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Egypt
 
[Ottoman
                                    flag (to 1914)]
 1517 - 18 Dec 1914 (de facto 13 Sep 1881) 
 
[Mameluke flag to 1805]
         Mameluke Flag to 1805/11

[Fance]
              25 Jul 1798 - 27 Jul 1801
 
[Flag of
                                    the United Kingdom]
                     27 Jul 1801 - 16 Mar 1803
 
[Khediviate of Egypt c.1867 -
                                    1914]
                        c.1867 - 18 Dec 1914
 
[Khediviate of Egypt
                                    1914-1923]
                     18 Dec 1914 - 10 Dec 1923
 
[Flag
                                    of Egypt 1923-1958]
           10 Dec 1923 - 22 Feb 1958 

[Flag of
                                    Egyptian Revolution (1953-1958)]
 18 Jun 1953 - 22 Feb 1958 Revolution Flag 

[United
                                    Arab Republic flag 1958-1972]
             22 Feb 1958 - 31 Dec 1971 

[Flag
                                    of Egypt 1972-1984]
              1 Jan 1972 - 4 Oct 1984

[Flag of
                                    Egypt]
                 Adopted 4 Oct 1984


Map of Egypt
----------------------------
Map of Administrative
Divisions

 Hear National Anthem
"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
(My Homeland, My Homeland,
My Homeland)
Adopted 1979
---------------------------------------
Hear Former UAR Anthem
(22 Feb 1958-20 May 1960)
Former National Anthem
"Walla Zaman Ya Selahy"
(Oh for Ages, My Weapon)
(20 May 1960-1979)

---------------------------------------
Former National Anthem
title to 1953: "Salam Affandina"
(Long Life to Affandina);
title 1958-1958: “Es Salaam el
Gamhoury el Masry” (Egyptian
Republican Anthem)
(c.1871-22 Feb 1958)
Constitution
(18 Jan 2014)

-----------------------------------
2012 Constitution

 (25 Dec 2012-18 Jan 2014,
 suspended from 3 Jul 2013)
-------------------------------------
Former Constitution
 (11 Sep 1971 - 25 Dec 2012;
 suspended from 13 Feb 2011)

Capital: Cairo
(al-Fustat  905-969, 641-750;
al-Qatai  868-905;
al-Askar 750-868 AD;
Alexandria  332 BC-641 AD)
Currency: Egyptian Pound
(EGP); 1805-1885 Egyptian
Piastre (EGQ)
National Holiday: 23 Jul (1952)
Revolution Day
Population: 85,294,388 (2013)
GDP: $551.4 billion (2013)
Exports: $24.8 billion (2013)
Imports: $59.2 billion (2013)
Ethnic groups: Egyptian Arab 84.1%, Sudanese Arab 5.5%,
Arabized Berber 2%, Bedouin 2%, Roma (Gypsy) 1.6%,
Greek, Armenian, other European, Nubian and others 4.8% (2000)
Total Active Armed Forces: 468,500 (2010)
U.S. Forces: 301 (2012)
Merchant marine
: 67 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni, Shi'a less than 1%) 84.4%,
Christian 15.1% (of which Coptic Orthodox 13.6%, Protestant 0.8%,
Roman Catholic 0.3%), non-religious 0.5% (2000)
International Organizations/Treaties: ABEDA, ACC, ACS (observer), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, Arabsat, AU, BSEC (observer), BTWC (signatory), CAEU, CEN-SAD, CICA, COMESA, CTBT (signatory), D-8, EBRD, ENMOD, ESCR, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, GAFTA, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU (suspended), IRENA, ISA, ISESCO, ISO, ITSO, ITU, KP, MIGA, NAM, NPT, NTBT, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPEC (observer), OSCE (partner), PAM, PCA, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Egypt Index
Chronology
 
