Paelinck                      (b. 1906 - d. 1961)
 1 Oct 1955 - 22 Jun 1958  Antoine Lamborelle

 1 Jul 1958 - 1960         Louis De Jaegher
                   (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
1960 - 31 May 1960         Henrotaux (acting)
General Extraordinary Commissioner
31 May 1960 - 30 Jun 1960  Matterne
Presidents
30 Jun 1960 - Dec 1961     Barthélemy Mukenge (1st time)
Jan 1962 - May 1962        André Lubaya                       (d. 1968)
 9 Jun 1962 - 14 Aug 1962  Barthélemy Mukenge (2nd time)


Lomami

14 Aug 1962                Province separated from Kasaï.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Kasaï Oriental.

President (from 1965, governors)
15 Sep 1962 - Apr 1966     Dominique Manono                   (b. 19.. - d. 2007)
18 Apr 1966 - 25 Apr 1966  Jean Marie Kikalanga


Luluabourg

14 Aug 1962                Province separated from Kasaï.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Kasaï Occidental.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
Sep 1962 - Sep 1963        François Luakabwanga (1st time)
Sep 1963 - 25 Sep 1964     André Lubaya                       (d. 1968)
25 Sep 1964 - Dec 1965     François Luakabwanga (2nd time)
Jan 1966 - 18 Apr 1966     Constantin Tshilumba               (d. 1999)
18 Apr 1966 - 25 Apr 1966  François Luakabwanga (3rd time)


Sankuru

14 Aug 1962                Province separated from Kasaï.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Kasaï Oriental.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
14 Sep 1962 - Dec 1963     André Diumasumbu
Jan 1963 - Apr 1963        Athanase Ndjadi (in rebellion)
27 Dec 1963 - Jun 1965     Paul Marcel Sumbu
Jun 1965 - 27 Jan 1966     Benoît Wetshindjadi
18 Apr 1966 - 25 Apr 1966  Étienne Kihuyu


Sud-Kasaï (South Kasai)
   
  [South Kasai flag]     
               9 Aug 1960 - 30 Dec 1961 

 
Map of South Kasai Hear National Anthem
"Debout Congolaise!"
(Arise Congolese!)
Text of  Anthem
(1960-1961)
Constitution
(28 Mar 1961-30 Dec 1961)
Capital: Bakwanga
(from 8 Apr 1961 Mbujimayi)
Currency: Congolese
 Republic
Franc (CDG)
Former National Holiday:
 unknown
Population: 4,307,964 (1989)

14 Jun 1960                The Luba-Kasaï declare their independence of the province
                             of Kasaï (not from Congo) under the provisional name 
                             Miniére province (made up of the territories: 
                             Tshikapa, Bakwanga, Ngandajika and parts of Tshokwe).
 9 Aug 1960                Proclamation of the autonomous État Minier du Sud-Kasaï.
 1 Sep 1960                Autonomous State of Sud-Kasaï (État Autonome du Sud-Kasaï).
 8 Apr 1961                Federal State of Sud-Kasaï (État Fédéré du Sud-Kasaï).
30 Dec 1961                Reconquest of the region by the central government.
14 Aug 1962                Creation of the province of Sud-Kasaï out of the Bakwanga 
                             and Gandajika territories of the former Kasai province. 
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Kasaï Oriental.

President
 9 Aug 1960 - 12 Apr 1961  Albert Kalonji                     (b. 1929)          MNC-K
                             (from 1 Mar 1961, Albert Kalonji Ditunga)
                             (in Elisabethville, Katanga exile 25 Aug - 29 Aug/3 Sep 1960)
King (style mulopwe
12 Apr 1961 - 14 Jul 1961² Albert I Kalonji Ditunga           (s.a.)
Special Commissioner
Aug 1962 - Oct 1962        Sébastien Ikolo
Presidents (from 1965, governors)
12 Oct 1962 - Jul 1965     Joseph Ngalula                     (b. 1928)
Aug 1965 - 25 Apr 1966     Jonas Mukamba                      (b. 1931)

Prime minister
14 Jun 1960 - 12 Apr 1961  Joseph Ngalula                     (s.a.)             MNC-K

 ¹On 12 Apr 1961 Kalonji assembled notables and they proclaimed Kalonji's father (Edmond Mukanya Mulenda [d. 1969]) as mulopwe, the traditional Luba imperial style. The new mulopwe immediately abdicated in favor of Albert. In addition, Kalonji also claimed the style: Souverain Possesseur des Terres occupées par les Balubas ("Sovereign and Owner of the Land of the Baluba"). On 16 Jul 1961 he rejected royalty status but retained the mulopwe title. 

 ²Kalonji was arrested 30 Dec 1961, but escaped in 7 Sep 1962 and set up a new government that was terminated in 1 Oct 1962.

Party abbreviation: MNC-K = Mouvement National Congolais-Kalonji (Congolese National Movement - Kalonji faction, A. Kalonji personalist, moderate, split from MNC, 1959-62)


Mwene Ditu

1962                       Territory of Mwene Ditu is intended to become part of the
                             new province of Sud-Kasaï, but as parts of its population
                             want to join other provinces, it is decided to hold a
                             plebiscite and until that time the territory is neutralized
                             and governed separately by special administrators.
                             The territory was also claimed by the provinces of Luluabourg
                             until May 1964 and by Lualaba from May 1964.
19 Apr 1965                Plebiscite decides in favor of Lualaba province; this is
                             not recognized by Sud-Kasaï and unrest follows; as a
                             consequence a state of emergency is proclaimed and a
                             commissioner of the republic takes over.
11 Feb 1966                After direct intervention by Mobutu, an agreement is reached 
                             between the two provinces and Lualaba gives up its claims.
18 Feb 1966                Territory formally annexed to Sud-Kasaï.

