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South Sudan

 
[Flag of the United
                          Kingdom]
 2 Sep 1898  - 1 Jan 1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Joint flag

[Flag of Egypt
                          1923-1953]
 19 Jan 1899 - 18 Jun 1953 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Joint flag

[Flag of Sudan,
                          1956-70]
                    1 Jan 1956 - 20 May 1970

[Flag of Sudan]
                      20 May 1970 - 9 Jul 2011
 
[South Sudan]
                        Adopted 9 Jul 2011  


Map of South Sudan
Hear National Anthem
"
South Sudan Oyee!"
Text of Local Anthem
Adopted 9 Jul 2011
Constitution
(9 Jul 2011; transitional)
Capital: Juba  Currency: South Sudan Pound (SSP); Sudanese Pound (SDG)(1956-18 Jul 2011) National Holiday: 9 Jul (2011)
Independence Day

Population: 11,090,104 (2013) 
GDP: $14.71 billion (2013)
Exports: $N/A (2012)
Imports: $N/A (2012)
Ethnic groups: Dinka 35.8%, Nuer 15.6%, Shilluk, Azande,
Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri,
Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi (2011)
Total Active Armed Forces: 40,150 (2010)
UN Force in South Sudan (UNMISS): 6,633 (Aug 2012)
Merchant marine: None (2010)
Religions:  Animist and traditional beliefs, Christian (Roman
Catholic and Anglican),
Sunni Muslim, other
International Organizations/Treaties: ACP (observer), AfDB, APM, AU, C (applicant), FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNICEF, UPU, WCO, WFP, WHO, WMO
South Sudan
 Index
Chronology

26 May 1871                Equatoria province of Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
Apr 1889                   Part of the Mahdiya (see Sudan).
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
12 May 1894 - 10 Jun 1910  Lado district leased to the Belgian Congo.
19 Jan 1899                Part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (see Sudan).
1922 - 13 Jun 1947         Aborted British plan to administer the southern
                             provinces of The Sudan separately from the
                             northern provinces.
 1 Jan 1956                Part of independent Republic of The Sudan.
28 Feb 1972 -  5 Jun 1983  Self-government for the three Southern
                             provinces (Southern Sudan Autonomous Region)
                             (included Equatoria, Bahr al-Ghazal and
                             Upper Nile, capital at Juba).
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  Rebellion against the Sudanese government.
 9 Jul 2005                Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan
                             within The Sudan established.
 9-15 Jan 2011             Referendum votes 98.83% for independence.
 9 Jul 2011                Independence (Republic of South Sudan).

States
Southern Sudan Region
(1972-2011)
Governments
in Exile

(1967-1970)
Abyei Area
Lado Enclave
(1897-1910)
Shilluk
Map of Civil War
1983-2005
 Historical Maps
of Sudan
 
 


President
 9 Jul 2011 -              Salva Kiir Mayardit               (b. 1951)            SPLM




Southern Sudan Region

[Autonomous Government of
                  Southern Sudan flag]
           9 Jul 2005 - 9 Jul 2011 Region Flag
Map of Southern Sudan Region Capital: Juba
Hear Regional Anthem
(former SPLM anthem)
 2005-2011
Interim Constitution
(6 Dec 2005 - 9 Jul 2011)
SPLA Forces: 40,150 (2010)
Currency: Sudanese Pound
(SDP) 
Region Holiday: 16 May (1983)
Founding of the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army (SPLA)
Population: 8,260,490 (2008)

Chairmen of the Southern Region High Executive Council
 6 Apr 1972 - Feb 1978     Abel Alier (1st time)             (b. 1933)            SF
Feb 1978 - 12 Jul 1979     Joseph Lagu                       (b. 1931)            SANU
12 Jul 1979 - 30 May 1980  Peter Gatkuoth                    (b. 19.. - d. 2010)
30 May 1980 -  5 Oct 1981  Abel Alier (2nd time)             (s.a.)               SF/SSU
 5 Oct 1981 - 23 Jun 1982  Gismalla Abdalla Rassas (interim)                      SSLM
23 Jun 1982 -  5 Jun 1983  Joseph James Tombura              (b. 1929? - d. ....) SANU 
 5 Jun 1983 - 25 May 1985  Post abolished
25 May 1985 - May 1986     James Loro                                             SSU  
May 1986 - May 1987        Post abolished
Chairmen of the Council for the South
31 Jan 1987 - Jan 1988     Matthew Abor Ayang
Jan 1988 - Jun 1989        Angelo Beda 
Jun 1989 -  7 Aug 1997     Post abolished
Chairmen of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council
 7 Aug 1997 - 31 Jan 2000  Riek Machar Teny                  (b. 1952)            SSIM
2000 - 2001                Angelo Beda (acting)
2001 -  9 Dec 2002         Gatluak Deng                      (b. 1953 - d. 2014)  SNC
 9 Dec 2002 - 2005         Riek Gai Kok                                           SNC
Presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan
 9 Jul 2005 - 30 Jul 2005  John Garang de Maboir             (b. 1945 - d. 2005)  SPLM
 1 Aug 2005 -  9 Jul 2011  Salva Kiir Mayardit               (s.a.)               SPLM 
                             (acting to 11 Aug 2005)


