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The Sudan
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag]
                1821/22 - 1881/85
 
 
[Governor-General's flag during
                                    the Condominium]
                      2 Sep 1898 - 1 Jan 1956
        Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Governor-general's flag
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
            2 Sep 1898 - 1 Jan 1956 Joint flag (U.K.)

[Flag
                                    of Egypt 1923-1953]
 19 Jan 1899 - 18 Jun 1953 Joint flag (Egypt)
 
[Flag
                                    of Sudan, 1956-70]
                    1 Jan 1956 - 20 May 1970
 
[Flag of
                                    Sudan]
                        Adopted 20 May 1970
 
Map of Sudan Hear National Anthem
"Nahnu Djundulla
Djundulwatan"
(We Are the Army of
God and of Our Land) 
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1956
Interim Constitution
(6 Jul 2005)
--------------------------------------

Former Constitutions
(1 Jul 1998 - 6 Jul 2005;
10 Oct 1985 - 30 Jun 1989;
12 Apr 1973 - 6 Apr 1985)

Capital: Khartoum
(Omdurman 1881-1898)
Currency:  Sudanese Pound
(SDG) 1957-1992, 2007-;
Sudanese Dinar
(SDD)
1992-9 Jan 2007 
National Holiday: 1 Jan (1956)
Independence Day
Population: 34,847,910 (2013)
GDP: $89.9 billion (2013) Exports: $4.15 billion (2013)
Imports: $5.94 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, others 3% (2003)
note: demographic data includes South Sudan

Total Active Armed Forces: 109,300 (2010)
African Union-UN Darfur Force (UNAMID): 19,442 (2013)
Merchant marine: 2 ships (2010)
Religions: Sunni Muslim 68.4% (in north), Roman Catholic 9.5%,
 and Protestant 8.8% (of which Anglican 5.4%) (mostly in
south and in Khartoum),
traditional beliefs 10.8%,
other 2.5% (2005)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AIIB (applicant), AL, AMF, APM, Arabsat, AU, BTWC, CAEU, COMESA, CTBT, CWC, ESCR, FAO, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OIC, OPCW, OPEC (observer), PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNFCC-PA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
The Sudan
Index
Chronology

Jul 1820                   Egypt under Muhammad Ali begins conquest of Sudan
                             (Dongala 23 Sep 1820, Berber 5 Mar 1821,
Khartoum
                             in May 1821,
Senner 11 Jun 1821, and Kordofan
                             on 19 Aug 1821
).
1821/1822                  Annexation by Egypt (nominally under Ottoman
                             suzerainty).

29 Jun 1881                Mahdiya established (Mahdi's "emergence").
26 Jan 1885                Egyptian Sudan fully occupied by the Mahdiya.
 2 Sep 1898                Mahdiya extinguished by Britain.
19 Jan 1899                Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (initially spelled "Soudan")
                             (condominium).

24 Nov 1924                Egyptian troops and civil servants withdrawn.
 4 Jul 1940 - 17 Jan 1941  Italian occupation of Gallabat, Kurmak and Kassala.
21 Mar 1953                Self-government granted (by 23 Apr 1952 statute).
 
9 Jan 1954                Autonomy granted by Egypt-U.K. agreement.
 1 Jan 1956                Independence (Republic of The Sudan).
25 May 1969                Democratic Republic of The Sudan
 5 Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  Civil war erupts, large parts of the southern
                             provinces under rebel control.
15 Dec 1985                Republic of The Sudan
 9 Jul 2011                Independence of South Sudan.

States
(from 1991)
Provinces
(1821-1889)

 Traditional
Polities

Abyei Area
Darfur Transitional
Authority
 Map of Civil War
1983-2005
Historical Maps
of Sudan
 

Egyptian Commanders
Nov 1820 - 1821            Ismail Kamel Pasha                 (b. 1795 - d. 1822)
Apr 1821 - Sep 1824        Defterdar Muhammad Bey             (d. 1833)
Sep 1824 - May 1825        'Uthman Bey al-Sharkas             (d. 1825)
May 1825 - Mar 1826        Mahu Urfali Bey                    (d. 1828)
Governor
Mar 1826 - 1835            Ali Khurshid Agha                  (b. c.1786 - d. 1845)
                            
(from 1834, Ali Khurshid Pasha)
Governors-general
(Hakimdar)
1835 - Jun 1838            Ali Khurshid Pasha                 (s.a.)