Special Administrators (Administrateurs spéciaux du territoire)
18 Dec 1962 - 30 Apr 1965  Daniel Ilonga
Apr 1965 -  7 May 1965     Antoine Panzout
 7 May 1965 - 15 Sep 1965  Louis Abdala
Commissioner of the Republic
15 Sep 1965 - 18 Feb 1966  Michel Ndju


Unité Kasaïenne

14 Aug 1962                Province separated from Kasaï.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Kasaï Occidental.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
Sep 1962 - Dec 1963        Grégoire Kamanga                   (b. 1924 - d. 1973)
Jan 1964 - Dec 1965        François Minga Mbengele
Jan 1966 - 25 Apr 1966     Robert William Mbombo


Kasaï Occidental (West Kasai)

Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
25 Apr 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  François Luakabwanga
 3 Jan 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  Paul Muhona                        (b. 1931?)
 9 Aug 1968 - 23 Dec 1970  André William Ntikala
23 Dec 1970 - 24 Feb 1972  Daniel Monguya Mbenge
24 Feb 1972 - 19 Mar 1974  Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)
19 Mar 1974 - 10 Feb 1976  Ngoma Toto Bwangi
10 Feb 1976 - 20 Oct 1976  Ndebo-a-Kanda-di-Ne Kenza
 7 May 1977 - 21 Jan 1978  Mpika Masamba Ngolomiso
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Kamakanda N'koma
27 Aug 1980 - 19 Mar 1983  Kyembwa wa Lumona
19 Mar 1983 -  1 Jan 1985  Zamundu Angenong'Ka
 1 Jan 1985 - 1988?        Bangala Basila (or Basira)         (b. 1943)
20 Jul 1988 - 19..         Bomandeke Bonyeka                  (b. 1937)
19.. - 19..                Duga Kugbetoro
19.. - 199.                Mpambia Musanga Bekaja             (b. 1935)
1994 - 1997                Janvier Tshibuabua Kapya Kalubi    (b. c.1953)
Oct? 1997 - 1999           Pascal Tshitoka Ngalamulume
1999 - Apr 2006            Claudel Lubaya
Apr 2006 - 16 Oct 2006     Gilbert Tshiongo Tshibinkubula     (b. 1942)
                             wa Ntumba
16 Oct 2006 - 16 Mar 2007  Mutombo Bakafwa Nsenda
16 Mar 2007 -  2 Mar 2011  Trésor Kapuka Ngoy
Jun 2007 - Aug 2007        Hubert Mbingho (acting for
Ngoy)
 2 Mar 2011 - 18 Apr 2011  Hubert Mbingho (acting)
18 Apr 2011 -  6 Jun 2012  Hubert Kabasubabo
 6 Jun 2012 -  9 Feb 2013  Jean Mwamba (acting)
 9 Feb 2013 -              Alex Kande Mupompa                 (b. 1950)



Kasaï Oriental (East Kasai)

Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
25 Apr 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  Jonas Mukamba                      (b. 1931)
 3 Jan 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)
 9 Aug 1968 - 23 Dec 1970  Bernard Ndebo
23 Dec 1970 -  9 Jul 1971  André William Ntikala
 9 Jul 1971 - 24 Feb 1972  Derikoye Tite Avungara
24 Feb 1972 - 15 Jul 1972  Boji Ntole
15 Jul 1972 - 19 Mar 1974  Mozagba Ngbuka
19 Mar 1974 - 10 Feb 1976  Matabisi Iyualeke Ilande
10 Feb 1976 - 21 Jan 1978  Kyalwe Mihambo
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Kamakanda N'koma
18 Jan 1980 - 10 Oct 1981  Efambe Ey'Olanga
10 Oct 1981 - 19 Mar 1983  Zamundu Agenong'Ka
19 Mar 1983 -  1 Jan 1985  Duga Kugbe Toro                    (b. 1935? - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 1985 - 10 Mar 1985  Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
10 Mar 1985 - 26 Apr 1986  Mananga Dintoko Pholo
26 Apr 1986 - 1987         Mpambia Musanga Bekaja             (b. 1935)
198. - 198.                Bangala Basila                     (b. 1943)
198. - 198.                Bashala Kantu wa Milandu
1989 - Nov 1991            Kakule Mbayingana                  (b. 1947 - d. 2011)
14 Nov 1991 - 19 Mar 1992  Grégoire Dikonda wa Lumanyisha     (d. 1992)
1992 - 1995?               Bashala Kantu wa Milandu
1995? - Nov 1997           Mbuyi Mulomba
27 Nov 1997 - Jan 1999?    Omer Kamba
15 Mar 1999 - 1999         Jean-Charles Okoto                 (b. 1955)
1999? - Mar 2001           Paul Kabongo Misasa
Mar 2001 - 26 May 2004     Jean-Marie Mbala Muana
26 May 2004 - 16 Mar 2007  Dominique Kanku                    (b. 1963)
16 Mar 2007 -              Alphonse Ngoy Kasanji              (b. 1963)


Katanga
 
Flag of Katanga
             11 Jul 1960 - 21 Jan 1963
 
Katanga Variant
                          (Copper-coloured crosses)
                  1960 - 1963 Variant
 
Map of Katanga Hear Former Anthem
"La Katangaise"
(Song of Katanga)
Text of Former Anthem
(1960-21 Jan 1963)
Constitution
(4 Aug 1960 - 21 Jan 1963;
in French)

Capital: Elisabethville
(Lumbumbashi from 1 Jul 1966)
Currency: Katanga Franc (KATF) (1960-1963)
Former National Holiday
11 Jul (1960) 
Independence Day
Population: 1,635,000
(1965)
GDP: $N/A
Exports: $N/A
Imports: $N/A
Ethnic groups: Lunda 37%, Baluba 30%, Luba-Kasai 10%,
 Bemba 5%, Sanga 4%, Lulua 3%, Tshokwe 3%, Bayeke 2%,
white 1%, other 5% (1965)
Total Active Armed Forces: 21,330 (1965)
Merchant marine: None (1960)
Religions: Roman Catholic 71%, traditional/native 20%,
Methodist 8%, other 1% (1965)
International Organizations: None

15 Apr 1891                The administration of the Katangese areas conquered by the
                             Congo Free State is entrusted to the Compagnie du Katanga;
                             however, no effective administration is set up.
19 Jun 1900                Katanga is entrusted to the Comité Spécial du Katanga1, an 
                             administration totally separated from that of the Congo is 
                             set up.
 1 Sep 1910                Katanga is integrated in the Belgian Congo but retains a large
                             measure of autonomy.
 1 Oct 1933                Autonomy abrogated; Renamed province of Elisabethville/
                             Elisabethstad, at the same time part of Lomami-district 
                             transferred to the province of Kasaï.
1947                       Renamed Katanga.
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of the Congo republic.
11 Jul 1960                Proclamation of the independent State of Katanga.
Nov 1961                   Conquest of northern Katanga by the central government;
                             organization of the province of Nord-Katanga (North Katanga).
21 Jan 1963                Conquest of the remaining parts of Katanga and division of
                             the territory into two provinces: Lualaba and Katanga Oriental.
28 Dec 1966                Reconstruction of the province of Katanga (1971-15 May 1997 named
                             Shaba province).