Rebel Leaders

[Sudan People's
                          Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M)
                          1979-1990's]
             1979 - 1990's  SPLA/M flag
 
[ Sudan People's
                          Liberation Movement (SPLM) flag 1990's-2005]
                 1990's - 2005  SPLM flag
 
President of the Southern Sudan Liberation Front (SSLF)
(from Aug 1971, Southern Sudan Liberation Movement [SSLM])
Oct 1969 - 28 Mar 1972     Joseph Lagu                       (s.a.)             SSLF;1971 SSLM
Chairman of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  John Garang de Maboir             (s.a.)               SPLM

Governments in Exile (Based in Kampala, Uganda)

[Southern Sudan
                          Provisional Government, 1967-1969]
          Aug 1967 - 27 Mar  1969 
 Southern Sudan Provisional Government
[Nile State
                          flag, 1969-1970]
    Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970 Nile State 

[Anya-Naya flag,
                          1969-1970]
 15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970 Anya-Naya flag
 
President of the Southern Sudan Provisional Government
15 Aug 1967 - 27 Mar 1969  Aggrey Jaden                      (b. 1924 - d. 1985)  ALF/SANU
President of the Nile Provisional Government (NPG)
Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970     Gordon Muortat Mayen              (b. 1922 - d. 2008)  Mil/SF
President of the Anyidi Revolutionary Government (in opposition to NPG)
15 Jul 1969 - Apr 1970     Emilio Tafeng                     (b. 1910?)           Mil/AN

Party abbreviations
: SNC = Sudanese National Congress Party (Arab/Muslim nationalist, islamist, Sudan government party from 1996, est.1996); SANU = Sudan African National Union (South Sudan autonomist, est.1963); SPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army SPLA, est.1983); SSLM = Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (Southern Sudan regionalist, to Aug 1971 SSLF; est.20-30,000 [2002]); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ALF = Azania Liberation Front (Southern Sudan separatist, 1965-1970); AN = Anya-Naya (Southern Sudan separatist, 1969-1972, absorbed by SSLF); SF = Southern Front; SPLM-U = Sudan People's Liberation Movement-United (Riek Machar faction of SPLM, est.Aug 1991-Oct 1994, then SSIM); SSIM = Southern Sudan Independence Movement (Riek Machar faction of SPLM, former SPLM-U, 1994-2002); SSLF = Southern Sudan Liberation Front (renamed Aug 1971, SSLM); SSU = Sudanese Socialist Union (Ara nationalist, socialist, 1971-1985)

Territorial Disputes: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 Jan 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times.


Lado 
[Lado enclave 1894-1906
                  (Sudan)]
            15 Jan 1897 - 10 Jun 1910 
Map of Lado Enclave Capital: Rejaf (Redjaf)
(principal post)
Population: 250,000
May 1892                   First Congolese expedition in the Bahr al-Ghazal.
12 May 1894                British-Belgian Congolese Treaty. In order to prevent a French
                             take over of the Bahr al-Ghazal and to open a "second front" 
                             against the Mahdists, the British leased for the lifetime of 
                             Leopold II the Bahr al-Ghazal (region between the Nile, 
                             Lake Albert, 10° Northern Latitude and 25° Western Longitude) 
                             to Congo. The Congo agrees to only occupy the zone between the
                             Nile, Lake Albert, 5°30' NL and 30° WL (later Lado district).
17 Feb 1897                Mahdist tropos are defeated at Bedden Battle by the Congo Free
                             State army led by Lt. Louis Chaltin. Congolese troops start
                             occupying the territory. At first limited to the Lado                                          Enclave, occupation later extends to other parts of Bahr
                             al-Ghazal.
19 Jan 1899                Britain proclaims the Bahr al-Ghazal a part of the Anglo-Egyptian
                             Sudan. Belgian Congolese presence and expansion continues.
 9 May 1906                British-Belgian Congolese Treaty, the lease of the Bahr al-Ghazal
                             is canceled, only the Lado enclave remains leased to the 
                             Belgian Congo for King Leopold's lifetime.
 3 Aug 1907                Last Congolese troops leave Bahral-Ghazal (except Lado enclave).
10 Jun 1910                Lado district handed over to Anglo-Egyptian Sudan government,
                             part of Bahr al-Ghazal province. 
 