c.3100 BC                  Upper and Lower Egypt united (Kingdom of Egypt)
                             ruled by Pharaohs.
c.1630 - c.1520 BC         Northern Egypt under "Hyksos" rule.
c.670 BC - c.612 BC        Part of the Assyrian Empire.
c.520 BC - c.404 BC        Part of the Persian Empire.
343 BC - 332 BC            Part of the Persian Empire.
332 BC                     Conquered by Macedonia under Alexander "the Great."
 7 Nov 305 BC - 30 BC      Ptolemaic Kingdom.
30 BC                      Part of the Roman Empire.
17 Jan 395 AD              Part of the Byzantine Empire.
641                        Arab Muslim conquest.
1250                       Mameluke Sultanate
25 Aug 1517                Egypt a province of the Ottoman Empire.
1768 - 13 Apr 1804         De facto Mameluke Beylicate (under Ottoman 
                             suzerainty).
25 Jul 1798 -  2 Sep 1801  French occupation (in Cairo to 28 Jun 1801, 
                             Alexandria to 2 Sep 1801).
25 Aug 1798                Beginning of conquest of Upper Egypt.
30 Jan 1799                French Egypt is divided into 16 provinces headed 
                             by a French military governor.
 5 Apr 1800                Upper Egypt is ceded to the Mameluke Murad Bey 
                             (officially under French suzerainty).
27 Jul 1801 - 16 Mar 1803  British occupation.
 9 Jul 1805                Muhammad `Ali dynasty informally inaugurated.
12 Jun 1821 - 26 Jan 1885  Annexation of the Sudan
1831 - Nov 1840            Egypt annexes Syria and Palestine.
 8 Jun 1867                Khediviate of Egypt (under Ottoman suzerainty).
Aug 1882 - 13 Jun 1956     Britain administers the Suez Canal.
14 Sep 1882                Occupied by Britain (formally still under 
                             Ottoman suzerainty).
 8 May 1892                Sinai peninsula administration granted to Egypt
                             by Ottoman Sultan. 
 3 May 1906                Sinai transferred to Egypt by Ottoman Empire.
18 Dec 1914                British protectorate declared. 
19 Dec 1914                Egyptian Sultanate (under British protection).
16 Mar 1922                Egyptian Kingdom
14 Nov 1936                Full independence.
13 Sep 1940 - 17 Dec 1940  Italian occupation of Sollum (13 Sep - 17 Dec 1940)
                             and Sidi Barrani (16 Sep - 11 Dec 1940).
28 Apr 1941 -  7 Nov 1942  German occupation of Sollum (28 Apr 1941 - 12 Jan
                             1942 & 25 Jun - 12 Nov 1942), Sidi Barrani (25 
                             Jun - 12 Nov 1942) and Mersa Matruh (29 Jun - 7
                             Nov 1942).  
14 May 1948 -  6 Jun 1967  Egyptian administration of the Gaza Strip.
18 Jun 1953                Republic of Egypt
26 Jul 1956                Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal.
 5 Nov 1956 - 22 Dec 1956  Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip occupied by Israel.
22 Feb 1958                United Arab Republic (united with Syria to 
                             28 Sep 1961).
 8 Mar 1958 - 26 Dec 1961  United Arab Republic federated with North Yemen 
                             in a lose confederation called United Arab States
6/12 Jun 1967-25 Apr 1982  Sinai peninsula occupied by Israel.
11 Sep 1971                Arab Republic of Egypt
 1 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977  Part of Federation of Arab Republics (Egypt, Libya
                             and Syria).
Suez Canal Zone
(1882-1956)
Coptic Orthodox
Church
Coptic Catholic
Church
Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria
Map of Sinai
Peninsula
Historical Maps
of Egypt

 
 
 

Mameluke Beys (de facto rulers)
1768 - 13 Apr 1773         `Ali Bey al-Kabir                  (b. 1727/28 - d. 1773)
                             (from 1769, self proclaimed Sultan, style
                              not recognized by the Ottoman Empire)
176. - 1769                Human Abu Yusuf
                             (head of Hawwara Arabs de facto ruler in Upper Egypt)
13 Apr 1773 - 10 Jun 1775  Muhammad Bey Abu`dh Dhahab         (b. 1735 - d. 1775)
26 Jun 1775 - Aug 1777     Triumvirate
                           - Murad Bey, emir al-Hajj          (b. 1750 - d. 1801)
                             (1st time) (military governor)
                           - Ibrahim Bey, Sheikh al-Balad     (b. 1735 - d. 1816)
                             (1st time) (civil governor)
                           - Yusuf Bey, emir al-Hajj
                             (head of the Mecca Pligrims)
Aug 1777 - Feb 1778        Isma`il Bey, Sheikh al-Balad       (d. 1791)
                            (1st time)
Feb 1778 - 1786            Murad Bey, emir al-Hajj (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           - jointly with -
Feb 1778 - 1786            Isma`il Bey, Sheikh al-Balad       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
1786 - 1790                Triumvirate
                           - Isma`il Bey, Sheikh al-Balad     (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
                           - `Ali Bey Defterdar
                           - Hasan Bey, Amir al-Haji
1790 - 25 Jul 1798         Murad Bey, Amir al-Hajj            (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
                           - joint ruler with -
1790 - 25 Jul 1798         Ibrahim Bey, Sheikh al-Balad       (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
25 Jul 1798 - 1800         French Administration
 5 Apr 1800 - 1801         Murad Bey, emir al-Hajj            (s.a.)
                             (4th time)
                           - jointly with -
1800 - 1801                Ibrahim Bey, Sheikh al-Balad       (s.a.)
                             (3rd time)
                             (in opposition to French rule)
Apr 1801 - 12 Mar 1804     Osman Bardisi, Sheikh al-Balad     (b. 17.. - d. 1806)
                            (in opposition to French rule to 27 Jun 1801)
                           - jointly with the following two -
1802 - Mar 1803            Elfi Bey                           (b. 17.. - d. 1807)
Apr 1803 - 13 Apr 1804     Ibrahim Bey, Sheikh al-Balad       (s.a.) 
                             (4th time) 