Administrator of the Compagnie du Katanga
Apr 1891 - 19 Jun 1900     Albert Jean-Baptiste Thys          (b. 1849 - d. 1915)
Chairman of the Comité Spécial du Katanga (CSK)
Jun 1900 - 1929            Hubert Droogmans                   (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
Representatives of the CSK in Katanga (governors)
1900 - 14 Jan 1903         Auguste Weyns                      (b. 1854 - d. 1944)
14 Jan 1903 - 1906         Léon Tonneau (1st time)            (b. 1863 - d. 1919)
26 Jul 1906 - 1908         Emile Wangermée (1st time)         (b. 1855 - d. 1924)
31 Sep 1908 - Sep 1909     Léon Tonneau (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1909 -  1 Sep 1910         Emile Wangermée (2nd time)         (s.a.)
Governors and Deputy Governors-general
 1 Sep 1910 - May 1914     Emile Wangermée                    (s.a.)
Nov 1911 - Nov 1912        Justin Malfeyt                     (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
                             (acting for Wangermée) 
Jun 1914 - Feb 1915
        Charles Henry Marie Ernest Tombeur,(b. 1867 - d. 1947)
                             baron Tombeur de Tabora (1st time)
Feb 1915 - Feb 1917        Adolphe de Meulemeester            (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
Feb 1917 - Jun 1918        Ferdinand baron de Renette de      (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                             Villers-Perwin

Jun 1918 - Jul 1920        Charles Henry Marie Ernest Tombeur,(s.a.)
                             baron Tombeur de Tabora (2nd time)
Jul 1920 - Oct 1921        Léopold de Koninck                 (b. 1874 - d. 1957)  
Oct 1921 - Dec 1922        Martin Joseph Marie René Rutten    (b. 1876 - d. 1944)
Dec 1922 - Feb 1924        Gaston René Heenen (1st time)      (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
Feb 1924 - Sep 1925        Léon Guilain Bureau (1st time)     (b. 1869 - d. 1944)
Sep 1925 - Jun 1926        Gaston René Heenen (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Jun 1926 - May 1928        Léon Guilain Bureau (1st time)     (s.a.)
 5 May 1928 - Sep 1931     Gaston René Heenen (3rd time)      (s.a.)
Sep 1931 - Jan 1932        Louis Joseph Postiaux              (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
Jan 1932 - 23 Sep 1933     Gaston René Heenen (4th time)      (s.a.)
Commissioner
Oct 1933 - 1941            Amour Maron                        (b. 1891 - d. 1948)
Governors
1941 - Dec 1945            Amour Maron                        (s.a.)
Oct 1945 - Mar 1948        Henri Léon Keyser 
Mar 1948 - Apr 1951        Joseph Ziegler de Ziegleck auf
                             Rheingrub 
 5 May 1951 - 12 Dec 1955  René Wauthion (Whauthion)  
 6 Jan 1956 - 19 Sep 1958  Jean Paelinck                      (b. 1906 - d. 1961) 
 1 Dec 1958 - 30 Jun 1960  André Schöller                     (b. 1908 - d. 1992)
                             (also deputy governor-general)
President
16 Jun 1960 - 12 Jan 1963  Moise Kapenda Tshombé              (b. 1919 - d. 1969)  CONAKAT
                           (president of the Provisional 
                            Government 11 Jul - 8 Aug 1960)
26 Apr 1961 - 22 Jun 1961  Godefroid Munongo Mwenda M'Siri    (b. 1925 - d. 1992)  CONAKAT
                           + Jean-Baptiste Kibwe              (b. 1924 - d. 2008)
                           + Joseph Kiwele                    (b. 1912 - d. 1961) 
                           (acting for imprisoned Tshombé)

Party abbreviation: CONAKAT = Confédération des Associations Tribales du Katanga (Confederation of Tribal Associations of Katanga, Katangan secessionist, Lunda dominated, 1958-1963)


Katanga Oriental (East Katanga)

 8 Jul 1963                After the formation of the provinces of Nord-Katanga
                             and Lualaba the remaining part of Katanga is reorganized
                             as the new province of Katanga Oriental.
24 Apr 1966                United with Lualaba to form Sud-Katanga.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
13 Aug 1963 - 20 Jul 1965  Édouard Bulundwe                   (b. 1932)
20 Jul 1965 - 24 Apr 1966  Godefroid Munongo Mwenda M'Siri    (s.a.)


Lualaba (South Katanga)

30 Jun 1963                Province of Lualaba separated from Katanga.
24 Apr 1966                United with Katanga Oriental to form Sud-Katanga.

President (from 1965, governor)
23 Sep 1963 - 24 Apr 1966  Dominique Diur                     (b. 1929)


Nord-Katanga (North Katanga)
Flag of the Lualaba,
                  Rep. Dem. Congo
                  1960 - 1961
20 Oct 1960                Rebellion of the Luba-Katanga people against the state
                             of Katanga and proclamation of the province of Lualaba in
                             northern Katanga.
31 Mar 1961                Reconquest of northern Katanga by the State of Katanga.
Nov 1961                   Reconquest of northern Katanga by the central government.
11 Jul 1962                Proclamation of the province of Nord-Katanga.
 5 Nov 1966                Administration taken over by the central government.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored province of Katanga.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
20 Oct 1960 - Mar 1961     Prosper Mwamba-Ilunga (1st time)   (b. 1930?)           BALUBAKAT
11 Sep 1962 - 27 Sep 1963  Prosper Mwamba-Ilunga (2nd time)   (s.a.)               BALUBAKAT
27 Sep 1963 - 15 Mar 1964  Jason Sendwe (1st time)            (b. 1917 - d. 1964)  BALUBAKAT
15 Mar 1964 - 21 Apr 1964  Fortunat Kabange Numbi             (b. 1934 - d. 1964)
21 Apr 1964 - 18 Jun 1964  Jason Sendwe (2nd time)            (s.a.)               BALUBAKAT
22 Jun 1964 - Jul 1964     Ildephonse Masengo                 (b. c.1935 - d. 1969)
                            (head of a provisional government for the whole Katanga
                             province, in fact the territories occupied by the forces
                             of the People's Republic)
22 Jul 1965 -  5 Nov 1966  Henri Ndala Kambola                (b. 1928?) 
                            (administrator since Aug 1964?)