Jun 1838 -  6 Oct 1843     Ahmed Pasha abu Widan              (d. 1843)
1843 - 1845                Ahmed Pasha al-Manliki             (b. c.1795 - d. 1862)
1845 - 1850                Khalid Khusraw Pasha     
1850 - Jan 1851            'Abd al-Latif Pasha                (b. c.1805 - d. 1883)
Jan 1851 - May 1852        Rüstem Pasha Çerkes                (d. 1852)
May 1852 - 1853            Ismail Haqqi Pasha abu Jabal       (b. 1818 - d. 1882)
1853 - 1854                Salim Saib Pasha al-Jazairli
Jul 1854 - Nov 1854        Ali Pasha Sirri al-Arnaut          (b. 1814 - d. 1866)
Governors
1854 - 1855                Ali
Pasha al-Sharkas
1856 - 1858                Arakil Bey al-Armani               (b. 1826 - d. 1858)
1859 - 1861                Hasan Salama Bey                   (d. 1861)
1861 - 1862                Muhammad Rasikh Bey                (b. c.1834 - d. 1883)
Governors-general 
1862 - 1865                Musa Hamdi Pasha                   (b. c.1800 - d. 1865)

1865 - Nov 1865            'Umar Fakhri Bey (acting)          (d. 1866)
Nov 1865 - 1866            Jafar Sadiq Pasha                  (b. 1805 - d. af.1884)
1866 -  5 Feb 1871         Jafar Mazhar Pasha                 (d. 1878)
 5 Feb 1871 - Oct 1872     Ahmed Mumtaz Pasha                 (b. c.1825 - d. 1874)
Oct 1872 - 1872            Edhem Pasha al-Arifi (acting)      (b. c.1815 - d. af.1872)
1872 - 18 May 1877         Ismail Pasha al-Ayyub              (d. 1884)
May 1877 - Dec 1879        Charles George Gordon Pasha        (b. 1833 - d. 1885)
                             (1st time)
Dec 1879 - Feb 1882        Muhammad Ra'uf Pasha               (b. 1832 - d. c.1888)
Feb 1882 - May 1882        Carl Christian Giegler Pasha       (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
                            
(acting)
May 1882 - Mar 1883        'Abd al-Qadir Hilmi
Pasha          (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
Mar 1883 -  5 Nov 1883     'Ala al-Din Siddiq Pasha           (d. 1883)
 5 Nov 1883 - Feb 1884     William Hicks Pasha                (b. 1830 - d. 1884)
Feb 1884 - 18 Feb 1884     Henry Watts Russell de Coëtlogon   (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
                             Pasha (acting)
18 Feb 1884 - 26 Jan 1885  Charles George Gordon Pasha        (s.a.)
                            
(2nd time)
Mahdi
29 Jun 1881 - 22 Jun 1885  Muhammad Ahmad bin Abdullah        (b. 1844 - d. 1885)
Khalifa
22 Jun 1885 -  2 Sep 1898  Abdullah (`Abd Allah) bin Muhammad (b. 1846 - d. 1899)
Military governor
 2 Sep 1898 - 19 Jan 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             Baron Kitchener 
Governors-general
19 Jan 1899 - 22 Dec 1899  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (s.a.)
                             Baron Kitchener 
22 Dec 1899 - 31 Dec 1916  Sir Francis Reginald Wingate       (b. 1861 - d. 1953)
 1 Jan 1917 - 20 Nov 1924  Sir Lee Oliver Fitzmaurice Stack   (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
21 Nov 1924 -  5 Jan 1925  Wasey Sterry (acting)              (b. 1866 - d. 1955)
 5 Jan 1925 -  6 Jul 1926  Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer        (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
31 Oct 1926 - 10 Jan 1934  Sir John Loader Maffey             (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
10 Jan 1934 - 19 Oct 1940  Sir George Stewart Symes           (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
19 Oct 1940 -  8 Apr 1947  Sir Hubert Jervoise Huddleston     (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
 8 Apr 1947 - 29 Mar 1954  Sir Robert George Howe             (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
29 Mar 1954 - 12 Dec 1955  Sir Alexander Knox Helm            (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
12 Dec 1955 -  1 Jan 1956  Muhammad Ahmad Abu Rannat (acting) (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
Presidents

