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Central African Republic
 
             13 Jul 1894 - 1 Dec 1958 
 
[Central African
                            Republic]
                 Adopted 1 Dec 1958
 
Map of Central
African Republic
Hear National Anthem
"La Renaissance"
(The Renaissance)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 25 May 1960
Constitution
(27 Dec 2004; in French;
suspended 25 Mar 2013
)
Capital: Bangui
(Abiras 1903-11 Feb 1906;
Fort-de-Possel
11 Feb 1906-11 Dec 1906)
(Haut-Oubangui:
Mobaye 1891-1894,
Abiras 1894-1903;
Haut-Chari: Fort Crampel
 1900-1940)
Currency Communauté
Financière Africaine
Franc (XAF)
National Holiday: 1 Dec (1958)
Republic Day
Population: 5,166,510 (2013)
GDP: $3.33 billion (2013) 
Exports: $138.9 million (2013)
Imports: $218.6 million (2013)
Ethnic groups: Baya (Gbaya) 33%, Banda 27%, Mandjia 13%,
Sara 10%, Mboum 7%, Ngbaka 4%, Yakoma 4%, other 2% (2004) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 3,150 (2010)
French Troops: 1,600 (2013)

UN MINUSCA Force: 762 (2014)
Merchant marine
: None (2010)
Religions: Roman Catholic 18.4%, indigenous beliefs 15.4%,
Protestant 14.4%, African Christian 11.6%, other
Christian 23.4%, Sunni Muslim 15.6%, other 1.2% (2000)

note: animistic beliefs strongly influence Christian majority 
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP, AfDB, APM, AU (suspended), BDEAC, BTWC (signatory), CCM (signatory), CEEAC, CEMAC, CEN-SAD, CTBT, CWC, ECOWAS (observer), ESCR, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IRENA (signatory), ISA (observer), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC (observer), OIF (suspended), OPCW, UN, UNCLOS (signatory), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Central African
Republic Index
Chronology

 9 Dec 1891                Haut-Oubangui (Upper Ubangi) region
                             within French Congo (see Congo [Brazzaville]).
1892 - 1895                Oubangui-Bomu territory claimed by the Congo
                             Free State.
13 Jul 1894                Haut-Oubangui colony (autonomy suppressed 
                             10 Dec 1899 - 29 Dec 1903).
10 Dec 1899 - 29 Dec 1903  Haut-Oubangui province, within French Congo.
 5 Sep 1900 - 11 Jun 1904  Haut-Chari region created within French Congo.
29 Dec 1903                Oubangui-Chari (Ubangi-Shari) colony.
11 Feb 1906                Oubangui-Chari territory, part of 
                             Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony.
15 Jan 1910                Oubangui-Chari, Middle Congo (now Congo
                             [Brazzaville]), Gabon, and Chad form 
                             French Equatorial Africa [AEF]
                             [see Congo (Brazzaville]).
12 Apr 1916                Oubangui-Chari colony (Oubangui-Chari-Tchad colony
                             dissolved).
30 Jun 1934                Oubangui-Chari region of French Equatorial Africa 
                             (part of AEF colony).
31 Dec 1937                Oubangui-Chari overseas territory (part 
                             of AEF colony).
16 Jun 1940 - 29 Aug 1940  Administration loyal Vichy France 
                             (from 29 Aug 1940, under Free French).
27 Oct 1946                Oubangui-Chari overseas territory of France.
                             (still part of AEF colony).
 1 Dec 1958                Central African Republic (autonomy granted).
13 Aug 1960                Independence from France.
 4 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979  Central African Empire (Empire Centrafricain).
Traditional
States
Haut-Oubangui
(1890-1904)
Haut-Chari
(1899-1904)
Oubangui-Bomu
(1892-1895)
Historical maps
of Central African
Republic
 
 
 
 
 

Haut-Oubangui

Delegate of the Commissioner-general of Oubangui
25 Sep 1890 -  9 Apr 1891  Paul Crampel                       (b. 1864 - d. 1891)
Delegates of the Commissioner-general and Directors of Haut-Oubangui
 9 Aug 1890 -  1 Jan 1892  Edmond Ponel                       (b. 1849 - d. 1928)
                             (Station Chief in charge of Haut-Oubangui zone)
 1 Jan 1892 – 13 Jul 1894  Victor Liotard                     (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
Commandant Superiors
13 Jul 1894 – 22 Aug 1894  Parfait-Louis Monteil              (b. 1855 - d. 1925)
                             (did not take office)
22 Aug 1894 - 22 Feb 1895  Eugène Louis Frédéric Decazes      (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                             (acting)
22 Feb 1895 - 1895         Leonce Ditte (acting)
Commissioner of the government