Party abbreviation: BALUBAKAT = Association des Baluba du Katanga (Association of the Baluba of Katanga, left-wing, pro-Congolese unification, Baluba dominated, 1957-1965)


Sud-Katanga (South Katanga)

22 Apr 1966                Katanga Oriental and Lualaba united to form Sud-Katanga.
 5 Nov 1966                Administration by central government.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored province of Katanga.

Governor
24 Apr 1966 -  5 Nov 1966  Godefroid Munongo Mwenda M'Siri    (s.a.)


Union Minière du Haut Katanga (de facto rulers)

1899                       Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. (TCL) founded and starts prospecting
                             for minerals in Katanga.
1900                       Mining concession granted to the Tanganyika Concessions Ltd.
28 Oct 1906                Creation of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga, entrusted
                            by the Congo Free State with the exploitation of the mineral
                            resources of Katanga by merger of TLC and Comité Spécial du Katanga
31 Dec 1966                Activities and belongings of the UMHK taken over by
                             Congolese government

Chairman of the Tanganyika Concessions Ltd.
1899 - 1906                Tyndale White 
Managing Director of the Tanganyika Concessions Ltd.
1899 - 1906                Robert Williams                    (b. 1860 - d. 1938)
Agent of the Tanganyika Concessions Ltd. (in Africa)
1899 - Jul 1906            George Grey                        (b. 1866 - d. 1911)
Chairmen of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga
(in Brussels)1
1906 - 1913                Ferdinand, baron Baeyens           (b. 1837 - d. 1914)
1913 - 1932                Jean Jadot                         (b. 1862 - d. 1932)
1932 - 1939                Félicien Cattier (1st time)        (b. 1869 - d. 1946)
1939 - 1944                Alexandre Marie Albert Galopin     (b. 1879 - d. 1944)
1944                       Félicien Cattier (2nd time)(acting)(s.a.)
1944 - 1947                Firmin Van Bree                    (b. 1880 - d. 1960)
1947 - 1955                Gaston Blaise                      (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
1955 - 1963                Paul Gillet                        (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
1963 - 1965                Edgar Van Der Straeten             (b. 1894 - d. 1986)
1966                       Louis Wallef                       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
Directors of the Union Minière du Haut Katanga (in Africa)1
1910 - 1912                Eugène Halewijck                   (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
1913 - 1917                Preston H. Horner
1918 - 1919                Edgar Sengier                      (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
1920 - 1922                Jules Cousin                       (b. 1884 - d. 1965)
1923 - 1927                Léon Rasson                        (b. 1875 - d. 1932)
1927 - 1929                Joseph De Mulder
1931                       Henry Barzin                       (b. 1881 - d. 1971)
1932                       Gaston Deladrière                  (b. 1886 - d. 1965)
1933 - 1936                Henri Heymans                      (b. 1883 - d. 1936)
1936 - 1945                Aimé Marthoz                       (b. 1894 - d. 1962)
1946 - 1950                Louis Wallef                       (s.a.)
1951 - 1957                Maurice Van Weyenbergh             (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
1958 - 1966                Gérard Assoignon                   (b. 1909 - d. 2003)


Katanga since 1967

Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
 3 Jan 1967 - Aug 1967     Jean Foster Manzikala
1967                       Masiala Kinkela                    (d. 1975)
1967 - 1968                Denis Paluku 
1968 - 1970                Léon Engulu                        (b. 1934) 
1970 - 1972                Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)
1972 - 1973                Daniel Monguya Mbenge 
1973 - 1975                Duga Kugbe Toro (1st time)         (b. 1935? - d. 2010)
1975 - 1977                Assumani Busanya Lukili
1977 - 1978                Efambe Ey'Olanga
1978 - 1980                Alexandre Singa Boyenge Mosambayi  (b. 1932 - d. 2001)
1980 - Jan 1985            Antoine Mandungu Bula Nyati        (b. 1934 - d. 2000)
Jan 1985 - 1986            Duga Kugbe Toro (2nd time)         (s.a.)
1986 - May 1990            Koyagialo Ngbase te Gerengbo       (b. 1947)
May 1990 - Nov 1991        Bonaventure Konde Vila Kikanda
1991 - Apr 1995            Antoine Gabriel Kyungu wa Kumwanza (b. 1938 - d. 2012)
                             (1st time)
1995 - 1997                Benjamin Thadée Ngoie Mulume
Mar 1997 - Apr 1997        Antoine Gabriel Kyungu wa Kumwanza (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
Apr 1997 - Apr 1998        Gaëtan Kukudji                     (b. 1942 - d. 2009) 
Apr 1998 - Apr 2001        Augustin Katumba Mwanke            (b. 1963 - d. 2012)
Apr 2001 - Nov 2001        Jacques Muyumba (interim)
26 Nov 2001 - May 2004     Aimé Ngoy Mukena Lusa              (b. 1954)
26 May 2004 - 24 Feb 2007  Urbain Kisula Ngoy                 (b. 1940)
24 Feb 2007 -              Moïse Katumbi Chapwe               (b. 1964)

 1During the German occupation of Belgium 1914-1918, the Belgian leadership of the UMHK went into exile in London, while the CSK ceased its activities. During the second occupation of Belgium, 1940-1944, both ceased their activities. The management of the affairs of the UMHK was taken over by the American African Metals Corporation based in New York. 



Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville)
 
Flag of
                          Léopoldville (Kinshasa) 1960-1967
                             1960 - 1967

 1 Oct 1933                Léopoldville/Leopoldstad province created in Belgian Congo from
                             the western districts of Congo-Kasaï-Bas-Congo (former Bas-and

                             Haut-Congo), Kwango and Léopoldville (the town) - and the major 
                             part of Lac Léopold II (taken from Équateur).
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of Congo republic.
14 Aug 1962                Province divided into four new provinces:
                             Congo Central, Kwango, Kwilu, Mai-Ndombe
25 Apr 1966                Kwango, Kwilu, and Mai-Ndombe united in the new province 
                             of Bandundu; Léopoldville city separated from
                             Congo Central.

Commissioner
1933 - 1941                Albert Émile Beauffort             (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
Governors
1941 - 1943                Albert Emile Beauffort             (s.a.)
1943 - 1945                Marcel Maquet                      (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
1946 - 1950                Léon Georges Morel                 (b. 1892 - d. 19..)
1950 - 1953                Lucien Lardinois                   (b. 1898 - d. 1956)
1953 - 1955                Pierre Nauwelaert                  (b. 1903 - d. 1969)
1955 - 1958                Julien Babilon                     (b. 1904 - d. 1959)
1958 - 10 May 1960         Jean-Baptiste Bomans
10 May 1960 - 29 Jun 1960  Alain Stenmans                     (b. 1923)
Presidents
11 Jun 1960 - 29 Jun 1960  Gaston Diomi                       (b. 1922 - d. 1985)
                            (president of secessionist Congo province)
18 Jun 1960 - 12 Feb 1962  Cléophas Kamitatu Masamba          (b. 1931 - d. 2008)
17 Jun 1960 - 1960         Gaston Midu
                            (president of secessionist North Kwilu province)
12 Feb 1962 - 14 Aug 1962  Gaston Diomi                       (s.a.)