 1 Jan 1956 - 17 Nov 1958  Sovereignty Council
                           - 'Abd al-Fattah Muhammad 
         (b. 1903 - d. 1985)  Non-party
                               al-Maghribi
                           - al-Dardiri Muhammad 'Uthman
     (b. 1896 - d. 1977)  Non-party
                              (Osman)
                           -
Ahmad Muhammad Yasin             (b. 1913 - d. 2008)  NUP
                           - Ahmad Muhammad Salih             (b. 1898 - d. 1973)  Non-party
                           - Siricio Iro Wani                 (b. 1919 - d. 1985)  Non-party
17 Nov 1958 - 15 Nov 1964  Ibrahim 'Abbud                     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)  Mil
                            (president of the Supreme Council
                             for the Armed Forces to 26 Oct 1964,
                             then Head of State)

15 Nov 1964 -  5 Dec 1964  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa          (b. 1919 - d. 2006)  Non-party
                             al-Hasan (acting)
 
5 Dec 1964 - 10 Jun 1965  Sovereignty Council
                           (chair rotating)
                           - 'Abd al-Halim Muhammad (1st time)(b. 1910 - d. 2009)  Umma
                           - al-Tijani al-Mahi                (b. 1911 - d. 1970)  NUP
                           - al-Mubarak al-Fadil Shaddad      (b. 1915 - d. ....)  Non-party
                           - Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman                                PDP
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (b. 1929 - d. 2010)  SF
                              (1st time)(from 6 Dec 1964)
10 Jun 1965 -  8 Jul 1965  Sovereignty Council
                           (chair rotating)
                           - Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari           (b. 1900 - d. 1969)  NUP
                           - Abdullah al-Fadil al-Mahdi       (b. 1892 - d. 1966)  Umma
                           - Luigi Adwok Bong Gicomeho        (s.a.)               SF
                              (2nd time)(to 14 Jun 1965)
                           - 'Abd al-Halim Muhammad (2nd time)(s.a.)               Mil
                           - Khidr Hamad                      (b. 1908 - d. 1970)  NUP
                           - Philemon Majok (from
5 Jul 1965) (b. 1905 - d. 1982)  NUP
 8 Jul 1965 - 25 May 1969  Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari             (s.a.)               NUP
                             (president of the Sovereignty Council)
25 May 1969 - 19 Jul 1971  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (b. 1930 - d. 2009)  Mil
                             (president of Revolutionary Command Council)
                             (1st time)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Babikr al-Nur 'Uthman (Osman)      (b. 1935 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (president of Revolutionary Council; remained outside country)
19 Jul 1971 - 22 Jul 1971  Hashim al-'Atta (acting)           (b. 1936 - d. 1971)  Mil
                             (
vice president of Revolutionary Council; acting for 'Uthman)
22 Jul 1971 -  6 Apr 1985  Jafar Muhammad
al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)              Mil;1972 SSU
                             (president of Revolutionary Command Council to 12 Oct 1971)
                            
(2nd time)
 6 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  'Abd al-Rahman Suwar al-Dhahab     (b. 1934)            Mil
                             (commander-in-chief of the People's Armed Forces to
                             9 Apr 1985,
then president of Transitional Military Council)
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Ahmad 'Ali al-Mirghani             (b. 1941 - d. 2008)  DUP
                             (president of the Sovereignty Council)
30 Jun 1989 -              'Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir        (b. 1944)           Mil;1996 NCP
                             (president of the Revolutionary Command 
                             Council for National Salvation to 16 Oct 1993)
 

Prime ministers
 9
Jan 1954 -  8 Jul 1956  Ismail Ahmad al-Azhari             (s.a.)               NUP
 
8 Jul 1956 - 18 Nov 1958  Abdullah Khalil                    (b. 1892 - d. 1970)  Umma
18 Nov 1958 - 31 Oct 1964  Ibrahim 'Abbud                     (s.a.)               Mil
31 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Sirr al-Khatim al-Khalifa al-Hasan (s.a.)               Non-party
14 Jun 1965 -  4 Aug 1966  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (1st time)  (b. 1908 - d. 1976)  Umma
 