Walis (governors)
 9 Oct 1699 -  6 May 1704  Muhmmad (Qara) Pasha
 7 May 1704 -  7 Oct 1704  Suleiman Pasha 
 7 Oct 1704 - 31 Aug 1706  Muhammad (Rami) Pasha              (b. 1654 - d. 1706)
 1 Sep 1706 - Sep 1707     `Ali Pasha
Sep 1707 - 28 Oct 1709     Hassan (Damada) Pasha 
                             (2nd time)
28 Oct 1709 - Aug 1710     Ibrahim Pasha
Aug 1710 - 30 Jul 1711     Khalil (Khosej) Pasha
30 Jul 1711 - 30 Aug 1714  Wali Pasha
 1 Sep 1714 - 29 Jun 1717  Abdi Pasha (1st time)
 1 Jul 1717 -  9 Sep 1720  `Ali (Kiaya) Pasha
10 Sep 1720 - 30 Apr 1721  Rajab Pasha
 1 May 1721 - 30 Sep 1725  Muhammad (Nishanji) Pasha          (b. 1670 - d. 1728)
                             (1st time)
 1 Oct 1725 - Feb 1726     `Ali Muraly Pasha
Feb 1726 - 29 Sep 1727     Muhammad (Nishanji) Pasha          (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
30 Sep 1727 - Oct 1727     Abdi Pasha (2nd time)
Oct 1727 - 10 Jul 1729     Abu Bakr Pasha (1st time)
11 Jul 1729 - 30 Jun 1733  Abdallah (Heupruluzade) Pasha
 1 Jul 1733 - 1734         Muahmmad (Silahdar)Pasha           (d. 1756)
1734 - Dec 1734            Abu Bakr Pasha (2nd time)
Dec 1734 - 1741            `Ali (Hakimzade) Pasha (1st time)  (b. 1689 - d. 1758)
1741 -  3 Jul 1743         Yahya Pasha
Jul 1743 - 28 Feb 1744     Muhammad Sa`id Pasha (1st time)
 1 Mar 1744 - 31 Aug 1748  Muhammad (Ragib) Pasha             (b. 1689 - d. 1763)
 1 Sep 1748 - Jan 1752     Ahmad Pasha
Jan 1752 - Dec 1752        Muahmmad Melek Pasha               (b. 1719/20 - d. 1802)
Dec 1752 - Oct 1755        Hassan ash-Sharawi
Oct 1755 - Dec 1756        `Ali (Hakimzade) Pasha             (s.a.)
                             Pasha (2nd time)
Dec 1756 - 29 Apr 1757     Sa`id ad-Din Pasha
30 Apr 1757 - 1760         Muhammad Sa`id Pasha (2nd time)
1760 - Dec 1762            Mustafa (Bahir Keuse) Pasha        (d. 1765)
Dec 1762 - Jan 1765        Ahmad Pasha 
1765 - 1766                Bakr Pasha
1766 -  Apr 1767           Hamza (Silahdar Mahir) Pasha       (b. 1727/28 - d. 1768)
Apr 1767                   Muhammad Melek Pasha (2nd time)
Apr 1767 - 1768            Muhammad (Raquim) Pasha
1768                       Muhammad (Diwitdar) Pasha
1768 - 17 Aug 1786         the Mamelukes
17 Aug 1786 - 1787         Hasan Kapudan Pasha
1787 - 25 Jul 1798         the Mamelukes
French Military Commanders
25 Jul 1798 - 22 Aug 1799  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
22 Aug 1799 - 14 Jun 1800  Jean-Baptiste Kléber               (b. 1753 - d. 1800)
14 Jun 1800 - 27 Jun 1801  (Abdullah) Jacques-François de     (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
                             Boussay, baron de Menou
British Military Commanders
 8 Mar 1801 - 21 Mar 1801  Sir Ralph Abercromby               (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
21 Mar 1801 - Oct 1801     John Hely-Hutchinson               (b. 1757 - d. 1832)
Oct 1801 - Jul 1802        Richard Ford William Lambart,      (b. 1763 - d. 1836)
                             Earl of Cavan
Jul 1802 - 16 Mar 1803     Sir John Stewart                   (b. 1751 - d. 1815)
Walis (governors)(from 9 Jul 1805, hereditary governors)
27 Jun 1801 - 10 Aug 1801  Nasih Pasha
10 Aug 1801 - Jan 1802     Kucuk Hussein Pasha                (b. 1758 - d. 1803)
Jan 1802 -  3 May 1803     Khusrau Pasha                      (b. c.1756 - d. 1855)
 3 May 1803 - Jun 1803     Taher Pasha                        (b. 17.. - d. 1803)
Jun 1803 - Jul 1803        Khurshid Ahmed Pasha (1st time)    (d. 1822)
Jul 1803 - 31 Jan 1804     `Ali Pasha Jazairli                (b. 17.. - d. 1804)
31 Jan 1804 - Mar 1804     Othman Al Bardeisy (acting)
Mar 1804 -  9 Jul 1805     Khurshid Ahmed Pasha (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1805 -  1 Sep 1848  Muhammad `Ali Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1769 - d. 1849)
 1 Sep 1848 - 10 Nov 1848  Ibrahim Pasha                      (b. 1789 - d. 1848)
10 Nov 1848 -  2 Aug 1849  Muhammad `Ali Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1849 - 13 Jul 1854  `Abbas Hilmi Pasha                 (b. 1813 - d. 1854)
13 Jul 1854 - 18 Jan 1863  Muhammad Sa`id Pasha               (b. 1822 - d. 1863)
18 Jan 1863 -  8 Jun 1867  Isma`il Pasha                      (b. 1830 - d. 1895)
Khedives¹ (viceroys)
 8 Jun 1867 - 26 Jun 1879  Isma`il Pasha                      (s.a.)
26 Jun 1879 -  7 Jan 1892  Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha              (b. 1852 - d. 1892)
 8 Jan 1892 - 19 Dec 1914  `Abbas Hilmi Pasha                 (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
Sultans¹
19 Dec 1914 -  9 Oct 1917  Hussein Kamil                      (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
 9 Oct 1917 - 16 Mar 1922  Ahmad Fuad                         (b. 1868 - d. 1936)
Kings¹
16 Mar 1922 - 28 Apr 1936  Fuad I                             (s.a.)
28 Apr 1936 - 26 Jul 1952  Faruq I                            (b. 1920 - d. 1965)
28 Apr 1936 - 29 Jul 1937  Prince Muhammad Ali                (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
                             (chairman Council of Regency)
26 Jul 1952 - 18 Jun 1953  Fuad II                            (b. 1952)
26 Jul 1952 -  5 Aug 1952  Ali Mahir Pasha -Regent ex officio (b. 1882 - d. 1960)  IP 
 5 Aug 1952 - 18 Jun 1953  Prince Muhammad Abdul Moneim       (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
                             (chairman Council of Regency; from 14 Oct 1952 sole regent)
Presidents
18 Jun 1953 - 25 Feb 1954  Muhammad Naguib (1st time)         (b. 1901 - d. 1984)  Mil/LR
25 Feb 1954 - 27 Feb 1954  Gamal Abdel Nasser (1st time)      (b. 1918 - d. 1970)  Mil/LR
                             (chairman Revolutionary Command Council)
27 Feb 1954 - 14 Nov 1954  Muhammad Naguib (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Mil/LR
14 Nov 1954 - 28 Sep 1970  Gamal Abdel Nasser (2nd time)      (s.a.)      Mil;1957 NU;1962 ASU
                             (chairman Revolutionary Command Council to 25 Jun 1956)
28 Sep 1970 -  6 Oct 1981  Anwar as-Sadat                     (b. 1918 - d. 1981) ASU;1978 HDW
                             (acting to 17 Oct 1970)
 6 Oct 1981 - 14 Oct 1981  Sufi Abu Taleb (acting)            (b. 1925 - d. 2008)  HDW
14 Oct 1981 - 11 Feb 2011  Muhammad Hosni Mubarak             (b. 1928)            HDW
20 Jun 2004 -  7 Jul 2004  Atef Ebeid (acting for Mubarak)    (b. 1932 - d. 2014)  HDW
 6 Mar 2010 - 27 Mar 2010  Ahmed Nazif (acting for Mubarak)   (b. 1952)            HDW
10 Feb 2011 - 11 Feb 2011  Omar Suleiman (acting for Mubarak) (b. 1936 - d. 2012)  Non-party
11 Feb 2011 - 30 Jun 2012  Mohammed Hussein Tantawi           (b. 1935)            Mil
                             (Head of Supreme Council of the Armed Forces)
30 Jun 2012 -  3 Jul 2013  Mohamed Morsi Isa al-Ayyat         (b. 1951)            Non-party
 4 Jul 2013 -  8 Jun 2014  Adli Mansour (interim)             (b. 1945)            Non-party
 8 Jun 2014 -              Abdel Fattah al-Sisi               (b. 1954)            Non-party