Bas-Congo

14 Aug 1960                Congo Central province created out of Léopoldville province.
27 Oct 1971                Renamed Bas-Zaïre.
19 May 1997                Renamed Bas-Congo.

Presidents (from 1965, governors; 1972-80, commissioners)
 6 Sep 1962 -  3 Jan 1967  Faustin Vital Moanda               (b. 1923 - d. 1967)
 3 Jan 1967 - 30 Aug 1967  Denis Paluku
30 Aug 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  François Luakabwanga
 9 Aug 1968 -  5 Aug 1969  Bruno Ndala                        (d. 1969)
 5 Aug 1969 - 23 Dec 1970  Anaclet Kaniki
23 Dec 1970 - 24 Feb 1972  Dieudonné Boji Ntole
24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jul 1972  Marcel Derikoye Tita Ngindu
17 Jul 1972 - 21 May 1975  Cath
érine Nzuzi wa Mbombo (f)      (b. 1944)
1975 - 1976                Loposo Nzela Balombe
 4 Feb 1976 - 11 Jul 1977  Efambe Ey'Olanga
11 Jul 1977 - 21 Jan 1978  Ilunga Mubabinge Mukala
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Tshiamala Tshingombe
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Makolo Jibikilayi (1st time)
27 Aug 1980 - 10 Oct 1981  Zamundu Agenong'Ka
10 Oct 1981 - 18 Jan 1983  Malumba Mbangula
18 Jan 1983 - 1986         Makolo Jibikilayi (2nd time)
1986 - 1988                Tshala Mwana
1988 - 1989                Kakule Mbahingana                  (b. 1947 - d. 2011)

1989 - 1990                Mpambia Musanga Bekaja             (b. 1935)
1990 - 1991                Timothée Moleka Nzulama            (b. 1955?)
1
991 - 1997                Bieya Mbaki                        (d. 1997)
199. - 1997                Mvuma Ngeti (acting for Mbaki)
1997                       Mvuma Ngeti (interim)
1997  (4 days)             Joseph Mbenza Thubi
1997  (1 month)            Liwanga Mata Nyamunyobo            (b. 1950)
Oct? 1997 - 1998           Léonard Fuka Unzola                (b. 1935)
1998 - Jun 2001            Séraphin Bavuidi Babingi           (b. 1946)
Oct? 2001 - 16 Oct 2006    César Tsasa-di-Ntumba              (b. 1945? - d. 2008)
                             (interim for 4 months in 2001)
16 Oct 2006 - 24 Feb 2007  Jacques Mbadu Nsitu (1st time)     (b. 1951)
24 Feb 2007 - 19 Mar 2012  Simon Mbatshi Batshia              (b. 1949)
19 Mar 2012 - 28 Jan 2013  Déo Nkusu (acting)
28 Jan 2013 -       p;       
Jacques Mbadu Nsitu (2nd time)     (s.a.)


Kwango

14 Aug 1962                Kwango province created out of Léopoldville province.
24 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Bandundu.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
23 Sep 1962 - 11 Nov 1962  Albert Delvaux                     (b. 1918 - d. 1968)
Nov 1962                   Emmanuel Mayamba
1962 - Apr 1963            Alphonse Pashi
Aug 1963 - Apr 1964        Pierre Masikita (1st time)
Apr 1964 - 30 Sep 1964     Belunda Kavunzu
30 Sep 1964 - 24 Aug 1965  Joseph Kulumba
24 Aug 1965 - 25 Apr 1966  Pierre Masikita (2nd time)


Kwilu

14 Aug 1962                Province of Kwilu created out of Léopoldville province.
18 Jan 1964                Administration taken over by central government due to
                             rebellion in southwestern Congo; rebel administration in
                             most of Kwilu province since Jan 1964; reconquest by the
                             legal government in Jun 1965.
18 Jan 1966                Provincial government restored.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Bandundu.

President
 8 Sep 1962 - 18 Jan 1964  Norbert Leta
Jan 1964 - Nov 1964        Pierre Mulele                      (b. 1929 - d. 1968)
                            (commander-in-chief and Head of the General Direction)
Governor
18 Jan 1966 - 25 Apr 1966  Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)


Mai-Ndombe

14 Aug 1962                Mai-Ndombe province created out of Léopoldville province.
25 Apr 1966                Part of new province of Bandundu.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
 8 Sep 1962 - Dec 1963     Victor Kumoriko
23 Sep 1963 - 11 Oct 1963  V. Bola (in rebellion)
Jan 1964 - Dec 1964        Gabriël Zangabie
Dec 1964 - 27 Jul 1965     ....
27 Jul 1965 - 25 Apr 1966  Daniël Mongiya


Bandundu

Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
25 Apr 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  Henri-Désiré Takizala              (b. 1936)
 
3 Jan 1967 - 30 Aug 1967  François Luakabwanga
30 Aug 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  François Kupa
 9 Aug 1968 -  6 Mar 1969  Paul Muhona
12 Mar 1969 - 23 Dec 1970  Dieudonné Boji
23 Dec 1970 - 15 Jul 1972  Anaclet Kaniki
15 Jul 1972 - 10 Jan 1975  Mulenda Shamwange
10 Jan 1975 - 21 Jan 1978  Kabangu Lunyanya
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Makolo Jibikilayi
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Alemo Logwala
27 Aug 1980 - 10 Oct 1981  Malumba Mbangula
10 Oct 1981 -  1 Jan 1985  Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 1985 - 1986         Sambia Gere Danu
1986 - 198.                Mananga Dintoko Pholo
198. - 198.                Joseph M'Pambia
20 Jul 1988 - 1990         Guillaume Samba Kaputo             (b. 1946 - d. 2007)
1990 - 1991?               Malu Biakaluamfiku                 (b. 1937)
1991? - c.1995             Payanzo Ntsomo
1997 - 26 Nov 2001         Marc Katshunga
26 Nov 2001 - 15 May 2003  Kidinda Shandungo
Oct? 2003?                 Oscar Bala
26 May 2004 - 10 Dec 2005  Sabin Sadiboko                     (b. 1962)
10 Dec 2005 - 13 Jan 2006  Guy Kunza
13 Jan 2006 - 16 Oct 2006  Gérard Gifuza
16 Oct 2006 - 16 Mar 2007  Édouard Wenzi Wakoyula
16 Mar 2007 - 
22 May 2012  Richard Ndambu Wolang              (b. 1952)
10 Mar 2011 - Apr 2011     Vicky Mboso Muteba (f)             (b. 1969)
                             (acting for Wolang)

22 May 2012 -              Jean Kamisendu Kutuka              (b. 1955)


Kinshasa
Flag of Kinshasa
                       Adopted 1967

20 Nov 1929                Capital moved from Boma to Léopoldville.
 1 Jul 1966                Léopoldville renamed Kinshasa.