1895 - 27 Sep 1897         Victor Liotard                     (s.a.)
Lieutenant governor
27 Sep 1897 - May 1898     Victor Liotard                     (s.a.)
Commandant-delegate
May 1898 - 18 Jun 1899     Adolphe Louis Cureau               (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
Delegate of the Commissioner-general
18 Jun 1899 - 10 Dec 1899  .... Henry                         (d. 1899)
Chefs de Province
10 Dec 1899 – 31 Dec 1900  Henri Bobichon                     (b. 1866 – d. 1939)
31 Dec 1900 - 1902         Pierre Prins                       (b. 1870 - d. 19..)
1902 - 31 Mar 1903         Lucien Schneider                   (b. 1868 - d. 1903)
c.Apr 1903 - Oct 1904      Dic


Haut-Chari

Commissioners of the government of Haut-Chari
Aug 1899 - c.Mar 1901      Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 - d. 1914)
c.Mar 1901 - c.Dec 1902    Georges Matthieu Destenave         (b. 1854 - d. 1928)
                             (acting to July 1901)
Commandant
Dec 1902 - 11 Jul 1904     Georges-Gilbert Bruel              (b. 1871 - d. 1944)



Oubangui-Chari and Central African Republic


Governors-delegate
30 Jun 1904 - c.Jan 1905   Alphonse Iaeck (acting)
c.Jan 1905 - 22 Aug 1905   Adolphe Louis Cureau               (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
22 Aug 1905 - 16 Feb 1906  Victor Emmanuel Merlet (acting)    (b. 1862 - d. 19..) 
16 Feb 1906 - 25 Dec 1906  Louis Paul Émilien Lamy            (b. 1856 - d. 19..)
                             (acting from 4 Apr 1906)
Lieutenant governors
25 Dec 1906 - 28 Feb 1909  Émile Joseph Merwart               (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
1908                       Léon Herménégilde Maran            (b. 1864 - d. 1912)
                             (acting for Merwart)
28 Feb 1909 -  5 Aug 1910  Lucien Louis Fourneau (acting)     (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
 5 Aug 1910 - 10 Jun 1911  Paul Pierre Marie Georges Adam     (b. 1865 - d. 1916)
                             (1st time)(acting)
10 Jun 1911 - 24 Nov 1913  Frédéric Estèbe                    (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
24 Nov 1913 -  5 Aug 1916  Paul Pierre Marie Georges Adam     (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)(acting)
12 Oct 1916 - 17 Jul 1917  Victor Emmanuel Merlet             (s.a.) 
12 Oct 1916
17 Jul 1917  Auguste Lamblin                    (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
                             (acting for Merlet)
17 Jul 1917 - 26 Sep 1929  Auguste Lamblin (1st time)         (s.a.)
                             (acting to 16 May 1919)
31 Aug 1920 - Dec 1921     Alphonse Diret (acting for Lamblin)(b. 1872 - d. 1973)
17 Aug 1923 - Nov 1924     Pierre Claude Emmanuel François    (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
                            
(acting for Lamblin)
 1 Jul 1926 - Jul 1928     Georges David Pierre Marie         (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
                             Prouteaux (acting for Lamblin)
22 Oct 1929 - 30 Oct 1930  Georges David Pierre Marie         (s.a.) 
                             Prouteaux (acting)
30 Oct 1930 - 17 Aug 1934  Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
 8 Mar 1933 - Feb 1934     Pierre Simon Antonin Bonnefont     (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
                             (acting for Deitte)
Governors-delegate
17 Aug 1934 - 21 May 1935  Adolphe Deitte                     (s.a.)
21 May 1935 - 30 May 1936  Richard Edmond Maurice Édouard     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
                             Brunot
1936                       Louis de Poyen-Bellisle            (d. 1937)
                             (acting for Brunot)
30 May 1936 - 23 Oct 1936  Pierre Simon Antonin Bonnefont     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
23 Oct 1936 - 24 Oct 1936  Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
24 Oct 1936 - 31 Dec 1937  Max de Masson de Saint-Félix       (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
Governors
31 Dec 1937 - 28 Mar 1939  Max de Masson de Saint-Félix       (s.a.)
28 Mar 1939 - 21 Feb 1941  Pierre de Saint-Mart (acting)      (b. 1885 - d. 1965) 
Chefs de territoire