Grand Viziers

1857 - 1858                Zulfiqar Pasha (1st time)
1858 - 1861                Mustafa Pasha
1861 - 1864                Zulfiqar Pasha (2nd time)
1864 - 1866                Ismail Raghib Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1819 - d. 1884)
                             (acting)

1866 - Sep 1867            Muhammad Sharif Pasha (1st time)   (b. 1823 - d. 1887)
Sep 1867 - Sep 1868        Ismail Raghib Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                             (acting)
Sep 1868 - 1872            Muhammad Sharif Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)

1872                       Boghos Nubar Pasha                 (b. 1825 - d. 1899)
1872 - 28 Aug 1878         Prince Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha       (s.a.)
Prime ministers
28 Aug 1878 - 23 Feb 1879  Boghos Nubar Pasha (1st time)      (s.a.)
23 Feb 1879 - 10 Mar 1879  Khedive Isma`il Pasha              (s.a.)
10 Mar 1879 -  7 Apr 1879  Prince Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha       (s.a.)
                             (1st time)
 7 Apr 1879 - 18 Aug 1879  Muhammad Sharif Pasha (1st time)   (s.a.)
18 Aug 1879 - 21 Sep 1879  Khedive Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha      (s.a.)
                             (2nd time) 
21 Sep 1879 - 10 Sep 1881  Riyad Pasha (1st time)             (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
14 Sep 1881 -  4 Feb 1882  Muhammad Sharif Pasha (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1882 - 26 May 1882  Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi            (b. 1838 - d. 1904)
18 Jun 1882 - 21 Aug 1882  Ismail Raghib Pasha                (s.a.) 
Jul 1882 - 13 Sep 1882     Arabi Pasha (in rebellion)         (b. 1841 - d. 1911)  Mil
21 Aug 1882 -  7 Jan 1884  Muhammad Sharif Pasha (5th time)   (s.a.)
10 Jan 1884 -  9 Jun 1888  Boghos Nubar Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 9 Jun 1888 - 12 May 1891  Riyad Pasha (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 May 1891 - 15 Jan 1893  Mustafa Fahmi Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
15 Jan 1893 - 17 Jan 1893  Hussein Fakhri Pasha               (b. 1843 - d. 1910)
17 Jan 1893 - 16 Apr 1894  Riyad Pasha (3rd time)             (s.a.)
16 Apr 1894 - 12 Nov 1895  Boghos Nubar Pasha (3rd time)      (s.a.)
12 Nov 1895 - 12 Nov 1908  Mustafa Fahmi Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
12 Nov 1908 - 21 Feb 1910  Boutros Ghali Pasha                (b. 1847 - d. 1910)
22 Feb 1910 -  5 Apr 1914  Muhammad Said Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1863 - d. 1928)
 5 Apr 1914 - 12 Apr 1919  Hussein Rushdi Pasha               (b. 1863 - d. 1928)
21 May 1919 - 19 Nov 1919  Muhammad Said Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Nov 1919 - 20 May 1920  Yusuf Wahba Pasha                  (b. 1865 - d. 1933)
20 May 1920 - 16 Mar 1921  Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha        (b. 1874 - d. 1938)
                             (1st time) 
16 Mar 1921 -  1 Mar 1922  Adli Yakan Pasha (1st time)        (b. 1864 - d. 1933)  LCP
 1 Mar 1922 - 30 Nov 1922  Abdel Khalek Sarwat Pasha          (b. 1873 - d. 1928)  LCP
                             (1st time) 
30 Nov 1922 - 15 Mar 1923  Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)
15 Mar 1923 - 26 Jan 1924  Yahya Ibrahim Pasha                (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
26 Jan 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Saad Zaghlul Pasha                 (b. 1857 - d. 1927)  WM 
24 Nov 1924 -  7 Jun 1926  Ahmad Ziwar Pasha                  (b. 1864 - d. 1945)  FP
 7 Jun 1926 - 26 Apr 1927  Adli Yakan Pasha (2nd time)        (s.a.)               LCP
26 Apr 1927 - 16 Mar 1928  Abdel Khalek Sarwat Pasha          (s.a.)               LCP
                             (2nd time) 
16 Mar 1928 - 27 Jun 1928  Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1965)  WM
27 Jun 1928 -  4 Oct 1929  Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha (1st time)  (b. 1877 - d. 1941)  LCP
 4 Oct 1929 -  1 Jan 1930  Adli Yakan Pasha (3rd time)        (s.a.)               LCP
 1 Jan 1930 - 20 Jun 1930  Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.)               WM