Commandants Supérieur of Uele and the Lado Enclave
17 Feb 1897 - Nov 1897     Louis Napoléon Chaltin (1st time)    (b. 1857 - d. 1933)
Nov 1897 - 15 Dec 1898     Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet         (b. 1859 - d. 1908)
                             (1st time)
15 Dec 1898 -  1 May 1900  Jean Baptiste Josué Henry de la      (b. 1869 - d. 1957)
                             Lindi
 1 May 1900 - Mar 1902     Louis Napoléon Chaltin (2nd time)    (s.a.)
Mar 1902 - Jan 1903        Léon Charles Edouard Hanolet         (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1903 - 24 Mar 1904     Georges François Wtterwulghe         (b. 1871 - d. 1904)
24 Mar 1904 - 1904         Florian Alexandre François Wacquez   (b. 1870 - d. 1914)
                             (acting for Wtterwulghe to 8 May 1904)
1904 - May 1907            Ferdinand, baron de Rennette de      (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                             Villers-Perwin (acting to Aug 1906)

Chief of the Lado Enclave Zone
1899 - 1900                Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier      (b. 1867 - d. 1914)
Commandants of the Lado Enclave
1900 - Jan 1903            Gustave Ferdinand Joseph Renier      (s.a.)
Jan 1903 - Aug 1903        Albéric Constantin Édouard Bruneel   (b. 1863 - d. 1914)
Aug 1903 - Mar 1905        Henri Laurent Serexhe                (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
Mar 1905 - Jan 1908        Guillaume Léopold Olaerts            (b. 1867 - d. 19..)
Jan 1908 - Apr 1909        Léon Néstor Preud'homme              (b. 1871 - d. 1936)
Apr 1909 - 1910            Alexis Bertrand
1910 - Jun 1910            Charles Eugène Édouard de Meulenaer  (b. 1873 - d. 1920)


Shilluk (Chollo)

[old Shilluk
                          kingdom flag (The Sudan)]
                       to c.2011
[Shilluk kingdom flag (South Sudan)]
                       Adopted c.2011

Reths

.... - ....                Nyikang
.... - ....                Col wad Nyikang
.... - ....                Dak wad Nyikang
.... - c.1600              Nyidoro wad Dak
c.1600 - c.1635            Odak Ocwolo wad Dak
c.1635 - c.1650            Duwat wad Ocwolo
c.1650 - c.1660            Bwoc wad Duwat
c.1660 - c.1661            Akac
c.1661 - c.1667            Abudok nya Bwoc (f)
c.1667 - c.1690            Tokot wad Bwoc
c.1690 - c.1710            Tugo wad Tokot
c.1710 - c.1715            Okon wad Tugo
c.1715 - c.1745            Nyadwai wad Tugo
c.1740 - c.1745            Ngu Abab (in rebellion)
c.1745 - c.1750            Muko wad Nyadwai
c.1750 - c.1760            Wak wad Nyadwai
c.1760 - c.1770            Tyelgut wad Nyadwai
c.1770 - c.1780            Kudit wad Okon
c.1780 - c.1820            Yor Nyakwac wad Kudit
c.1820 - c.1825            Aney wad Nyakwac
c.1825 - c.1835            Akwot wad Nyakwac
c.1835 - c.1840            Awin wad Nyakwac
c.1840 - c.1845            Akoc wad Akwot
c.1845 - Feb 1859          Nyidok wad Nyakwac                 (d. 1859)
c.1859                     Acin wad Akwot
c.1859 - c.1870            Kwadker wad Akwot
c.1870 - 1875              Ajang wad Nyidok                   (d. 1875)
1875                       Dedunyal wad Ajang
1875 - 1876                Vacant
1876 - 1881                Kuikon wad Kwadker
1881 - 1892                Yor wad Akoc
1892 - 1903                Kur Galdwan wad Nyidok
1903 - 1917                Fadyet wad Kwadker                 (d. 1917)
1917 - Sep 1943            Fafiti wad Yor                     (d. 1943)
15 Mar 1944 - Nov 1945     Aney wad Kur                       (b. c.1900 - d. 1945)
Jan 1946 -  8 May 1951     Dak wad Fadyet                     (d. 1951)
Feb 1952 - 24 Jul 1974     Kur wad Fafiti                     (b. 1928 - d. 1974)
1975 -  1 Jun 1992         Tipo wad Aney (= Ayang wad Aney)   (b. 1944 - d. 1992)
Jul 1993 -                 Kwongo wad Dak





© Ben Cahoon