21 Feb 1941 - 30 May 1942  Pierre de Saint-Mart               (s.a.) 
                             (acting to 15 Jul 1941)
30 May 1942 - 30 Jul 1942  André Jean Gaston Latrille         (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
30 Jul 1942 -  3 Apr 1946  Henri Camille Sautot               (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
 3 Apr 1946 - 25 Apr 1948  Jean Victor Louis Joseph Chalvet   (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
24 May 1946 - Oct 1946     Henri Lacour (acting for Chalvet)  (b. 1897 - d. 1960)
25 Apr 1948 -  1 Dec 1948  Jean Mauberna (acting)             (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
 1 Dec 1948 - 27 Jan 1949  Auguste Léon Valentin Éven         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
                             (1st time) (acting)
27 Jan 1949 -  4 Jan 1950  Pierre Jean Marie Delteil          (b. 1907 - d. 2002)
 4 Jan 1950 -  1 Mar 1950  Auguste Léon Valentin Éven         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Mar 1950 -  9 Jul 1951  Ignace Jean Aristide Colombani     (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
 9 Jul 1951 - 19 Oct 1951  Pierre Jean Raynier (acting)       (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
19 Oct 1951 - 31 Mar 1954  Aimé Marius Louis Grimald          (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
31 Mar 1954 - 29 Jan 1958  Louis Marius Pascal Sanmarco       (b. 1912 - d. 2009)
                             (acting to 2 Dec 1954)
29 Jan 1958 -  9 Jan 1959  Paul Camille Bordier               (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
High Commissioner
 9 Jan 1959 - 13 Aug 1960  Paul Camille Bordier               (s.a.)
Presidents 
14 Aug 1960 -  1 Jan 1966  David Dacko (1st time)             (b. 1930 - d. 2003)  MESAN
                             (acting to 12 Nov 1960)
 1 Jan 1966 -  4 Dec 1976  Jean-Bédel Bokassa                 (b. 1921 - d. 1996) Mil;Aug 1967
                             (from 17 Oct 1976, Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa)        MESAN
Emperor
¹ 
 4 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979  Bokassa I                          (s.a.)               MESAN
Presidents

20 Sep 1979 -  1 Sep 1981  David Dacko (2nd time)             (s.a.)            MESAN;1980 UDC
 1 Sep 1981 - 22 Oct 1993  André-Dieudonné Kolingba           (b. 1936 - d. 2010) Mil;1987 RDC
                            (chairman Military Committee of National
                             Recovery to 21 Sep 1985)
22 Oct 1993 - 15 Mar 2003  Ange-Félix Patassé                 (b. 1937 - d. 2011)  MLPC 
15 Mar 2003 - 24 Mar 2013  François Bozizé Yangouvonda        (b. 1946)         None;2009 KNK
24 Mar 2013 March 2013 - 10 Jan 2014  Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia        (b. 1949)            UFDR
                             (from 18 Jul 2013, transitional head of state)
10 Jan 2014 - 23 Jan 2014  Alexandre Ferdinand Nguendet       (b. 1972)            RPR
                             (acting)
23 Jan 2014 -              Catherine Samba-Panza (f)          (b. 1956)            Non-party


Vice President of the Government Council
14 May 1957 - 26 Jul 1958  Abel Nguéndé Goumba                (b. 1926 - d. 2009)  MESAN
President of the Government Council
26 Jul 1958 -  1 Dec 1958  Abel Nguéndé Goumba                (s.a.)               MESAN
Presidents of the Government 
 1 Dec 1958 - 29 Mar 1959  Barthélemy Boganda                 (b. 1910 - d. 1959)  MESAN
                             (provisional to 16 Feb 1959)
30 Mar 1959 - 30 Apr 1959  Abel Nguéndé Goumba (1st time)     (s.a.)               MESAN
 1 May 1959 -  1 Jan 1966  David Dacko                        (s.a.)               MESAN
  4 Jan 1966 -  7 Dec 1976  Jean-Bédel Bokassa                 (s.a.)               MESAN
Prime ministers (subordinated to the President of the Government to 7 Dec 1976)
 6 Jun 1974 -  4 Apr 1976  Elisabeth Domitien (f)             (b. 1925 - d. 2005)  MESAN
 5 Sep 1976 - 14 Jul 1978  Ange-Félix Patassé                 (s.a.)               MESAN
14 Jul 1978 - 24 Sep 1979  Henri Maïdou                       (b. 1936)            MESAN
24 Sep 1979 - 12 Nov 1980  Bernard-Christian Ayandho          (b. 1930 - d. 1993)MESAN;1980UDC
12 Nov 1980 -  3 Apr 1981  Jean-Pierre Lebouder               (b. 1944)            UDC
 3 Apr 1981 -  1 Sep 1981  Simon-Narcisse Bozanga             (b. 1942 - d. 2010)  UDC
 1 Sep 1981 - 15 Mar 1991  André-Dieudonné Kolingba           (s.a.)              Mil;1987 RDC
                             (chief of government to 15 Jan 1991)
15 Mar 1991 -  4 Dec 1992  Edouard Frank                      (b. 1938?)           RDC
 4 Dec 1992 - 26 Feb 1993  Timothée Malendoma                 (b. 1935 - d. 2010)  FC
26 Feb 1993 - 24 Oct 1993  Enoch Dérant Lakoué                (b. 1945)            PSD
24 Oct 1993 - 12 Apr 1995  Jean-Luc Mandaba                   (b. 1943 - d. 2000)  MLPC
12 Apr 1995 -  6 Jun 1996  Jean Edouard Gabriel Koyambounou   (b. 1947)            MLPC
 6 Jun 1996 - 30 Jan 1997  Jean-Paul Ngoupandé                (b. 1948 - d. 2014)  PUN
                             (arrives in Bangui 11 Jun 1996)
30 Jan 1997 -  4 Jan 1999  Michel Gbezera-Bria                (b. 1946)            Non-party
 4 Jan 1999 -  1 Apr 2001  Anicet-Georges Dologuélé           (b. 1957)            MLPC
 1 Apr 2001 - 15 Mar 2003  Martin Ziguélé                     (b. 1957)            MLPC
23 Mar 2003 - 12 Dec 2003  Abel Nguéndé Goumba (2nd time)     (s.a.)               FPP
12 Dec 2003 - 11 Jun 2005  Célestin Leroy Gaombalet           (b. 1942)            Non-party
11 Jun 2005 - 22 Jan 2008  Élie Doté                          (b. 1948)            Non-party
22 Jan 2008 - 17 Jan 2013  Faustin-Archange Touadéra          (b. 1957)            KNK
17 Jan 2013 - 10 Jan 2013  Nicolas Tiangaye                   (b. 1956)            Non-party
25 Jan 2014 - 10 Aug 2014  André Nzapayéké                    (b. 1951)            Non-party
10 Aug 2014 -              Mahamat Kamoun                     (b. 1961)            Non-party