District Commissioners of Léopoldville city
1923 - 1927                Adolphe Léon-Jules Georges Ruwet   (b. 1882 - d. 1953)
1927 - 1929                Alphonse Jules Wauters
1929 - 1933                Ferdinand de Boeck
1934 - 1942                Léon Morel
1942 - 1947                Paul Brumagne
1947 - 1953                ....
1953 - 20 Dec 1957         Jean Tordeur
Premier Bourgmestre
20 Dec 1957 - 1959         Jean Tordeur
1959 - 30 Jun 1960         Cailler (interim)
 1 Jul 1960 - Jul 1960     Joseph Kulumba (acting)
Jul 1960 - 28 Jun 1962     Daniel Kanza
28 Jun 1962 - Feb 1966    
Zoao Boniface 
Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
27 Apr 1966 -  2 Jan 1969  Alphonse Bangala
 5 Feb 1969 - 15 Jan 1970  Paul Nauwelaerts
15 Jan 1970 - 27 May 1976  Eugène Ndjoku Eyobaba              (b. 1924? - d. 2007)
27 May 1976 - 21 Jan 1978  Sakombi Inongo                     (b. 1940 - d. 2010)
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Mandungu Bula Nyati                (b. 1934 - d. 2000)
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Mabolia Inengo Tra Buato
27 Aug 1980 - 10 Oct 1981  Kisombe Kiaku Muisi
10 Oct 1981 - 19 Mar 1983  Sakombi Ekope                      (b. 1929 - d. 1985)
19 Mar 1983 - 27 Dec 1985  Kabaidi wa Kabaidi
27 Dec 1985 - 18 Apr 1986  Tshimbombo Mukuna                  (b. 1946)
24 Apr 1986 - 10 Feb 1987  Catherine Nzuzi wa Mbombo (f)      (b. 1944)
10 Feb 1987 - 20 Jul 1989  Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
20 Jul 1989 - 1990         Amela Lokima Bahati (1st time)
1990                       Timothée Moleka Nzulama            (b. 1955?)  
1990 - 1992                Fundu Kota                         (b. 1943)  
1992                       Kibabu Madiata Nzau                (b. 1936)
1992 - Jan 1996            Bernardin Mungul Diaka             (b. 1933 - d. 1999)
Jan 1996 - Feb 1996        Mujinga Swana  
Feb 1996 - Aug 1996        ....
Aug 1996 - Apr 1997        Bernadette Nkoy Mafuta (f)         (b. 1948)
Apr 1997 - 17 May 1997     Amela Lokima Bahati (2nd time)
17 May 1997 - Aug 1997     Gabriel Pandanzila Alompel (acting)
18 Aug 1997 - 19 Mar 2001  Théophile Mbemba Fundu
19 Mar 2001 - 26 Nov 2001  Christophe Muzungu (interim)
26 Nov 2001 -  5 Jun 2002  Loka Ne Kongo
 5 Jun 2002 - 26 May 2004  David Nku Imbi
e                    (b. 1952)
26 May 2004 - 15 Nov 2005  Jean Kimbunda                      (b. 1961)
15 Nov 2005 - 16 Oct 2006  Kimbembe Mazunga                   (b. 1956)
16 Oct 2006 - 16 Mar 2007  Liwanga Mata Nyamunyobo            (b. 1950)
16 Mar 2007 -              André Kimbuta Yango                (b. 1952)



Kivu

 
 1960 - 196. Maniema in secession flag
 
 1 Oct 1933                Costermansville/Costermansstad province created in Belgian Congo
                             from Kivu and Maniema and southern districts of
East Province.
1947                       Renamed Kivu.
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of the Congo republic.
10 May 1962                Administration taken over by the central government and
                             creation of the separate provinces of Maniema and Nord-Kivu 
                             (North Kivu).
28 Dec 1966                Province reunited.
20 Jul 1988                Divided into Maniema, Nord-Kivu, and Sud-Kivu.

Commissioners
 1 Oct 1933 - Jul 1935     Georges Marie Mortehan             (b. 1883 - d. 1955)
1935 - 1941                Joseph Noirot
Governors
1941 - 1945                Joseph Noirot
1946 - 1951                Antoine Liesnard                   (b. 1898 - d. 1957)
1952 - 1956                Joseph Brasseur
1956                       Robert Spitaels                    (b. 1910)
1957 - 1960                Maurice Willaert                   (b. 1910 - d. 2003)
Presidents
11 Jun 1960 - 24 Dec 1960  Jean Miruho (1st time)
26 Jun 1960 - Jul 1960     Clément Walubali
                            (president of the secessionist province of Maniema)
 2 Jan 1961 - 24 Feb 1961  Anicet Kashamura                   (b. 1928)
1961 - 19..                Antoine Omari
                            (president of the secessionist State of Maniema, 
                             sponsored by the State of Katanga)
24 Feb 1961 - 11 Aug 1961  Taris Adrien Omari                 (b. 1916)
18 Sep 1961 - 10 May 1962  Jean Miruho (2nd time)
Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
28 Dec 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  Denis Paluku
 3 Jan 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  Léon Engulu                        (b. 1934)
 9 Aug 1968 -  5 Aug 1969  Henri-Désiré T
akizala              (b. 1936)
 5 Aug 1969 - 15 Jan 1970  Barthélemy Mukenge
15 Jan 1970 - 24 Feb 1972  Paul Nauwelaerts
24 Feb 1972 - 10 Dec 1976  Ndebo-a-Kanda-di-Ne Kenza
10 Dec 1976 - 21 Jan 1978  Matabisi Iyualeke Ilande
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Mulenda Shamuange Muteba
18 Jan 1980 - 1986         Mwando Simba                       (b. 1935)
1986 - 1988                Kilolo Musanga