20 Jun 1930 - 22 Sep 1933  Ismail Sedki Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1875 - d. 1950)  HS
22 Sep 1933 - 15 Nov 1934  Abdel Fattah Yahya Ibrahim Pasha   (b. 1876 - d. 1951)  IP
15 Nov 1934 - 30 Jan 1936  Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha        (s.a.)               IP
                             (3rd time) 
30 Jan 1936 -  9 May 1936  Ali Maher Pasha (1st time)         (s.a.)               IP
 9 May 1936 - 29 Dec 1937  Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.)               WM 
29 Dec 1937 - 18 Aug 1939  Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha (2nd time)  (s.a.)               WM
18 Aug 1939 - 28 Jun 1940  Ali Maher Pasha (2nd time)         (s.a.)               IP
28 Jun 1940 - 14 Nov 1940  Hassan Sabry Pasha                 (b. 1879 - d. 1940)  Non-party
15 Nov 1940 -  5 Feb 1942  Hussein Sirri Pasha (1st time)     (b. 1894 - d. 1960)  Non-party
 5 Feb 1942 - 10 Oct 1944  Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (4th time) (s.a.)               WM
10 Oct 1944 - 24 Feb 1945  Ahmad Maher Pasha                  (b. 1888 - d. 1945)  SIP
26 Feb 1945 - 17 Feb 1946  Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha          (b. 1888 - d. 1948)  SIP
                             (1st time)
17 Feb 1946 -  9 Dec 1946  Ismail Sedki Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)               HS
 9 Dec 1946 - 28 Dec 1948  Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha          (s.a.)               SIP
                             (2nd time)
28 Dec 1948 - 26 Jul 1949  Ibrahim Abdel Hadi Pasha           (b. 1896 - d. 1981)  SIP
26 Jul 1949 - 12 Jan 1950  Hussein Sirri Pasha (2nd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
12 Jan 1950 - 27 Jan 1952  Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (5th time) (s.a.)               WM 
27 Jan 1952 -  2 Mar 1952  Ali Mahir Pasha (3rd time)         (s.a.)               IP
 2 Mar 1952 -  2 Jul 1952  Ahmad Naguib Hilali Pasha          (b. 1891 - d. 1958)
                             (1st time)
 2 Jul 1952 - 22 Jul 1952  Hussein Sirri Pasha (3rd time)     (s.a.)               Non-party
22 Jul 1952 - 23 Jul 1952  Ahmad Naguib Hilali Pasha          (s.a.) 
                             (2nd time)
23 Jul 1952 -  7 Sep 1952  Ali Mahir Pasha (4th time)         (s.a.)               IP
 7 Sep 1952 - 25 Feb 1954  Muhammad Naguib (1st time)         (s.a.)               Mil/LR
25 Feb 1954 -  8 Mar 1954  Gamal Abdel Nasser (1st time)      (s.a.)               Mil/LR
 8 Mar 1954 - 18 Apr 1954  Muhammad Naguib (2nd time)         (s.a.)               Mil/LR
18 Apr 1954 - 29 Sep 1962  Gamal Abdel Nasser (2nd time)      (s.a.)   Mil/LR;1956 NU;1962 ASU
Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Southern (Egyptian) Region
 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960  Nureddin Tarraf                    (b. 1910 - d. ....)  NU
20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961  Kamaleddin Hussein                 (b. 1921 - d. 1999)  NU
Prime ministers
29 Sep 1962 -  3 Oct 1965  Ali Sabri                          (b. 1920 - d. 1991)  ASU
 3 Oct 1965 - 10 Sep 1966  Zakaria Mohieddin                  (b. 1918 - d. 2012)  ASU
10 Sep 1966 - 19 Jun 1967  Muhammad Sedki Sulayman            (b. 1919 - d. 1996)  ASU
19 Jun 1967 - 28 Sep 1970  Gamal Abdel Nasser (3rd time)      (s.a.)               ASU
21 Oct 1970 - 17 Jan 1972  Mahmoud Fawzi                      (b. 1900 - d. 1981)  ASU
17 Jan 1972 - 26 Mar 1973  Aziz Sedki                         (b. 1920 - d. 2008)  ASU
26 Mar 1973 - 25 Sep 1974  Anwar as-Sadat (1st time)          (s.a.)               ASU
25 Sep 1974 - 16 Apr 1975  Abdelaziz Muhammad Hejazi          (b. 1923)            ASU
16 Apr 1975 -  2 Oct 1978  Mamdouh Muhammad Salem             (b. 1918 - d. 1988) ASU;1978 HDW
 2 Oct 1978 - 15 May 1980  Mustafa Khalil                     (b. 1920 - d. 2008)  HDW
15 May 1980 -  6 Oct 1981  Anwar as-Sadat (2nd time)          (s.a.)               HDW
 7 Oct 1981 -  2 Jan 1982  Hosni Mubarak                      (s.a.)               HDW
 2 Jan 1982 -  5 Jun 1984  Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin               (b. 1926 - d. 1984)  HDW
 5 Jun 1984 - 17 Jul 1984  Vacant
17 Jul 1984 -  4 Sep 1985  Kamal Hassan Ali                   (b. 1921 - d. 1993)  HDW