Commander UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission
in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA)
15 Sep 2014 -              Martin Chomu Tumenta (Cameroon    (b. 1965)
                        (commandant of AU MISCA 19 Dec 2013 - 15 Sep 2014)
  ¹Full style 4 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979: Empereur de l'Empire Centrafricain ("Emperor of the Central African Empire"); description- Empereur de Centrafrique par la volonté du Peuple Centrafricain, uni au sein du parti politique national, le MESAN ("Emperor of Central Africa by the will of the Central African people, united within the national political party, the MESAN").

Territorial Disputes: Periodic skirmishes over water and grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border with southern Sudan persist.

Party abbreviations: FPP = Front Patriotique pour le Progrès (Patriotic Front for Progress, social democratic, est.1991); KNK = Convergence Nationale "Kwa Na Kwa" (National Convergence "Kwa Na Kwa", social democratic, est.2003); MLPC = Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People, christian-democratic, 1993-2003 A.F. Patassé personalist, est.1979); PSD = Parti Social Démocrate (Social Democratic Party, social democratic, est.1991); PUN = Parti de l'Unité Nationale (National Unity Party, est.1997); PR = Rassemblement pour la République (UFDR opposition, est.2013); RDC = Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (Central African Democratic Rally, authoritarian, A.D. Kolingba personalist, 1987-1991 only legal party, est.1987); UFDR = Union des Forces Démocratiques pour le Rassemblement (Union of Democratic Forces for Unity, anti-Bozizé, Séléka coalition, est.2007); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: FC = Forum Civique (Civil Forum, 1992-2005); MEDACMouvement pour l'Évolution Démocratique de l'Afrique Centrale (Movement for the Democratic Evolution of Central Africa, anti-Dacko, anti-authoritarian, 1960-23 Dec 1960); MESAN = Mouvement d'Évolution Sociale d'Afrique Noire (Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa, pro-independence, African nationalist, Nov 1962-1979 only legal party, 1949-24 Nov 1979, renamed UDC); UDC = Union Démocratique Centrafricaine (Central African Democratic Union, former MESAN, 1980-1981 only legal party, 1980-1993)


Oubangui-Bomu
[Flag of Congo Free
                  State]
1892                       Oubangui-Bomou (Ubangui-Bomu) territory administered by
                             the Congo Free State.
14 Aug 1895                Franco-Congolese border treaty.
25 Feb 1895                End of Congo administration.           

Comandant Supérieurs
(subordinated to the Governors-general of Congo Free State)
1892 - 1893                Georges Le Marinel (1st time)      (b. 1860 - d. 1914)
1893 – 23 Apr 1893         Balat                              (d. 1893)
23 Apr 1893 - Sep 1893     Leon Hanolet                       (b. 1859 – d. 1908)
Sep 1893 - 25 Feb 1895     Georges Le Marinel (2nd time)      (s.a.)




© Ben Cahoon