Maniema

14 Aug 1962                Creation of the Maniema province.
25 Apr 1966                United with Central Kivu to form Sud-Kivu.
20 Jul 1988                Maniema province recreated.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
12 Sep 1962 - 1962         Ignace Kanga
 5 Nov 1962 - 19 Sep 1963  Hilaire Kisanga
19 Sep 1963 - 22 Jun 1964  ....
22 Jun 1964 - 21 Jul 1964  Joseph Tshomba-Fariala (1st time)
24 Jul 1964 -  5 Oct 1964  Charles Malembe                    (b. 1933)
                            (governed the territories of the old Kivu province
                             occupied by the forces of the People's Republic)
1964 - Jan 1966            Joseph Tshomba-Fariala (2nd time)
24 Jan 1966 - 25 Apr 1966  Pascal Luanghy                     (b. 1917)
1988 - 1991                Tshala Mwana
1991                       Joseph Bendera
1991 - 1992                Kyembwa wa Lumona
1992 - Feb 1997            Omari Lea Sisi                     (b. 1951)
Mar 1997 - Jul 1997        Lokombe Kitete
18 Jul 1997 -  3 Oct 1998  Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary          (b. 1959)
                             (continues in Kinshasa exile to 2003)
Dec 1998 - 12 Apr 2000     Nestor Kiyimbi Mutangi
                             (in rebellion)
12 Apr 2000 - 2003         Gertrude Kitembo (f)               (b. 1958)           RCD-Goma
                             (in rebellion)
2003 - 26 May 2004         Falay Selenge
26 May 2004 - 16 Mar 2007  Koloso Sumaili
16 Mar 2007 - Jun 2010     Didier Manara Linga                (b. 1964)
Jun 2010 -                 Pascal Tutu Salumu


Nord-Kivu (North Kivu)

14 Aug 1962                Creation of the province of Nord-Kivu.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored Kivu province.
20 Jul 1988                Nord-Kivu province recreated.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
11 Sep 1962 -  6 Jul 1965  Benezeth Moley                     (b. 1927)
 6 Jul 1965 - 28 Dec 1966  Denis Paluku
Jul 1988 - Jan 1990        Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
1990 - 1991                Koyagialo Ngabé te Gerengbo        (b. 1947)
1988 - 1991                Basembe Emina
                             (vice governor acting for
Kikanda then Ngabé)
1991 - Aug 1993            Jean-Pierre Kalumbo Mbogho         (d. 1993)
Aug 1993 - Nov 1996        Christophe Moto Mupenda (interim)
Oct 1996 - 31 Jul 2000     Léonard Kanyamuhanga Gafundi       (b. 19.. - d. 2000) RCD-Goma
                             (in rebellion to 1997 and from Aug 1998)
23 Sep 1999 - ....         Kaisazira Mbaki (in rebellion)                         RCD-Kisangani
31 Jul 2000 - 24 Feb 2007  Eugène Serufuli Ngayabaseka        (b. 1962)
                             (in rebellion to 16 May 2004)
24 Feb 2007 -              Julien Paluku Kahongya             (b. 1968)


Kivu Central

18 May 1963                Creation of the province of Kivu Central out of the remaining 
                             parts of Kivu province.
25 Apr 1966                United with Maniema to form Sud-Kivu.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
16 Jul 1963 - Jul 1964     Simon Malago
Aug 1964 - 25 Apr 1966     Dieudonné Boji


Sud-Kivu (South Kivu)

25 Apr 1966                Formed by the union of Kivu Central and Maniema.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored Kivu province.
20 Jul 1988                Sud-Kivu province recreated.

Governor
25 Apr 1966 - 28 Dec 1966  Dieudonné Boji
20 Jul 1988 - 1990         Ndala Kasala
1990 - Nov 1991            Dilingi Liwoke La Milengo
Dec 1991 - Oct 1996        Kyembwa wa Lumona
Oct 1996 - Jun 1997        Anatole Bishikwabo Chubaka
Jun 1997 - Oct 1998        Jean-Charles Magabe                (d. 1999)
Oct 1998 - 10 Jun 2002     Norbert Basengezi Katintima
                             (in rebellion)
May? 2002?                 Musamba Mondero
10 Jun 2002 - 26 Jan 2003  Patient Mwendanga
                             (in rebellion)
26 Jan 2003 - 26 May 2004  Xavier Ciribanya Cirimwami
                             (suspended from 7 Feb 2004)
                             (in rebellion)
Oct? 2003?                 Fumi Tambwe
 7 Feb 2004 - 26 May 2004  Jean-Pierre Mazambi (interim)
26 May 2004 - 10 Nov 2005  Augustin Bulaimu
                             (suspended from 25 Apr 2005)
25 Apr 2005 - 10 Nov 2005  Alimasi Ndomba Pauni (interim)
10 Nov 2005 - 24 Feb 2007  Bu Amba Amba Déogracias
24 Feb 2007 - 21 Mar 2008  Célestin Cibalonza Byaterana       (b. 1964)
Nov 2007 - 21 Mar 2008     Bernard Watunakanza
                             (acting for
Byaterana)
21 Mar 2008 - 19 Apr 2010  Louis Léonce Muderhwa              (b. 1963)
19 Apr 2010 - 12 Jul 2010  Jean-Claude Kibala (acting)        (b. 1965)
12 Jul 2010 -              Marcellin Cishambo                 (b. 1956)



Orientale (East)

 1 Nov 1913                Orientale/Oost (East) province created as part of Belgian Congo
                             (by the incorporation of eight districts: Arumiwi, Bas-Uéle and 
                             Haut-Uele, Ituri [Between c.1870 and 1884 the region covered
                             by these districts had been part of the Egyptian Sudan], 
                             Kivu, Lowa, Maniema and Stanleyville). 
1933                       Stanleyville/Stanleystad province created in reorganization.
1947                       Renamed Orientale/Oost.
30 Jun 1960                Autonomous province of the Congo republic.
27 Jul 1962                Administration taken over by the central government and
                             separation of the new provinces of Kibali-Ituri and Uele.
27 Mar 1963                The remaining part of the Orientale province is reorganized as the 
                             new province of Haut-Congo (Upper Congo).
1964                       East province is reconstituted de jure by the rebel
                             government of the People's Republic of Congo.
28 Dec 1966                Reunification of the Orientale province.
27 Oct 1971                Renamed Haut-Zaïre.
19 May 1997                Renamed Haut-Congo.
1997                       Renamed Orientale.

