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Traditional States in the 
Central African Republic 


Note: The sultans ruled large conquered populations in the north and east of the present-day Central African Republic (CAR). They included the famous slave-trader al-Sanusi, eventually killed in battle with the French in 1911, and the sultans Labassou, Zemio, and Hetman, heads of conquering dynasties. The Banda in the central part of the CAR generally had no grands chefs and have been called "anarchistic" because of their various subgroupings and divisions. The Mandjia and Baya in the west and the riverine peoples along the Oubangui and Mbomou in the south had no grands chefs either. They had leaders of different kinds, however, for the settlement of disputes or to lead men in battle against an enemy, or as heads of kinship groupings. 

Dar al-Kuti

c.1830                     Djougoultoum (or Omar) an exiled Baguirmian prince, 
                             founds Dar al-Kuti south of the Aouk River.
1890                       Sultanate of Dar al-Kuti and Dar Rounga is established 
                             by conqueror Rabah.
12 Dec 1897                French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti.
1912                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Sultans
c.1830 - 18..              Djougoultoum (or Omar)
18.. – 1890                Muhammad Kober
1890 - 11 Jan 1911         Muhammad al-Sanusi                 (b. 18.. - d. 1911)
Jan 1911 - 17 Dec 1912     Kamoun



Bangassou

c.1780                     Ndounga founds the Bandia kingdom of Nzakara.
c.1878                     Sultanate of Bangassou.
14 Jun 1890 - 1894         Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou.
1894                       French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou
1917                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Rulers
c.1780 - c.1800            Ndounga 
c.1800 - c.1830            Mbilinga 
c.1830 - c.1860            Gbandi (or Boendi)
c.1860 - c.1878            Mbali
Sultans
c.1878 -  8 Jun 1907       Bangassou                          (d. 1907)
1907 - c.Jan 1917          Labassou                           (d. 1917)
1917                       Banzanga                           (d. 1920)
1917 - 1932                Kelenga                            (d. 1932)
1932 - 1936                Antoine Gounga                     (d. 1942)
1936 - 1966                Sayo                               (d. 1966)



Rafai

c.1800                     Kassanga founds a Bandia kingdom in the Chinko River valley.
c.1875                     Sultanate of Rafai
 8 Apr 1892 - 31 Mar 1909  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai.
31 Mar 1909                French protectorate over the Sultanate of Rafai.
1939                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Rulers
c.1800 - 18..              Kassanga
18.. - 18..                Tosi
18.. - 18..                Sangou
c.1830 - c.1875            Baingui (Bayangi) 
Sultans
c.1875 - 15 Jun 1900       Rafai                              (d. 1900)
1900 - 1939                Hetman                             (d. 1939)
1939 - 1966                Fatrane



Zemio
 

c.1830                     Nounga founds a Voungara kingdom between the Chinko and 
                             the Ouelle rivers.
c.1872                     Sultanate of Zemio
11 Dec 1894 - 12 Apr 1909  Congo Free State protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.
12 Apr 1909                French protectorate over the Sultanate of Zemio.
1923                       Sultanate suppressed by the French.

Rulers
c.1830 - c.1835            Nounga
18.. - c.1855              Zangabirou                         (d. c.1858)
c.1855 - c.1872            Tikima
Sultans
c.1872 - 12 Oct 1912       Zemio (Zemio-Ikpiro)               (b. c.1840 - d. 1912)
1912 - 1921                Zemio-Mbomou
1921 - 1923                Momi






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