4 Aug 1966 - 18 May 1967  Sadiq al-Mahdi (1st time)          (b. 1935)            Umma
18 May 1967 - 25 May 1969  Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub (2nd time)  (s.a.)               Umma
25 May 1969 - 27 Oct 1969  Babikr Awadallah                   (b. 1917 - d. 2016)  Non-party
28 Oct 1969 - 11 Aug 1976  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)             Mil;1972 SSU
                             (1st time)
11 Aug 1976 - 10 Sep 1977  Rashid Bakr                        (b. 1930 - d. 1988)  SSU
10 Sep 1977 -  6 Apr 1985  Jafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry          (s.a.)               SSU
                             (2nd time)
 6 Apr 1985 - 25 Apr 1985  Vacant
25 Apr 1985 -  6 May 1986  al-Jazuli Dafalla al-'Aqab         (b. 1935)            Non-party
 6 May 1986 - 30 Jun 1989  Sadiq al-Mahdi (2nd time)          (s.a.)               Umma
30 Jun 1989 -  2 Mar 2017  Post abolished
 2 Mar 2017 -              Bakri Hasan Saleh                  (b. 1949)            NCP

Territorial Disputes: The effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of 2006, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter for over a half million Sudanese refugees, which include 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military forces; as of Jan 2011, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 138,700 Eritreans, 43,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 Jan 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan.

Party abbreviations: DUP = al-Hizb al-Ittihadi al-Dimuqrati (Democratic Unionist Party, secularist, center-right, merger of NUP and PDP, est.Dec 1967); NCP = al-Mu'tamar al-Watani (National Congress Party, Arab nationalist, Islamist conservative, state party 1996-2000, est.1996); Umma = Hizb al-Umma ('Community of the Believers' Party, Sudanese nationalist, Islamist centrist, est.Feb 1945); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: NUP = National Unionist Party (social democratic, federalist, supported unity of the Nile Valley, 1952-Dec 1967, merged into DUP); PDP = People's Democratic Party (split from NUP, Jun 1956-Dec 1967, merged into DUP); SF = Southern Front (Southern Sudan regionalist, 1964-1969); SSU = Al-Ittihad Al-Ishtiraki Al-Sudaniy (Sudanese Socialist Union, Arab nationalist, socialist, 1971-85 state party of Sudan, 1971-1985)


Abyei Area Administration

Map of Abyei Area Capital: Abyei Town Population: 124,390 (2014)
UNISFA Force: 4,497 (2016)

31 Aug 2008                Abyei Area Administration formed in disputed region between
                             Southern Sudan and government of Sudan.
 9 Jan 2011                Proposed referendum on joining South Sudan, postponed
                             indefinitely.
21 May 2011 - 27 Jun 2011  Occupied by The Sudan.
27-29 Oct 2013             Unilateral referendum held by Ngok Dinka, 99% vote to
                             join South Sudan (not recognized).
Jul 2015                   Renamed Abyei Special Administrative Area.

Chiefs of Administration
31 Aug 2008 - 30 Dec 2009  Arop Mayak Mony Toc                                     SPLM
30 Dec 2009 - 21 May 2011  Deng Arop Kuol (1st time)                               SPLM
21 May 2011 - 27 Jun 2011  Ahmed Hussein al-Imam                                   NCP
27 Jun 2011 - 21 May 2013  Deng Arop Kuol (2nd time)                               SPLM
May 2013 – Mar 2015        Kuol Monyluak Dak                                       SPLM
24 May 2015 - Feb 2017     Chol Deng Alak                                          SPLM
Feb 2017 -                 Kuol Alor Kuol Arop                                     SPLM

Commanders of United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
27 Jul 2011 - 24 Jan 2013  Tadesse Werede Tesfay (Ethiopia)   (b. 1958)
12 Mar 2013 - 19 Jun 2014  Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam   (b. 1960)
                             (Ethiopia)
21 Nov 2014 - 20 Jan 2016  Birhanu Jula Gelalcha (Ethiopia)   (b. 1965)
20 Jan 2016 -              Hassen Ebrahim Mussa (Ethiopia)    (b. 1966)

Party abbreviations: NCP = al-Mu'tamar al-Watani (National Congress Party, Arab nationalist, Islamist conservative, state party 1996-2000, est.1996); SPLM = Sudan People's Liberation Movement (pro-southern autonomy, political arm of Sudan Peoples' Liberation Army, est.1983)


Southern Sudan: see South Sudan





© Ben Cahoon