Deputy Governors-general
 1 Nov 1913 - 1917         Justin Prudent François            (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
                             Marie Malfeyt 
1917 - 1925                Adolphe Jean-Marie De              (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
                             Meulemeester 
Governors and Deputy Governors-general
1925 - 1926                Adolphe Jean-Marie De              (s.a.)
                             Meulemeester 
1926 - 1933                Alfred Moeller de Laddersous       (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
Commissioners
1933 - 1941                Rodolphe (Adolphe) Dufour
1941                       Marcel Alphonse Joseph Maquet      (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
Governors
1941 - 1943                Marcel Alphonse Joseph Maquet      (s.a.)
1943 - 1945                Bertrand 
1945 - 1952                Ernest Bock
1951 - 1952                Joseph Brasseur (acting)
1952 - 1953                André Gilson
Feb 1953 - Apr 1954        Luc Breuls de Tiecken              (b. 1900 - d. ....)
Apr 1954 - 1958?          
André Schöller                     (b. 1908 - d. 1992)
Dec 1958 - May 1960        Pierre Leroy
Presidents
11 Jun 1960 - 11 Oct 1960  Jean-Pierre Finant                 (d. 1961)
1960 - Dec 1960            Charles Badjoko
Dec 1960 - 25 Oct 1961     Jean Foster Manzikala
Oct 1961 - 27 Jul 1962     Simon Losala
Head of the Revolutionary Government
Aug 1964 - 23 Aug 1964     Alphonse Kinga
Head of the Executive Council
 1 Sep 1964 - Nov 1964     François Sabiti
Governors (1972-80, commissioners)
28 Dec 1966 -  3 Jan 1967  Jean Foster Manzikala
 3 Jan 1967 - 17 Jul 1967  Vital Faustin Moanda               (b. 1923 - d. ...)
30 Aug 1967 -  9 Aug 1968  Michel Denge
 9 Aug 1968 - 19 Oct 1968  Jonas Mukamba                      (b. 1931)
19 Oct 1968 -  5 Aug 1969  Anaclet Kaniki
 5 Aug 1969 -  8 Dec 1970  Édouard Bulundwe                   (b. 1932)
23 Dec 1970 - 24 Feb 1972  Bernard Ndebo
24 Feb 1972 - 17 Sep 1972  Geyoro Te Kule
17 Sep 1972 - 10 Feb 1976  Assumani Busanya Lukili
10 Feb 1976 - 21 Jan 1978  Konde Vila Kikanda                 (b. 1939)
21 Jan 1978 - 18 Jan 1980  Mabolia Inengo Tra Buato
18 Jan 1980 - 27 Aug 1980  Tshiala Mwana Tshingombe
27 Aug 1980 - 10 Oct 1981  Mbenza Tubi
10 Oct 1981 - 23 Jan 1982  Ntikala Ibole Muludiki
23 Jan 1982 -  1 Jan 1985  Sukadi Bulayi
 1 Jan 1985 - 20 Jul 1988  Salumu Amisi
20 Jul 1988 - 19..         Sampasa Kaweta Milombe             (b. 1944 - d. 2006)
1990 - 1991                Guillaume Samba Kaputo             (b. 1946 - d. 2007)
1991 - 1997                Lombeya Bosongo Likund'Elio        (b. 1948)
1997 - 23 Aug 1998         Jean Yagi Sitolo
26 Sep 1998 -  6 Dec 1998  Bene Kabala
Dec 1998 - Jul 2000        Théo Baruti Amisi (1st time)       (b. 1950)
                             (in rebellion)
20 Jul 2000 - 20 Apr 2001  Justin Yogba Litanondoto
                            
(in rebellion)
Dec 2001 - 22 Nov 2002     Joseph Eneku                       (b. 19.. - d. 2002)
2002 - c.Jan 2003          Noël Obotela Rashidi
21 Apr 2001 - 16 Jun 2004  Jean-Pierre Bilusa Baila
                             (in rebellion)  
26 May 2004 - 15 Nov 2005  Théo Baruti Amisi (2nd time)       (s.a.)
15 Nov 2005 - 24 Feb 2007  Jean-Pierre Lola Kisanga
24 Feb 2007 - Mar 2012     Médard Autsai Asenga               (b. 1942)
Mar 2012 -  5 Feb 2013     Ismaël Arama Ndiama (acting)
 5 Feb 2013 -              Jean Bamanisa                      (b. 1964)


Kibali-Ituri

14 Aug 1962                Province of Kibali-Ituri separated from Orientale province.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored Orientale province.
1998 - 2003                Occupied by Ugandan forces.
14 Dec 1999
                Province of Kibali-Ituri restored by Ugandan forces
                             (not recognized by government of Congo).
Apr 2003 - 28 Jun 2004     Ituri Interim Administration.
28 Jun 2004
               Re-incorporated into Orientale province.

President (from 1965, governor)
Sep 1962 - 28 Dec 1966     Jean Foster Manzikala
Governors
18 Jun 1999 - 16 Dec 1999  Adèle Lotsove
Mugisa (f)                      
                             (appointed by Ugandan force commander)
16 Dec 1999 - 2001         Ernest Uringi Padolo
                              
 9 May 2001 - 2001         Mohamed Bule Bgangbolo Basabe
2002                       Ruhigwa Baguma
Feb 2002 - Aug 2002        Jean-Pierre Lonpondo Mulondo    
2003                       Joseph Eneko Nguwaza Oyowa         (b. 19.. - d. 2002)
2003                       Mileyo Lotiyo Misaka               (b. 1949)

Administrator

Apr 2003 – 28 Jun 2004     Emmanuel Leku Apuobo
(interim)


Uele

14 Aug 1962                Province of Uele separated from Orientale province.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored Orientale province.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)
11 Sep 1962 - May 1965     Paul Mambaya
 6 Jul 1965 - 28 Dec 1966  François Kupa


Haut-Congo (Upper Congo)

27 Mar 1963                After the formation of the Kibali-Ituri and Uele provinces
                             the remaining part of East province is reorganized as the
                             new Haut-Congo province.
 5 Nov 1966                Administration taken over by the central government.
28 Dec 1966                Part of restored Orientale province.

Presidents (from 1965 governor)
Jun 1963 - 26 Jun 1963     Georges Grenfell       
26 Jun 1963 - 1964         Paul Isombuma
1964 - Aug 1964            François Aradjabu
Aug 1964 -  5 Nov 1966     Jean Marie Alamazani






© Ben Cahoon