 4 Sep 1985 - 10 Nov 1986  Ali Mahmoud Lutfi                  (b. 1935)            HDW
10 Nov 1986 -  4 Jan 1996  Atef Muhammad Naguib Sedki         (b. 1930 - d. 2005)  HDW
 4 Jan 1996 -  5 Oct 1999  Kamal Ganzouri (1st time)          (b. 1933)            HDW
 5 Oct 1999 - 14 Jul 2004  Atef Ebeid                         (s.a.)               HDW
14 Jul 2004 - 31 Jan 2011  Ahmed Nazif                        (s.a.)               HDW
31 Jan 2011 -  7 Mar 2011  Ahmed M
uhammad Shafiq              (b. 1941)            HDW
 7 Mar 2011 -  
7 Dec 2011  Essam Abdel-Aziz Sharaf            (b. 1952)            Non-party
 7 Dec 2011 -  2 Aug 2012  Kamal Ganzouri (2nd time)          (s.a.
)               Non-party
 2 Aug 2012 -  8 Jul 2013  Hisham Qandil                      (b. 1962)            Non-party
 8 Jul 2013 - 16 Jul 2013  Vacant
16 Jul 2013 -  1 Mar 2014  Hazem al-Beblawi                   (b. 1936
)            Non-party
 1 Mar 2014 -              Ibrahim Mahlab                     (b. 1949)            Non-party

 
British Consul-general

1802 - 1816                Ernest Missett                     (b. 17.. - d. 1820)
Controllers-general

1878 - 1879                Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1841 - d. 1917)
1879 - 11 Sep 1883         Sir Edward Baldwin Malet           (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
Consuls-general
11 Sep 1883 -  6 May 1907  Sir Evelyn Baring (from 15 Jun     (s.a.)
                             1892, Evelyn Baring, Baron Cromer;
                             from 30 Jan 1899, Evelyn Baring,
                             Viscount Cromer; from 8 Aug 1901,
                             Evelyn Baring, Earl of Cromer) 
16 May 1907 - 12 Jul 1911  Sir John Eldon Gorst               (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
29 Jul 1911 - 19 Dec 1914  Horatio Herbert Kitchener,         (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
                             Viscount Kitchener 
High Commissioners
19 Dec 1914 -  9 Jan 1915  Sir Milne Cheetham (acting)        (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
 9 Jan 1915 -  1 Jan 1917  Sir Arthur Henry McMahon           (b. 1862 - d. 1949)
 1 Jan 1917 -  7 Oct 1919  Sir Francis Reginald Wingate       (b. 1861 - d. 1953)
 7 Oct 1919 - 15 Jun 1925  Edward Henry Hynman Allenby,       (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
                             Viscount Allenby 
20 Oct 1925 -  8 Aug 1929  Sir George Ambrose Lloyd,          (b. 1879 - d. 1941)
                            (from 16 Nov 1925, George Ambrose 
                             Lloyd, Baron Lloyd of Dolobran) 
 8 Aug 1929 - 16 Dec 1933  Sir Percy Lyham Loraine            (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
 8 Jan 1934 - 14 Nov 1936  Sir Miles Wedderburn Lampson       (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
Ministers Resident in the Middle East
(from 28 Jan 1944, Ministers of State in the Middle East)
19 Feb 1942 - 19 Mar 1942  Oliver Lyttelton                   (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
19 Mar 1942 - 28 Jan 1944  Richard Gardiner Casey             (b. 1890 - d. 1976)
28 Jan 1944 - 21 Nov 1944  Walter Edward Guiness, Baron Moyne (b. 1880 - d. 1944)
21 Nov 1944 - 27 Jul 1945  Sir Edward W.M. Grigg              (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
                             (from 3 Aug 1945, Edward Grigg,
                              Viscount Altrincham of Tormarton)

Ottoman High Commissioners in Egypt
1885 - 1909                Ghazi Ahmed Mukhtar Pasha          (b. 1839 - d. 1919)
1909 - 1914                Mehmed Rauf Pasha                  (b. 1838 - d. 1923)

 ¹Full style of the ruler:
(a)  8 Jun 1867 - 19 Dec 1914: Khidiwi Misr ("Khedive of Egypt");
(b) 19 Dec 1914 - 16 Mar 1922: Sultan Misr ("Sultan of Egypt");
(c) 16 Mar 1922 - 19 Oct 1951: Malik Misr ("King of Egypt");
(d) 19 Oct 1951 - 18 Jun 1953: Malik Misr wa al-Sudan ("King of Egypt and of The Sudan");
Note: 1899 - 1951 full style in occasional official use with the addition of "Sovereign of Nubia, the Sudan, Kordofan, and Dar Fur."

Territorial Disputes: While Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in Jan 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir, administered by Egypt since 1950, based on 1906 Egyptian-Ottoman border delineation.

Party abbreviations: DP = Hizb el-Dostour (Constitution Party, democratic liberal, est.2012);  HHA = Hizb Al-Hurriya wa Al-’Adala (Freedom and Justice Party, nominally independent, has strong links to Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt, islamist, est.2011, banned 23 Sep 2013); Mil = Military;
- Former parties: ASU = al-Ittihad al-Istiraki al-'Arabi (Arab Socialist Union, nasserist arab socialism, pan-arabist, only legal party 1962-1978); FP = Federal Party; HDW = Hizb al-Dimuqratiyah al-Wataniyah (National Democratic Party, centrist, authoritarian, 1978-16 Apr 2011); HS = Hizb ash-Shaab (People's Party, Ismail Sedki personalist, anti-Wafd, 1930-1946); IP = Ittihad Party (Union Party, royalist); LCP = Liberal Constitutionalist Party (liberal, split from WM, 1922-1953); LR = Liberation Rally (government party, secular, revolutionary republican, only legal party Feb 1953-1956, replaced by NU); NU = National Union (Nasserist, U.A.R. national party, 1956-1962, replaced by ASU); SIP = Saadist Institutional Party (split from WM, est.1938); UMMA = al Hizb al Umma or Umma Party (People's Party, Egyptian nationalist, moderate, 1907-1925); WM = al Wafdu al Misri (Egyptian Delegation "Wafd", national-liberal 1919-1953); WP = Watani Party (National Party, conservative, islamist, Egyptian nationalist, 1907-1953)



Suez Canal Zone
[Flag of the United
                            Kingdom]
                 25 Aug 1882 - 13 Jun 1956 
 
[Suez Canal
                            Company flag to 1956]
          Suez Canal Company Flag 
 
Map of Suez Canal Zone
Capital: Port Suez
Population: N/A (1950)
25 Apr 1859                Canal construction begins.
17 Nov 1869                Suez Canal opens; operated and owned by Suez Canal Company
                             (Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez).
25 Nov 1875                Britain becomes majority share holder of Suez Company
                             (172,602 shares out of a total of 400,000 ordinary shares).
25 Aug 1882                British take control of the canal.
14 Nov 1936                Suez Canal Zone established, under British control.
13 Jun 1956                Suez Canal Zone restored to Egypt.
26 Jul 1956                Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal.
 5 Nov 1956 - 22 Dec 1956  French, British and Israeli forces occupy the 
                             Suez Canal Zone.
22 Dec 1956                Restored to Egypt.
10 Apr 1957                Canal reopened.
 5 Jun 1967 -  5 Jun 1975  Canal closed and blockaded by Egypt.

Presidents of the Suez Canal Company
1855 -  7 Dec 1894         Ferdinand Marie, vicomte de        (b. 1805 - d. 1894)
                             Lesseps
17 Dec 1892 - 17 Jul 1896  Jules Guichard                     (b. 1827 - d. 1896)
                             (acting for de Lesseps to 7 Dec 1894)
 3 Aug 1896 - 1913         Auguste Louis Albéric,             (b. 1837 - d. 1924)
                             prince d'Arenberg
19 May 1913 - 1927         Charles Jonnart                    (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
 4 Apr 1927 -  1 Mar 1948  Louis de Vogüé                     (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
 4 Apr 1948 - 26 Jul 1956  François Charles-Roux              (b. 1879 - d. 1861)
Agents supérieur of the Suez Company in Egypt
1855 - 1861                Samuel Willem Ruijssenaers         (b. 1815 - d. 1877]
1861 - 1867                Prosper Gérardin
1867 - 1870                François Philippe Voisin
          (b. 1821 - d. 1918)
                             "Voisin-Bey"
1870 - 1876                Émile Daubrée
1876 - 1883                Aimé Victor de Lesseps             (b. 1848 – d. 1896)
1883 - 1893                Raphaël Roualle de Rouville        (b. 1839 - d. 1901)
1894 - 1929                Charles, comte de Sérionne
1929 - 1948                Louis, baron de Benoist            (b. 1882 - d. 1957)
1948 - 1956                Jean Philippe, comte de Grailly    (b. 1899 - d. 19..)

British Vice-Consuls at Suez
1922 - 1924                George Evelyn Arthur Cheyne        (b. 1886 - d. 1939)
                             Monck-Mason      
1924 - 1925                Gabriel Cyprael Pierides (acting)  (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
1925 - 1926                Thomas Cecil Rapp                  (b. 1893 - d. 1984)
1926                       Abbas Barry (acting)
Mar 1926 - 1929            Edward Hubert Lascelles Hadwen     (d. 1947)
                             (acting to 1927)
1930 - 1934                Albert Napier Williamson-Napier    (b. 1894 - d. 19..)
1934 - 1936                Harry Maurice Eyres                (b. 1898 - d. 1962)
1936 - 1939                David Jarvis Mill Irving           (b. 1904 - d. 1978) 
20 Jun 1939 - 1941         Robert Giffen Dundas               (b. 1909 - d. 1984)
Consuls for Governorate of the Suez Canal (in Suez)
1941 - 1942                Robert Giffen Dundas               (s.a.)
1942 - 1944                Herbert George Jakins              (b. 1897 - d. ....)
1944 - 1946                Wolstan Beaumont Charles Weld      (b. 1899 - d. 1961)
                             Forester
1946 - 1947                Frederick Herbert Gamble           (b. 1907 - d. ....)
1947 - 1948                E.M.M. Brett (acting)
1948 - 1954                Chantry Hamilton Page
1954 - 1955                Francis Justinian Pelly            (b. 1913 - d. 2009)
1955 - 1956                James Andrew Duncan Stewart-
                             Robinson (acting)
1956                       Joseph Todd Mulvenny
Governors of the Suez Canal Zone
14 Nov 1936 - 1938         Sir George Alexander Weir          (b. 1876 - d. 1951)
1938 - 1939                Sir Robert "Copper" Gordon-        (b. 1881 - d. 1956)
                             Finlayson

24 Jul 1939 -  7 May 1941  Sir Archibald Wavell               (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
 7 May 1941 -  7 Aug 1942  Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck    (b. 1884 - d. 1981)
 7 Aug 1942 - 19 Feb 1943  Harold Rupert Leofric George       (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
                             Alexander
19 Feb 1943 -  6 Jan 1944  Henry Maitland Wilson              (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
 6 Jan 1944 - Jun 1946     Sir Bernard Charles Tolver Paget   (b. 1887 - d. 1961)
Jun 1946 - Jun 1947        Miles Christopher Dempsey          (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
Jun 1947 - 25 Jul 1950     Sir John Tredinnick Crocker        (b. 1896 - d. 1963)
25 Jul 1950 - Apr 1953     Sir Brian Hubert Robertson         (b. 1896 - d. 1974) 
Apr 1953 - 28 Sep 1953     Sir Cameron Gordon Graham Nicholson(b. 1898 - d. 1979)
28 Sep 1953 - 13 Jun 1956  Sir Charles Frederic Keightley     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
Supreme Allied Commander
 5 Nov 1956 - 22 Dec 1956  Sir Charles Frederic Keightley     (s.a.)
                             (U.K.)







© Ben Cahoon